uu.seUppsala University Publications
1 - 16 of 16
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Public defence: 2020-03-31 09:15 Room A1:107a, Uppsala
    Liu, Jing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Towards Fast and Robust Algorithms in Flash X-ray single-particle Imaging2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology provides the possibility to acquire a large number of diffraction patterns from individual biological nano-particles, including proteins, viruses, and DNA. Ideally, the collected data frames are high-quality single-particle diffraction patterns. However, unfortunately, the raw dataset is noisy and also contains patterns with scatterings from multiple particles, contaminated particles, etc. The data complexity and the massive volumes of raw data make pattern selection a time-consuming and challenge task. Further, X-rays interact with particles at random and the captured patterns are the 2D intensities of the scattered waves, i.e. we cannot observe the particle orientations and the phase information from the 2D diffraction patterns. To reconstruct 2D diffraction patterns into 3D structures of the desired particle, we need a sufficiently large single-particle-pattern dataset. The computational methodology for this reconstruction task is still under development and in need of an improved understanding of the algorithmic uncertainties.

    In this thesis, we tackle some of the challenges to obtain 3D structures of sample molecules from single-particle diffraction patterns. First, we have developed two classification methods to select single-particle diffraction patterns that are similar to provided templates. Second, we have accelerated the 3D reconstruction procedures by distributing the computations among Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and by proposing an adaptive discretization of 3D space. Third, to better understand the uncertainties of the 3D reconstruction procedure, we have evaluated the impact of the different sources of resolution-limiting factors and introduced a practically applicable computational methodology in the form of bootstrap procedures for assessing the reconstruction uncertainty. These technologies form a data-analysis pipeline for recovering 3D structures from the raw X-ray single-particle data, which also analyzes the uncertainties. With the experimental developments of the X-ray single-particle technology, we expect that the data volumes will be increasing sharply, and hence, we believe such a computational pipeline will be critical to retrieve particle structures in the achievable resolution.

    List of papers
    1. Supervised classification methods for flash X-ray single particle diffraction imaging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supervised classification methods for flash X-ray single particle diffraction imaging
    2019 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, p. 3884-3899Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Biophysics Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378990 (URN)10.1364/OE.27.003884 (DOI)000459152800024 ()
    Projects
    UPMARC
    Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Assessing uncertainties in x-ray single-particle three-dimensional reconstruction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing uncertainties in x-ray single-particle three-dimensional reconstruction
    2018 (English)In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 98, p. 013303:1-12, article id 013303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Computer Sciences Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355899 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevE.98.013303 (DOI)000437672700009 ()30110794 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    UPMARCeSSENCE
    Available from: 2018-07-05 Created: 2018-07-07 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Machine learning for ultrafast X-ray diffraction patterns on large-scale GPU clusters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machine learning for ultrafast X-ray diffraction patterns on large-scale GPU clusters
    2015 (English)In: The international journal of high performance computing applications, ISSN 1094-3420, E-ISSN 1741-2846, Vol. 29, p. 233-243Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Computer Sciences Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232813 (URN)10.1177/1094342015572030 (DOI)000353463200008 ()
    Projects
    UPMARCeSSENCE
    Available from: 2015-02-23 Created: 2014-09-25 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Flash X-ray diffraction imaging in 3D: a proposed analysis pipeline
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flash X-ray diffraction imaging in 3D: a proposed analysis pipeline
    2020 (English)In: Computing Research Repository, no 1910.14029Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Biophysics Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-403874 (URN)
    Projects
    UPMARCeSSENCE
    Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-02 13:15 Lecture Hall 2, Uppsala
    Kashyap, Shruti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Monsoon Paper Dragons: Transparency, Accountability, Risk, and Compliance in Banking Regulation and Practice2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores the overall research question of how transparency- and accountability-driven post-crisis financial regulations within the European Union (EU) have influenced risk control and compliance in banks. The dissertation consists of five substantive chapters: an introductory synthesis; a published law journal article; two published book chapters, one of which is an extensive literature review; and one working paper that has previously been presented at multiple international conferences and is currently under review with a European journal in the field of accounting. In answering the call of the main research question, the dissertation adopts an interdisciplinary analytical framework that combines perspectives from law and the social sciences in the context of empirical material from Scandinavia and the EU. The analysis within the four individual papers and the introductory synthesis chapter follow a qualitative research design. They provide several complementary theoretical and empirical contributions to current research, the most important of which are summarized as follows: Theoretically, an adapted framework that harnesses theories of regulation, institutional theory, principal–agent theory, and legal positivism is used to analyze and explain practice and regulatory developments in the Swedish and international banking sector over a pre- and post- 2008 financial crisis period. Additionally, the concepts of transparency and accountability are explored over a similar period in the context of the regulation-practice nexus of banking in Sweden and the EU. Empirically, this work contributes to current understandings and analysis of specific EU and Swedish regulatory instruments, as well as their impact at the firm and intra-firm level. Moreover, the identified conceptual framework of transparency and accountability is applied at the level of markets and regulations, as well as at the intra-firm level by tracing the influence of post-crisis EU regulation on the risk-control and compliance function within a large listed bank in Sweden that has a strong European presence. Collectively, this analysis offers relevant insights into the tensions between the aims and understandings encompassed within prudential regulation on one hand and organizational understandings and approaches towards risk control and compliance on the other hand. Identifying that there are few, if any, studies that address the interplay between regulatory developments and their impact on the internal processes, management, and control of banks, this dissertation offers an analysis of how transparency and accountability can surface and be operationalized within the regulation-practice nexus of banking. Specifically, it illustrates how regulatory impact can be traced further along the dimensions of transparency and accountability at the inter- and intra-firm levels, as well as at the level of financial markets and regulatory instruments in banking.

    List of papers
    1. Accounting for Risks in Banks: The Link Between Prudential Regulation and Accounting in Banks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounting for Risks in Banks: The Link Between Prudential Regulation and Accounting in Banks
    2015 (English)In: European Company Law, ISSN 1572-4999, E-ISSN 1875-6530, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 2015
    Keywords
    accounting, prudential regulation, financial markets, financial institutions, banking regulation, economic stability, risk management
    National Category
    Business Administration Law and Society
    Research subject
    Business Studies; Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248872 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-04-08 Created: 2015-04-08 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Accounting and control in banks: A literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounting and control in banks: A literature review
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Bank Regulation: Effects on Strategy, Financial Accounting, and Management Control / [ed] Anna-Karin Stockenstrand, Fredrik Nilsson, New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 15-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the gap by identifying and analyzing present knowledge on accounting and control in banks, examines how this research has developed over the time period studied, and proposes some possible avenues for future research. It analyzes the literature studied by applying the reasoning contained in the Fredrik Nilsson and Anna-Karin Stockenstrand framework. The framework supports an empirical categorization of studies using a top-down perspective of banks from regulation, to governance, to financial reporting, and to internal aspects of banks. The Financial and Accounting Regulation category address several issues affecting accounting and control in the banking sector. E. Bengtsson identifies increased political influences on international accounting standard-setting as well as International Accounting Standards Board governance and accountability structures following the 2007 crisis. The financial reporting and disclosure literature addresses issues surrounding risk assessment, investor decision-usefulness, valuation, and governance. The literature on bank visibility addresses bank architecture as well as bank profits and their influence on legitimacy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Routledge, 2017 Edition: 1
    Series
    Routledge Studies in Accounting ; 19
    Keywords
    Accounting regulation, bank lending, corporate governance, fair value accounting, management control, stakeholders in banking, task control
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312455 (URN)978-1-138-68050-0 (ISBN)978-1-315-56389-3 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2020-02-15Bibliographically approved
    3. Transparency and Accountability in the European Financial Sector: The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) and Beyond
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transparency and Accountability in the European Financial Sector: The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) and Beyond
    2017 (English)In: Bank Regulation: Effects on Strategy, Financial Accounting and Management Control / [ed] Anna-Karin Stockenstrand and Fredrik Nilsson, Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 104-129Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter structures the background of inquiry into transparency and accountability in the financial sector is substantiated through an explanation of the interdisciplinary links between banking regulation and practice. In terms of regulatory focus, market efficiency and prudence are two important concerns in the context of financial markets and participants. Regarding market efficiency, market liquidity and information availability are important issues for regulators to consider. In the context of financial markets, transparency may provide the individual merit of promoting market efficiency under certain conditions, although it is generally better understood as a tool for accountability. EU policymakers had long considered how best to enhance market efficiency, and in 1993, they formally adopted the Investment Services Directive of 1993. During the 1980s, regulators were also focused on capital adequacy and the organizational resilience of banks. An important area where regulatory focus on transparency and accountability has risen is the area of internal control and governance within financial institutions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2017 Edition: 1
    Series
    Routledge Studies in Accounting ; 19
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380093 (URN)978-1-315-56389-3 (ISBN)978-1-138-68050-0 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2019-03-24 Created: 2019-03-24 Last updated: 2020-02-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Transparency and Accountability Influences of Regulation on Risk Control: The Case of a Swedish Bank.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transparency and Accountability Influences of Regulation on Risk Control: The Case of a Swedish Bank.
    2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative in-depth case study explores the influence of financial regulation on risk controlwithin Banque de Montagne, a large listed bank in Sweden. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is toinvestigate the impact of the European Banking Authority´s Guidelines on Internal Governance (GL44), through Swedish Financial Regulation FFFS 2014:1, on the bank’s risk organization along thethree-lines-of-defense model of internal control. FFFS 2014:1 comprises the Swedish implementationof the GL 44, which required banks to reform risk control structures, processes, and roles through amandated split between the operational risk and Compliance functions of the risk organization withinthe bank. Through an analysis of 41 interviews, more than 2100 pages of internal and externaldocuments, and more than 200 hours of observations from 2015 – 2017, the research identifies therelevant changes to transparency and accountability mechanisms across the three lines of defensewithin the organization. The operationalization of these concepts through risk control mechanisms isan important consideration for both banks and regulators who rely on the three lines of defense modelas an industry-wide adoption for effective risk control. The findings suggests that whilst intra- andinter-organizational accountability mechanisms have strengthened under the changed organizationalstructure through the implementation of FFFS 2014:1, challenges to effective transparency remainand may have ambiguous consequences for both organizational and regulatory aims.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404237 (URN)
    Conference
    The 25th Nordic Academy of Management Conference
    Available from: 2020-02-15 Created: 2020-02-15 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-03 09:15 Lindahlsalen, Uppsala
    Qvarnström, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Who ate whom? Paleoecology revealed through synchrotron microtomography of coprolites (fossil feces)2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil droppings, known as coprolites, are being increasingly recognized as a valuable source of paleoecological information with special regard to diets, parasitism, and physiology of extinct taxa. Here, it is suggested that the excellent preservation and amount of inclusions in the coprolites (e.g. food residues and parasites) qualifies them as Lagerstätten – deposits with exceptional paleontological information. However, two interlinked problems commonly arise when they are studied. Firstly, it is often difficult to tie coprolites to producers and, secondly, it is challenging to recognize the fragmented and randomly distributed inclusions in their matrix. Here I use propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) in combination with other techniques to solve these problems. As a result, the oldest known example of archosaurian osteophagy is uncovered based on inter alia the occurrence of serrated teeth and many crushed bones in coprolites assigned to the Late Triassic theropod-like archosaur Smok wawelski. Osteophagy has previously been thought to be rare among extinct archosaurs with the exception of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. This suggests some degree of ecological convergence between the tyrannosaurids and S. wawelski. Furthermore, exceptionally-preserved beetle remains are discovered in coprolites tentatively assigned to the Triassic dinosauriform Silesaurus opolensis, which had a specialized dentition and possessed beak-shaped jaws that were likely used to peck insects off the ground. Moreover, pterosaur coprolites are shown to contain similar food residues as found in droppings of recent flamingos, implying that some Late Jurassic pterosaurs were filter feeders. I argue that such paleoecological studies have a large impact on our understanding of ancient animals, and that studies of coprolites can unravel parts of ancient food webs in unprecedented ways. Information on past food webs may, in turn, be used to analyze trophic changes through time, which could cast new light on big evolutionary events. This is demonstrated by reconstructing trophic structures in early Mesozoic assemblages that represent snapshots of three stages of early dinosaur evolution.

    List of papers
    1. Vertebrate coprolites (fossil faeces): An underexplored Konservat-Lagerstatte
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate coprolites (fossil faeces): An underexplored Konservat-Lagerstatte
    2016 (English)In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 162, p. 44-57Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fossilized soft tissues of animals (e.g. muscles, hair and feathers) are valuable sources of palaeobiological information, but a poor preservation potential makes them undesirably scarce in the fossil record. The aim of this review is to summarize main findings, current progress and the analytical constraints of detecting fossilized soft tissues in coprolites from, mainly, freshwater and terrestrial carnivorous vertebrates. We conclude that soft-tissue inclusions in coprolites are sources of two important lines of information: the fossils can be put in a direct palaeoecological context, and characters of extinct taxa are more likely preserved in the phosphate-rich taphonomic microenvironment of coprolites than elsewhere. As a result, it is possible to unravel the deep-time origins of host-parasite relations, to understand ancient trophic food webs and detect new soft-tissue characters of different animal groups. Examples of the latter include muscle tissues from a tyrannosaurid prey, tapeworm eggs (including a developing embryo) in a Permian shark coprolite, as well as hair from multituberculates and, probably, from stem-mammals (Therapsids). Additionally, the use of coprolites in an archaeological context is briefly reviewed with focus on key aspects that may become implemented in studies of pre-Quaternary specimens as well. In summary, there is a wide range of information that can be extracted from coprolites, which has not yet been fully explored in palaeontological studies.

    Keywords
    Coprolites, Soft tissues, Lagerstatten, Phosphatization, Conservation traps, Palaeoecology
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311769 (URN)10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.08.014 (DOI)000388776700003 ()
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2014-4367
    Available from: 2017-01-02 Created: 2017-01-02 Last updated: 2020-02-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Synchrotron phase-contrast microtomography of coprolites generates novel palaeobiological data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synchrotron phase-contrast microtomography of coprolites generates novel palaeobiological data
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 2723Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Coprolites (fossil faeces) reveal clues to ancient trophic relations, and contain inclusions representing organisms that are rarely preserved elsewhere. However, much information is lost by classical techniques of investigation, which cannot find and image the inclusions in an adequate manner. We demonstrate that propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SR mu CT) permits high-quality virtual 3D-reconstruction of coprolite inclusions, exemplified by two coprolites from the Upper Triassic locality Krasiejow, Poland; one of the coprolites contains delicate beetle remains, and the other one a partly articulated fish and fragments of bivalves.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2017
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327451 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-02893-9 (DOI)000402515800041 ()28578409 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2020-02-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Tyrannosaurid-like osteophagy by a Triassic archosaur
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tyrannosaurid-like osteophagy by a Triassic archosaur
    2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present evidence for osteophagy in the Late Triassic archosaur Smok wawelski Niedzwiedzki, Sulej and Dzik, 2012, a large theropod-like predator from Poland. Ten medium to large-sized coprolites are matched, by their dimensions and by association with body fossils and footprints, to S. wawelski. The coprolites contain fragments of large serrated teeth as well as up to 50 percent by volume of bone fragments, with distinct fragmentation and angularity, from several prey taxa. This suggests pronounced osteophagy. Further evidence for bone-crushing behaviour is provided by isolated worn teeth, bone-rich regurgitalites (fossil regurgitates) and numerous examples of crushed or bite-marked dicynodont bones, all collected from the same bone-bearing beds in the Lipie Slaskie clay-pit. Several of the anatomical characters related to osteophagy, such as a massive head and robust body, seem to be shared by S. wawelski and the tyrannosaurids, despite their wide phylogenetic separation. These large predators thus provide evidence of convergence driven by similar feeding ecology at the beginning and end of the age of dinosaurs.

    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377342 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-37540-4 (DOI)000457128700002 ()30700743 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2017-05248Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2020-02-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Beetle-bearing coprolites possibly reveal the diet of a Late Triassic dinosauriform
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beetle-bearing coprolites possibly reveal the diet of a Late Triassic dinosauriform
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 181042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Diets of extinct animals can be difficult to analyse if no direct evidence, such as gut contents, is preserved in association with body fossils. Inclusions from coprolites (fossil faeces), however, may also reflect the diet of the host animal and become especially informative if the coprolite producer link can be established. Here we describe, based on propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRμCT), the contents of five morphologically similar coprolites collected from two fossil-bearing intervals from the highly fossiliferous Upper Triassic locality at Krasiejow in Silesia, Poland. Beetle remains, mostly elytra, and unidentified exoskeleton fragments of arthropods are the most conspicuous inclusions found in the coprolites. The abundance of these inclusions suggests that the coprolite producer deliberately targeted beetles and similar small terrestrial invertebrates as prey, but the relatively large size of the coprolites shows that it was not itself a small animal. The best candidate from the body fossil record of the locality is the dinosauriform Silesaurus opolensis Dzik, 2003, which had an anatomy in several ways similar to those of bird-like neotheropod dinosaurs and modern birds. We hypothesize that the beak-like jaws of S. opolensis were used to efficiently peck small insects off the ground, a feeding behaviour analogous to some extant birds.

    Keywords
    coprolites, palaeoecology, Dinosauromorpha, beetle elytra, insectivore
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383880 (URN)10.1098/rsos.181042 (DOI)000465470300008 ()31031991 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2017-05248
    Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2020-02-16Bibliographically approved
    5. Filter feeding in Late Jurassic pterosaurs supported by coprolite contents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Filter feeding in Late Jurassic pterosaurs supported by coprolite contents
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 7, article id e7375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Diets of pterosaurs have mainly been inferred from indirect evidence such as comparative anatomy, associations of co-occurring fossils, and functional morphology. Gut contents are rare, and until now there is only a single coprolite (fossil dropping), with unidentified inclusions, known. Here we describe three coprolites collected from a palaeosurface with numerous pterosaur tracks found in early Kimmeridgian (Hypselocyclum Zone) intertidal deposits of the Wierzbica Quarry, Poland. The specimens' morphology and association to the tracks suggest a pterosaur producer. Synchrotron scans reveal numerous small inclusions, with foraminifera making up the majority of the identifiable ones. Other small remains include shells/carapaces (of bivalves, ostracods, and other crustaceans/arthropods) and bristles (some possibly of polychaete worms). The high density of the small shelly inclusions suggest that they were not accidently ingested, but constituted an important food source for the pterosaur(s), perhaps together with unpreserved soft-bodied animals. The combined evidence from the tracks and coprolites suggest a filter-feeding ctenochasmatid as the most likely tracemaker. If true, this significantly expands the bromalite record for this pterosaur group, which was previously only known from gastroliths. Moreover, this study also provides the first direct evidence of filter feeding in Jurassic pterosaurs and shows that they had a similar diet to the recent Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PEERJ INC, 2019
    Keywords
    Filter feeding, Coprolites, Pterosaur, Palaeoecology, Ctenochasmatidae, Late Jurassic
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-398849 (URN)10.7717/peerj.7375 (DOI)000482716000001 ()31523493 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2017-05248
    Available from: 2019-12-19 Created: 2019-12-19 Last updated: 2020-02-16Bibliographically approved
    6. Food web analysis across the Triassic-Jurassic transition shed new light on early dinosaur evolution and herbivore diversity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food web analysis across the Triassic-Jurassic transition shed new light on early dinosaur evolution and herbivore diversity
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    palaeoecology, coprolites, trophic structure, dinosaurs, Triassic, Jurassic
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404254 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-16 Created: 2020-02-16 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-03 10:15 Betty Pettersson-salen, Blåsenhus, Uppsala
    Sånglöf, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Spirit in Paul and John: A Comparative Analysis2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares occurrences of the Spirit of God in Pauline and Johannine texts on a lexical, grammatical, and conceptual level. The following questions are asked: What are the common traits associated with the Spirit? What is the unique profile of each corpus? Can one corpus help us better understand the other? This objective is pursued by first considering similarities and differences at the lexical and grammatical levels and then by identifying important ideas connected with the Spirit. It is clear that both Paul and John connect the Spirit with God, Jesus, and believers in a salvation-historical framework.

    The analysis of the conceptual level is divided into two major themes. The first theme is Christ and the coming of the Spirit. In both corpora the Spirit’s coming is shown to be the result of Christ’s redemptive work, his death and resurrection. The second theme revolves around different ways in which the Spirit impacts the life of believers. One example examined is the Spirit’s role in believers becoming children of God. Paul uses the idea of “adoption” while John uses the idea of being “begotten.” While being two different models, they still both refer to believers as becoming children of God through the work of the Spirit. Likewise, how the Spirit enables good moral conduct and how the Spirit communicates knowledge of God are ideas clearly found in both corpora, even if different models are used to develop these ideas.

    The comparative approach has proven helpful for our understanding of both Paul and John. Placing these texts side by side has brought out certain things in common, but has also sharpened the unique profile of each corpus. Similarities and common traits are significant and at times may even help us to better understand individual texts in each corpus. At the same time, differences between the texts are also important, and they testify to the unique contribution of each corpus to early Christian thinking about the Spirit. We may conclude that both similarities and differences between Paul and John have proven relevant for interpreting the one corpus in light of the other.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-03 13:00 Ekmansalen, Uppsala
    Chaguaceda, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bottom-up and top-down regulation of heterogeneous lake food webs2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food webs are networks of organisms linked by trophic interactions that regulate the responses of ecosystems to environmental change. Such regulation is a result of the effects of resources on the abundance of their consumers (i.e. bottom-up effects) and/or the influence of consumers on the abundance of their resources (i.e. top-down effects). Lake food webs comprise pelagic and benthic production pathways and are largely affected by fluxes of resources from/to adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. These pathways are often coupled by mobile generalist consumers, potentially leading to indirect interactions among prey that arise when sharing a predator. In contrast, consumers can also undergo resource specialization that restricts their ability to couple resources at a given time.

    In this thesis, I observed that top-down control of predators on benthic and pelagic prey at increasing productivity was highly dependent on apparent mutualism that was driven by switching behaviour of generalist fish. That, in addition to bottom-up responses of benthic pathways at increasing productivity, had important consequences for the fluxes of energy and high quality polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to terrestrial systems via insect emergence. I also found that PUFAs were highly regulated over the ontogeny of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Mismatches with PUFA composition in prey may in turn affect resource specialization and the timing of ontogenetic diet shifts, altering the role of perch in the food web. Finally, browning, which is a phenomenon affecting many temperate and boreal lakes, did not affect bottom-up and top-down control in open-water lake food webs. Instead, browning affected prey selectivity, probably changing the pathways of energy transfer within the open-water food web. Overall, this thesis demonstrates that predictions of food web responses in lake ecosystems and their exports to adjacent terrestrial systems depend on the coupling of different pathways and subsequent indirect interactions among prey through shared predation. This could not be explained by classic food chain theory, but rather by a framework including resource coupling and resource specialization over the ontogeny of consumers. These observations must not be overlooked when constructing a comprehensive model of food webs across time and space.

    List of papers
    1. Regulation of fatty acid composition related to ontogenetic changes and niche differentiation of a common aquatic consumer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulation of fatty acid composition related to ontogenetic changes and niche differentiation of a common aquatic consumer
    2020 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Ecology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Limnology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404183 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-14 Last updated: 2020-02-19
    2. Fatty acid accumulation in feeding types of a natural freshwater fish population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatty acid accumulation in feeding types of a natural freshwater fish population
    2020 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404188 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-14 Last updated: 2020-02-19
    3. Short-term apparent mutualism drives responses of aquatic prey at increasing productivity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short-term apparent mutualism drives responses of aquatic prey at increasing productivity
    2020 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    According to apparent competition theory, sharing a predator should cause indirect interactions among prey that can substantially influence food-web responses to environmental drivers. However, empirical evidence of apparent competition under ongoing environmental change is still scarce. In an 8-week mesocosm experiment, we found that short-term responses of aquatic food webs to increasing productivity were strongly regulated by apparent mutualism between benthic and pelagic prey in the presence of a generalist fish. Following trends in natural systems, increasing productivity in our mesocosms favored the relative abundance of benthic prey. This elicited a shift in fish selectivity from pelagic to benthic prey driven by fish switching behavior which resulted in lower and delayed top-down control on pelagic prey. Our results highlight that apparent competition theory may explain food-web responses across environmental gradients, whereby resulting prey dynamics and stability may highly depend on the foraging behavior exhibited by generalist predators.

    Keywords
    Apparent competition, top-down control, trophic cascade, food web, resource coupling, eutrophication, indirect interactions, crucian carp, mesocosm
    National Category
    Ecology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Limnology; Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404054 (URN)
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2013.0091
    Available from: 2020-02-08 Created: 2020-02-08 Last updated: 2020-02-25Bibliographically approved
    4. The emergence of fatty acids—Aquatic insects as vectors along a productivity gradient
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The emergence of fatty acids—Aquatic insects as vectors along a productivity gradient
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 565-578Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404062 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-08 Created: 2020-02-08 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Disentangling the effects of carbon fluxes and shading inherent to terrestrial DOC on lake food webs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disentangling the effects of carbon fluxes and shading inherent to terrestrial DOC on lake food webs
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404186 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-14 Last updated: 2020-02-19
  • Public defence: 2020-04-03 13:15 University Main Building, Room IV, Uppsala
    Rosenqvist, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Hedonistic Act Utilitarianism: Action Guidance and Moral Intuitions2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to hedonistic act utilitarianism, an act is morally right if and only if, and because, it produces at least as much pleasure minus pain as any alternative act available to the agent. This dissertation gives a partial defense of utilitarianism against two types of objections: action guidance objections and intuitive objections.

    In Chapter 1, the main themes of the dissertation are introduced. The chapter also examines questions of how to understand utilitarianism, including (a) how to best formulate the moral explanatory claim of the theory, (b) how to best interpret the phrase "pleasure minus pain," and (c) how the theory is related to act consequentialism.

    The first part (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with action guidance objections to utilitarianism. Chapter 2 defines two kinds of action guidance: doxastic and evidential guidance. It is argued that utilitarianism is evidentially but not doxastically guiding for us. Chapter 3 evaluates various action guidance objections to utilitarianism. These are the objections that utilitarianism, because it is not doxastically guiding, is a bad moral theory, fails to be a moral theory, is an uninteresting and unimportant moral theory, and is a false moral theory.

    The second part (Chapters 4, 5 and 6) deals with intuitive objections to utilitarianism. Chapter 4 presents three intuitive objections: Experience Machine, Transplant, and Utility Monster. Three defenses of utilitarianism are subsequently evaluated. Chapter 5 and 6 introduces two alternative defenses of utilitarianism against intuitive objections, both of which concern the role that imagination plays in thought experimentation. In Chapter 5, it is argued that we sometimes unknowingly carry out the wrong thought experiment when we direct intuitive objections against utilitarianism. In many such cases, we elicit moral intuitions that we believe give us reason to reject utilitarianism, but that in fact do not. In Chapter 6, it is argued that using the right kind of sensory imagination when we perform thought experiments will positively affect the epistemic trustworthiness of our moral intuitions. Moreover, it is suggested that doing so renders utilitarianism more plausible.

    In Chapter 7, the contents of the dissertation are summarized.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-03 13:15 Geijersalen, Uppsala
    Sörhuus, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Philosophy of Religion.
    En känsla för det heliga: En undersökning av den samtida emotionsforskningens möjliga bidrag till religionsfilosofin2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I examine the possibility of critically using material from contemporary emotion theory to develop a fruitful model for understanding the potential epistemic relevance of emotions in religious contexts. The relevance of this thesis is mainly twofold: since religion is an emotional phenomenon, the possible normative epistemic role of emotions needs to be examined. This is a question for the philosophy of religion, but not one that has been much explored. Contemporary emotion research provides promising tools for such an examination, but these tools have only been utilized to a minor degree in the field.

    In chapter 1, the preliminaries for my inquiry is articulated. In chapters 2 and 3, I evaluate psychophysiological, psychological and philosophical emotion research and find that the philosophical reasons and the empirical evidence speak in favor of a perceptual theory of emotion. In chapter 4, I examine how emotions, being perceptions, are of epistemic relevance. Focusing on a metaphysical discourse I come to the conclusion that emotions are of strong epistemic relevance. In chapter 5, I examine the possibility of giving emotions, being perceptions that are of strong epistemic relevance, an epistemological framework. For this I use the pragmatic philosophy of John Dewey and conceive of emotions as habits, or part of habits, which are indispensable for certain human inquiries and knowings.

    In chapter 6 I turn to religion. I conceptualize religion as lived, and epistemic in that it offers certain goods that agents, being participants in religious spheres of practice, can utilize to deal with existential problems, inter alia, situations involving transcendence. My conclusion is that emotions, given the kind of problems that religious goods can help agents to handle, enable agents to examine the utility of such goods and implement them in their lives. Since this is an epistemic process, and these goods are utilized in many different spheres of practice, I choose to speak of emotions as enabling and justifying religious ways of life. In the end, emotions are about living and hence philosophical work about religious emotions becomes philosophical work about religious practice.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-08 13:00 PJ-salen, Göteborg
    Nilsson, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Highly Concentrated Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrolyte is a crucial part of any lithium battery, strongly affecting longevity and safety. It has to survive rather severe conditions, not the least at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. Current commercial electrolytes are almost all based on 1 M LiPF6 in a mixture of organic solvents and while these balance the many requirements of the cells, they are volatile and degrade at temperatures above ca. 70°C. The salt could potentially be replaced with e.g. LiTFSI, but dissolution of the Al current collector would be an issue. Replacing the graphite electrode by Li metal, for large gains in energy density, challenges the electrolyte further by exposing it to freshly deposited Li, leading to poor coulombic efficiency and consumption of both Li and electrolyte. Highly concentrated electrolytes (HCEs) have emerged as a possible remedy to all of the above, by a changed solvation structure where all solvent molecules are coordinated to cations – leading to a lowered volatility, a reduced Al dissolution, and higher electrochemical stability, at the expense of higher viscosity and lower ionic conductivity.

    In this thesis both the fundamentals and various approaches to application of HCEs to lithium batteries are studied. First, LiTFSI–acetonitrile electrolytes of different salt concentrations were studied with respect to electrochemical stability, including chemical analysis of the passivating solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs) on the graphite electrodes. However, some problems with solvent reduction remained, why second, LiTFSI–ethylene carbonate (EC) HCEs were employed vs. Li metal electrodes. Safety was improved by avoiding volatile solvents and compatibility with polymer separators was proven, making the HCE practically useful. Third, the transport properties of HCEs were studied with respect to salt solvation, viscosity and conductivity, and related to the rate performance of battery cells. Finally, LiTFSI–EC based electrolytes were tested vs. high voltage NMC622 electrodes.

    The overall impressive electrochemical stability improvements shown by HCEs do not generally overcome the inherent properties of the constituent parts, and parasitic reactions ultimately leads to cell failure. Furthermore, improvements in ionic transport can not be expected in most HCEs; on the contrary, the reduced conductivity leads to a lower rate capability. Based on this knowledge, turning to a concept of electrolyte compositions where the inherent drawbacks of HCEs are circumvented leads to surprisingly good electrolytes even for Li metal battery cells, and with additives, Al dissolution can be prevented also when using NMC622 electrodes.

    List of papers
    1. Critical evaluation of the stability of highly concentrated LiTFSI - Acetonitrile electrolytes vs. graphite, lithium metal and LiFePO4 electrodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical evaluation of the stability of highly concentrated LiTFSI - Acetonitrile electrolytes vs. graphite, lithium metal and LiFePO4 electrodes
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 384, p. 334-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Highly concentrated LiTFSI - acetonitrile electrolytes have recently been shown to stabilize graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) much better than comparable more dilute systems. Here we revisit this system in order to optimise the salt concentration vs. both graphite and lithium metal electrodes with respect to electrochemical stability. However, we observe an instability regardless of concentration, making lithium metal unsuitable as a counter electrode, and this also affects evaluation of e.g. graphite electrodes. While the highly concentrated electrolytes have much improved electrochemical stabilities, their reductive decomposition below ca. 1.2 V vs. Li+/Li° still makes them less practical vs. graphite electrodes, and the oxidative reaction with Al at ca. 4.1 V vs. Li+/Li° makes them problematic for high voltage LIB cells. The former originates in an insufficiently stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) dissolving and continuously reforming – causing self-discharge, as observed by paused galvanostatic cycling, while the latter is likely caused by aluminium current collector corrosion. Yet, we show that medium voltage LiFePO4 positive electrodes can successfully be used as counter and reference electrodes.

    Keywords
    Highly concentrated electrolyte, Li-ion battery, SEI, Al corrosion, Self-discharge
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351302 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.03.019 (DOI)000430897700041 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 39042-1
    Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Highly Concentrated LiTFSI-EC Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly Concentrated LiTFSI-EC Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 200-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrated electrolytes have the potential to increase the stability for batteries with lithium metal anodes. In this study, liquid electrolytes were created by mixing ethylene carbonate (EC), a solid at room temperature, with a high concentration of LiTFSI salt. The binary LiTFSI–EC highly concentrated electrolytes have the benefit of extremely low volatility as compared to conventional organic electrolytes and also allow for cycling vs Li metal anodes. Using a LiTFSI–EC electrolyte with molar ratio 1:6, the Coulombic efficiency for Li plating/stripping on Cu is 97% at a current density of 1 mA cm–2 with a 2 mAh cm–2 capacity, pointing to a practically useful performance. In a full cell setup using a commercial LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode, the efficiency is maintained, proving compatibility. In comparison to other carbonate-based electrolytes, there is less accumulation of decomposition products on the surface of a cycled Li film, which in part explains the improved cycle life. In all, this electrolyte system shows promise in terms of electrochemical stability and may allow for safe Li metal batteries due to the inherent physical stability.

    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-406478 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.9b01203 (DOI)000510104700026 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 39042-1StandUp
    Available from: 2020-03-09 Created: 2020-03-09 Last updated: 2020-03-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Interactions and Transport in LiTFSI-based Highly Concentrated Electrolytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions and Transport in LiTFSI-based Highly Concentrated Electrolytes
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    highly concentrated electrolyte, ionicity, rate capability, transference
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-406480 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-09 Created: 2020-03-09 Last updated: 2020-03-09
    4. Additives and Separators for LiTFSI – EC Electrolytes vs. Lithium metal, Graphite and NMC622 Electrodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additives and Separators for LiTFSI – EC Electrolytes vs. Lithium metal, Graphite and NMC622 Electrodes
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Concentrated electrolyte; non-volatile electrolyte; Al passivation; additives; separators; Li-ion battery
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-406481 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-03-09 Created: 2020-03-09 Last updated: 2020-03-09
  • Public defence: 2020-04-16 09:00 Bertil Hammersalen, Uppsala.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of indicated preventive interventions for depression in adolescents: An application of health economics methods2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unipolar depressive disorders are commonly encountered conditions in clinical practice with about 25% reporting their first episode during adolescence. Longitudinal studies show adolescent depression to be associated with an increased risk of mental illness in adulthood, healthcare usage, poor educational outcomes, unemployment, and dependency on welfare recipiency. Therefore, adolescent depression contributes a high disease burden and impinges a considerable financial strain on society’s limited resources.

    Several preventive interventions have been developed to prevent adolescent depression. Of these interventions, group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (GB-CBT) indicated preventive interventions for depression are well studied and accepted. However, evaluations of their effectiveness and cost effectiveness have yielded conflicting and incomplete results mainly due to methodological limitations.

    Therefore, the overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of GB-CBT indicated preventive interventions for depression in children and adolescents, and estimate the additional healthcare costs and welfare burden in early to mid-adulthood associated with adolescent depression.

    In study I, GB-CBT indicated preventive interventions for depression in children and adolescents were protective against developing a depressive disorder and also reduced depressive symptoms. The intervention relative effect was noted to decay over time. Study II revealed that adolescent depression was associated with considerable increased healthcare consumption in mid-adulthood compared to the non-depressed peers at a population level. This finding was more pronounced in females with persistent depressive disorder (PDD). Study III showed adolescent depression to be associated with all the forms of social transfer payments (welfare) especially in individuals with PDD and those with early comorbid psychopathologies.

    Study IV demonstrated that GB-CBT indicated preventive interventions for adolescent depression are not only effective but also have the potential to be cost-effective compared to leaving adolescents with subsyndromal depression unattended.

    Findings from studies II and III, emphasized the large financial burden to society in terms of additional healthcare costs and welfare expenditure associated with adolescent depression. Whereas, study I and IV bring forward the message that it is possible to change the course of subsyndromal depression by offering GB-CBT indicated preventive interventions to adolescents with subsyndromal depression. Such an initiative was not only cost-effective compared to not intervening, but also largely cost-saving. Therefore, GB-CBT indicated preventive interventions could be used as part of a stepped care program linking into more specialized care services. The results of this thesis will be useful in decision-making concerning the resource allocation related to adoption and implementation of such preventive measures.

    List of papers
    1. Indicated preventive interventions for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis and meta-regression
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicated preventive interventions for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis and meta-regression
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 118, p. 7-15Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Depression contributes about 2% to the global burden of disease. A first onset of depressive disorder or subsyndromal depressive symptoms is common in adolescence, indicating that early prevention is a priority. However, trials of preventive interventions for depression in youths show conflicting results. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (GB-CBT) as a preventive intervention targeting subsyndromal depression in children and adolescents. In addition, the impact of different covariates (type of comparator and use of booster sessions) was assessed. Relevant articles were identified from previous systematic reviews, and supplemented with an electronic search spanning from 01/09/2014 to 28/02/2018. The retrieved articles were assessed for eligibility and risk of bias. Relevant data were extracted. Intervention effectiveness was pooled using a random-effects model and the impact of covariates assessed using meta-regression. 38 eligible articles (34 trials) were obtained. The analysis showed GB-CBT to significantly reduce the incidence (relative risk 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.87) and symptoms (Cohen's d -0.22, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.11) of depression at post-test compared to all controls. Comparisons with passive comparators suggested that the effect decayed over time. However, compared to active controls, a significant intervention effect was evident only after 12 month or more. Our results suggest that the preventive effect of GB-CBT wears off, but still lasts longer than the effect of active comparators. Only a few studies included booster sessions, precluding firm conclusions. Future studies should clarify to what extent maintenance strategies can prolong the preventive effect of GB-CBT.

    Keywords
    Depression, Dysthymia, Cognitive-behavioral therapy, Meta-analysis, Meta-regression, Indicated prevention interventions
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375899 (URN)10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.09.021 (DOI)000454933300002 ()30287331 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2014-10092Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Research Council FormasVINNOVA
    Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2020-02-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Depressive disorders in adolescence, recurrence in early adulthood, and healthcare usage in mid-adulthood: A longitudinal cost-of-illness study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depressive disorders in adolescence, recurrence in early adulthood, and healthcare usage in mid-adulthood: A longitudinal cost-of-illness study
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 258, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with increased healthcare consumption in adulthood, but prior research has not recognized the heterogeneity of depressive disorders. This paper investigated the additional healthcare usage and related costs in mid-adulthood for individuals with adolescent depression, and examined the mediating role of subsequent depression in early adulthood.

    Methods: This study was based on the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, initiated in Sweden in the early 1990s. Depressive disorders were assessed in adolescence (age 16-17) and early adulthood (age 19-30). Healthcare usage and related costs in mid-adulthood (age 31-40) were estimated using nationwide population-based registries. Participants with specific subtypes of adolescent depression (n = 306) were compared with matched non-depressed peers (n = 213).

    Results: Women with persistent depressive disorder (PDD) in adolescence utilized significantly more healthcare resources in mid-adulthood. The association was not limited to psychiatric care, and remained after adjustment for individual and parental characteristics. The total additional annual cost for a single age group of females with a history of PDD at a population level was estimated at 3.10 million USD. Depression recurrence in early adulthood mediated the added costs for psychiatric care, but not for somatic care.

    Limitations: Primary health care data were not available, presumably resulting in an underestimation of the true healthcare consumption. Estimates for males had limited precision due to a relatively small male proportion.

    Conclusions: On a population level, the additional healthcare costs incurred in mid-adulthood in females with a history of adolescent PDD are considerable. Early treatment and prevention should be prioritized.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER, 2019
    Keywords
    Adolescence, Depression, Direct costs, Adulthood, Psychiatric healthcare, Non-psychiatric healthcare
    National Category
    Psychiatry Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393715 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2019.07.077 (DOI)000482176400004 ()31382102 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2014-10092Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Research Council FormasVinnova
    Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2020-02-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Adolescent depression, early psychiatric comorbidities, and adult welfare burden: A 25-year longitudinal cohort study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescent depression, early psychiatric comorbidities, and adult welfare burden: A 25-year longitudinal cohort study
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Adolescence; adulthood; depression; comorbidity; social transfer payments; welfare benefits; financial burden; longitudinal study; epidemiology.
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404546 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-22 Created: 2020-02-22 Last updated: 2020-02-28
    4. Cost-effectiveness of an indicated preventive intervention for depression in adolescents: a model to support decision making
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-effectiveness of an indicated preventive intervention for depression in adolescents: a model to support decision making
    Show others...
    (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Keywords
    Adolescence, Depression, Direct costs, Indirect costs, markov model, and sensitivity analysis.
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404545 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-22 Created: 2020-02-22 Last updated: 2020-02-22
  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 09:00 Sal IV, Uppsala
    Aarnio, Riina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: Including clinical and health economic aspects2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer. HPV testing has higher sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) than cytology, resulting in more effective screening. As HPV testing also offers an opportunity for self-sampling, it could serve as an even more effective and cost-effective method of cervical screening.

    First, we compared repeated self-sampling for HPV testing with Pap smear cytology in detection of CIN2+ in primary cervical screening for women aged 30–49 years (n=36 390). We found a more than twofold higher detection rate of CIN2+ and a fourfold higher detection rate of CIN2 with self-sampling compared with cytology. However, no difference was seen between the arms in the detection rate of CIN3+. It thus seems that CIN is detected at an earlier stage with self-sampling than with cytology, but the impact of this needs to be further explored.

    Second, as management of HPV-positive women with normal cytology results is a challenge, we wanted to evaluate the proportion of cases of histological CIN2+ in these women. In this prospective study we performed LEEP and found that 15% (6/40) of the women had undetected CIN2+. These findings can be used in counseling women about the risk of cervical cancer and helping clinicians in decisions on management.

    Third, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis on the same study population as in Study I. Self-sampling for HPV testing resulted in a higher participation rate and more detected cases of CIN2+ at a lower cost and was regarded as more cost-effective than Pap smear cytology in cervical screening. These results can guide policy-makers when planning future screening programs.

    Fourth, we compared self-sampling with sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing in detection of CIN2+, using a combination of an FTA card as storage medium and a PCR-based HPV test (hpVIR) in women aged 30–60 years (n=11 951). No difference in the detection rates of histological CIN2+ was found between the arms.

    Taken together, self-sampling resulted in a higher participation rate than sampling by medical professionals in cervical screening and that triage with repeated self-sampling resulted in high compliance and detection rate of CIN2+. As repeated self-sampling for HPV testing was also cost-effective, it could serve as an attractive alternative in the development of future cervical screening programs. More research is needed on how to refine the management of HPV-positive women by self-sampling only.

    List of papers
    1. Randomised study shows that repeated self-sampling and HPV test has more than two-fold higher detection rate of women with CIN2+ histology than Pap smear cytology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Randomised study shows that repeated self-sampling and HPV test has more than two-fold higher detection rate of women with CIN2+ histology than Pap smear cytology
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 896-904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    This randomised study compared the detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-positive (CIN2+) based on histology in women performing repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid (VF) for human papillomavirus (HPV) test with a control group following the ordinary screening by Pap smear cytology.

    Methods:

    36390 women aged 30–49 years scheduled for invitation to organised screening were randomised in two groups, one to perform self-sampling of VF for HPV test (n=17 997, HPV arm) and the other group to perform screening by PAP smear cytology (n=18 393, control arm). HPV positive women in the HPV arm repeated the self-sampling and the HPV test on average 4.4 months later and those with two consecutive positive HPV tests were referred to colposcopy. Outcome was CIN2+ based on histology during 18-month follow-up.

    Results:

    Participation rate was 47% in the HPV arm and 39% in the control arm. The HPV prevalence in the first self-sampling was 6.9%, and 71% of these women were HPV positive in their second test. For the per-protocol approach, cumulative prevalence of histological CIN2+ in the HPV arm was 20.2 per 1000 women screened as compared to 10.8 in the control arm. The cumulative prevalence of CIN2+ diagnosed per 1000 years screened was 160.8 in the HPV arm as compared with 25.4 in the control arm.

    Conclusions:

    Repeated self-sampling of VF and HPV test had more than a two-fold higher discovery rate of CIN2+ per 1000 women screened as compared with PAP smear cytology.

    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367087 (URN)10.1038/bjc.2017.485 (DOI)000427945800030 ()29438367 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF)
    Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2020-03-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: European journal of obstetrics & gynecology and reproductive biology: X, ISSN 2590-1613, Vol. 3, article id 100042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Investigation via cytology and colposcopy have lower sensitivity than HPV testing in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Despite normal cytology and colposcopy findings women with persistent HPV infection have an increased risk of CIN2+. The aim of the study was to evaluate the proportion of histologically confirmed CIN2+ in women with persistent HPV infection and normal Pap smears.

    Study design: From April 2013 until March 2016 we prospectively recruited 91 women over 40 years with persistent HPV infection without any abnormalities in cytology. Of these, 40 women attended a gynecological examination including an HPV test, Pap smear, endocervical cytology, colposcopy with biopsies and diagnostic loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Biopsy and LEEP samples were subjected to histological examination.

    Results: CIN2+ was verified by histological examination of the LEEP sample in 6/40 (15%) of the women. All the cytological samples were normal and none of the biopsies confirmed CIN2+. Only 19/40 women still had a persistent HPV infection at the study visit. None of the 21/40 women who had cleared their HPV infection at the study visit had CIN2+ in histology of the LEEP sample.

    Conclusions: A persistent HPV infection needs to be monitored despite normal Pap smears, since 6/40 (15%) women older than 40 years, was revealed to have an undiagnosed CIN2+ when LEEP was performed. Counseling women regarding the risk of cervical cancer and the expected effect of an eventual LEEP can help them to make an optimal informed choice.

    Keywords
    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Colposcopy, Human papillomavirus, Loop electrical excision procedure, Transformation zone
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400770 (URN)10.1016/j.eurox.2019.100042 (DOI)31404426 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-03-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended in primary cervical screening to improve cancer prevention. An advantage of HPV testing is that it can be performed on self-samples, which could increase population coverage and result in a more efficient strategy to identify women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Our objective was to assess whether repeated self-sampling for HPV testing is cost-effective in comparison with Pap smear cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more (CIN2+) in increasing participation rate in primary cervical screening.

    Methods

    A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was performed on data from a previously published randomized clinical study including 36 390 women aged 30–49 years. Participants were randomized either to perform repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid for HPV testing (n = 17 997, HPV self-sampling arm) or to midwife-collected Pap smears for cytological analysis (n = 18 393, Pap smear arm).

    Results

    Self-sampling for HPV testing led to 1633 more screened women and 107 more histologically diagnosed CIN2+ at a lower cost vs. midwife-collected Pap smears (€ 228 642 vs. € 781 139). 

    Conclusions

    This study projected that repeated self-sampling for HPV testing increased participation and detection of CIN2+ at a lower cost than midwife-collected Pap smears in primary cervical screening. Offering women a home-based self-sampling may therefore be a more cost-effective alternative than clinic-based screening.

     

    Keywords
    Self-sampling, HPV testing, primary cervical screening, cost-effectiveness, CIN2+, precancerous lesion, cervical cancer
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405549 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-03-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) test is more effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence than cytology and it also offers the opportunity to self-sample. We conducted a randomized study to compare vaginal self-sampling with cervical sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing concerning prevalence of HPV and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+)  or grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in primary screening. In total, 11 951 women aged 30–60 years were randomized into two groups, 5961 for self-sampling (SS arm) and 5990 for sampling by medical professionals (SMP arm). Sampling was performed with a Rovers®Viba-brush in the SS arm and a cytobrush in the SMP arm. All samples were applied to an indicating FTA elute card and analyzed for HPV using a clinically validated real-time PCR test (hpVIR). All HPV-positive women performed repeated sampling about six months later using the same procedure as used initially. All HPV-positive women in the second sampling were referred to colposcopy. HPV prevalence in the first test did not differ between the SS arm (6.8%, 167/2466) and the SMP arm (7.8%, 118/1519) (p=0.255). The prevalence of CIN2+ per 1000 screened women was 17 (43/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 13–24) in the SS arm and 21 (32/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 15–30) in the SMP arm. For CIN3+, the prevalence per 1000 screened women was 14 (35/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 10–20) in the SS arm and 15 (23/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 10–23) in the SMP arm.  In conclusion, self-sampling and sampling by medical professionals showed the same prevalence of HPV and detection rate of CIN2+ and CIN3+ in histology.

    Novelty and Impact

    Offering self-sampling in primary cervical screening results in similar rates of HPV prevalence and detection of CIN2+ and CIN3+ compared with sampling by medical professionals when using an FTA card as storage medium and PCR-based HPV test (hpVIR). Considering health-economic aspects, resources should be directed towards self-sampling as a first choice for primary cervical screening, with careful follow-up of this strategy.

    Keywords
    Self-sampling, HPV test, Primary cervical screening
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405547 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-03-12Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 09:15 Ångströmslaboratoriet Siegbahnsalen, Uppsala
    Fritze, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnetron Sputtered Refractory Metal Thin Films2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and development of new multifunctional materials that exhibit a combination of high hardness and ductility, as well as a high corrosion resistance and thermal stability, is one of the key challenges in the field of material science. The focus of this thesis is on the development of novel multifunctional magnetron sputtered CrNbTaTiW–C based thin films. Carbon was selected as an alloying element to investigate if it could modify the microstructure (via grain refinement) and improve the properties (e.g. the hardness and ductility).

    TaW-rich and near-equimolar high entropy alloys in the CrNbTaTiW system were selected as starting points for this study. The latter alloys were predicted, based on empirical design rules, to form a single-phase solid solution. In contrast, thermodynamic calculations showed that the films at equilibrium should be composed of a mixture of several phases at temperatures below 1100 °C.  Experimentally, however, a single-phase bcc structure was observed for the deposited films and it was concluded that the films were kinetically and not entropy stabilised. A hypothesis is that the kinetics during sputtering allow a ’direct’ phase selection by tuning the process parameters and evidence of this was found in the HfNbTiVZr alloy system.

    The CrNbTaTiW–C system is, however, complex and additional studies were carried out on the W–C and TaW–C systems. All metallic films crystallised in a bcc structure with a <110> texture and the column width of these films varied between 25 nm and 80 nm. The films were very hard (~ 13 GPa), which was explained by the small grain size. A single-phase bcc structure was also obtained upon the addition of 5-10 at.% carbon for all compositions except the near-equimolar CrNbTaTiW. X-ray diffraction indicated a unit cell expansion, which was attributed to the formation of a supersaturated solid solution. Additional atom probe tomography (APT) studies on selected samples confirmed the formation of such solid solutions. The supersaturated solid solution is not thermodynamically stable and an annealing study showed that heat treatment yielded segregation and clustering of carbon at the grain boundaries. The addition of carbon had a grain refining effect in the W–C system and the multicomponent CrNbTaTiW–C system. In general, the addition of carbon increased the hardness, which was mainly caused by a reduced grain size in line with the Hall-Petch relationship. Excellent mechanical properties of carbon supersaturated films were further confirmed in pillar tests on W–C films, which showed very high yield strength (~ 9 GPa) and no brittle fracture. The results show that carbon can be used as a chemical approach to control the grain size and properties of these films. 

    Multicomponent carbides with a B1 structure were formed at high carbon concentrations (~ 40 at.%). The microstructure of these films depended strongly on the process parameters and a higher deposition temperature was found to increase the film density and hardness. The TaW-rich carbide exhibited a very high hardness of ~ 35 GPa and excellent corrosion resistance.

    List of papers
    1. Magnetron Sputtering of Carbon Supersaturated W Films - A Chemical Approach to Increase Strength and Ductility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetron Sputtering of Carbon Supersaturated W Films - A Chemical Approach to Increase Strength and Ductility
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404772 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-26 Created: 2020-02-26 Last updated: 2020-02-28
    2. Influence of Carbon on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnetron Sputtered TaW Coatings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Carbon on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnetron Sputtered TaW Coatings
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404744 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-26 Created: 2020-02-26 Last updated: 2020-02-28
    3. Hard and crack resistant carbon supersaturated refractory nanostructured multicomponent coatings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hard and crack resistant carbon supersaturated refractory nanostructured multicomponent coatings
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 14508Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of ceramic hardness with high crack resistance is a major challenge in the design of protective thin films. High entropy alloys have shown in earlier studies promising mechanical properties with a potential use as thin film materials. In this study, we show that small amounts of carbon in magnetron-sputtered multicomponent CrNbTaTiW films can lead to a significant increase in hardness. The film properties were strongly dependent on the metal composition and the most promising results were observed for TaW-rich films. They crystallised in a bcc structure with a strong (110) texture and coherent grain boundaries. It was possible to deposit films with 8 at.% C in a supersaturated solid-solution into the bcc structure without carbide formation. A major effect of carbon was a significant grain refinement, reducing the column diameter from approximately 35 to 10 nm. This resulted in an increase in hardness from 14.7 to 19.1 GPa while the reduced E-modulus stayed constant at 322 GPa. The carbon-containing films exhibited extremely little plastic deformation around the indent and no cracks were observed. These results show that supersaturation of carbon into high entropy films can be a promising concept to combine superior hardness with high crack resistance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368107 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-32932-y (DOI)000445894500011 ()30266967 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 621-2012-4359Swedish Research Council, 622-2008-405Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA11-0029
    Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2020-02-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Elemental Distribution in CrNbTaTiW-C High Entropy Alloy Thin Films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elemental Distribution in CrNbTaTiW-C High Entropy Alloy Thin Films
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 489-500Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure and distribution of the elements have been studied in thin films of a near-equimolar CrNbTaTiW high entropy alloy (HEA) and films with 8 at.% carbon added to the alloy. The films were deposited by magnetron sputtering at 300 degrees C. X-ray diffraction shows that the near-equimolar metallic film crystallizes in a single-phase body centered cubic (bcc) structure with a strong (110) texture. However, more detailed analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) show a strong segregation of Ti to the grain boundaries forming a very thin Ti-Cr rich interfacial layer. The effect can be explained by the large negative formation enthalpy of Ti-Cr compounds and shows that CrNbTaTiW is not a true HEA at lower temperatures. The addition of 8 at.% carbon leads to the formation of an amorphous structure, which can be explained by the limited solubility of carbon in bcc alloys. TEM energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that all metallic elements are randomly distributed in the film. The APT investigation, however, revealed that carbide-like clusters are present in the amorphous film.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2019
    Keywords
    atom probe tomography, carbon clustering, high entropy alloy, segregation, thin film
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385570 (URN)10.1017/S1431927618016264 (DOI)000466756600025 ()30712522 (PubMedID)
    Conference
    Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy (APT and M) Conference, JUN 10-15, 2018, Gaithersburg, MD
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 621-2012-4359Swedish Research Council, 622-2008-405Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA11-0029
    Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2020-02-28Bibliographically approved
    5. Synthesis and characterization of multicomponent (CrNbTaTiW)C films for increased hardness and corrosion resistance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and characterization of multicomponent (CrNbTaTiW)C films for increased hardness and corrosion resistance
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 149, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Multicomponent carbide thin films of (CrNbTaTiW)C (30–40 at.% C) with different metal contents were depos-ited at different temperatures using non-reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The lattice distortion for the metallattice was estimated to vary from about 3 to 5%. Most films crystallized in the cubic B1 structure but Ta/W-rich films deposited at 600 °C exhibited a tetra gonal distortion. X-ray diffraction results sh ow that near-equimolar films exhibited a strong (111) texture. In contrast, Ta/W-rich films exhibited a shift from (111) to(100) texture at 450 °C. The in-plane relationship was determined to MC(111)[-12-1]//Al2O3(001)[110] with alattice mismatch of about 11% along the Al2O3[110] direction. A segregation of Cr to the grain boundaries was ob-served in all films. The microstructure was found to be the most important factor for high hardness. Less denseNb-rich and near-equimolar films deposited at low tem peratures exhib ited the low est hardnes s (12 GPa),while very dense Ta/W-rich high temperature films were found to be the hardest (36 GPa). No correlation wasfound between the lattice distortion and the hardness. Corrosion studies revealed that the multicomponentfilms exhibited excellent corrosion resistance, superior to that of a reference hyper-duplex stainless steel, in1.0 M HCl.

    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Inorganic Chemistry; Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335985 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2018.03.068 (DOI)000431007500006 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 621-2012-4359Swedish Research Council, 622-2008-405Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA11-0029
    Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2020-02-28Bibliographically approved
    6. Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Phase Evolution of HfNbTiVZr High-Entropy Thin Films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Phase Evolution of HfNbTiVZr High-Entropy Thin Films
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we show that the phase formation of HfNbTiVZr high-entropy thin films is strongly influenced by the substrate temperature. Films deposited at room temperature exhibit an amorphous microstructure and are 6.5 GPa hard. With increasing substrate temperature (room temperature to 275 degrees C), a transition from an amorphous to a single-phased body-centred cubic (bcc) solid solution occurs, resulting in a hardness increase to 7.9 GPa. A higher deposition temperature (450 degrees C) leads to the formation of C14 or C15 Laves phase precipitates in the bcc matrix and a further enhancement of mechanical properties with a peak hardness value of 9.2 GPa. These results also show that thin films follow different phase formation pathways compared to HfNbTiVZr bulk alloys.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019
    Keywords
    high-entropy alloys, physical vapour deposition (PVD), metallic glass
    National Category
    Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380494 (URN)10.3390/ma12040587 (DOI)000460793300037 ()30781407 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-04834
    Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2020-02-28Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 10:00 Ekmansalen, Uppsala
    Hussein, Juma Mahmud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Systematisk biologi, Systematic Biology.
    Polyporoid fungi of Tanzania: Taxonomy, transcriptomics and biochemical analyses of Kusaghiporia usambarensis and Piptoporellus baudonii2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyporoid fungi refers to basidiomycetes with fruiting bodies with the hymenium located to the inner surfaces of pores or narrow tubes. The majority of polyporoids belongs to Polyporales. Most Polyporales are saprobes, but some are plant pathogens. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the taxonomy, systematics and chemistry of the two species Kusaghiporia usambarensis (saprobic) and Piptoporellus baudonii (a plant pathogen) collected from Tanzania, using morphological and molecular approaches, combined with transcriptomics and pharmacognostic investigations.

    The main contribution of this thesis includes the description a new genus with the new species K. usambarensis from the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania; investigation of the chemical composition of volatile compounds from this medicinal mushroom; isolation and structure determination of a novel and most abundant peptide in K. usambarensis, and further to elucidate the phylogenetic position of Piptoporellus baudonii (formerly known as Laetiporus baudonii) by using a four molecular markers dataset.

    Paper I was conducted applying a classical taxonomic approach, including both morphological and phylogenetic analyses, to describe a new genus and species K. usambarensis. Paper II, investigated volatiles and volatile derivatives in dichloromethane extracts of K. usambarensis analysed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The main elements were phenols, and esters, compounds that may explain the formerly reported antioxidant activity and traditional medicinal use of the mushroom. In paper III, screening of peptides in K. usambarensis revealed a novel cysteine-rich peptide, highly expressed at gene level and the most abundant compound in the fruiting body. Combined LC-MS and transcriptome analyses were used to determine the peptide sequence, and subsequently NMR spectroscopy to determine the 3D structure of the novel peptide, kusaghitide. In paper IV molecular techniques were used to elucidate the phylogenetic position of the parasitic Laetiporus baudonii. Phylogenetic analyses of combined 5.8S, nrLSU, nrSSU, and TEF1 gene sequences placed L. baudonii in the genus Piptoporellus, hence the new combination Piptoporellus baudonii was proposed. This thesis has contributed to build capacity in the fields of mycology, systematics and pharmacognosy in order to reinforce ecological knowledge and ethnopharmaceutical research for future drug discovery in Tanzania and Africa at large.

    List of papers
    1. Elucidating the phylogeny of the serious plant pathogen Piptoporellus baudonii using a multigene molecular dataset
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elucidating the phylogeny of the serious plant pathogen Piptoporellus baudonii using a multigene molecular dataset
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Piptoporellus baudonii is proposed as a new combination for Laetiporus baudonii in Polyporales (Basidiomycota), based on morphological and molecular features. This parasitic macrofungus attacks cashew trees, Eucalyptus, cassava, Tectona and some indigenous trees in the Southern regions of Tanzania and poses a serious threat to agroforestry and livelihood conditions in the area. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were applied to obtain phylogenetic trees for partial sequences of the 5.8S part of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer, parts of 28S nuc rDNA (28S) and 18S nuc rDNA (18S), in addition to parts of gene encoding the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) of Laetiporus baudonii for comparisons with additional sequences from the antrodia clade. Our results reveal a strongly supported phylogenetic clade of L. baudonii with Piptoporellus in Fomitopsidaceae. Piptoporellus baudonii shares many morphological features with other members of Piptoporellus but differs in having broadly ellipsoid or rarely ovoid basidiospores, while in other Piptoporellus species the spores are cylindrical to oblong-ellipsoid. Both morphological and phylogenetic evidence, however, justify the incorporation of L. baudonii in Piptoporellus, to join the three other species in the genus.

    Keywords
    Africa, parasitic fungus, antrodia clade, Laeptiporus baudonii, macrofungus, Piptoporellus, 1 new taxon
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405385 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-02-28
    2. Phylogenetic position and taxonomy of Kusaghiporia usambarensis gen. et sp. nov. (Polyporales)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogenetic position and taxonomy of Kusaghiporia usambarensis gen. et sp. nov. (Polyporales)
    2018 (English)In: Mycology, ISSN 2150-1203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A large polyporoid mushroom from the West Usambara Mountains in North-eastern Tanzania produces dark brown, up to 60-cm large fruiting bodies that at maturity may weigh more than 10 kg. It has a high rate of mycelial growth and regeneration and was found growing on both dry and green leaves of shrubs; attached to the base of living trees, and it was also observed to degrade dead snakes and insects accidentally coming into contact with it. Phylogenetic analyses based on individual and concatenated data sets of nrLSU, nrSSU and the RPB2 and TEF1 genes showed it, together with Laetiporus, Phaeolus, Pycnoporellus and Wolfiporia, to form a monophyletic group in Polyporales. Based on morphological features and molecular data, it is described as Kusaghiporia usambarensis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2018
    Keywords
    Kusaghiporia; molecular phylogeny; polyporales; Tanzania; taxonomy; Usambara
    National Category
    Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Systematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348537 (URN)10.1080/21501203.2018.1461142 (DOI)
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 2221
    Available from: 2018-04-15 Created: 2018-04-15 Last updated: 2020-02-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Chemical composition of the medicinal mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical composition of the medicinal mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis was recently described as a new species and the single member of a new genus. It appears endemic to Tanzania. The mushroom forms large, conspicuous fruiting bodies with an unusually high radial growth rate and an observed ability to attract insects. The mushroom is used by the local community both for food and in traditional medicine. In order to gain insight into both basic biology and the traditional use of this mushroom, we here report the first analyses of its chemical composition. A dichloromethane extract was prepared from the dried fruiting body and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This extract of medium polar chemical constituents of Kusaghiporia usambarensis showed a high content of phenolic compounds and esters. The main elements were phenols, which account for ~22%, and esters ~20 %). These two groups of compounds may explain formerly reported antioxidant activity and traditional medicinal use of the mushroom. Revealing the chemistry also shed light on K. usambarensi as a sought-after delicacy: presence of 1-octen-3-one, octanal, 3-octen-2-one contribute to its fruity, cheesy and chicken flavour.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405386 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-02-28
    4. Cysteine-rich peptide from the gigantic edible mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis (Laetiporaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cysteine-rich peptide from the gigantic edible mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis (Laetiporaceae)
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cysteine-rich peptides are produced by various organisms across all kingdoms and have triggered an interest in isolation of molecules for novel drug development. In this study, we report a novel cysteine-rich peptide, kusaghitide, isolated from the gigantic medicinal mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis. It is highly expressed in the K. usambarensis transcriptome and it is the most abundant compound in the methanol-water extract. The 54 amino acid residue long peptide was isolated through aqueous methanol 50% and a sample was reduced, alkylated and cleaved enzymatically. De novo sequencing was done by LC-MS/MS and obtained sequences were used for mining the transcriptome to search for the complete gene. The peptide was recombinantly expressed in One Shot BL21 Star Escherichia coli using lysogenic broth and minimal media. Its 3D NMR structure was determined using 2D and 3D NMR. Three hypothetical protein sequences similar to kusaghitide originate from Laetiporus sulphureusWolfiporia cocos and Sparassis crispa with per cent similarity of 76% and 58% and 53% respectively and were found by BLAST search in the NCBI database. Kusaghitide did not inhibit the growth of either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. This is first report of a peptide from K. usambarensis in Laetiporaceae.

    Keywords
    Kusaghiporia, medicinal mushroom, recombinant protein production, cysteine-rich peptides, peptide structure.
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405387 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-02-28
  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 13:00 H:Son-Holmdahlsalen, Uppsala
    Fahlström, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    On potentials and limitations of perfusion MRI in neurological disorders2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebral perfusion outlines several parameters which describe the status of cerebral haemodynamics. Numerous neurological diseases affect cerebral perfusion, thus the importance of diagnostic measurements. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a collection of non-ionizing magnetic resonance-based perfusion measurement techniques that can be used for clinical assessment of cerebral perfusion. The aim of this thesis was to investigate potentials and limitations of perfusion MRI used for clinical assessment of patients with neurological disorders. Patients with glioblastoma were examined with dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) before/after treatment with fractionated radiotherapy (FRT). Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing brain tissue were found in the form of decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured with DSC-MRI and increased vascular permeability and increased fraction of the extravascular extracellular space measured with DCE-MRI. Papers I–II provide valuable information regarding the possibility that radiation-induced changes could be a confounder in DSC-MRI and that DCE-MRI could potentially act as a biomarker for vascular damage secondary to radiation exposure. Additionally, CBF derived from arterial spin labelling (ASL) was compared to the reference standard 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET). Simultaneous measurements were acquired with an integrated PET/MR scanner using arterial blood sampling and zero-echo time-based attenuation correction in healthy subjects and patients with epilepsy. Correlation- and Bland–Altman analysis showed fair correlation and a negative relationship with wide limits of agreement in several cortical and subcortical regions. Thus, agreement with 15O-water is insufficient for absolute quantification with ASL, but ASL provides reliable relative measures that could potentially be rescaled to absolute values. Moyamoya disease (MMD) is characterized by progressive stenosis/occlusion in large brain arteries. A limitation of ASL is the sensitivity to prolonged arterial transit times, which is common in the collateral vessels of the brain in patients with MMD. Given the non-invasiveness and non-ionizing exposure, ASL has a pronounced potential for use in diagnostic imaging in patients with MMD. ASL was performed before and after administration of acetazolamide; CBF and cerebrovascular reserve capacity were derived for large vascular regions. Artefacts originating from prolonged arterial transit times were found to have negligible effects on CBF and cerebrovascular reserve capacity derived from ASL. This thesis adds to the understanding of potential and limitations of perfusion MRI in neurological diseases. 

    List of papers
    1. Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Changes in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue after Radiotherapy in Glioblastoma Patients may Confound Longitudinal Evaluation of Treatment Response
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Changes in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue after Radiotherapy in Glioblastoma Patients may Confound Longitudinal Evaluation of Treatment Response
    2018 (English)In: Radiology and Oncology, ISSN 1318-2099, E-ISSN 1581-3207, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was assess acute and early delayed radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing brain tissue perfusion as measured with perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the dependence of these changes on the fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) dose level.

    Patients and methods: Seventeen patients with glioma WHO grade III-IV treated with FRT were included in this prospective study, seven were excluded because of inconsistent FRT protocol or missing examinations. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and contrast-enhanced 3D-T1-weighted (3D-T1w) images were acquired prior to and in average (standard deviation): 3.1 (3.3), 34.4 (9.5) and 103.3 (12.9) days after FRT. Pre-FRT 3D-T1w images were segmented into white- and grey matter. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were calculated and co-registered patient-wise to pre-FRT 3D-T1w images. Seven radiation dose regions were created for each tissue type: 0-5 Gy, 5-10 Gy, 10-20 Gy, 20-30 Gy, 30-40 Gy, 40-50 Gy and 50-60 Gy. Mean CBV and CBF were calculated in each dose region and normalised (nCBV and nCBF) to the mean CBV and CBF in 0-5 Gy white- and grey matter reference regions, respectively.

    Results: Regional and global nCBV and nCBF in white- and grey matter decreased after FRT, followed by a tendency to recover. The response of nCBV and nCBF was dose-dependent in white matter but not in grey matter.

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that radiation-induced perfusion changes occur in normal-appearing brain tissue after FRT. This can cause an overestimation of relative tumour perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI, and can thus confound tumour treatment evaluation.

    Keywords
    malignant gliomas, normal-appearing brain tissue, perfusion MRI, radiation-induced changes
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356784 (URN)10.2478/raon-2018-0022 (DOI)000433103400004 ()30018517 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer Society
    Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2020-03-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging May Act as a Biomarker for Vascular Damage in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue after Radiotherapy in Patients with Glioblastoma
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging May Act as a Biomarker for Vascular Damage in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue after Radiotherapy in Patients with Glioblastoma
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Acta Radiologica Open, ISSN 2058-4601, Vol. 7, no 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a promising perfusion method and may be useful in evaluating radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing brain tissue.

    Purpose: To assess whether radiotherapy induces changes in vascular permeability (Ktrans) and the fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space (Ve) derived from DCE-MRI in normal-appearing brain tissue and possible relationships to radiation dose given.

    Material and Methods: Seventeen patients with glioblastoma treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy were included; five were excluded because of inconsistencies in the radiotherapy protocol or early drop-out. DCE-MRI, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W) images and T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) images were acquired before and on average 3.3, 30.6, 101.6, and 185.7 days after radiotherapy. Pre-radiotherapy CE T1W and T2-FLAIR images were segmented into white and gray matter, excluding all non-healthy tissue. Ktrans and Ve were calculated using the extended Kety model with the Parker population-based arterial input function. Six radiation dose regions were created for each tissue type, based on each patient's computed tomography-based dose plan. Mean Ktrans and Ve were calculated over each dose region and tissue type.

    Results: Global Ktrans and Ve demonstrated mostly non-significant changes with mean values higher for post-radiotherapy examinations in both gray and white matter compared to pre-radiotherapy. No relationship to radiation dose was found.

    Conclusion: Additional studies are needed to validate if Ktrans and Ve derived from DCE-MRI may act as potential biomarkers for acute and early-delayed radiation-induced vascular damages. No dose-response relationship was found.

    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346813 (URN)10.1177/2058460118808811 (DOI)000450106500001 ()30542625 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer Society
    Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2020-03-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Evaluation of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI – agreement with 15O-water PET with arterial input function and use of integrated PET/MR
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI – agreement with 15O-water PET with arterial input function and use of integrated PET/MR
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    ASL, CBF, PET/MR, validation, 15O-water
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404602 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2020-03-05
    4. High Intravascular Signal Arterial Transit Time Artifacts Have Negligible Effects on Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reserve Capacity Measurement Using Single Postlabel Delay Arterial Spin-Labeling in Patients with Moyamoya Disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Intravascular Signal Arterial Transit Time Artifacts Have Negligible Effects on Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reserve Capacity Measurement Using Single Postlabel Delay Arterial Spin-Labeling in Patients with Moyamoya Disease
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: American Journal of Neuroradiology, ISSN 0195-6108, E-ISSN 1936-959XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405377 (URN)10.3174/ajnr.A6411 (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2020-03-05
  • Public defence: 2020-04-18 10:15 Ihresalen, Uppsala
    Berglind Söderqvist, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Evidential marking in spoken English: Linguistic functions and gender variation2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the marking of evidentiality in spoken British English. Evidentiality is the linguistic expression of whether and how a speaker/writer has access to evidence for or against the truth of a proposition, and it is usually manifested in the form of sensory evidentiality (e.g. I saw Sam leave), hearsay evidentiality (e.g. They say Sam left), or inferential evidentiality (e.g. Sam obviously left). In the examples, the bold words exemplify evidentiality markers. The aims of this thesis are to investigate whether there are quantitative differences between women and men in how often they mark evidentiality, and to analyze the functions of evidentiality in interaction in order to formulate an explanation of any gender differences.

    The material comes mainly from the spoken portion of the British National Corpus (BNC), but also from the Diachronic Corpus of Present-day Spoken English (DCPSE). In Article 1, women and men were compared with respect to how frequently they marked inferential evidentiality; gender preferences for specific markers were also analyzed. In Article 2, the effects of speaker gender and speaker age on how frequently evidentiality markers are used were investigated. In Article 3, the marking of evidentiality in conversation was analyzed to explore the potential of evidentiality to be instrumental in relational practice. In Article 4, speakers were ranked according to the extent to which their speech displayed stereotypically feminine or masculine features. The language of a subset of speakers was then analyzed to investigate whether evidential markers are used for different functions depending on gendered styles.

    In the studies of this thesis, women were found to mark evidentiality more frequently than men. Further, the language of women as well as language characterized by a feminine style were found more likely to feature evidential markers referencing evidence that is only accessible to the speaker, whereas the language of men and language characterized by a masculine style are more likely to feature evidential markers referencing evidence that is accessible to other interlocutors in addition to the speaker. Evidential marking was found to often perform relational functions; in particular, evidentiality enables the speaker to negotiate authority in a less face-threatening manner. Evidential marking seems likely to occur when the addressee’s interpretation of an utterance is important to the speaker. Since previous studies have found women’s language to display more often a concern for the experiences of others, this characteristic might partly explain the quantitative gender variation.

                         

     

    List of papers
    1. Gender differences and similarities in the use of inferential evidentiality in spoken British English: A corpus-based study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences and similarities in the use of inferential evidentiality in spoken British English: A corpus-based study
    2017 (English)In: Evidentiality and Modality in European Languages: Discourse-Pragmatic Perspectives / [ed] Juana I. Marín-Arrese; Julia Lavid-López; Marta Carretero, Elena Domínguez Romero; Ma Victoria Martín de la Rosa; María Pérez Blanco, Bern: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 371-399Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates differences between men and women in their preference for inferential evidentiality markers. Using spoken language data from the British National Corpus, a number of potential markers of inferential evidentiality (for example believe, imagine, must, obviously) have been analyzed for their evidential value as well as for pragmatic dimensions such as degree of certainty and (inter)subjectivity. The findings of the study show statistically significant variation between the male and the female respondents, and the subsequent analysis indicates, among other things, that the markers preferred by males are those that produce intersubjective assessments, whereas the markers preferred by female speakers are those that produce subjective assessments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bern: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017
    Series
    Linguistic insights: Studies in language and communication, ISSN 1424-8689 ; 223
    Keywords
    Evidentiality, corpus linguistics, sociolinguistics
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    English
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356163 (URN)10.3726/b11226 (DOI)978-3-0343-2439-7 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2018-07-17 Created: 2018-07-17 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Evidentiality across age and gender: A corpus-based study of variation in spoken British English
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidentiality across age and gender: A corpus-based study of variation in spoken British English
    2017 (English)In: Research in Corpus Linguistics (RiCL), ISSN 1064-4857, E-ISSN 2243-4712, ISSN 2243-4712, Vol. 5, p. 17-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effects of age and gender on the frequency of the evidentiality categories 'sensory', 'hearsay', and 'inferential' in spontaneous spoken British English. The findings from the main data sample from the British National Corpus (BNC) are also compared to patterns in a smaller data set from the Diachronic Corpus of Present-day Spoken English (DCPSE) in order to estimate the relative effects of age-grading versus historical change. The results confirm statistically significant differences between men and women in their use of evidentiality, but show no significant effect of age or the interaction of age and gender. The comparison of the findings from the BNC data and the DCPSE data suggests that age-related patterns in evidentiality use are more diachronically stable than gender-related patterns.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Murcia: Asociación Española de Lingüística del Corpus, 2017
    Keywords
    evidentiality, corpus linguistics, pragmatics, sociolinguistics
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    English
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356162 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-07-17 Created: 2018-07-17 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Informational and relational functions of evidentiality in interaction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Informational and relational functions of evidentiality in interaction
    (English)In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 0039-3274, E-ISSN 1651-2308Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Taylor & Francis Group
    Keywords
    Evidentiality, spoken language, relational practice
    National Category
    Humanities and the Arts General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Research subject
    English; Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404500 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-20 Created: 2020-02-20 Last updated: 2020-02-21
    4. Evidentiality in gendered styles in spoken English
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidentiality in gendered styles in spoken English
    2020 (English)In: ICAME Journal/International Computer Archive of Modern English, ISSN 0801-5775, E-ISSN 1502-5462, Vol. 44Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Walter de Gruyter, 2020
    Keywords
    Evidentiality, spoken language, style, gender
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Research subject
    English
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404501 (URN)10.2478/icame-2020-000x (DOI)
    Available from: 2020-02-20 Created: 2020-02-20 Last updated: 2020-02-21
  • Public defence: 2020-04-23 13:00 H:son Holmdahlssalen, Uppsala
    Hernefalk, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Ring Injuries and Acetabular Fractures: Aspects on Patient-reported Outcome2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present thesis was to study the patient perspective on outcome following surgical treatment of pelvic ring injuries and acetabular fractures. All studies were based on patients treated for such injuries at the Department of Orthopaedics, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

    In Study I, a patient-reported outcome measure to provide condition-specific information regarding outcome after surgical treatment of pelvic ring injuries was developed. Seventy-three patients were asked to complete a questionnaire at three time points during follow-up. Evaluation of data resulted in the Pelvic Discomfort Index (PDI). This instrument is comprised of six questions regarding residual problems from the pelvic region with respect to pain, walking, hip motion, leg numbness, sexual life and the operation scar.

    The influence of the time-point post-surgery at which patients with surgically treated pelvic ring injuries or acetabular fractures estimate their pre-traumatic state was examined in study II. Seventy-three patients assessed their pre-traumatic status at three time-points post-surgery. It was found that pre-traumatic quality of life was high and comparable to a reference population. Pre-existing discomfort from the pelvic region was uncommon. A tendency for patients to estimate a better pre-traumatic status when assessments were delayed was observed.

    The objective of Study III was to compare outcome after surgical treatment of complex acetabular fractures in the elderly using either the combined hip procedure, consisting of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in conjunction with an acute total hip arthroplasty, or ORIF alone with respect to mortality, need for secondary surgery and patient-reported outcome. Thirteen patients treated with the CHP were compared to 14 patients with similar fracture patterns treated with ORIF alone. The CHP conferred a markedly reduced need for secondary surgical procedures while no differences in perioperative mortality or patient-reported outcome could be demonstrated.

    Patient-reported outcome at five years following surgical treatment of pelvic ring injury was evaluated in study IV. The consequences of these injuries were found to be substantial and long-standing. Females reported a worse outcome than males, while influence of variables age, injury type and presence of associated injuries was limited.

    In Study V, patient experiences of life following treatment for pelvic ring injury was explored. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten patients at a median of 11 years after injury and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Patients described a heterogenous outcome, with residual impairment ranging from virtually none to severe disability. A need for adequate patient information and individual assessments of patients was noted.

    List of papers
    1. Development of a pelvic discomfort index to evaluate outcome following fixation for pelvic ring injury
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a pelvic discomfort index to evaluate outcome following fixation for pelvic ring injury
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, ISSN 1022-5536, E-ISSN 2309-4990, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 146-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To develop a pelvic discomfort index (PDI) to evaluate outcome following fixation for pelvic ring injury. Methods. 29 female and 44 male consecutive patients (mean age, 36 years) underwent internal fixation for pelvic ring injury of type B1 (n=10), B2 (n=22), B3 (n=15), C1 (n=18), C2 (n=5), and C3 (n=3), based on the AO/OTA classification. At postoperative 6, 12, and 24 months, patients were asked to assess their discomfort in the pelvis using a 14-item questionnaire. Three questions were open-ended, and responses were categorised by a single assessor. The remaining 11 questions were closed-ended and had 6 ordinal options from 'no discomfort' (score=0) to' extremely severe discomfort' (score=5). The content validity and relevance of the 11 closed-ended questions was determined. The 14-item questionnaire was compared with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results. Respectively at postoperative 6, 12, and 24 months, 78%, 71%, and 71% of the patients completed the 14-item questionnaire. Based on the factor analysis and responses to the open-ended questions, the number of items was reduced to 6 including pain, walking, mobility of the hips, loss of sensation in the legs, sexual life, and operation scar. Four factors could explain 96% of the total variance. The first factor involved the first 3 items (pain, walking, and hip motion) and addressed 'pelvis', whereas 3 factors involved the remaining items and each addressed peripheral neurology, sexual life, and operation scar. A PDI was developed using these 6 items. The PDI had high internal reliability (alpha=0.89), adequate content and criterion validity, and moderate correlation with the SF-36 total score or scores of physical function, bodily pain, and general health (r=0.50-0.77). Conclusion. The PDI provides valid, specific, and relevant information to assess

    Keywords
    fracture fixation, internal, patient outcome assessment, pelvis, quality of life
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263545 (URN)000360670300005 ()26321538 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
    2. Estimating pre-traumatic quality of life in patients with surgically treated acetabular fractures and pelvic ring injuries: Does timing matter?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating pre-traumatic quality of life in patients with surgically treated acetabular fractures and pelvic ring injuries: Does timing matter?
    2016 (English)In: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluation of patient-assessed functional outcome in traumatic conditions has specific challenges. To obtain pre-traumatic data to allow for comparison during follow-up, retrospective assessments are needed. How such data is affected by posttraumatic time-point chosen for evaluation is unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how the time-point chosen for retrospective assessment of pre-traumatic quality of life (QoL) in patients with surgically treated acetabular fractures and pelvic ring injuries influenced the results. A secondary purpose was to examine the pre-traumatic QoL-profile in patients with these injuries.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: 73 patients were included, where 50 had an acetabular fracture and 23 a pelvic ring injury. Pre-traumatic QoL was evaluated using the generic instruments SF-36 and EQ5D in conjunction with the condition-specific Pelvic Trauma Questionnaire (PTQ). Questionnaires were completed at three time points: 0, 1 and 2 months post-surgery.

    RESULTS: Number of responders were 73 patients at 0 months, 61 patients at 1 month and 53 patients at 2 months. 50 patients answered the questionnaires at all three time-points. A trend was observed with all instruments where patients estimated a better pre-traumatic status with narrower distributions when assessment was delayed. At 2 months, scores for 4 out of 8 SF-36 domains where significantly higher compared to 0 months. For EQ5D, EQ VAS improved at 1 and 2 months compared to month 0 results but no other significant differences between time-points were found. Results from the PTQ demonstrated no significant differences over time. Pre-traumatic quality of life was high and for SF-36 comparable to a population norm. A very low level of pre-existing discomfort from the pelvic region was reported through the PTQ.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with surgically treated acetabular fractures and pelvic ring injuries estimate a higher pre-traumatic functional status when assessment is carried out at 1 or 2 months post-surgery compared to perioperative measurements. The SF-36 seems to be more sensitive than the EQ5D in this respect. Pre-traumatic QoL in patients with surgically treated acetabular fractures and pelvic ring injuries is generally high and pre-existing discomfort from the pelvic region is uncommon.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Orthopaedics Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266605 (URN)10.1016/j.injury.2015.09.006 (DOI)000370283300016 ()26434576 (PubMedID)
    External cooperation:
    Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
    3. Acute total hip arthroplasty combined with internal fixation for displaced acetabular fractures in the elderly: A short-term comparison with internal fixation alone after a minimum of two years
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute total hip arthroplasty combined with internal fixation for displaced acetabular fractures in the elderly: A short-term comparison with internal fixation alone after a minimum of two years
    2019 (English)In: The Bone & Joint Journal, ISSN 2049-4394, E-ISSN 2049-4408, Vol. 101B, no 4, p. 478-483Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    Displaced, comminuted acetabular fractures in the elderly are increasingly common, but there is no consensus on whether they should be treated non-surgically, surgically with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), or with acute total hip arthroplasty (THA). A combination of ORIF and acute THA, an approach called 'combined hip procedure' (CHP), has been advocated and our aim was to compare the outcome after CHP or ORIF alone.

    Patients and Methods

    A total of 27 patients with similar acetabular fractures (severe acetabular impaction with or without concomitant femoral head injury) with a mean age of 72.2 years (50 to 89) were prospectively followed for a minimum of two years. In all, 14 were treated with ORIF alone and 13 were treated with a CHP. Hip joint and patient survival were estimated. Operating times, blood loss, radiological outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed.

    Results

    No patient in the CHP group required further hip surgery, giving THA a survival rate of 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 100 to 100) after three years, compared with 28.6% hip joint survival in the ORIF group (95% CI 12.5 to 65.4; p = 0.001). No dislocations or deep infections occurred in the CHP group. No patient died within the first year after index surgery, but patient survival was lower in the CHP group after three years. There were no relevant differences in patient-reported outcomes.

    Conclusion

    The CHP confers a considerably reduced need of further surgery when compared with ORIF alone in elderly patients with complex acetabular fractures. These findings encourage both further use of, and larger prospective studies on, the CHP.

    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382251 (URN)10.1302/0301-620X.101B4.BJJ-2018-1027.R2 (DOI)000462754300019 ()30929478 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
    4. Patient-reported Outcome in Surgically Treated Pelvic Ring Injuries at 5 Years Post-surgery.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient-reported Outcome in Surgically Treated Pelvic Ring Injuries at 5 Years Post-surgery.
    2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery, ISSN 1457-4969, E-ISSN 1799-7267, article id 1457496919877583Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term prospective data on patient-reported outcome after surgical treatment of pelvic ring injuries are scarce. This study aimed at describing results at 5 years post-surgery using validated outcome measures.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients admitted for surgical treatment of pelvic ring injuries were prospectively included and asked to report their outcome at 1, 2 and 5 years post-surgery using two patient-reported outcome measures: the generic Short-Form 36 and the condition-specific pelvic discomfort index. Data were evaluated using mixed-effects linear models.

    RESULTS: There were 108 patients (68 males and 40 females), mean age 38 years. Injury type according to the AO/OTA-classification was B-type in 68 patients and C-type in 40 patients. No domain of the Short-Form 36 reached norm values at 5 years post-surgery. Females reported a worse outcome than males concerning general health (p < 0.01) at 5 years. Recovery of physical function (p < 0.01), mental health (p = 0.04), and pain (p = 0.01) was observed for males at 5 years compared to earlier assessments, while females on the contrary described more pain at this time-point (p = 0.03). Mean pelvic discomfort index at 5 years was 27, indicating moderate residual pelvic discomfort overall. Males reported less pelvic discomfort than females at 5 years (p = 0.02) and improved when compared to results at 2 years (p = 0.02), while females did not. Influence of age, fracture type, and presence of associated injuries on patient-reported outcome was limited.

    CONCLUSION: Surgically treated pelvic ring injuries are associated with long-standing negative effects on patient-reported outcome. Males report a better outcome than females at 5 years post-surgery.

    Keywords
    Pelvic ring injuries, Short-Form 36, orthopedic surgery, patient-reported outcome, patient-reported outcome measures, pelvic discomfort index, trauma
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-403813 (URN)10.1177/1457496919877583 (DOI)31537176 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
    5. The Long and Winding Road: Patient Experiences Following Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Ring Injuries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Long and Winding Road: Patient Experiences Following Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Ring Injuries
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404263 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-02-16 Created: 2020-02-16 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2020-09-04 13:15 itc2446, Uppsala
    Patrignani, Norberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Teaching Computer Ethics: Steps towards Slow Tech, a Good, Clean, and Fair ICT2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are critically impacting society and the environment. They are now an integral part of the challenges posed by the current Anthropocene era. To help in facing these enormous challenges, the entire ICT supply chain (from design to development, manufacturing, usage, deployment, and disposal) should take into account the three dimensions of social desirability, environmental sustainability, and ethical acceptability. In this thesis these concepts are proposed as a joint requirement for a new approach to ICT and with a more precise focus: a good, clean, and fair ICT. A good ICT is designed with a human-centred approach, a clean ICT is environmentally sustainable and minimizes the impact on the planet, and a fair ICT takes into account the working conditions of people along the entire supply-chain. These characteristics represent a triple condition that in this thesis is called Slow Tech (inspired by the Slow Food movement that uses good, clean, and fair with reference to food).

    Among the many stakeholders of the ICT world, this thesis concentrates on the engineers, the designers of the complex systems (hardware, software, networks) that are shaping our society: in short, computer professionals. They usually work inside organizations and companies, but their skills, competencies, and professional code of ethics are the sources of fundamental design choices. In particular, this thesis identifies ethics as one of the new competencies needed by the next generation of computer professionals and, strongly related to it, complementing their university education with a subject that, for simplicity, will be referred as "Computer Ethics". Two fundamental questions are: how can this requirement for an ethical competence be fulfilled? How can universities prepare the next generation of computer professionals so that they are "ethically grounded"? This grounding in teaching and training is the main reason for the overall title of this thesis: "Teaching Computer Ethics". The main point of this thesis is that the reflections stimulated by the analysis of the ICT stakeholders' network and the use of the three Slow Tech questions are two important tools for improving the ethical skills and competencies of computer professionals. The methodology and my empirical experience of teaching Computer Ethics at the Politecnico of Torino described in this thesis provides interesting results in this direction.

    List of papers
    1. Computer ethics 2013: From policy vacuum to slow-tech
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer ethics 2013: From policy vacuum to slow-tech
    2014 (English)In: Mondo Digitale, ISSN 1720-898X, Vol. XIII, no 50, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We propose to steer the digital revolution towards a new kind of ICT, by designing and developing technologies that are good, clean, and fair. An ICT that is human-centred, and that takes into account both the limits of the planet and those of human beings.

    Keywords
    Computer professionals, social responsibility, computer ethics, code of ethics
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Ethics Philosophy
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233447 (URN)2-s2.0-84900827396 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    ETHCOMPCEST
    Available from: 2014-10-05 Created: 2014-10-05 Last updated: 2020-02-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Slow Tech: a quest for good, clean and fair ICT
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slow Tech: a quest for good, clean and fair ICT
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 78-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the term Slow Tech as a way of describing information and communication technology (ICT) that is good, clean and fair. These are technologies that are human centred, environmentally sustainable and socially desirable.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper's approach is based on a qualitative discourse that justifies the introduction of Slow Tech as a new design paradigm.

    Findings

    The limits of the human body, and the need to take into account human wellbeing, the limits of the planet and stakeholders' interests in decision making, all suggest the need for a new paradigm, Slow Tech, in the design of ICT and ICT systems. Three scenarios are described as case studies.

    Practical implications

    In order to prepare the next generation of researchers and computer professionals, many different actions need to be taken. Universities and colleges need to redesign education programmes for computer scientists and engineers by introducing subjects related to the social and ethical implications of computing (currently, only few countries, like the UK, have already done this), and computer professionals' associations need to introduce a code of ethics or ethical analysis into their members' career development. As a result, future computer professionals who are familiar with the Slow Tech approach will be able to collaborate much more easily across the kind of cross disciplinary teams suited to design human centred, sustainable and desirable technologies.

    Social implications

    Rather than simply focusing on the role of computer professionals, all members of society are called to play a new role in the design of future ICT scenarios. Starting a societal dialogue that involves computer professionals, users, researchers, designers, ICT industrialists, and policy makers is very much needed.

    Originality/value

    The value of this paper is in its call for reflection followed by action. Based on an holistic approach to the design of new ICT systems, the paper advocates a new starting point for systems design: it should be based on a long-term view of the desirability and social importance of technologies, their environmental impact and sustainability, and the fairness and equity of the conditions of workers involved in the computing manufacturing processes.

    Keywords
    Cleant ICT, Environmentally sustainable, Ethically acceptable, Fair ICT, Good ICT, Slow Tech
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Media and Communication Technology Ethics
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232558 (URN)10.1108/JICES-11-2013-0051 (DOI)2-s2.0-84898947569 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    ETHCOMPCEST
    Available from: 2014-09-21 Created: 2014-09-21 Last updated: 2020-02-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Slow Tech: a roadmap for a good, clean and fair ICT
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slow Tech: a roadmap for a good, clean and fair ICT
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 13, no 3/4, p. 268-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how Slow Tech can support the celebration of the 20-year series of ETHICOMP conferences, with its ethical and societal focus, building on earlier descriptions of Slow Tech. The paper takes Slow Tech’s ideas a step further to explore how a roadmap and concrete checklist of activities can be developed.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a thought leadership or conceptual piece. Its approach is based on a normative, qualitative discourse. It, nevertheless, indicates a shift towards concrete actions.

    Findings – Extracting from a brief historical overview, the paper lays out the means of building a Slow Tech roadmap and a Slow Tech checklist of actions. It also investigates a number of the challenges that might face Slow Tech in the future.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper has implications for stakeholder fields as far-ranging as corporations, computing professional associations, universities and research institutions and end-users.

    Originality/value – As with other investigations of Slow Tech, the value of this paper is in its call for reflection followed by action. It provides a useful complement and counterbalance to an earlier paper by the same authors: “Slow Tech: a quest for good, clean and fair ICT” published in Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society (Vol. 12, issue 2, pp. 78-92).

    Keywords
    Fair ICT, Good ICT, Slow Tech, Clean ICT, ETHICOMP, Proactive computer ethics
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Environmental Sciences Ethics
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401598 (URN)10.1108/JICES-05-2015-0014 (DOI)
    Projects
    ETHCOMPCEST
    Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-02-02Bibliographically approved
    4. On the Difficult Task of Teaching Computer Ethics to Engineers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Difficult Task of Teaching Computer Ethics to Engineers
    2017 (English)In: ORBIT Journal, ISSN 2515-8562, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges of teaching computer ethics to engineers. The computer professionals are identified as the starting point of the stakeholders network of ICT and as a consequence it is underlined the importance of computer ethics courses for engineers. To this purpose, a simple four-steps methodology is proposed for teaching computer ethics. The importance of applying the paradigm of complex systems is then described and the three dimensions of Slow Tech (good, clean, and fair ICT) are proposed as a compass for designing complex socio-technical systems. Finally some preliminary results coming from the feedback of about some hundreds students in several years are illustrated.

    Keywords
    stakeholders network, proactive computer ethics, complex socio- technical systems, Slow Tech
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Ethics Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331986 (URN)10.29297/orbit.v1i1.20 (DOI)
    Projects
    ETHCOMP
    Available from: 2017-10-20 Created: 2017-10-20 Last updated: 2020-02-02Bibliographically approved
    5. On the Complex Relationship Between ICT Systems and the Planet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Complex Relationship Between ICT Systems and the Planet
    2018 (English)In: This Changes Everything –ICT and Climate Change: What Can We Do? / [ed] David Kreps, Charles Ess, Louise Leenen, Kai Kimppa, Springer, 2018, p. 181-187Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges of designing sustainable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems. The complexity of ICT systems, the number of stakeholders involved (technology providers, policymakers, users, etc.), and the extension and global scale of ICT supply chain are the main challenges at the core of the complex relationship between ICT systems and the planet Earth. ICT offer an opportunity for an exchange between matter-energy and information: the better use of information offers the greatopportunity for decreasing the environmental impact of human activities by decreasing the matter and energy consumption. But, on the other side, like anyhuman activity, the design, production, use, and disposal of complex ICT systems,has as a consequence a growth in entropy. This intriguing dilemma is one of the most difficult challenges in front of designers, ICT companies, users, and policy makers. This paper concentrates on the designers, the engineers’ dilemmas: what are the ethical competences, the skills, the methods for addressing these complex ethical dilemmas? Among the many ethical approaches, the“virtue/future ethics” is proposed as a core ethical competence for the designers and engineers of the future.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2018
    Series
    IFIP AICT, ISSN 1868-4238, E-ISSN 868-422X ; 537
    Keywords
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Entropy, Future ethics, Fairphone, Slow tech
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Environmental Sciences Ethics
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360589 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99605-9_13 (DOI)978-3-319-99604-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    13th IFIP TC 9 International Conference on Human Choice and Computers, HCC13 2018. Held at the 24th IFIP World Computer Congress, WCC 2018 Poznan, Poland, September 19–21, 2018
    Projects
    ETHCOMPCEST
    Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2020-02-02