uu.seUppsala University Publications
1 - 41 of 41
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
  • Public defence: 2016-09-28 09:15 Å80127, Uppsala
    Johansson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Johansson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Metal Hydrogen Interaction and Structural Characterization of Amorphous Materials from first principles2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, first-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been employed to investigate metal hydrogen interaction in transition, p-block and rare earth metals. Furthermore, the accuracy of the stochastic quenching method was tested in describing the structure of amorphous Fe(1-x)Zrx.

    The investigated systems of transition metal hydrides are V-H and ScZr(CoNi)2-H. For V-H, the main focus of the studies is the effect that strain has on the potential energy landscape which governs the metal hydrogen interactions. The investigation has focused on how the properties of hydrogen occupancy in the interstitial sites changes with strain and also how the hydrogen atoms themselves exert strain on the vanadium structure to lower the energy. Results on diffusion, induced strain and zero-point energy are presented which all reveal the considerable difference between tetrahedral and octahedral site occupancy. Diffusion was studied by employing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to obtain diffusion coefficients and to map the movement of the hydrogen atom. A description of hydrogen in vanadium is provided from a fundamental basis that is expected to be applicable to any lattice gas system. For ScZr(CoNi)2-H, the difference of hydrogen occupancy in various interstitial sites and the hydrogen-induced strain was also investigated through calculations of the change in total volume as a function of hydrogen concentration.

    The fundamental properties of metal hydrogen bonding were investigated by studying the Zintl phase hydrides that are constituted of the electropositive metal of Nd or Gd and the electronegative metal Ga. Mixing metals of very different electronegativity gives rise to an intricate potential energy landscape in which the incorporation of hydrogen will have a big effect on both the electronic and atomic structure. From the theoretical side of the investigation, structural parameters are presented along with the density of states and Bader charge analysis to describe the hydrogen induced changes to the atomic and electronic structures.

    Finally, the accuracy of the stochastic quenching method in describing amorphous Fe(1-x)Zrx was evaluated by comparing simulated and measured EXAFS spectra. Once the structural agreement had been established the simulated structures were characterized through radial distribution functions and an analysis of the short-range order from Voronoi tessellation. The structural changes with respect to the composition parameter x were also evaluated.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-29 09:00 80101, Uppsala
    Zhang, Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Zhang, Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Hyaluronan Based Biomaterials with Imaging Capacity for Tissue Engineering2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the preparation of hyaluronan-based biomaterials with imaging capability and their application as scaffolds in tissue engineering. First, we have synthesized HA derivatives functionalized with different chemoselective groups. Then, functional ligands with capacities for hydrophobic drug loading, imaging, and metal ion coordination were chemically conjugated to HA by chemoselective reactions with these groups. An injectable in situ forming HA hydrogel was prepared by hydrazone cross-linking between hybrid iron-oxide nanogel and HA-aldehyde (paper-I). The degradation of this hydrogel could be monitored by MRI and UV-vis spectroscopy since it contained iron oxide as a contrast agent and pyrene as a fluorescent probe. Additionally, this hydrogel has a potential for a delivery of hydrophobic drugs due to its pyrene hydrophobic domains. The degradation study showed that degradability of the hydrogel was correlated with its structure. Based on the obtained results, disulfide cross-linked and fluorescently labeled hydrogels with different HA concentration were established as a model to study the relationship between the structure of the hydrogel and its degradability (paper-II). We demonstrated that disulfide cross-linked HA hydrogel could be tracked non-invasively by fluorescence imaging. It was proved that the in vivo degradation behavior of the hydrogel is predictable basing on its in vitro degradation study. In paper-III, we developed a disulfide cross-linked HA hydrogel for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. In order to improve cell viability and adhesion to the matrix, HA derivatives were cross-linked in the presence of fibrinogen undergoing polymerization upon the action of thrombin. It led to the formation of an interpenetrating double network (IPN) of HA and fibrin. The results of 3D cell culture experiments revealed that the IPN hydrogel provides the cells with a more stable environment for proliferation. The results of the cellular studies were also supported by in vitro degradation of IPN monitored by fluorescence measurements of the degraded products. In paper-IV, the effect of biomineralization on hydrogel degradation was evaluated in a non-invasive manner in vitro. For this purpose, two types of fluorescently labeled hydrogels with the different ability for biomineralization were prepared. Fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to monitor degradation of the hydrogels in vitro under two different conditions in longitudinal studies. Under the supply of Ca2+ ions, the BP-modified hydrogel showed the tendency to bio-mineralization and reduction of the rate of degradation. Altogether, the performed studies showed the importance of imaging of hydrogel biomaterials in the design of optimized scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-29 09:15 Gunnesalen, Uppsala
    Danielsson, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Danielsson, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder: Prevalence, Diagnostic aspects, Associated factors and Treatment concepts2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is the most common circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Persons with DSPD have great difficulties falling asleep and waking up at conventional times. To diagnose DSPD this delayed sleep-wake rhythm should cause social impairment and distress for the individual. Evening melatonin and morning bright light are the recommended treatments. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate at-home treatment with Light therapy (LT) and the feasibility of adding cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) to LT in DSPD, furthermore prevalence, diagnostic aspects and associated factors were investigated.

    Study I included 673 randomly selected individuals aged 16–26 years. The prevalence of DSPD was 4.0%. Unemployment (defined as an absence of educational or work activities) and an elevated level of anxiety were associated with DSPD.

    In study II, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured in healthy adults. Time for DLMO DLMO (Mean±SD) was 20:58±55 minutes.

    Studies III, IV, and V present results from a randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility of CBT as an additive treatment to LT with scheduled rise times, in persons with DSPD. Sleep onset and sleep offset was significantly advanced from baseline (03:00±1:20; 10:22±2:02 respectively) to the end of LT (01:27±1:41; 08:05±1:29, p<0.001 respectively). This advancement was predicted by consistent daily usage of the LT-lamp. At the follow-ups after LT and CBT or LT alone, sleep onset remained stable, sleep offset was delayed, and sleep difficulties were further improved, but there was no significant group interaction over time. There was a significant group interaction over time in the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, both in favor of the LT+CBT group.

    Conclusively, DSPD was common among adolescents and young adults and it was associated with unemployment and elevated levels of anxiety. DLMO appeared in the expected time range in healthy working adults. At-home treatment with LT with scheduled rise times advanced sleep-wake rhythm and improved sleep difficulties in DSPD. Even though sleep-wake rhythm was not further advanced or better preserved in the participants that received LT+CBT compared to LT alone, the addition of CBT to the treatment regimen was feasible and well accepted.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-29 13:00 ITC/2446, Uppsala
    Spiliopoulos, Vasileios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Spiliopoulos, Vasileios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Improving Energy-Efficiency of Multicores using First-Order Modeling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent decades, power consumption has evolved to one of the most critical resources in a computer system. In the form of electricity bill in data centers, battery life in mobile devices, or thermal constraints in desktops and laptops, power consumption imposes several limitations in today’s processors and improving power and energy efficiency is one of the most urgent research topics of Computer Architecture.

    Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) and Cache Resizing are among the most popular energy saving techniques. Previous work, however, has focused on developing heuristics and trial-and-error methods that yield acceptable savings, but fail to provide insight and understanding of how these techniques affect power and performance of a computer system. In contrast, this Thesis proposes the use of first-order modeling to improve the energy efficiency of computer systems. A first-order model needs to be (i) accurate enough to efficiently drive DVFS and Cache Resizing decisions, and (ii) simple enough to eliminate the overhead of collecting the required inputs to the model. We show that such models can be constructed and successfully applied in modern systems.

    For DVFS, we propose to scale frequency down to exploit applications’ memory slack, i.e., periods that the processor spends waiting for data to be fetched from the main memory. In such cases, the processor frequency can be scaled down to save energy without inordinate performance penalty. Our DVFS models can detect slack and predict the impact of DVFS in both power and performance with great accuracy. Cache Resizing, on the other hand, relies on the fact that many applications do not benefit from the vast amount of cache that modern processors are equipped with. In such cases, the cache can be resized to save static energy consumption at limited performance cost. Since both techniques are related with the memory behavior of applications, we propose a unified model to manage the two techniques in tandem and maximize energy efficiency through synergistic DVFS and Cache Resizing.

    Finally, our experience with DVFS in real systems motivated us to contribute to the integration of DVFS into the gem5 simulator. Unlike other simulators that ignore the role of OS in DVFS, we extend the gem5 simulator by developing the hardware and software components that allow existing Linux DVFS infrastructure to be seamlessly integrated in the simulator.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-29 13:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Testini, Chiara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Testini, Chiara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Regulation of VEGFR2 signaling in angiogenesis and vascular permeability2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiogenesis and vascular permeability occur in physiological and pathological conditions. Angiogenesis denotes the process of blood vessel formation from preexisting quiescent vessels. Angiogenesis is initiated by proangiogenic factors, inducing endothelial cell sprouting, migration and anastomosis, followed by regression of the new vessels or maturation into a quiescent status. Vascular permeability is the process where blood vessels exchange nutrients, solutes and inflammatory cells with the surrounding tissue. Small molecules freely cross the endothelial wall, however macromolecules and cells leak out from the vasculature only after stimulation by certain factors, including VEGF. Angiogenesis and vascular permeability are tightly regulated physiological processes, but uncontrolled angiogenesis and excessive leakage lead to pathological conditions and the progression of several diseases.

    VEGF and its receptor VEGFR2 are critical players in angiogenesis and in vascular permeability. The binding of the ligand to the receptor is not the only event involved in the activation and regulation of the signaling cascade. Coreceptors, kinases, phosphatases, and other proteins involved in the trafficking of the complex modulate the signal amplitude and duration.

    VEGF/VEGFR2 complex combined with the coreceptor NRP1 has a strong pro-angiogenic action and a critical role in angiogenesis. Both VEGFR2 and NRP1 bind VEGF and can present VEGF in cis, when both VEGFR2 and NRP1 are expressed on the same endothelial cell or in trans, when NRP1 is expressed on an adjacent endothelial cell or another type of cell.

    Y949 and Y1212 are two of the main phosphorylation sites of VEGFR2 induced by VEGFA. The binding of phosphorylated Y949 to the SH2 domain of TSAd regulates vascular permeability leading to Src activation and adherens junction opening in vitro. Phospho-Y1212 is implicated in actin stress fiber remodeling via the adapter Nck, affecting the actin cytoskeleton and endothelial cell migration in vitro.

    Paladin is a vascular-enriched phosphatase-domain containing protein without reported phosphatase activity and is a negative regulator of insulin receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling.

    In this thesis work, I have investigated the spatial dynamics of NRP1/VEGFR2 complex formation (in cis and in trans) for coordinating VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in physiological and in pathological conditions (Paper I). I have studied, in vivo, the role of VEGFR2 Y949 in vascular permeability and metastatic spread (Paper II) and the role of VEGFR2 Y1212 in angiogenic remodeling and vessel stability (Paper III). Furthermore, I have examined paladin’s role in regulating VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling and VE-cadherin junction stability, in angiogenic sprouting and vascular permeability (Paper IV).

    In conclusion, VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling is regulated by a multifactor system and each individual regulatory mechanism leads to a specific outcome in angiogenesis, vascular permeability and vessel stability.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 09:15 Auditorium minus, Uppsala
    Lindgren, Karin E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lindgren, Karin E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    The Histidine-rich Glycoprotein in Reproduction2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infertility affects 15% of reproductive-aged couples. The milieu surrounding the growing embryo is of outmost importance, and should be optimised during in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Many biological processes, such as angiogenesis, coagulation, and immune processes need to be well regulated for a pregnancy to occur and progress normally. Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is a plasma protein that regulates components of these systems by building complexes with various ligands. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in HRG, denoted HRG C633T, seem to be of importance for IVF treatment outcomes. The aim of this thesis was to further investigate the proposed human fertility effects of the HRG C633T SNP.

    According to the findings of this thesis, the HRG C633T genotype is associated with primary recurrent miscarriage. Male HRG C633T genotype is associated with semen characteristics in infertile men, and pregnancy rates following IVF. However, the distribution of the HRG C633T SNP does not differ between infertile and fertile couples.

    We further examined the role of the region surrounding the HRG C633T SNP for regulation of endometrial angiogenesis and human embryo development. The region affects primary endometrial endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tube-formation in vitro but does not appear to affect human embryo development. No effect of the HRG peptide was noted on the secretome of human embryos. However, early embryos secrete proteins into the surrounding culture media and the level of secretion of VEGF-A, IL-6, EMMPRIN and PlGF is greater in embryos of higher developmental stages.

    In conclusion, the HRG C633T genotype appears to play a role only if infertility is established. The region surrounding HRG C633T SNP is of relevance in vitro for regulation of human endometrial endothelial cell angiogenesis. To predict which embryos to transfer in IVF, we have highlighted a number of proteins of interest for further investigation.     

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 09:15 Zootissalen, Uppsala
    Weststrand, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Weststrand, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Spikemoss patterns: Systematics and historical biogeography of Selaginellaceae2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Selaginellaceae, spikemosses, is a heterosporous plant family belonging to the lycophytes. With an estimated age of some 350 million years, the family is historically important as one of the oldest known groups of vascular plants. Selaginellaceae is herbaceous with a worldwide distribution. However, the majority of the ca. 750 species in the single genus Selaginella are found in the tropics and subtropics.

    This thesis aims at elucidating the systematics and historical biogeography of Selaginellaceae. The evolutionary relationships of the family were inferred from DNA sequence data (plastid and single-copy nuclear) of one-third of the species richness in the group. Attention was paid to cover the previously undersampled taxonomic, morphological, and geographical diversity. Morphological features were studied and mapped onto the phylogeny. The results show an overall well-supported phylogeny and even more complex morphological patterns than previously reported. Despite this, many clades can be distinguished by unique suites of morphological features.

    With the phylogeny as a basis, together with the thorough morphological studies, a new subgeneric classification with seven subgenera, representing strongly supported monophyletic groups, is presented for Selaginella. By mainly using gross morphological features, easily studied by the naked eye or with a hand lens, the intention is that the classification should be useful to a broader audience.

    During the work with species determinations, it was revealed that the correct name for an endemic Madagascan Selaginella species is S. pectinata Spring, not S. polymorpha Badré as previously proposed.

    The robust phylogeny of Selaginellaceae allowed for a historical biogeographical analysis of the group. A time-calibrated phylogeny, together with extant species distribution data, formed the basis. The results show pre-Pangean diversification patterns, Gondwanan vicariance, and more recent Cenozoic long-distance dispersals. The many inferred transoceanic dispersals during the last 50 million years are surprising considering Selaginella’s large megaspores that are thought to have a negative effect on dispersal.

    In conclusion, this thesis presents a well-founded hypothesis of the evolutionary history of Selaginellaceae including its phylogeny, morphology, and historical biogeography. The thesis forms a firm basis for further studies on Selaginellaceae in particular, and gives us a better understanding of early land plant evolution in general.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 09:15 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    von Below, Catrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    von Below, Catrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    PET and MRI of Prostate Cancer2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-skin malignancy of men in developed countries. In spite of treatment with curative intent up to 30-40% of patients have disease recurrence after treatment, resulting from any combination of lymphatic, hematogenous, or contiguous local spread.

    The concept of early detection of PCa offer benefits in terms of reduced mortality, but at the cost of over-diagnosis and overtreatment of indolent disease. This is largely due to the random nature of conventional biopsies, with a risk of missing significant cancer and randomly hitting indolent disease.

    In the present thesis, diagnostic performance of MRI DWI and 11C Acetate PET/CT lymph node staging of intermediate and high risk PCa, was investigated, and additionally, predictive factors of regional lymph node metastases were evaluated. Further, additional value of targeted biopsies to conventional biopsies, for detection of clinically significant PCa, was investigated.

    In paper one and two, 53 and 40 patients with predominantly high risk PCa underwent 11C Acetate PET/CT and 3T MRI DWI, respectively, for lymph node staging, before extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND). The sensitivity and specificity for PET/CT was 38% and 96% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for MRI DWI was 55% and 90% respectively.

    In paper three, 53 patients with newly diagnosed PCa were included. All patients underwent multi-parametric MRI, followed by two cognitive targeted biopsies. Five more clinically significant cancers were detected by adding targeted biopsies to conventional biopsies.

    In paper four the value of quantitative and qualitative MRI DWI and 11C Acetate PET/CT parameters, alone and in combination, in predicting regional lymph node metastases were examined. ADCmean in lymph nodes and T-stage on MRI were independent predictors of lymph node metastases in multiple logistic regression analysis.

    In conclusion the specificity of diffusion weighted MRI and 11C Acetate PET/CT for lymph node staging was high, although the sensitivity was low. Predictive factors of regional lymph node metastases could be retrieved from diffusion weighted MRI and 11C Acetate PET/CT. By combining targeted biopsies with conventional biopsies the detection rate of clinically significant PCa could be increased.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 09:30 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Mardani, Shabnam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Mardani, Shabnam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Copper and Silver Metallization for High Temperature Applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-temperature electrical- and morphological-stability of interconnect is critical for electronic systems based on wide band gap (WBG) semiconductors. In this context, the thermal stability of both Ag and Cu films with Ta and TaN films as diffusion barriers and/or surface-capping layers at high temperatures up to 800 oC is investigated in this thesis.

    The investigation of un-capped Ag films with either Ta or TaN diffusion barrier layers shows electrical stability upon annealing up to 600 °C. Degradation occurs above 600 °C mainly as a result of void formation and Ag agglomeration. Sandwiching Ag films between Ta and/or TaN layers is found to electrically and morphologically stabilize the Ag metallization up to 800 °C. The barrier layer plays a key role; the β-to-α phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer is identified as the major cause for the morphological instability of the film above 600 °C. This phase transition can be avoided using a stacked Ta/TaN barrier. Furthermore, no observable Ta diffusion in Ag films is found.

    Copper films with a Ta diffusion barrier show clearly different behaviors. In the Cu/Ta sample, Ta starts to diffuse up to the surface via fast-diffusing grain boundaries (GBs) after annealing at 500 °C. The activation energy for the GB diffusion is 1.0+0.3 eV. Un-capped Cu is electrically stable up to 800 °C. An appreciable increase in sheet resistance occurs above 600 °C for the asymmetric combinations Ta/Cu/TaN and TaN/Cu/Ta. This degradation is closely related to a substantial diffusion of Ta across the Cu film and on to the TaN layer, where Ta1+xN forms. The symmetrical combinations Ta/Cu/Ta and TaN/Cu/TaN show only small changes in sheet resistance even after annealing at 800 °C. No Ta diffusion can be found in the Ta/Cu/Ta and TaN/Cu/TaN stacks.

    Finally, the influence of barrier and cap, their interfaces to Cu and Ta diffusion and segregation in the Cu GBs on electromigration is studied. Our preliminary results with the TaN/Cu/Ta and TaN/Cu/TaN structures report a 2-fold higher activation energy and a 10-fold longer lifetime for the former, thus confirming an important role of the interface between Cu and the cap and/or barrier.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 10:00 Geijersalen 6-1023, Uppsala
    Bodén, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Bodén, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Systemmänniskan: En studie om människan, automationen och det senmoderna förnuftet2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How did the conformist “organization man” of modern welfare society turn into the restless and flexible market-rational individualist of late-modernity? And what role did technology play in this transformation? Drawing from inquiries like these, this doctoral thesis deals with topics such as technology, culture, and the production of social consciousness. The aim of the study is to elucidate the historical emergence of late-modern reason, visible in the socio-material process of automation.

    The study takes two mundane technical innovations as starting points to investigate dominant social values and rationalities embedded in, and emerging from material transformations in the production process of two late modern, Swedish organizations. Covering a period of roughly fifty years (1960–2013), the analysis relies on the interpretation of a variety of both contemporary and archived sources, including interviews, observations, witness accounts and archived material in the form of staff magazines, newspapers, photographs and official documents.

    While following a hermeneutical tradition of European ethnology the study is also an attempt to enrich its synchronous cultural analysis of everyday life with theory grounded in historical (dialectical) materialism. Along this line of thought the thesis suggests that many of the qualities, values and everyday experiences attributed to late-modernity, such as “flexibility”, “creativity” and “flat organizations” depend on the reification and embedding of modernist social forms, ideas and relations, such as instrumental rationality, routine labour and bureaucratic taxonomy into the material foundation of daily life.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 10:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Huang, Fei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Huang, Fei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    3D Time-lapse Analysis of Seismic Reflection Data to Characterize the Reservoir at the Ketzin CO2 Storage Pilot Site2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    3D time-lapse seismics, also known as 4D seismics, have great potential for monitoring the migration of CO2 at underground storage sites. This thesis focuses on time-lapse analysis of 3D seismic reflection data acquired at the Ketzin CO2 geological storage site in order to improve understanding of the reservoir and how CO2 migrates within it.

    Four 3D seismic surveys have been acquired to date at the site, one baseline survey in 2005 prior to injection, two repeat surveys in 2009 and 2012 during the injection period, and one post-injection survey in 2015. To accurately simulate time-lapse seismic signatures in the subsurface, detailed 3D seismic property models for the baseline and repeat surveys were constructed by integrating borehole data and the 3D seismic data. Pseudo-boreholes between and beyond well control were built. A zero-offset convolution seismic modeling approach was used to generate synthetic time-lapse seismograms. This allowed simulations to be performed quickly and limited the introduction of artifacts in the seismic responses.

    Conventional seismic data have two limitations, uncertainty in detecting the CO2 plume in the reservoir and limited temporal resolution. In order to overcome these limitations, complex spectral decomposition was applied to the 3D time-lapse seismic data. Monochromatic wavelet phase and reflectivity amplitude components were decomposed from the 3D time-lapse seismic data. Wavelet phase anomalies associated with the CO2 plume were observed in the time-lapse data and verified by a series of seismic modeling studies. Tuning frequencies were determined from the balanced amplitude spectra in an attempt to discriminate between pressure effects and CO2 saturation. Quantitative assessment of the reservoir thickness and CO2 mass were performed.

    Time-lapse analysis on the post-injection survey was carried out and the results showed a consistent tendency with the previous repeat surveys in the CO2 migration, but with a decrease in the size of the amplitude anomaly. No systematic anomalies above the caprock were detected. Analysis of the signal to noise ratio and seismic simulations using the detailed 3D property models were performed to explain the observations. Estimation of the CO2 mass and uncertainties in it were investigated using two different approaches based on different velocity-saturation models.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 10:15 Ihresalen, Uppsala
    Qutait, Tasnim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Qutait, Tasnim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    “The Pathos of Past Time”: Nostalgia in Anglo-Arab Literature2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the theme of nostalgia in contemporary Anglo-Arab literature from the 1990s to the present. Examining the implications of nostalgic tropes in Anglophone novels by Arab writers, the study makes the case that nostalgia is a key strategy used by these writers in their critical engagement with national historiographies and diasporic identities. Taking a comparative bilingual approach, the study relates particular nostalgic narratives that recur in Anglo-Arab writing to Arabic literary traditions. The opening chapter establishes that the “standing by the ruins” topos of classical Arabic poetics is used in Anglophone works to problematise a culturally pervasive nostalgia for an Islamic golden age. The second chapter reveals how novels set in the colonial era leverage the romanticisation of anticolonial nationalism to cast a critical light on the ideological functions of authenticity. The third chapter traces the ways in which Anglophone novels dramatise the failures of post-independence regimes through the interlinked nostalgic sites of childhood, home and family. Finally, the study focuses on Arab British novelists’ depiction of the diasporic site of ‘Arab London,’ and demonstrates that nostalgia is deployed as a performative mode in these texts, enabling the creation and revision of identities for migrant and second generation characters. The interconnections of identity and nostalgia are shown to be a recurring theme in the growing field of Anglophone Arab writing. This dissertation argues that nostalgic tropes are deployed in this literature in critical ways that challenge, rather than simply reiterate, nationalist and political ideologies. Utilising the nostalgic lens as an imaginative and critical form of engagement with history, Anglo-Arab writers insist on rendering visible the present repercussions of volatile histories, even as they challenge narratives that view the past not only as better than the uncertain present but, given that uncertainty, better than any imaginable future.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 10:15 ITC 2446, Uppsala
    Nysjö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Nysjö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Interactive 3D Image Analysis for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery Planning and Orthopedic Applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern medical imaging devices are able to generate highly detailed three-dimensional (3D) images of the skeleton. Computerized image processing and analysis methods, combined with real-time volume visualization techniques, can greatly facilitate the interpretation of such images and are increasingly used in surgical planning to aid reconstruction of the skeleton after trauma or disease. Two key challenges are to accurately separate (segment) bone structures or cavities of interest from the rest of the image and to interact with the 3D data in an efficient way. This thesis presents efficient and precise interactive methods for segmenting, visualizing, and analysing 3D computed tomography (CT) images of the skeleton. The methods are validated on real CT datasets and are primarily intended to support planning and evaluation of cranio-maxillofacial (CMF) and orthopedic surgery.

    Two interactive methods for segmenting the orbit (eye-socket) are introduced. The first method implements a deformable model that is guided and fitted to the orbit via haptic 3D interaction, whereas the second method implements a user-steered volumetric brush that uses distance and gradient information to find exact object boundaries.

    The thesis also presents a semi-automatic method for measuring 3D angulation changes in wrist fractures. The fractured bone is extracted with interactive mesh segmentation, and the angulation is determined with a technique based on surface registration and RANSAC.

    Lastly, the thesis presents an interactive and intuitive tool for segmenting individual bones and bone fragments. This type of segmentation is essential for virtual surgery planning, but takes several hours to perform with conventional manual methods. The presented tool combines GPU-accelerated random walks segmentation with direct volume rendering and interactive 3D texture painting to enable quick marking and separation of bone structures. It enables the user to produce an accurate segmentation within a few minutes, thereby removing a major bottleneck in the planning procedure.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 13:00 ITC/1111, Uppsala
    Koukos, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Koukos, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Efficient Execution Paradigms for Parallel Heterogeneous Architectures2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis proposes novel, efficient execution-paradigms for parallel heterogeneous architectures. The end of Dennard scaling is threatening the effectiveness of DVFS in future nodes; therefore, new execution paradigms are required to exploit the non-linear relationship between performance and energy efficiency of memory-bound application-regions. To attack this problem, we propose the decoupled access-execute (DAE) paradigm. DAE transforms regions of interest (at program-level) in two coarse-grain phases: the access-phase and the execute-phase, which we can independently DVFS. The access-phase is intended to prefetch the data in the cache, and is therefore expected to be predominantly memory-bound, while the execute-phase runs immediately after the access-phase (that has warmed-up the cache) and is therefore expected to be compute-bound.

    DAE, achieves good energy savings (on average 25% lower EDP) without performance degradation, as opposed to other DVFS techniques. Furthermore, DAE increases the memory level parallelism (MLP) of memory-bound regions, which results in performance improvements of memory-bound applications. To automatically transform application-regions to DAE, we propose compiler techniques to automatically generate and incorporate the access-phase(s) in the application. Our work targets affine, non-affine, and even complex, general-purpose codes. Furthermore, we explore the benefits of software multi-versioning to optimize DAE in dynamic environments, and handle codes with statically unknown access-phase overheads. In general, applications automatically-transformed to DAE by our compiler, maintain (or even exceed in some cases) the good performance and energy efficiency of manually-optimized DAE codes.

    Finally, to ease the programming environment of heterogeneous systems (with integrated GPUs), we propose a novel system-architecture that provides unified virtual memory with low overhead. The underlying insight behind our work is that existing data-parallel programming models are a good fit for relaxed memory consistency models (e.g., the heterogeneous race-free model). This allows us to simplify the coherency protocol between the CPU – GPU, as well as the GPU memory management unit. On average, we achieve 45% speedup and 45% lower EDP over the corresponding SC implementation.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 13:15 Å2005, Uppsala
    Gebresenbut, Girma Hailu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Gebresenbut, Girma Hailu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Quasicrystal Approximants in the RE-Au-SM systems (RE = Gd, Tb, Ho, Yb; SM = Si, Ge): Syntheses, structures and properties2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, new Tsai-type 1/1 quasicrystal approximants (ACs) in the RE-Au-SM systems (RE = Gd, Tb, Ho, Yb; SM = Si, Ge) were synthesized using high temperature synthesis techniques such as self-flux, arc-melting-annealing and novel arc-melting-self-flux methods. The syntheses not only provided appropriate samples for the intended structural and physical property measurements but could also be adapted to other systems, especially where crystal growth is a challenge. The newly developed arc-melting-self-flux method uses a temperature program that oscillates near the nucleation and melting points of the intended phase in order to obtain large single crystals. Self-flux methods employed to synthesize Ho-Au-Si and Tb-Au-Si ACs using a precursor alloy ≈Au79Si21 resulted in 100 mm3 and 8 mm3 single crystals, respectively.

    The crystal structures of the compounds are determined by either one or combinations of the following diffraction techniques; single crystal x-ray, powder x-ray, powder neutron and single crystal neutron diffraction methods.  The crystal structure refinements indicated that the compounds are essentially iso-structural with the prototype Tsai-type 1/1 approximant crystal, YbCd6. In the present compounds there are some structural variations at the cluster center and in the so-called cubic interstices located at (¼, ¼, ¼).

    For the current ACs; either thermoelectric, magnetic or both properties were investigated. The measured properties were understood further by correlating the properties with the atomic structures of the ACs. Significant differences are observed in the thermoelectric properties, particularly on the lattice thermal conductivities (Kphonon) of Gd-Au-Si, Gd-Au-Ge and Yb-Au-Ge ACs. The difference is attributed to the presence of chemical and positional disorder.

    Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements revealed ferromagnetic transitions at low temperatures, Tc ≈ 22.5 K for Gd-Au-Si and Tc ≈ 13.1 K for Gd-Au-Ge. For a Tb-Au-Si AC with 14 % central-Tb occupancy, a ferrimagnetic-like transition was observed at Tc ≈ 9 K. Later, it was noted that the Tc and other magnetic properties depend on the occupancy of the central-RE site. Consistent decrease of Tc with increasing central-Tb occupancy is observed. The dependency of magnetic behavior with central-RE occupancy was clarified by solving the magnetic structure of the Tb-Au-Si AC.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 13:15 Å80121, Uppsala
    Tammela, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Tammela, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    On the electrochemical performance of energy storage devices composed of cellulose and conducting polymers2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Applications that require electrical energy storage are becoming increasingly diverse. This development is caused by a number of factors, such as an increasing global energy demand, the advent of electric vehicles, the utilization of intermittent renewable energy sources, and advances in disposable and organic electronics. These applications will set different demands on their electrical energy storage and, thus, there will be no single technology used for all applications. For some applications the choice of energy storage materials will be extremely important. Conventional batteries and supercapacitors rely on the use of nonrenewable inorganic materials mined from depleting ores, hence, requiring large amounts of energy for their processing. Such materials also add a significant cost to the final product, making them less attractive for large scale applications. Conducting polymers, on the other hand, constitute a class of materials that can be used for organic matter based energy storage devices.

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of a composite consisting of the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and cellulose derived from Cladophora sp. algae for electrical energy storage. The polymer was coated onto the cellulose fibers by chemical polymerization resulting in a flexible material with high surface area. By using this composite as electrodes, electrochemical cells consisting of disposable and non-toxic materials can be assembled and used as energy storage devices. The resistances of these prototype cells were found to be dominated by the resistance of the current collectors and to scale with the thickness of the separator, and can hence be reduced by cell design. By addition of nanostructured PPy, the weight ratio of PPy in the composite could be increased, and the cell voltages could be enhanced by using a carbonized negative electrode. Composites of cellulose and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) could also be synthesized and used as electrode materials. The porosities of the electrodes were controlled by mechanical compression of the composite or by coating of surface modified cellulose fibers with additional PPy. Finally, the self-discharge was studied extensively. It was found that oxygen was responsible for the oxidation of the negative electrode, while the rate of self-discharge of the positive electrode increases with increasing potential. Through measurements of the charge prior to and after self-discharge, as well as with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, it was found that the self-discharge of the positive electrode was linked to an exchange of the counter ions by hydroxide ions. It is also demonstrated that the self-discharge rate of a symmetric PPy based device can be decreased dramatically by proper balancing of the electrode capacities and by reducing the oxygen concentration. The results of this work are expected to contribute towards future industrial implementation of electric energy storage devices based on organic materials.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 13:15 Häggsalen, Ångstömlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Zagorodskikh, Sergey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zagorodskikh, Sergey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Single-photon multiple ionisation of atoms and molecules investigated by coincidence spectroscopy: Site-specific effects in acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, multiple ionisation processes of free atoms and molecules upon single photon absorption are studied by means of a versatile multi-electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy method based on a magnetic bottle, primarily in combination with synchrotron radiation. The latter offered the possibility to access not only valence but also core levels, revealing processes, which promote the target systems into different charge states.

    One study focuses on double and triple ionisation processes of acetaldehyde (ethanal) in the valence region as well as single and double Auger decay of initial 1s core vacancies. The latter are investigated site-selectively for the two chemically different carbon atoms of acetaldehyde, scrutinising theoretical predictions specifically made for that system.

    A related study concentrates on core-valence double ionisation spectra of acetaldehyde, which have been investigated in the light of a previously established empirical model, and which have been used as test cases for analysing this kind of spectra by means of quantum chemical electronic structure methods of increasing sophistication.

    A third study investigates site-specific fragmentation upon 1s photoionisation of acetaldehyde using a magnetic bottle augmented with an in-line ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Experimental evidence is presented that bond rupture occurs with highest probability in the vicinity of the initial charge localisation and possible mechanisms are discussed. A site-specificity parameter P is introduced to show that differences in fragmentation behavior between initial ionisations at chemically different carbon atoms probably persist even for identical internal energy contents in the nascent dications.

    In another study where both electrons and ions from Auger decay of core-excited and core-ionised states of CO2 are detected in coincidence, it is confirmed that O2+ is formed specifically in Auger decay from the C1s → π* and O1s → π* resonances, suggesting a decisive role of the π* orbital in the molecular rearrangement. Also, the molecular rearrangement is found to occur by bending in the resonant states, and O2+ is produced by both single and double Auger decay.

    A new version of the multi-electron-ion coincidence method, where the ion time-of-flight spectrometer is mounted perpendicularly to the electron flight tube, which affects less the electron resolution and which allows for position sensitive detection of the ions, is employed in combination with tunable soft X-rays to reveal the branching ratios to final Xen+ states with 2 < n < 9 from pure 4d-1, 4p-1, 4s-1, 3d-1 and 3p-1 Xe+ hole states. The coincident electron spectra give information on the Auger cascade pathways.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-03 14:15 ITC 2247, Uppsala
    Lebrun, Delphine Misao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lebrun, Delphine Misao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Photonic crystals and photocatalysis: Study of titania inverse opals2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increase of human activity, an increase health risk has emerged from the presence of pollutants in the environment. In the transition to renewable and sustainable life style, treatment of pollutants could support the shifting societies. A motivation behind material research for environmental applications is to maximize the efficiency of the materials to alleviate environmental pollution.

    In the case of titania, an increase of ultra-violet light absorption is needed to overcome its bandgap to produce reactive radicals, which is the basis for photocatalysis. It has been hypothesized that photonic crystal can enhance titania photocatalysis. They are structures made of at least two dielectrics with a high refractive index contrast, ordered in a periodic fashion. For a strong contrast, photonic band gaps emerge. The effect of the photonic band gap is to force complete reflection of the incoming light within its range and multiple internal reflections at its edges. By combining photonic and electronic band gap positions, it is possible to increase the absorption at the photonic band gap edges.

    In this thesis, fabrication method and structural analysis of titania and alumina/titania photonic structures were presented. A thorough optical analysis was performed at all steps of fabrication – beyond what previously has been reported. The photocatalytic activity was measured with two setups. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy combined with arc lamps and bandpass filters was used to monitor the degradation of stearic acid in ambient air. A home-built setup was used to degrade methylene blue in solution with ultra-violet illumination.

    The results in this thesis show in general no correlation of the photocatalytic activity to the photonic band gap position, even though absorbance data displayed an increase absorption in this energy range. A more controlled environment might show the effect of the structure, as seen in some of the experiments.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-04 13:00 Hörsal 3, Uppsala
    Glöss, Mareike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Glöss, Mareike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Technology Encounters: Exploring the essence of ordinary computing2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As computing technology has become a vital part of everyday life, studies have increasingly scrutinized the underlying meaning of computational things. As different devices become interwoven with daily practices and routines, there is a growing interest in understanding not only their functional meaning in computational terms but also their meaning in relation to other non-computation artefacts.

    This thesis investigates how people relate to artefacts and how their individual values and attitudes affect this relationship.  The analysis is based on four ethnographic studies, which look at the richness of ordinary interactions with technology to understand the impact of technology upon practice and experience.

    The process through which humans develop a relationship to artefacts is framed as a continuous series of encounters, through which the individual constantly reshapes their relationship to things.  Artefacts are seen as lines in the mesh of everyday life, and the encounters are the intersections between lines. This approach–grounded in phenomenology and paired with an anthropological understanding of everyday life–reconceptualises understanding of the processes of adaption, meaning-making, disposing and recycling. The work reveals how human relations to all kinds of things–in the form of meaning–is continually transforming. Core to this understanding is the cultural relative essence that becomes perceived of the artefacts themselves. This essence deeply affects the way we encounter and thus interact with technology, as well as objects more broadly. In the daily interaction with computing devices we can observe that computing technology alters the mesh on a different level than non-computational artefacts: digital interfaces pull our lines together, bundle experiences an affect how we encounter the material and the social world. This enables computing devices to have meanings distinct from non-computing technology. To go further, computing is itself a mode of existence – a crucial difference in things that helps us understand the complexity of the material world.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-04 15:00 B/B42, Uppsala
    Eger, Glenda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Eger, Glenda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Regulation and Function of MAP Kinases in PDGF Signaling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a family of signaling molecules that stimulates cell growth, survival and migration. PDGF is recognized by specific transmembrane proteins, the PDGF receptors, which relay the signals to the cell activating the Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and other signaling pathways. Aberrant activation of these pathways is frequently detected in cancer. Hence, the study of these processes is essential for identifying potential drug targets or diagnostic markers.

    In paper I, we identified Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 1 NR4A1 to be regulated by PDGF via MAP kinases, clarifying the role of Extracellular signal–regulated kinases (Erk) 1/2, Erk5 and Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in its regulation. NR4A1 was found to be important for the tumorigenic potential, measured as anchorage-independent growth, of glioblastoma cells.

    Since the cellular responses elicited by PDGF result from the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events, we investigated the role of the dual specificity phosphatases DUSP4/MKP-2 and DUSP6/MKP-3. In paper II, we describe the crucial role of Erk1/2 and p53 in the expression of DUSP4/MKP2. Moreover, we observed that DUSP4/MKP-2 downregulation decreases Erk5 activation and accelerates PDGFRβ internalization and downregulation resulting in a specific inhibition of Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) 3, Src and protein kinase C (PKC), and partially of p38, Stat1/5 and Phoshoplipase Cγ (PLCγ).

    In paper III, we report that DUSP6/MKP-3 creates a negative cross-talk between Erk1/2 and Erk5 and an auto-inhibitory feedback loop on the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. In paper IV, we identify a new regulative mechanism of the PDGF pathway. PDGF induces Erk5 expression and activation that modulates the PDGFRβ activity. After Erk5 downregulation, the receptor undergoes to a faster and stronger activation that results in a faster internalization and degradation.

    In conclusion, we present a mechanism through which the PDGF/MAP kinases support tumor growth, and elucidate different regulatory pathways involved in PDGF signaling.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-06 09:00 Gunnesalen, Uppsala
    Matt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Matt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Fc receptors and immunoglobulins in polyarthritis: A matter of function, supply and demand?2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fc receptors (FcR) and immunoglobulins (Ig) play important roles in the defence against pathogens. However, altered interactions of these may promote chronic inflammation in rheumatic diseases. An excess of Igs forming immune complexes (IC) could lead to continuous FcR activation and spreading of autoimmune inflammation to other tissues.This work focuses on the evaluation of the FcR status and function in the two most common polyarthritides - psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) – in relation to various Igs, joint and skin disease activity, and effect of anti-rheumatic treatment (determined by the EULAR response criteria for RA). Monocyte subpopulations (defined by surface CD14 and CD16 expressions) in patients and HC were also characterised, since different monocyte subsets may have opposing functions in inflammatory conditions. In addition, the effect and safety of long-term B-cell suppression in advanced RA was studied.

    In PsA, elevated serum levels of IgG1, 2, and 3 were noted while the early naïve RA patients - besides being positive for autoantibodies like IgMRF, IgARF, IgGRF, and ACPA IgG - were distinguished by high levels of IgG1 and IgG3. Monocytes of PsA and RA patients were heavily loaded with IgG and expressed more CD64 (i.e. the high affinity FcγR) than HC. An increase in CD64 turnover was specific for early RA, while a higher CD16a (i.e. a low affinity FcγR) turnover was seen in both RA and PsA compared with HC. The FcγR function was impaired in both polyarthritides compared to HC, but the RA monocytes were more affected of this than the PsA monocytes. RA non-responders had a much lower capacity of IC binding compared with RA good responders. Alterations of the FcR status and function reflected joint disease activity markers in both polyarthritides but not the skin disease activity in PsA. I therefore conclude that the observed FcR statuses in both diseases were specific for joint inflammation. In addition, RA patients with high levels and the occurrence of several simultaneously appearing RF isotypes presented a minor FcγR function, while patients experiencing a good treatment effect were more likely to show low levels of Igs. This suggests that RFs/IC in excess could be important promotors of the ongoing inflammation in RA. However, for ACPA IgG no associations with the rheumatoid monocytic FcR status/function were noted. CD16negative classical monocytes were elevated in early naïve RA, especially in the non-responders - while PsA patients showed an increase in CD16low expressing cells compared to HC. These observations indicate that different monocyte subpopulations could be important in the two polyarthritides. In a cohort of RA patients with advanced disease, long-term B-cell suppression resulted in conversion to RF negativity which indicated a good treatment response but not an increased risk of infection. 

    FcRs and Igs are important players that promote chronicity of inflammation in polyarthritis, especially in RA. An impaired FcγR function following an excess of Igs/IC reflects this state of the immune system. This work has identified an increased monocytic CD64 turnover as a RA specific feature. Future treatment options in RA might include supporting/normalizing the FcγR function. Today suppressing B-cell activity is an effective and relatively safe way to tackle the problem from the opposite side.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-06 09:30 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Jin, Chuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University.
    Jin, Chuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University.
    Improvement of adoptive T-cell therapy for Cancer2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer immunotherapy has recently made remarkable clinical progress. Adoptive transfer of T-cells engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) against CD19 has been successful in treatment of B-cell leukemia. Patient’s T-cells are isolated, activated, transduced with a vector encoding the CAR molecule and then expanded before being transferred back to the patient. However some obstacles restrict its success in solid tumors. This thesis explores different aspects to improve CAR T-cells therapy of cancer.

    Ex vivo expanded T-cells are usually sensitive to the harsh tumor microenvironment after reinfusion. We developed a novel expansion method for T-cells, named AEP, by using irradiated and preactivated allo-sensitized allogeneic lymphocytes (ASALs) and allogeneic mature dendritic cells (DCs). AEP-expanded T-cells exhibited better survival and cytotoxic efficacy under oxidative and immunosuppressive stress, compared to T-cells expanded with established procedures.

    Integrating retro/lentivirus (RV/LV) used for CAR expressions randomly integrate in the T-cell genome and has the potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. We developed a non-integrating lentiviral (NILV) vector containing a scaffold matrix attachment region (S/MAR) element (NILV-S/MAR) for T-cells transduction. NILV-S/MAR-engineered CAR T-cells display similar cytotoxicity to LV-engineered CAR T-cells with undetectable level of insertional event, which makes them safer than CAR T-cells used in the clinic today.

    CD19-CAR T-cells have so far been successful for B-cell leukemia but less successful for B-cell lymphomas, which present semi-solid structure with an immunosuppressive microenvironment. We have developed CAR T-cells armed with H. pylorineutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP). HP-NAP is a major virulence factor and plays important role in T-helper type 1 (Th1) polarizing. NAP-CAR T-cells showed the ability to mature DCs, attract innate immune cells and increase secretion of Th1 cytokines and chemokines, which presumably leads to better CAR T-cell therapy for B-cell lymphoma.

    Allogeneic-DCs (alloDCs) were used to further alter tumor microenvironment. The premise relies on initiation of an allo-reactive immune response for cytokine and chemokines secretion, as well as stimulation of T-cell response by bringing in tumor-associated antigen. We demonstrated that alloDCs promote migration and activation of immune cells and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice by attracting T-cells to tumors and reverse the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-06 10:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Oscarsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Oscarsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Towards Mixed Molecular Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand for renewable energy has led to substantial research on different solar cell technologies. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) is a technology utilizing dye molecules for light absorption. Dye molecules are adsorbed to a mesoporous semiconductor surface and after light absorption in the dye, charge separation occurs at this interface. Traditionally, DSCs have used layers of single dye species, but in recent efforts to enhance power conversion efficiency, more complex molecular layers have been designed to increase the light absorption. For example, the most efficient DSCs use a combination of two dye molecules, and such dye co-adsorption is studied in this thesis.

    A key to highly efficient DSCs is to understand the dye/semiconductor interface from a molecular perspective. One way of gaining this understanding is by using an element specific, surface sensitive technique, such as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES).

    In this thesis, PES is used to understand new complex dye/semiconductor interfaces. Dyes adsorbed to semiconductor surfaces are analyzed using PES in terms of geometric and electronic surface structure.  The investigations ultimately target the effects of co-adsorbing dyes with other dyes or co-adsorbents.

    PES shows that Ru dyes can adsorb in mixed configurations to TiO2. Co-adsorption with an organic dye affects the configuration of the Ru dyes. As a consequence, shifts in energy level alignment and increased dye coverage are observed. The dyes are affected at a molecular level in ways beneficial for solar cell performance. This is called collaborative sensitization and is also observed in todays most efficient DSC.

    Dye molecules are generally sensitive to high temperatures and the substantial decrease in power conversion efficiency after heat-treatment can be understood using PES. Furthermore, comparing two mesoscopic TiO2 morphologies used in DSCs show differences in trap state density in the band gap, explaining the photovoltage difference in DSCs comprising these morphologies. Using mixed molecular layers on NiO results in significant improvements of p-type DSC power conversion efficiency. PES shows that changed adsorption configuration contribute to this effect.

    This thesis shows that PES studies can be used to obtain insight into functional properties of complex DSC interfaces at a molecular level.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-06 13:00 2446, Uppsala
    Melander, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science.
    Melander, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science.
    Integrating Visual Data Flow Programming with Data Stream Management2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data stream management and data flow programming have many things in common. In both cases one wants to transfer possibly infinite sequences of data items from one place to another, while performing transformations to the data. This Thesis focuses on the integration of a visual programming language with a data stream management system (DSMS) to support the construction, configuration, and visualization of data stream applications. In the approach, analyses of data streams are expressed as continuous queries (CQs) that emit data in real-time. The LabVIEW visual programming platform has been adapted to support easy specification of continuous visualization of CQ results. LabVIEW has been integrated with the DSMS SVALI through a stream-oriented client-server API. Query programming is declarative, and it is desirable to make the stream visualization declarative as well, in order to raise the abstraction level and make programming more intuitive. This has been achieved by adding a set of visual data flow components (VDFCs) to LabVIEW, based on the LabVIEW actor framework. With actor-based data flows, visualization of data stream output becomes more manageable, avoiding the procedural control structures used in conventional LabVIEW programming while still utilizing the comprehensive, built-in LabVIEW visualization tools.

    The VDFCs are part of the Visual Data stream Monitor (VisDM), which is a client-server based platform for handling real-time data stream applications and visualizing stream output. VDFCs are based on a data flow framework that is constructed from the actor framework, and are divided into producers, operators, consumers, and controls. They allow a user to set up the interface environment, customize the visualization, and convert the streaming data to a format suitable for visualization.

    Furthermore, it is shown how LabVIEW can be used to graphically define interfaces to data streams and dynamically load them in SVALI through a general wrapper handler. As an illustration, an interface has been defined in LabVIEW for accessing data streams from a digital 3D antenna.

    VisDM has successfully been tested in two real-world applications, one at Sandvik Coromant and one at the Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University. For the first case, VisDM was deployed as a portable system to provide direct visualization of machining data streams. The data streams can differ in many ways as do the various visualization tasks. For the second case, data streams are homogenous, high-rate, and query operations are much more computation-demanding. For both applications, data is visualized in real-time, and VisDM is capable of sufficiently high update frequencies for processing and visualizing the streaming data without obstructions.

    The uniqueness of VisDM is the combination of a powerful and versatile DSMS with visually programmed and completely customizable visualization, while maintaining the complete extensibility of both.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-06 13:00 Geijersalen, Uppsala
    Eriksson, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    The End of Piracy: Rethinking the History of German Print Piracy in the Early Nineteenth Century2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is an historical study of the German book trade in the early decades of the nineteenth century. In this period, German states passed authorial rights reforms that prompted energetic discussions about the definition of authorship and unauthorized reprinting. What was to count as a new publication? What was authorship? How did it differ from book piracy? By addressing these questions, this dissertation advances two principal arguments. The first deals with the idealist reconceptualization of authorship that took place around 1800. I argue that the spread of idealist authorship helped book merchants market recycled publications as new works and defend their publications against the charge of piracy. My second argument concerns the size of the German reprinting industry. Against the widespread view that print piracy came to an end in the early nineteenth century, I argue that disputes over the definition of unauthorized reprinting made the size of the German reprinting industry a contentious matter.

    The study consists of three empirical chapters. The first examines reactions to the confederal ban on unauthorized reprinting from 1837, as well as the construction of authorship that philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Johann Gottlob Fichte helped establish around 1800. The second chapter explores the history of the Stuttgart publisher Carl Erhard’s Conversations-Lexikon, a publication that was at the heart of the debates studied here. The third chapter focuses on the Leipzig book fair catalog and efforts to quantify the number of new German books published each year. Attempts to quantify new publications raised pressing questions about the difference between new works and reprints. In the ensuing discussions, disputes over the definition reprinting evolved into disagreements over the prevalence of piracy on the book market. In this regard, the controversies raised over the definition of unauthorized reprinting offer lessons about much more than a particular moment in the history of piracy. Taken together, the three chapters grapple with the power of words to not only describe things and practices, but also to shape our perception of entities such as the market.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 10:00 Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peacemaking Up Close: Explaining Mediator Styles of International Mediators2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholarly work on international mediation suggests that how third parties mediate influences the resolution of armed conflicts. However, our understanding of what explains mediator style is limited. This dissertation addresses this gap by offering the first systematic study on explanations for mediator styles at the level of the individual. It explores the research question: what explains mediator styles of individuals mediating for peacemaking organizations in armed conflicts? Mediator style is studied as themes in goals and behaviors along two dimensions: directiveness and orientation. Directiveness covers a mediator's use of leverage and varies from non-directive to directive, while orientation covers a mediator's prioritized type of outcome and varies from relationship-oriented to settlement-oriented. The dissertation develops a theoretical framework on the effects of conflict context and mediator characteristics on mediator style. It formulates a set of theoretical expectations concerning how context in the form of conflict intensity, and characteristics such as the mediator's background profile and personality, influence mediator style. The framework is evaluated and developed based on the findings of a mixed-method design combining a survey experiment and 46 semi-structured in-depth interviews with a broad variety of IGO and NGO mediators. The results on context suggest that high-intensity conflicts make mediators on average more directive than low-intensity conflicts as a result of heightened humanitarian concerns. Furthermore, on characteristics, high-profile mediators are shown to be overall more settlement-oriented than low-profile mediators as a result of their views on conflict causes and mediator accountabilities. These findings are complemented with evidence for contingent relationships between conflict intensity, mediator personality and directiveness as well as conflict intensity, mediator profile and orientation. The study thus contributes with a refined understanding of the mediator styles of international mediators that both facilitates its further scholarly exploration and provides input to the practice of peacemaking.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 10:15 Zootissalen, EBC, Uppsala
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Borders and Belonging: Nation-Building in Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani Ethno-Regions, 2004–20122016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, scholars researching ethnic politics have approached the South Caucasus as a testing ground for theories of separatism and conflict. But the 2003 Rose Revolution brought a new generation of politicians to power in Georgia. President Mikheil Saakashvili distanced himself from the ethnic nationalism of the past, which had poisoned relations between Georgians and their Armenian and Azerbaijani compatriots. The incoming authorities instead sought to foster an inclusive nationalism, wherein belonging hinged on speaking the state language and all Georgian-speakers, regardless of origin, were to be equals.

    This thesis investigates this nation-building project and its influence on the integration of Georgia's Armenian and Azerbaijani borderlands. I first examine the mode through which these peripheries were incorporated into post-Soviet Georgia. Since Armenians controlled "their own" domain to a greater extent than the Azerbaijanis, I infer that the former were absorbed along integralist and the latter along colonial lines. Moving to the time-period after the Rose Revolution, I next explore if Georgian officials and Georgian adolescents were tolerant towards Georgian-speaking minorities. With the help of elite interviews and a socio-linguistic experiment (n = 792), I reveal that officials and adolescents were open to integrated Armenians and Azerbaijanis alike. I then proceed to inspect the centre's nationalising agencies and their efforts to incentivise minorities to interact with Georgians, and to use the state language during these contacts. Last but not least, I turn to the reactions this nation-building project elicited in the borderlands. On the basis of interviews with local elites and a socio-linguistic experiment involving Armenian and Azerbaijani adolescents (n = 434; n = 483), I discovered sharp differences: Armenians reacted with defiance and Azerbaijanis with compliance.

    These findings augment our knowledge of ethno-linguistic stereotypes in the Caucasus. They also demonstrate that inclusive nation-building projects can inspire minorities to integrate – despite adverse circumstances – but hint at one condition conducive to this end. Armenians perceived the state language as a battering ram against "their own" domain, while Azerbaijanis saw it as a tool to escape their isolation. This within-country comparison suggests that similar nation-building projects can trigger different reactions in integralist and colonial borderlands.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 10:15 Ihresalen, Uppsala
    Morberg Jämterud, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Morberg Jämterud, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Human Dignity: A Study in Medical Ethics2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human dignity is an enunciated ethical principle in many societies, and it has elicited a great deal of interest, not least because it is central in health care. However, it has also been the subject of criticism. Some have argued that it is sufficient to rely on a principle of autonomy, and that dignity is a redundant principle or concept in health care. Other discussions have focused on the precise meaning of dignity, and how a principle of dignity should be interpreted and applied. This dissertation discusses questions on the principle of dignity and the meaning of the concept. In addition to a theoretical analysis of these questions, a qualitative research study has been carried out, based on interviews with physicians in palliative and neonatal care, and hospital chaplains, looking at dignity at the beginning and end of life. This dissertation can be categorised as empirical ethics because of its methodological approach. Based on a narrative analysis of the interviews, the results from the study shed light on the theoretical discussion on dignity. Through the history of ideas, dignity has often been linked to human abilities such as autonomy and rationality. However, autonomy is only one of the aspects which emerged from the qualitative research in this dissertation. Other aspects introduced into the discussion on dignity include human vulnerability, interdependence and the responsibility to face vulnerability in others. Some theoretical perspectives on dignity are criticised in the light of the empirical results. Furthermore, the dissertation includes a theological perspective where a Christological view – connected to Bakhtin’s ethics of responsibility – forms a critique to both the Kantian deontological perspective and dignity acquired by virtue. The dissertation also considers how the results can be applied to medical practice.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 10:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Organic Hole Transport Materials for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) and recently developed perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a great attention in the scientific field of photovoltaics due to their low cost, absence of solvent, simple fabrication and promising power conversion efficiency (PCE). In these types of solar cell, the dye molecule or the perovskite can harvest the light on the basis of electron excitation. Afterwards, the electron and hole are collected at the charge transport materials.

    Photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) is employed in this thesis to synthesize conducting polymer hole transport materials (HTMs) for ssDSSCs. We have for the first time developed aqueous PEP in comparison with the conventional organic PEP with acetonitrile as solvent. This water-based PEP could potentially provide a low-cost, environmental-friendly method for efficient deposition of polymer HTM for ssDSSCs. In addition, new and simple precursors have been tested with PEP method. The effects of dye molecules on the PEP were also systematically studied, and we found that (a) the bulky structure of dye is of key importance for blocking the interfacial charge recombination; and (b) the matching of the energy levels between the dye and the precursor plays a key role in determining the kinetics of the PEP process.

    In PSCs, the HTM layer is crucial for efficient charge collection and its long term stability. We have studied different series of new molecular HTMs in order to understand fundamentally the influence of alkyl chains, molecular energy levels, and molecular geometry of the HTM on the photovoltaic performance. We have identified several important factors of the HTMs for efficient PSCs, including high uniformity of the HTM capping layer, perovskite-HTM energy level matching, good HTM solubility, and high conductivity. These factors affect interfacial hole injection, hole transport, and charge recombination in PSCs. By systematical optimization, a promising PCE of 19.8% has been achieved by employing a new HTM H11. We believe that this work could provide important guidance for the future development of new and efficient HTMs for PSCs.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 13:15 Zootissalen, Uppsala
    Hessérus, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Hessérus, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Rätten till privatlivet: - och moralen bakom omoralen i svensk press 1920 – 19802016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the development of the notion of the right to privacy in Sweden between 1920 and 1980. The formation of the notion of the right to privacy is studied through the debate concerning exposure of the aspect of privacy that can be considered the most sensitive: the individual’s sex life and intimate relations.

    The theoretical framework is based on the sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies’ concepts of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (community and association). The thesis pays particular attention to privacy in relation to the development of the “media society” during the 20th century.

    Three significant shifts in the Swedish history of privacy during the 20th century are identified and examined: The boycott of the muck-raking paper Fäderneslandet (“The Fatherland”) in 1927, the introduction of “the sanctity of private life” in the rules of the Swedish Publicists’ Association in 1953 and the appointment of the Integrity Protection Committee in 1966.

    Key findings are: The notion of right to privacy in Sweden evolves in four phases: The first phase (1920 – 1953) is characterized by a paradoxical relationship to privacy following the division between “decent” and “indecent”. “Decent people” had the right to a private sphere while “indecent people” were deprived of privacy. After a viscous hunt of homosexuals in the press, in the late 1940’s, the second phase (1953 – 1964) is defined by liberalisation of the decency concept and a more restrictive press policy as regards exposure of private details relating to sexuality.

    A modern-day notion of right to privacy is, however, not visible in Sweden until the third phase (1964 – 1975). Yet, the fourth phase (1975 – 1980) is characterised by a backlash. Under the slogan of “the private is political” young radicals and second-wave feminists questioned the privacy concept and saw the right to privacy as a threat to community and equality. Attempts to create privacy legislation in Sweden failed due to unwillingness by the government to recognize the rights of the individual over the rights of the community.

    Conflicting notions of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft within society partly explains the shifting status of the right to privacy in Sweden 1920 – 1980.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 13:15 Room 2446, Uppsala
    Liu, Fei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. University of Gävle.
    Liu, Fei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. University of Gävle.
    Hand-held Augmented Reality for Facility Maintenance2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings and public infrastructures are crucial to our societies in that they provide habitations, workplaces, commodities and services indispensible to our daily life. As vital parts of facility management, operations and maintenance (O&M) ensure a facility to continuously function as intended, which take up the longest time in a facility’s life cycle and demand great expense. Therefore, computers and information technology have been actively adopted to automate traditional maintenance methods and processes, making O&M faster and more reliable.

    Augmented reality (AR) offers a new approach towards human-computer interaction through directly displaying information related to real objects that people are currently perceiving. People’s sensory perceptions are enhanced (augmented) with information of interest naturally without deliberately turning to computers. Hence, AR has been proved to be able to further improve O&M task performance.

    The research motif of this thesis is user evaluations of AR applications in the context of facility maintenance. The studies look into invisible target designation tasks assisted by developed AR tools in both indoor and outdoor scenarios. The focus is to examine user task performance, which is influenced by both AR system performance and human perceptive, cognitive and motoric factors.

    Target designation tasks for facility maintenance entail a visualization-interaction dilemma. Two AR systems built upon consumer-level hand-held devices using an off-the-shelf AR software development toolkit are evaluated indoors with two disparate solutions to the dilemma – remote laser pointing and the third person perspective (TPP). In the study with remote laser pointing, the parallax effect associated with AR “X-ray vision” visualization is also an emphasis.

    A third hand-held AR system developed in this thesis overlays infrared information on façade video, which is evaluated outdoors. Since in an outdoor environment marker-based tracking is less desirable, an infrared/visible image registration method is developed and adopted by the system to align infrared information correctly with the façade in the video. This system relies on the TPP to overcome the aforementioned dilemma.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 14:15 Auditorium Minus, Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Bernhardsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bernhardsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    I privat och offentligt: Undervisningen i moderna språk i Stockholm 1800–18802016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to characterise the shifting relationship between public and private education in nineteenth-century Sweden. It does so by a study of modern language teaching in Stockholm 1800–1880. Whereas modern languages had long been taught by private language masters, German, French and English were only officially recognised as subjects of public grammar schools in 1807.

    The study shows that, unlike the impression given by earlier studies, the introduction of public teaching of modern languages did not bring an end to private language instruction. The study further demonstrates that although private language teaching continued to thrive alongside the expanding public language education, the relationship between the two types of education changed over time. Until the 1840s, both private and public education operated as competitors in a local educational market, adjusting their language teaching to local demand and mutual competition. A crucial condition for this competition was the fact that state curriculums still had a relatively limited impact on the actual teaching of public schools.

    In the later part of the century, the language teaching within public schools became more influenced by the idea of formal education, leading to an increased focus on grammar. Simultaneously, the role of private language instruction evolved into complementing public teaching, primarily by providing the practical proficiency neglected in public schools.

    While the study questions the importance and effects of central reforms, especially in the earlier decades of the 19th century, it points to other significant factors that influenced the local education market. In particular, the gradual centralisation and systematisation of public schools diminished their ability to cater for local demand. But the growing importance of formal credentials meant that public schools had less need to compete for students. Students were no longer necessarily attracted by the practical usefulness of schooling, creating both the possibility of the specific form of language teaching that developed within public schools, as well as the need of supplementary private instruction.    

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Norén, Viveca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Norén, Viveca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    When water becomes a threat: Risk assessment and risk management plans for floods and drinking water in Swedish practice2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is an essential but vulnerable resource. A shortage of good quality drinking water is a threat to human health and society as a whole. Abundance of water in the form of floods can also be a serious threat which can have consequences for the drinking water supply. To reduce these risks there is a need for systematic risk reduction. In the last decades a risk management approach has been developed in the management of both flood and drinking water risks. This means that a reactive, ad hoc management is being replaced by a more proactive and systematic approach where risks are analysed and evaluated as a basis for prioritising counter-measures. The complex nature of water issues has also made it evident that there is a need for a holistic view of the management, involving a variety of actors and sectors. An integrated management approach to floods and water resources has emerged.

    This thesis aims to examine how local level risk management, especially risk assessments, of floods and drinking water supply have been or can be performed in practice in Sweden. The existing practices have been characterised in relation to current risk management frameworks. Furthermore, the thesis aims to investigate how the effects of flood on drinking water supply have been considered in risk assessment methods and in flood risk management plans, as well as whether flood and drinking water risks have been considered in an integrated manner. The studies are based on interviews with flood risk managers in Swedish municipalities and Swedish water producers as well as on document studies of risk assessment methods and flood risk management plans.

    There are large variations between different municipalities and water producers in how, and to what extent, risk assessments have been performed. Some have performed very little, if any, risk assessment while others have worked systematically. The tools used are often those that are promoted by national agencies and are often less advanced than those described in the literature. The risk assessments do not always cover all relevant aspects of the risk and few actors have discussed an acceptable risk level. Flood risk assessments focus mostly on the exposure of objects to flood and investigate the consequences of such an exposure only to a limited extent. The incomplete risk assessments may result in a biased view of the risk which in turn can lead to poor decision-making. The theoretical knowledge about risk management is in many cases low and there is still often a practical approach. Strategic and holistic approaches are mostly lacking.

    The consequences of flood on drinking water supply are not known in detail and are not considered in detail in risk assessments commonly used in Sweden. There is an awareness of the need to coordinate the management of flood and water resources. However, despite the good intentions regarding integration, there are few signs in the risk assessments and risk management plans that integration is actually occurring.

    Both the risk management approach and integrated management have started to be implemented in Swedish flood and drinking water risk management. It is however on a basic level and it is still a long way to go. Further guidance and knowledge about risk management as well as commitment from and collaboration among all actors concerned is needed to make this development possible.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Å2005, Uppsala
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Glass Ionomer Cements with Improved Bioactive and Antibacterial Properties2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental restorative cements are placed in a harsh oral environment where they are subjected to thermal shock, chemical degradation, and repeating masticatory force. The ideal restorative dental cements should have superior mechanical properties, chemical stability, aesthetic, good handling properties, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, and preferably bioactivity. This thesis presents research on dental restorative cements with enhanced properties. The overall aim was to increase the bioactivity and antibacterial properties of dental restorative cements without affecting their other properties.

    The effect from adding calcium silicate to glass ionomer cement (GIC) was investigated. The results showed that calcium silicate could increase the bioactivity and reduce the cytotoxicity of conventional glass ionomer cement without compromising its setting and mechanical properties.

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) with a high aspect ratio and thin nacreous-layered monetite sheets were also synthesized. Nano HA particles with an aspect ratio of 50 can be synthesized by both precipitation and hydrothermal methods. The aspect ratio was controlled via the pH of reaction medium. Thin nacreous-layered monetite sheets were synthesized through a self-assembly process in the presence of an amine based cationic quaternary surfactant. Temperature, pH, and presence of surfactant played essential roles in forming the nacreous-layered monetite sheets. Then the effect from adding silver doped HA and monetite particles was investigated. The results showed that the antibacterial properties of GIC could be increased by incorporating silver doped HA and monetite particles. Further examination showed that the pH change, F- ion release, and concentration of released Ag+ ions were not responsible for the improved antibacterial properties.

    The quasi-static strengths and compressive fatigue limits of four types of the most commonly used dental restorations were evaluated. In our study, resin modified GIC and resin-based composite showed superior static compressive strength and fatigue limits compared to conventional GIC. The static compressive strength of dental cements increased with the aging time. However, aging had no effect on the compressive fatigue limit of resin modified GIC and resin-based composite. The compressive fatigue limit of conventional GIC even showed a drastic decrease after aging.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Exploring next-generation sequencing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have led to major breakthroughs in the characterization of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) genome with discovery of recurrent mutations of potential prognostic and/or predictive relevance. However, before NGS can be introduced into clinical practice, the precision of the techniques needs to be studied in better detail. Furthermore, much remains unknown about the genetic mechanisms leading to aggressive disease and resistance to treatment. Hence, in Paper I, the technical performance of a targeted deep sequencing panel including 9 genes was evaluated in 188 CLL patients. We were able to validate 143/155 (92%) selected mutations through Sanger sequencing and 77/82 mutations were concordant in a second targeted sequencing run, indicating that the technique can be introduced in clinical practice. In Paper II we screened 18 NF-κB pathway genes in 315 CLL patients through targeted deep sequencing which revealed a recurrent 4 base-pair deletion in the NFKBIE gene. Screening of NFKBIE in 377 additional cases identified the mutation in ~6% of all CLL patients. We demonstrate that the lesion lead to aberrant NF-κB signaling through impaired interaction with p65 and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. In Paper III we sought to delineate the genetic lesions that leads to relapse after fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab treatment. Through whole-exome sequencing of pre-treatment and relapse samples from 41 cases we found evidence of frequent selection of subclones harboring driver mutations and subsequent clonal evolution following treatment. We also detected mutations in the ribosomal protein RPS15 in 8 cases (19.5%) and characterization of the mutations through functional assays point to impaired p53 regulation in cells with mutated RPS15. Paper IV aimed at characterizing 70 patients assigned to three major subsets (#1, #2, and #4) through whole-genome sequencing. Besides recurrent exonic driver mutations, we report non-coding regions significantly enriched for mutations in subset #1 and #2 that may facilitate future molecular studies. Collectively, this thesis supports the potential of targeted sequencing for mutational screening of CLL in clinical practice, provides novel insight into the pathobiology of aggressive CLL, and demonstrates the clinical outcome and cellular effects of NFKBIE and RPS15 mutations. 

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Evolution of symbiotic lineages and the origin of new traits2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the genomic study of symbionts of two different groups of hymenopterans: bees and ants. Both groups of insects have major ecological impact, and investigating their microbiomes increases our understanding of their health, diversity and evolution.

    The study of the bee gut microbiome, including members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, revealed genomic processes related to the adaptation to the gut environment, such as the expansion of genes for carbohydrate metabolism and the acquisition of genes for interaction with the host. A broader genomic study of these genera demonstrated that some lineages evolve under strong and opposite substitution biases, leading to extreme GC content values. A comparison of codon usage patterns in these groups revealed ongoing shifts of optimal codons.

    In a separate study we analysed the genomes of several strains of Lactobacillus kunkeei, which inhabits the honey stomach of bees but is not found in their gut. We observed signatures of genome reduction and suggested candidate genes for host-interaction processes. We discovered a novel type of genome architecture where genes for metabolic functions are located in one half of the genome, whereas genes for information processes are located in the other half. This genome organization was also found in other Lactobacillus species, indicating that it was an ancestral feature that has since been retained. We suggest mechanisms and selective forces that may cause the observed organization, and describe processes leading to its loss in several lineages independently.

    We also studied the genome of a species of Rhizobiales bacteria found in ants. We discuss its metabolic capabilities and suggest scenarios for how it may affect the ants’ lifestyle. This genome contained a region with homology to the Bartonella gene transfer agent (GTA), which is a domesticated bacteriophage used to transfer bacterial DNA between cells. We propose that its unique behaviour as a specialist GTA, preferentially transferring host-interaction factors, originated from a generalist GTA that transferred random segments of chromosomal DNA.

    These bioinformatic analyses of previously uncharacterized bacterial lineages have increased our understanding of their physiology and evolution and provided answers to old and new questions in fundamental microbiology.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Häggsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala
    Nygren, Kristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nygren, Kristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Magnetron Sputtering of Nanocomposite Carbide Coatings for Electrical Contacts2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s electronic society relies on the functionality of electrical contacts. To achieve good contact properties, surface coatings are normally applied. Such coatings should ideally fulfill a combination of different properties, like high electrical conductivity, high corrosion resistance, high wear resistance and low cost. A common coating strategy is to use noble metals since these do not form insulating surface oxides. However, such coatings are expensive, have poor wear resistance and they are often applied by electroplating, which poses environmental and human health hazards.

    In this thesis, nanocomposite carbide-based coatings were studied and the aim was to evaluate if they could exhibit properties that were suitable for electrical contacts. Coatings in the Cr-C, Cr-C-Ag and Nb-C systems were deposited by magnetron sputtering using research-based equipment as well as industrial-based equipment designed for high-volume production. To achieve the aim, the microstructure and composition of the coatings were characterized, whereas mechanical, tribological, electrical, electrochemical and optical properties were evaluated. A method to optically measure the amount of carbon was developed.

    In the Cr-C system, a variety of deposition conditions were explored and amorphous carbide/amorphous carbon (a-C) nanocomposite coatings could be obtained at substrate temperatures up to 500 °C. The amount of a-C was highly dependent on the total carbon content. By co-sputtering with Ag, coatings comprising an amorphous carbide/carbon matrix, with embedded Ag nanoclusters, were obtained. Large numbers of Ag nanoparticles were also found on the surfaces. In the Nb-C system, nanocrystalline carbide/a-C coatings could be deposited. It was found that the nanocomposite coatings formed very thin passive films, consisting of both oxide and a-C.

    The Cr-C coatings exhibited low hardness and low-friction properties. In electrochemical experiments, the Cr-C coatings exhibited high oxidation resistance. For the Cr-C-Ag coatings, the Ag nanoparticles oxidized at much lower potentials than bulk Ag. Overall, electrical contact resistances for optimized samples were close to noble metal references at low contact load. Thus, the studied coatings were found to have properties that make them suitable for electrical contact applications.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:15 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Natural resources and sustainable energy: Growth rates and resource flows for low-carbon systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy technologies is important for counteracting anthropogenic climate change and achieving universal energy access. This thesis explores potential growth rates of technologies necessary to reach a more sustainable global energy system, the material and energy flows required to commission these technologies, and potential future availability of the required resources.

    These issues are investigated in five papers. Potential future growth rates of wind energy and solar photovoltaics, and the associated material requirements are explored, taking the expected service life of these technologies into account. Methodology for assessing net energy return and natural resource use for wind energy systems are analyzed. Potential future availability of lithium and phosphate rock are also investigated.

    Estimates of energy and materials required for technologies such as wind energy and photovoltaics vary, and depend on the assumptions made and methods used. Still, it is clear that commissioning of low-carbon technologies on the scale required to reach and sustain a low-carbon energy system in coming decades requires significant quantities of both bulk materials and scarcer resources. For some technologies, such as thin film solar cells and electric vehicles with lithium-ion batteries, availability of materials could become an issue for potential growth rates. Future phosphate rock production could become highly dependent on few countries, and potential political, social and environmental aspects of this should be investigated in more detail.

    Material and energy flows should be considered when analyzing growth rates of low-carbon technologies. Their estimated service life can indicate sustainable growth rates of technologies, as well as when materials are available for end-of-life recycling. Resource constrained growth curve models can be used to explore future production of natural resources. A higher disaggregation of these models can enable more detailed analysis of potential constraints. This thesis contributes to the discussion on how to create a more sustainable global energy system, but the methods to assess current and future energy and material flows, and availability of natural resources, should be further developed in the future.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:15 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Women’s status and child nutrition: Findings from community studies in Bangladesh and Nicaragua2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of women’s status for child nutrition has recently been recognized. However, pathways through which women’s status can affect their caretaking practices and child nutrition have not been fully determined. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate associations between aspects of women’s status – including exposure to domestic violence and level of autonomy and social support – with their level of stress, feeding practices and child nutritional status in two different cultural settings: Bangladesh and Nicaragua.

    Data were acquired from population-based studies. For Study I we used data from the Bangladesh 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, and Study II was embedded in the 2009 Health and Demographic Surveillance System conducted in Los Cuatro Santos, rural Nicaragua. Studies III and IV were part of the MINIMat study, conducted in rural Bangladesh. In-person interviews were conducted and validated questionnaires were used in each of the studies. Anthropometric characteristics of the children were recorded based on standardized World Health Organization techniques.

    In Bangladesh, we found women with lifetime experience of domestic violence to be more likely to report emotional distress during pregnancy, cease exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months and have a stunted child. Further, we found a negative association between experience of domestic violence and duration of excusive breastfeeding to be mitigated with breastfeeding counseling. In Nicaragua, a lower level of maternal autonomy was associated with more appropriate breastfeeding practices such as higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding and longer continuation of breastfeeding. Further, a maternal lower level of social support was associated with better child nutritional status.

    In conclusion, this investigation showed that different dimensions of women’s status were associated with their feeding practices and child nutritional status and also revealed that the strength and direction of these associations may vary by the child’s age, setting and other contextual factors. These findings suggest that women’s status might have an important public health impact on child health and its role should be considered in programs and policies aiming to improve child health and nutrition.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 13:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Zhang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Exploring Electron Transfer Dynamics of Novel Dye Sensitized Photocathodes: Towards Solar Cells and Solar Fuels2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of dyes for NiO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has drawn attention owing to their potential applications in photocatalysis and because they are indispensable for the development of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells. The understanding of the electron transfer mechanisms and dynamics is beneficial to guide further dye design and further improve the performance of photocathode in solar cells and solar fuel devices.

    Time-resolved spectroscopy techniques, especially femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, supply sufficient resolution to get insights into the charge transfer processes in p-type dye sensitized solar cell and solar fuel devices. In paper I-V, several kinds of novel organic “push-pull” and inorganic charge transfer dyes for sensitization of p-type NiO, were systematically investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy, and photo-induced charge transfer dynamics of the organic/inorganic dyes were summarized. The excited state and reduced state intermediates were investigated in solution phase as references to confirm the charge injection and recombination on the NiO surface. The charge recombination kinetics is remarkably heterogeneous in some cases occurring on time scales spanning at least six orders of magnitude even for the same dye.

    In this thesis, we also proposed a novel concept of solid state p-type dye sensitized solar cells (p-ssDSSCs) for the first time (paper VI), using an organic dye P1 as sensitizer on mesoporous NiO and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron conductor. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy gave evidence for sub-ps hole injection from excited P1 to NiO, followed by electron transfer from P1●- to PCBM. The p-ssDSSCs device showed an impressive 620 mV open circuit photovoltage.

    Chapter 6 (paper VII) covers the study of electron transfer mechanisms in a covalently linked dye-catalyst (PB-2) sensitized NiO photocathode, towards hydrogen producing solar fuel devices. Hole injection from excited dye (PB-2*) into NiO VB takes place on dual time scales, and the reduced PB-2 (PB-2●-) formed then donates an electron to the catalyst unit.  The subsequent regeneration efficiency of PB-2 by the catalyst unit (the efficiency of catalyst reduction) is determined to ca. 70%.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-22 13:15 Auditorium minus, Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Sörelius, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Sörelius, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Aortic infections: The Nadir of Vascular Surgery2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aortic infections are rare, life-threatening and constitute a major challenge in surgical management. This thesis aims to evaluate short – and long-term outcome of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for mycotic aortic aneurysms (MAA) and the subsequent risk of recurrent infections, changes in surgical practice over time for abdominal MAAs in Sweden and outcome for different treatment modalities, as well as the risk of secondary vascular infection after treatment with Open abdomen after aortic surgery.

    Paper I, a retrospective single centre study of patients with MAA treated with EVAR, demonstrated a good short-term outcome, 91% survival at 30-days, and acceptable mid-term survival, 73% at 1-year.

    Paper II, a retrospective international multicentre study of patients treated with EVAR for MAA, confirmed the results in paper I, and showed that EVAR is feasible and for most MAA patients a durable treatment option, 5-year survival was 55% and 10-year 41%. A total of 19% died from an infection-related complication, mostly during the first postoperative year. Non-Salmonella-positive culture was a predictor for late infection–related death.

    Paper III, a population-based cohort study on all abdominal MAAs operated on between 1994-2014 in Sweden. Overall survival was 86% at 3-months, 79% at 1-year and 59% at 5-years. The survival was significantly better after endovascular compared to open repair up to 1-year without increasing recurrence of infection or reoperation, thereafter there was no difference. After 2001 EVAR constituted 60 % of all repairs, thus indicating a paradigm shift in treatment for abdominal MAAs in Sweden.

    Paper IV, a prospective multicentre study of patients treated with open abdomen after aortic surgery. Infectious complications, such as graft infections, occurred after intestinal ischaemia and prolonged OA-treatment, and were often fatal.