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  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:15 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Women’s status and child nutrition: Findings from community studies in Bangladesh and Nicaragua2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of women’s status for child nutrition has recently been recognized. However, pathways through which women’s status can affect their caretaking practices and child nutrition have not been fully determined. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate associations between aspects of women’s status – including exposure to domestic violence and level of autonomy and social support – with their level of stress, feeding practices and child nutritional status in two different cultural settings: Bangladesh and Nicaragua.

    Data were acquired from population-based studies. For Study I we used data from the Bangladesh 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, and Study II was embedded in the 2009 Health and Demographic Surveillance System conducted in Los Cuatro Santos, rural Nicaragua. Studies III and IV were part of the MINIMat study, conducted in rural Bangladesh. In-person interviews were conducted and validated questionnaires were used in each of the studies. Anthropometric characteristics of the children were recorded based on standardized World Health Organization techniques.

    In Bangladesh, we found women with lifetime experience of domestic violence to be more likely to report emotional distress during pregnancy, cease exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months and have a stunted child. Further, we found a negative association between experience of domestic violence and duration of excusive breastfeeding to be mitigated with breastfeeding counseling. In Nicaragua, a lower level of maternal autonomy was associated with more appropriate breastfeeding practices such as higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding and longer continuation of breastfeeding. Further, a maternal lower level of social support was associated with better child nutritional status.

    In conclusion, this investigation showed that different dimensions of women’s status were associated with their feeding practices and child nutritional status and also revealed that the strength and direction of these associations may vary by the child’s age, setting and other contextual factors. These findings suggest that women’s status might have an important public health impact on child health and its role should be considered in programs and policies aiming to improve child health and nutrition.

  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    Aad, G.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isaksson, Charlie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pelikan, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Measurement of the inclusive isolated prompt photon cross section in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector2016In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, Vol. 8, 1-42 p., 005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A measurement of the cross section for the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 8 TeV is presented. The measurement covers the pseudorapidity ranges vertical bar eta(gamma)vertical bar < 1.37 and 1.56 aecurrency sign vertical bar eta(gamma)vertical bar < 2.37 in the transverse energy range 25 < E-T(gamma) < 1500 GeV. The results are based on an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb(-1), recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Photon candidates are identified by combining information from the calorimeters and the inner tracker. The background is subtracted using a data-driven technique, based on the observed calorimeter shower-shape variables and the deposition of hadronic energy in a narrow cone around the photon candidate. The measured cross sections are compared with leading-order and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and are found to be in a good agreement over ten orders of magnitude.

  • Tawfique, Ziring
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Tawfique, Ziring
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Tool-Mediated Texture Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Network2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vibration patterns can be captured by an accelerometer sensor attached to a hand-held device when it is scratched on various type of surface textures. These acceleration signals can carry relevant information for surface texture classification. Typically, methods rely on hand crafted feature engineering but with the use of Convolutional Neural Network manual feature engineering can be eliminated. A proposed method using modern machine learning techniques such as Dropout is introduced by training a Convolutional Neural Network to distinguish between 69 and 100 various surface textures. EHapNet, which is the proposed Convolutional Neural Network model, managed to achieve state of the art results with the used datasets.

  • Cherep Dragoevich, Manuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Cherep Dragoevich, Manuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    A Methodology for Applying Concolic Testing2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concolic testing is a technique that combines concrete and symbolic execution in order to generate inputs that explore different execution paths leading to better testing coverage. Concolic testing tools can find runtime errors fully automatically using available type specifications. The type specifications in a function define the type of each input. However, most specification languages are never expressive enough, which can lead to runtime errors caused by malformed inputs (i.e. irrelevant errors). Moreover, logic errors causing a program to operate incorrectly without crashing cannot be reported automatically. A universal methodology for any programming language is proposed. Preconditions force the concolic execution to generate well formed inputs before testing a function. On the other hand, postconditions lead to a runtime error when a program operates incorrectly, helping to find logic errors. The results obtained using the concolic testing tool CutEr, in the functional programming language Erlang, show how a program is only tested using well formed inputs specially generated to try to violate the defined postconditions.

  • Smeds, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Smeds, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Direct estimate of the rate of germline mutation in a bird2016In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 26, no 9, 1211-1218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fidelity of DNA replication together with repair mechanisms ensure that the genetic material is properly copied from one generation to another. However, on extremely rare occasions when damages to DNA or replication errors are not repaired, germline mutations can be transmitted to the next generation. Because of the rarity of these events, studying the rate at which new mutations arise across organisms has been a great challenge, especially in multicellular nonmodel organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the genomes of 11 birds from a three-generation pedigree of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) and used highly stringent bioinformatic criteria for mutation detection and used several procedures to validate mutations, including following the stable inheritance of new mutations to subsequent generations. We identified 55 de novo mutations with a 10-fold enrichment of mutations at CpG sites and with only a modest male mutation bias. The estimated rate of mutation per site per generation was 4.6 x 10(-9), which corresponds to 2.3 x 10(-9) mutations per site per year. Compared to mammals, this is similar to mouse but about half of that reported for humans, which may be due to the higher frequency of male mutations in humans. We confirm that mutation rate scales positively with genome size and that there is a strong negative relationship between mutation rate and effective population size, in line with the drift-barrier hypothesis. Our study illustrates that it should be feasible to obtain direct estimates of the rate of mutation in essentially any organism from which family material can be obtained.

  • Ljungblad, Malin
    et al.
    Ljungblad, Malin
    Bäckström, Johan
    Safety Evaluation of the Zhaoli Tailings Dam: A seepage, deformation and stability analysis with GeoStudio2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     The mining industry produce large amount of mine waste, also called tailings, which

    must be kept in tailings dams. In this thesis the safety and stability of a tailings dam

    have been studied, where some of the tailing material is being used as filling material.

    The dam has been modelled and simulated using the software Geostudio. To evaluate

    the safety and stability of the dam seepage, stress and strain as well as slope stability

    have been simulated with SEEP/W, SIGMA/W and SLOPE/W, which are different

    modules in the Geostudio software.

    The results show that the dam is stable for all tested scenarios. However, in this

    thesis many simplifications and assumptions have been made so it is recommended to

    do a more detailed study to confirm the safety of the dam. The dam should also be

    simulated for earthquakes before a definite evaluation can be made.

    This master thesis has been conducted in cooperation with Vattenfall AB, Energiforsk

    AB, Uppsala University and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. The project has

    been carried out on the planned Zhaoli ditch tailing dam in the Shanxi Province,

    China.

  • van der Laan, Sander W.
    et al.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van der Laan, Sander W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Soumare, Aicha
    Univ Bordeaux, INSERM, U1219, Team Vintage, Bordeaux, France..
    Teumer, Alexander
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Dept SHIP KEF, Greifswald, Germany.;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany..
    Sedaghat, Sanaz
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Baumert, Jens
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Zabaneh, Delilah
    UCL, Dept Genet Environm & Evolut, London, England.;UCL, Genet Inst, London, England..
    van Setten, Jessica
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Isgum, Ivana
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Image Sci Inst, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Galesloot, Tessel E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Arpegard, Johannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Dept Emergency Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Univ Lille, INSERM, Lille, France.;Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Trompet, Stella
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol P C5, Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Gerontol & Geriatr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Waldenberger, Melanie
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany.;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Doerr, Marcus
    German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Internal Med B, Greifswald, Germany..
    Magnusson, Patrik K.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England..
    Felix, Janine F.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Morrison, Alanna C.
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Dept Epidemiol Human Genet & Environm Sci, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Franceschini, Nora
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA..
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    O'Donnell, Christopher
    Boston Vet Adm Healthcare, Dept Cardiol, West Roxbury, MA USA.;NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA USA..
    Drenos, Fotios
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Ctr Cardiovasc Genet, London, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Tragante, Vinicius
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Munroe, Patricia B.
    Queen Mary Univ London, William Harvey Res Inst, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, London, England..
    Malik, Rainer
    Univ Munich, Klinikum Univ Munchen, Inst Stroke & Dementia Res, Munich, Germany..
    Dichgans, Martin
    Univ Munich, Klinikum Univ Munchen, Inst Stroke & Dementia Res, Munich, Germany.;Munich Cluster Syst Neurol SyNergy, Munich, Germany..
    Worrall, Bradford B.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Neurol, Charlottesville, VA USA.;Univ Virginia, Dept Hlth Evaluat Sci, Charlottesville, VA USA..
    Erdmann, Jeanette
    Univ Lubeck, Inst Integrat & Expt Genom, Lubeck, Germany..
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, British Heart Fdn Cardiovasc, Res Ctr,Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res Leicester, Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, British Heart Fdn Cardiovasc, Res Ctr,Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res Leicester, Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Schunkert, Heribert
    Tech Univ Munich, Deutsch Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Munich Heart Alliance, Partner Site, Munich, Germany..
    Marchini, Jonathan
    Univ Oxford, Dept Stat, Oxford, England..
    Patel, Riyaz S.
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Genet Epidemiol Res Grp, London, England.;Barts Heart Ctr, London, England.;UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat, London, England..
    Hingorani, Aroon D.
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Genet Epidemiol Res Grp, London, England..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    de Graaf, Jacqueline
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Baumeister, Sebastian E.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Dept SHIP KEF, Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Regensburg, Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Regensburg, Germany..
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Koenig, Wolfgang
    German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Deutsch Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.;Univ Ulm, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med Cardiol 2, Ulm, Germany..
    Meisinger, Christa
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Peters, Annette
    German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany.;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Thorand, Barbara
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol P C5, Leiden, Netherlands.;ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Eriksen, Bjorn Odvar
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Metab & Renal Res Grp, Tromso, Norway.;Univ Hosp North Norway, Nephrol Sect, Tromso, Norway..
    Toft, Ingrid
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Nephrol Sect, Tromso, Norway..
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Community Med, Tromso, Norway..
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Debette, Stephanie
    Univ Bordeaux, INSERM, U1219, Team Vintage, Bordeaux, France..
    Kumari, Meena
    Univ Essex, Biol & Social Epidemiol, Inst Social & Econ Res, Colchester CO4 3SQ, Essex, England..
    Svensson, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Dept Emergency Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    van der Harst, Pim
    ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Keating, Brendan J.
    Univ Penn, Dept Surg, Div Transplantat, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Sattar, Naveed
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Reiner, Alex P.
    Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Stanford Univ, Dept Med, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    den Ruijter, Hester M.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    de Bakker, Paul I. W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Genet, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Labs & Pharm, Lab Clin Chem & Hematol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Holmes, Michael V.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Richard Doll Bldg,Old Rd Campus,Roosevelt Dr, Oxford OX3 7LF, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit CTSU, Richard Doll Bldg,Old Rd Campus,Roosevelt Dr, Oxford OX3 7LF, England..
    Asselbergs, Folkert W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.;ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.;UCL, Fac Populat Hlth Sci, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London, England..
    Cystatin C and Cardiovascular Disease A Mendelian Randomization Study2016In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 68, no 9, 934-945 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies show that high circulating cystatin C is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of creatinine-based renal function measurements. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding, and/or is a consequence of reverse causation. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomization to investigate whether cystatin C is causally related to CVD in the general population. METHODS We incorporated participant data from 16 prospective cohorts (n = 76,481) with 37,126 measures of cystatin C and added genetic data from 43 studies (n = 252,216) with 63,292 CVD events. We used the common variant rs911119 in CST3 as an instrumental variable to investigate the causal role of cystatin C in CVD, including coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and heart failure. RESULTS Cystatin C concentrations were associated with CVD risk after adjusting for age, sex, and traditional risk factors (relative risk: 1.82 per doubling of cystatin C; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56 to 2.13; p = 2.12 x 10(-14)). The minor allele of rs911119 was associated with decreased serum cystatin C (6.13% per allele; 95% CI: 5.75 to 6.50; p = 5.95 x 10(-211)), explaining 2.8% of the observed variation in cystatin C. Mendelian randomization analysis did not provide evidence fora causal role of cystatin C, with a causal relative risk for CVD of 1.00 per doubling cystatin C (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.22; p = 0,994), which was statistically different from the observational estimate (p = 1.6 x 10(-5)). A causal effect of cystatin C was not detected for any individual component of CVD. CONCLUSIONS Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal role of cystatin C in the etiology of CVD. As such, therapeutics targeted at lowering circulating cystatin C are unlikely to be effective in preventing CVD.

  • Kudryashova, Elena
    et al.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Kudryashova, Elena
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Koneru, Pratibha C.
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Retroviral Res, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Coll Pharm, 500 W 12Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Retroviral Res, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Coll Pharm, 500 W 12Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Strömstedt, Adam A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Lu, Wuyuan
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Inst Human Virol, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.;Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Kudryashov, Dmitri S.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Publ Hlth Preparedness Infect Dis Program, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Thermodynamic instability of viral proteins is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern targeted by human defensins2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 32499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human defensins are innate immune defense peptides with a remarkably broad repertoire of anti-pathogen activities. In addition to modulating immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis, disintegrating bacterial membranes, and inactivating bacterial toxins, defensins are known to intercept various viruses at different stages of their life cycles, while remaining relatively benign towards human cells and proteins. Recently we have found that human defensins inactivate proteinaceous bacterial toxins by taking advantage of their low thermodynamic stability and acting as natural "anti-chaperones", i.e. destabilizing the native conformation of the toxins. In the present study we tested various proteins produced by several viruses (HIV-1, PFV, and TEV) and found them to be susceptible to destabilizing effects of human alpha-defensins HNP-1 and HD-5 and the synthetic theta-defensin RC-101, but not beta-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 or structurally related plant-derived peptides. Defensin-induced unfolding promoted exposure of hydrophobic groups otherwise confined to the core of the viral proteins. This resulted in precipitation, an enhanced susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage, and a loss of viral protein activities. We propose, that defensins recognize and target a common and essential physico-chemical property shared by many bacterial toxins and viral proteins - the intrinsically low thermodynamic protein stability.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-22 13:15 Auditorium minus, Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Sörelius, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Sörelius, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Aortic infections: The Nadir of Vascular Surgery2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aortic infections are rare, life-threatening and constitute a major challenge in surgical management. This thesis aims to evaluate short – and long-term outcome of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for mycotic aortic aneurysms (MAA) and the subsequent risk of recurrent infections, changes in surgical practice over time for abdominal MAAs in Sweden and outcome for different treatment modalities, as well as the risk of secondary vascular infection after treatment with Open abdomen after aortic surgery.

    Paper I, a retrospective single centre study of patients with MAA treated with EVAR, demonstrated a good short-term outcome, 91% survival at 30-days, and acceptable mid-term survival, 73% at 1-year.

    Paper II, a retrospective international multicentre study of patients treated with EVAR for MAA, confirmed the results in paper I, and showed that EVAR is feasible and for most MAA patients a durable treatment option, 5-year survival was 55% and 10-year 41%. A total of 19% died from an infection-related complication, mostly during the first postoperative year. Non-Salmonella-positive culture was a predictor for late infection–related death.

    Paper III, a population-based cohort study on all abdominal MAAs operated on between 1994-2014 in Sweden. Overall survival was 86% at 3-months, 79% at 1-year and 59% at 5-years. The survival was significantly better after endovascular compared to open repair up to 1-year without increasing recurrence of infection or reoperation, thereafter there was no difference. After 2001 EVAR constituted 60 % of all repairs, thus indicating a paradigm shift in treatment for abdominal MAAs in Sweden.

    Paper IV, a prospective multicentre study of patients treated with open abdomen after aortic surgery. Infectious complications, such as graft infections, occurred after intestinal ischaemia and prolonged OA-treatment, and were often fatal.

  • Dahl, Michael
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Dahl, Michael
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Hayes, Chris
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Rasmussen, Bodil Steen
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Secher, Niels H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Anesthesiol, Copenhagen Muscle Res Ctr, Rigshosp 2043, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?2016In: BMC Anesthesiology, ISSN 1471-2253, E-ISSN 1471-2253, Vol. 16, 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced cardiac output (CO). This study tested that hypothesis in healthy volunteers exposed to central hypovolemia by head-up tilt. Methods: Thirteen healthy volunteers were exposed to central hypovolemia by 45 degrees head-up tilt while breathing through a facemask with 7.5 cmH(2)O inspiratory and/or expiratory resistors. A brachial arterial catheter was used to measure blood pressure and thus systolic pressure variation (SPV), pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation. Pulse contour analysis determined stroke volume (SV) and CO and we evaluated whether APV could detect a 10 % decrease in CO. Results: During head-up tilt SV decreased form 91 (+/- 46) to 55 (+/- 24) mL (mean +/- SD) and CO from 5.8 (+/- 2.9) to 4.0 (+/- 1.8) L/min (p < 0.05), while heart rate increased (65 (+/- 11) to 75 (+/- 13) bpm; P < 0.05). Systolic pressure decreased from 127 (+/- 14) to 121 (+/- 13) mmHg during head-up tilt, while SPV tended to increase (from 21 (+/- 15)% to 30 (+/- 13) %). Yet during head-up tilt, a SPV >= 37 % predicted a decrease in CO >= 10 % with a sensitivity and specificity of 78 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers combined inspiratory and expiratory resistors enhance SPV during head-up tilted induced central hypovolemia and allow identifying a 10 % reduction in CO. Applying inspiratory and expiratory resistors might detect a fluid deficit in spontaneously breathing patients.

  • Simeon, Saw
    et al.
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Simeon, Saw
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Shoombuatong, Watshara
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Malik, Aijaz Ahmad
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Prachayasittikul, Virapong
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Dept Clin Microbiol & Appl Technol, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Wikberg, Jarl E. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nantasenamat, Chanin
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Probing the origins of human acetylcholinesterase inhibition via QSAR modeling and molecular docking2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, e2322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which leads to the gradual loss of neuronal cells. Several hypotheses for AD exists (e.g., cholinergic, amyloid, tau hypotheses, etc.). As per the cholinergic hypothesis, the deficiency of choline is responsible for AD; therefore, the inhibition of AChE is a lucrative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine that is essential Ifor cognition arid memory. A large non-redundant data set of 2,570 compounds with reported IC50 values against AChE was obtained frorn ChEMBL and employed in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study so as to gain insights on their origin of bioactivity. AChE inhibitors were described by a set of 12 fingerprint descriptors and predictive rnodels were constructed from 100 different data splits using random forest. Generated models afforded R-2, Q(cv)(2) and Q(Ext)(2) values in ranges of 0.66-0.93, 0.55-0.79 and 0.56-0.81 for the training set, 10-fold cross-validated set and lexternal set, respectively. The best model built using the substructure count was selected according to the OECD guidelines and it afforded R-2, Q(CV)(2) and Q(Ext)(2) values of 0.92 +/- 0.01, 0.78 +/- 0.06 and 018 +/- 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, IT-scrambling was applied to evaluate the possibility of chance correlation of the predictive model. Subsequently, a thorough analysis of the substructure fingerprint count was conducted to provide informative insights on the inhibitory activity of AChE inhibitors. Moreover Kennard Stone sampling of the actives were applied to select 30 diverse compounds for further molecular docking studies in order to gain structural insights on the origin of AChE inhibition. Site-moiety mapping of compounds from the diversity set revealed three binding anchors encompassing both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction. Molecular docking revealed that compounds 13, 5 and 28 exhibited the lowest binding energies of -12.2, -12.0 and -12.0 kcal/mol, respectively, against human AChE, which is modulated by, hydrogen bonding, pi-pi stacking and hydrophobic interaction inside the binding pocket. These information may be used as guidelines for the design of novel and robust AChE inhibitors.

  • Norling, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Norling, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Karlsson-Lindsjo, Oskar E.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth BVF, Uppsala, Sweden.;OIE Collaborating Ctr Biotechnol Based Diag Infec, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gourle, Hadrien
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hayer, Juliette
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    MetLab: An In Silico Experimental Design, Simulation and Analysis Tool for Viral Metagenomics Studies2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 8, e0160334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metagenomics, the sequence characterization of all genomes within a sample, is widely used as a virus discovery tool as well as a tool to study viral diversity of animals. Metagenomics can be considered to have three main steps; sample collection and preparation, sequencing and finally bioinformatics. Bioinformatic analysis of metagenomic datasets is in itself a complex process, involving few standardized methodologies, thereby hampering comparison of metagenomics studies between research groups. In this publication the new bioinformatics framework MetLab is presented, aimed at providing scientists with an integrated tool for experimental design and analysis of viral metagenomes. MetLab provides support in designing the metagenomics experiment by estimating the sequencing depth needed for the complete coverage of a species. This is achieved by applying a methodology to calculate the probability of coverage using an adaptation of Stevens' theorem. It also provides scientists with several pipelines aimed at simplifying the analysis of viral metagenomes, including; quality control, assembly and taxonomic binning. We also implement a tool for simulating metagenomics datasets from several sequencing platforms. The overall aim is to provide virologists with an easy to use tool for designing, simulating and analyzing viral metagenomes. The results presented here include a benchmark towards other existing software, with emphasis on detection of viruses as well as speed of applications. This is packaged, as comprehensive software, readily available for Linux and OSX users at https://github.com/norling/metlab.

  • McFarlane, S. Eryn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Söderberg, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development2016In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 12, no 7, 20160234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatty with closely related species.

  • Salari, Raziye
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Filus, Ania
    Center for Self-Report Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles USA; Department of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Using the Health Belief Model to Explain Mothers’ and Fathers’ Intention to Participate in Universal Parenting Programs2016In: Prevention Science, ISSN 1389-4986, E-ISSN 1573-6695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents’ intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers’ and fathers’ participation rates in parenting programs.

  • Hedén, Wilma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Hedén, Wilma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Kommuniktation av CSR: En kvalitativ studie av CSR-kommunikation och CSR- strategier inom den svenska modebranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hedén, W. 2016. Kommunikation av CSR. Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Arbetsrapportsserie, Uppsala Universitet  

     

    The purposes with this paper are firstly to find out how two chosen clothing companies within the high fashion era handle the important CSR (Cooperate Social Responsibility) challenges that today has become a natural part of the clothing industry, and secondly how these companies are communicating their CSR strategy, and then to note any possible differences between their way of doing that. The methods I have chosen to use are by qualitively interviews with the two Fashion companies: Sidenkompaniet and Filippa K. Results from my research shows that both companies have different approaches to the conception of CSR and also uses different strategies how to communicate the CSR message. I found out that Sidenkompaniet, a small company is using the CSR concept as such to communicate their message and strategy. Filippa K though (the larger company), have another approach to CSR. They are not mentioning CSR, instead they want their customer to sense that everything they do is connected to CSR. They want to project CSR as a way of living and that should be felt all trough their business idea from production to the customer without ever mentioning abbreviation CSR. These are the two major different approaches I found during my research.  

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Norén, Viveca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Norén, Viveca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    When water becomes a threat: Risk assessment and risk management plans for floods and drinking water in Swedish practice2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is an essential but vulnerable resource. A shortage of good quality drinking water is a threat to human health and society as a whole. Abundance of water in the form of floods can also be a serious threat which can have consequences for the drinking water supply. To reduce these risks there is a need for systematic risk reduction. In the last decades a risk management approach has been developed in the management of both flood and drinking water risks. This means that a reactive, ad hoc management is being replaced by a more proactive and systematic approach where risks are analysed and evaluated as a basis for prioritising counter-measures. The complex nature of water issues has also made it evident that there is a need for a holistic view of the management, involving a variety of actors and sectors. An integrated management approach to floods and water resources has emerged.

    This thesis aims to examine how local level risk management, especially risk assessments, of floods and drinking water supply have been or can be performed in practice in Sweden. The existing practices have been characterised in relation to current risk management frameworks. Furthermore, the thesis aims to investigate how the effects of flood on drinking water supply have been considered in risk assessment methods and in flood risk management plans, as well as whether flood and drinking water risks have been considered in an integrated manner. The studies are based on interviews with flood risk managers in Swedish municipalities and Swedish water producers as well as on document studies of risk assessment methods and flood risk management plans.

    There are large variations between different municipalities and water producers in how, and to what extent, risk assessments have been performed. Some have performed very little, if any, risk assessment while others have worked systematically. The tools used are often those that are promoted by national agencies and are often less advanced than those described in the literature. The risk assessments do not always cover all relevant aspects of the risk and few actors have discussed an acceptable risk level. Flood risk assessments focus mostly on the exposure of objects to flood and investigate the consequences of such an exposure only to a limited extent. The incomplete risk assessments may result in a biased view of the risk which in turn can lead to poor decision-making. The theoretical knowledge about risk management is in many cases low and there is still often a practical approach. Strategic and holistic approaches are mostly lacking.

    The consequences of flood on drinking water supply are not known in detail and are not considered in detail in risk assessments commonly used in Sweden. There is an awareness of the need to coordinate the management of flood and water resources. However, despite the good intentions regarding integration, there are few signs in the risk assessments and risk management plans that integration is actually occurring.

    Both the risk management approach and integrated management have started to be implemented in Swedish flood and drinking water risk management. It is however on a basic level and it is still a long way to go. Further guidance and knowledge about risk management as well as commitment from and collaboration among all actors concerned is needed to make this development possible.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Häggsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala
    Nygren, Kristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nygren, Kristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Magnetron Sputtering of Nanocomposite Carbide Coatings for Electrical Contacts2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s electronic society relies on the functionality of electrical contacts. To achieve good contact properties, surface coatings are normally applied. Such coatings should ideally fulfill a combination of different properties, like high electrical conductivity, high corrosion resistance, high wear resistance and low cost. A common coating strategy is to use noble metals since these do not form insulating surface oxides. However, such coatings are expensive, have poor wear resistance and they are often applied by electroplating, which poses environmental and human health hazards.

    In this thesis, nanocomposite carbide-based coatings were studied and the aim was to evaluate if they could exhibit properties that were suitable for electrical contacts. Coatings in the Cr-C, Cr-C-Ag and Nb-C systems were deposited by magnetron sputtering using research-based equipment as well as industrial-based equipment designed for high-volume production. To achieve the aim, the microstructure and composition of the coatings were characterized, whereas mechanical, tribological, electrical, electrochemical and optical properties were evaluated. A method to optically measure the amount of carbon was developed.

    In the Cr-C system, a variety of deposition conditions were explored and amorphous carbide/amorphous carbon (a-C) nanocomposite coatings could be obtained at substrate temperatures up to 500 °C. The amount of a-C was highly dependent on the total carbon content. By co-sputtering with Ag, coatings comprising an amorphous carbide/carbon matrix, with embedded Ag nanoclusters, were obtained. Large numbers of Ag nanoparticles were also found on the surfaces. In the Nb-C system, nanocrystalline carbide/a-C coatings could be deposited. It was found that the nanocomposite coatings formed very thin passive films, consisting of both oxide and a-C.

    The Cr-C coatings exhibited low hardness and low-friction properties. In electrochemical experiments, the Cr-C coatings exhibited high oxidation resistance. For the Cr-C-Ag coatings, the Ag nanoparticles oxidized at much lower potentials than bulk Ag. Overall, electrical contact resistances for optimized samples were close to noble metal references at low contact load. Thus, the studied coatings were found to have properties that make them suitable for electrical contact applications.

  • Ardakani, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ardakani, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Makrofossilanalys av en järnåldersboplats i Gamla Uppsala2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been several excavations in Old Uppsala over the years and decades since the area has been inhabited since the Iron Age. The most recent excavation took place in connection with the construction of a railway tunnel, which is a part of the East Link project. The object of an archaeological excavation is to obtain information about the way in which previous civilizations lived in a specific location, what kind of crops were cultivated, what kind of tool were being used, and so forth. In order to obtain information about prehistoric settlements, archaeologists use a variety of different methods. One of these methods is called macrofossil analysis. By using macrofossil analysis, seeds and cereals, in the shape of macrofossils, can be extracted from soil samples. By analysing macrofossils, it is possible to obtain information about buildings and thereby establishing their purposes, for instance residence, barn, and so forth. In this thesis work, macrofossil analysis was used as a way to establish the different functions of three buildings from an Iron Age settlement in Old Uppsala.

  • Daivadanamn, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Daivadanamn, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Dahl, Jo-Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Empowering towards healthy behaviours2016In: Ending Childhood Obesity: Actions through health and food equity, Uppsala University, 2016, 34-39 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:15 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Natural resources and sustainable energy: Growth rates and resource flows for low-carbon systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy technologies is important for counteracting anthropogenic climate change and achieving universal energy access. This thesis explores potential growth rates of technologies necessary to reach a more sustainable global energy system, the material and energy flows required to commission these technologies, and potential future availability of the required resources.

    These issues are investigated in five papers. Potential future growth rates of wind energy and solar photovoltaics, and the associated material requirements are explored, taking the expected service life of these technologies into account. Methodology for assessing net energy return and natural resource use for wind energy systems are analyzed. Potential future availability of lithium and phosphate rock are also investigated.

    Estimates of energy and materials required for technologies such as wind energy and photovoltaics vary, and depend on the assumptions made and methods used. Still, it is clear that commissioning of low-carbon technologies on the scale required to reach and sustain a low-carbon energy system in coming decades requires significant quantities of both bulk materials and scarcer resources. For some technologies, such as thin film solar cells and electric vehicles with lithium-ion batteries, availability of materials could become an issue for potential growth rates. Future phosphate rock production could become highly dependent on few countries, and potential political, social and environmental aspects of this should be investigated in more detail.

    Material and energy flows should be considered when analyzing growth rates of low-carbon technologies. Their estimated service life can indicate sustainable growth rates of technologies, as well as when materials are available for end-of-life recycling. Resource constrained growth curve models can be used to explore future production of natural resources. A higher disaggregation of these models can enable more detailed analysis of potential constraints. This thesis contributes to the discussion on how to create a more sustainable global energy system, but the methods to assess current and future energy and material flows, and availability of natural resources, should be further developed in the future.

  • Hirvonen, Elina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hirvonen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Strömblad, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Bananer kan inte klättra": Strategier för förhandling och kommunikation i lek i en förskoleklass2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens ansats var att undersöka vilka strategier för förhandling och kommunikation eleverna i en förskoleklass uppvisade under fri lek och hur detta hängde samman med elevgruppens lokala kamratkultur. Syftet var att undersöka hur eleverna använde strategier för kommunikation i leken och om leken kan ge möjligheter för språkutvecklande arbete. Observationer av den fria leken gjordes med hjälp av filmkameror och stödanteckningar och transkriberades sedan för vidare analys. Studien utgick från ett sociokulturellt perspektiv samt Corsaros teorier om kamratkultur. Analysen visade att språket var ett centralt verktyg inom strategierna för kommunikation för de observerade eleverna att använda vid förhandling i lek. Genom och inom leken skapade de sig nya kunskaper om språket och det sociala samspelet. Eleverna använde sig av både det verbala språket och kroppsspråket i samspelet mellan varandra och uppvisade goda kommunikativa förmågor genom att använda dessa verktyg på olika sätt. De skapade gemensam mening om olika ord och begrepp och förhandlade om kamratkultur genom språket. Vi såg hur eleverna omformade delar av vuxenkultur för att skapa sig eget utrymme och undkomma regler och normer satta av vuxenvärlden. De olika strategier för kommunikation som eleverna använde sig av gav olika möjligheter att påverka gruppen och de normer och kunskaper som formades där.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Evolution of symbiotic lineages and the origin of new traits2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the genomic study of symbionts of two different groups of hymenopterans: bees and ants. Both groups of insects have major ecological impact, and investigating their microbiomes increases our understanding of their health, diversity and evolution.

    The study of the bee gut microbiome, including members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, revealed genomic processes related to the adaptation to the gut environment, such as the expansion of genes for carbohydrate metabolism and the acquisition of genes for interaction with the host. A broader genomic study of these genera demonstrated that some lineages evolve under strong and opposite substitution biases, leading to extreme GC content values. A comparison of codon usage patterns in these groups revealed ongoing shifts of optimal codons.

    In a separate study we analysed the genomes of several strains of Lactobacillus kunkeei, which inhabits the honey stomach of bees but is not found in their gut. We observed signatures of genome reduction and suggested candidate genes for host-interaction processes. We discovered a novel type of genome architecture where genes for metabolic functions are located in one half of the genome, whereas genes for information processes are located in the other half. This genome organization was also found in other Lactobacillus species, indicating that it was an ancestral feature that has since been retained. We suggest mechanisms and selective forces that may cause the observed organization, and describe processes leading to its loss in several lineages independently.

    We also studied the genome of a species of Rhizobiales bacteria found in ants. We discuss its metabolic capabilities and suggest scenarios for how it may affect the ants’ lifestyle. This genome contained a region with homology to the Bartonella gene transfer agent (GTA), which is a domesticated bacteriophage used to transfer bacterial DNA between cells. We propose that its unique behaviour as a specialist GTA, preferentially transferring host-interaction factors, originated from a generalist GTA that transferred random segments of chromosomal DNA.

    These bioinformatic analyses of previously uncharacterized bacterial lineages have increased our understanding of their physiology and evolution and provided answers to old and new questions in fundamental microbiology.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Exploring next-generation sequencing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have led to major breakthroughs in the characterization of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) genome with discovery of recurrent mutations of potential prognostic and/or predictive relevance. However, before NGS can be introduced into clinical practice, the precision of the techniques needs to be studied in better detail. Furthermore, much remains unknown about the genetic mechanisms leading to aggressive disease and resistance to treatment. Hence, in Paper I, the technical performance of a targeted deep sequencing panel including 9 genes was evaluated in 188 CLL patients. We were able to validate 143/155 (92%) selected mutations through Sanger sequencing and 77/82 mutations were concordant in a second targeted sequencing run, indicating that the technique can be introduced in clinical practice. In Paper II we screened 18 NF-κB pathway genes in 315 CLL patients through targeted deep sequencing which revealed a recurrent 4 base-pair deletion in the NFKBIE gene. Screening of NFKBIE in 377 additional cases identified the mutation in ~6% of all CLL patients. We demonstrate that the lesion lead to aberrant NF-κB signaling through impaired interaction with p65 and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. In Paper III we sought to delineate the genetic lesions that leads to relapse after fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab treatment. Through whole-exome sequencing of pre-treatment and relapse samples from 41 cases we found evidence of frequent selection of subclones harboring driver mutations and subsequent clonal evolution following treatment. We also detected mutations in the ribosomal protein RPS15 in 8 cases (19.5%) and characterization of the mutations through functional assays point to impaired p53 regulation in cells with mutated RPS15. Paper IV aimed at characterizing 70 patients assigned to three major subsets (#1, #2, and #4) through whole-genome sequencing. Besides recurrent exonic driver mutations, we report non-coding regions significantly enriched for mutations in subset #1 and #2 that may facilitate future molecular studies. Collectively, this thesis supports the potential of targeted sequencing for mutational screening of CLL in clinical practice, provides novel insight into the pathobiology of aggressive CLL, and demonstrates the clinical outcome and cellular effects of NFKBIE and RPS15 mutations. 

  • Thi Trinh, Hoa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Thi Trinh, Hoa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Om kedjebråk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Scott, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Scott, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Introduction to Representation Theory of Quivers2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nordin, Leia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Nordin, Leia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Svensson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Algebraiskt tänkande i antik grekisk matematik2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Å2005, Uppsala
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Glass Ionomer Cements with Improved Bioactive and Antibacterial Properties2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental restorative cements are placed in a harsh oral environment where they are subjected to thermal shock, chemical degradation, and repeating masticatory force. The ideal restorative dental cements should have superior mechanical properties, chemical stability, aesthetic, good handling properties, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, and preferably bioactivity. This thesis presents research on dental restorative cements with enhanced properties. The overall aim was to increase the bioactivity and antibacterial properties of dental restorative cements without affecting their other properties.

    The effect from adding calcium silicate to glass ionomer cement (GIC) was investigated. The results showed that calcium silicate could increase the bioactivity and reduce the cytotoxicity of conventional glass ionomer cement without compromising its setting and mechanical properties.

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) with a high aspect ratio and thin nacreous-layered monetite sheets were also synthesized. Nano HA particles with an aspect ratio of 50 can be synthesized by both precipitation and hydrothermal methods. The aspect ratio was controlled via the pH of reaction medium. Thin nacreous-layered monetite sheets were synthesized through a self-assembly process in the presence of an amine based cationic quaternary surfactant. Temperature, pH, and presence of surfactant played essential roles in forming the nacreous-layered monetite sheets. Then the effect from adding silver doped HA and monetite particles was investigated. The results showed that the antibacterial properties of GIC could be increased by incorporating silver doped HA and monetite particles. Further examination showed that the pH change, F- ion release, and concentration of released Ag+ ions were not responsible for the improved antibacterial properties.

    The quasi-static strengths and compressive fatigue limits of four types of the most commonly used dental restorations were evaluated. In our study, resin modified GIC and resin-based composite showed superior static compressive strength and fatigue limits compared to conventional GIC. The static compressive strength of dental cements increased with the aging time. However, aging had no effect on the compressive fatigue limit of resin modified GIC and resin-based composite. The compressive fatigue limit of conventional GIC even showed a drastic decrease after aging.

  • Wrigstedt, Satu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wrigstedt, Satu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Yngre barns tidsuppfattning och matematiska samt historiska tänkande: - ett tidsband från människans uppkomst på jorden till nutid.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektarbetet syftar till att undersöka hur yngre elever, 7-10 år, upplever tid och vad de tycker är viktigt i mänsklighetens historia samt att utveckla ett tidsband över mänsklighetens historia som kan vara användbart i undervisningen av elever i åk 1-3.

  • Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Towards a standardized discussion of priors in Bayesian analyses of 14C dated archaeological periods: a study based on the dates from Gjøsund2016In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 19, 1-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on Swedish and Scandinavian contract archaeology and 14C dating. It is a follow-up of a case study by Diinhoff and Slinning (2013), who discuss the 14C dating of a house from the Early Iron Age at Gjøsund, Ålesund, Norway. Their discussion is methodical and well-focussed, but intuitive when it comes to analysing 14C dates as probability distributions. Taking the case study forward, the same house is dated again using the same 14C dates. In the present contribution, the discussion is meant to suggest a more standardized approach to the chronological analysis of 14C dates of periods, such as the lifetime of a house. Having presented a methodical procedure, Diinhoff and Slinning’s case is updated following the suggested procedure. Finally, their 14C dates are introduced to Bayesian statistics using the BCal calibration tool, Beck et al. (1999).

  • Hjälte, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Hjälte, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Fredin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Minimiarmering enligt Eurokod: En jämförelse mellan EKS 9 och EKS 102016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the minimum reinforcement inconcrete structures and the changes made in theregulations on this with the introduction of EKS 10. EKS10, which was introduced January 1, 2016, is theswedish national annex to the common Eurocode. Theintroduction of EKS 10 has meant that more chaptersfrom Eurocode have been adapted to swedishconditions and that the requirements for minimumreinforcement has been mitigated.As part of the thesis a calculation template has beencreated in Microsoft Excel designed to facilitate thecalculation of minimum reinforcement forByggnadstekniska byrån in Stockholm. In addition tocreating the template, common concrete sections havebeen analyzed with respect to the reinforcementquantities and the economy.The results show that the minimum amount ofreinforcement has been reduced in all of the crosssectionexamined in this thesis. The amendedprovisions have had the consequence that the minimumquantity of rienforcement in respect to reduction ofcrack width in beams and slabs have been decreased bybetween 10 and 32 percent. For walls the minimumamount of vertical reinforcement fallen by 50 percent inslender walls and by 100 percent non slender walls,while the minimum horizontal rienforcement decreasedby 75 and 100 percent respectively.According to the calculations done for a supposedexample floor, this causes a potential reduction inmaterial costs of up to 65 or 118 SEK per square meter,depending on whether or not the walls are regarded asslender.

  • Öhman, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Öhman, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wear on Alumina Coated Tools and the Influence of Inclusions when Turning Low-Alloy Steels: Master Thesis - Chemical Engineering2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis, performed at Sandvik Coromant Västberga (Stockholm), a comprehensive study has been made to investigate the wear on textured alumina (Inveio™) coated cutting tools when turning low-alloy steels. Specifically, wear studies have been made on tools’ rake faces when turning two separate batches of SS2541, after an initial turning time of 4 min. A particular focus has been given to elucidate what particular role the inclusions might have for the wear of the alumina coating onthe tools. Evaluation of tool wear has been made by employing several different analytical techniques, such as LOM, SEM, Wyko, Auger-spectrometry (AES), EPMA and XRD.

    The results shows that the arisen wear marks on both tested tool types may be divided into three separate and highly distinguishable wear zones, denoted here in thiswork as “wear bands”. Largest amount of wear tended to occur initially at the topmost part of the 3rd wear band. This was true for both tested tool types. This area demonstrated a characteristic 'lamellar' wear pattern, composed of narrow andstructured ridges.

    All the tools tested demonstrated the adhesion of workpiece materials of various composition that formed into smeared layers in these formed ridges. Depth-profiling Auger-spectrometry revealed that a significant amount of calcium was present in the machined alumina coating layers. This suggests that a reaction between the calcium-containing inclusions found in the steel and the aluminacoating layer had occurred during the performed turning tests.These results arecontradictory to the general belief that alumina is chemical inert during machiningand has previously, to the authors knowledge, not yet been published.

    Based on the results from this thesis and from a literature review concerning thebehavior of α-alumina during deformation, a new theoretical wear model has been developed. In this model, it is emphasised that the sliding of hard inclusions from the steel may activate pyramidal slip systems in the textured alumina coating. This causes a nano-crystallisation and/or amorphisation in the topmost part of the coating, which facilitates the further wear of these coated tools.

  • Sun, Yunchen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Sun, Yunchen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    System Customisation under Multiview Framework: Analysis and design for a web information system in a small and medium-sized enterprise2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Mandilaris, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mandilaris, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    An Empirical Study on Socio-Hydrology and the HistoricalEvolution of Flood Riskin Pori, Finland2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is continuously growing all over the world. Both developing and developed countries encourage rapid expansion for increased growth and production. However, urbanization in combination with climate change can lead to higher chances of extreme flood events. Mankind always settled around rivers and floodplains that are naturally more flood prone areas, making stormwater modeling and urban planning indispensable for safety and reduction of flood risk.Until now many important studies have been conducted on the dangers of living in floodplains of urbanized cities, but most of them are about developing countries such as Bangladesh or Vietnam, leaving a noticeable gap in the developed world. However, all these researches share one thing in common as they do not take into account the interactions between water and society by ignoring the constantly changing human factor.Socio-hydrology is a new branch of hydrology closely related to Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) that tries to explore this dynamic relationship. This study explores the historical evolution of a highly urbanized industrial city in Finland and attempts to understand both the human and engineering effects of urbanization. The city of Pori is the most flood prone area in Finland, which makes for an important study that will yield important results and possible recommendations for future research, while for the first time incorporating socio-hydrology, the human factor and flood risk in a major European city.This is an empirical project with data collected from various different sources put all together for the first time that could change the perceptions of both inhabitants and scientists and be the basis for a more thorough, modeling based research in the future. The research question of this dissertation is how socio-hydrological dynamics have affected flood risk changes over the past decades in the city of Pori.

  • Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bradby, Hannah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Adventures in Human Being2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Högberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Högberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    ”Enklare, oftare, snabbare”: En statistisk analys av resandeförändringarvid busslinjeomläggning i Västerås2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Degree Project aims to find out howthe number of travelers changed in thepublic transport system in Västerås whenthe line network was redrawn in theproject SmartKoll. For a start of thisthesis, a description is given of thecentral parts of the redrawing of the linenetwork and changes in the publictransport system in Västerås. The data ofthe numbers of travelers before and afterthe redrawing constituted the firstestimation of how the numbers of travelershas changed.

    In order to explain the changes in thenumber of passengers, two factors areidentified which are supported by thescientific research to be assumed to havean influence on the numbers of travelers.These influencing factors are headway andtravel speed. The two factors are thenused in a correlation analysis using bothPearson product-moment correlations andSpearman rank correlation. The correlationanalysis is aimed to see if there is anysignificant correlation between theinfluencing factors and the number ofpassengers. Finally, this thesis containsa regression analysis that intends todevelop mathematical models whose purposeis to describe the relationships betweenthe changes of the two influencing factorsand the number of passengers.

    The result showed that the number ofpassengers has increased by 7 percent, asan average of the areas. The influencingfactor headway had a statisticalsignificant correlation with the number ofpassengers and was thereby the factor thataffected the numbers of travelers themost.

  • Shanagar, Rawaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Shanagar, Rawaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    "Medeltiden är förbi": Moderniteten och 1826 års förslag till allmän civillag2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Young, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Young, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Troha, Gregory
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social Roles in Virtual World Games: A case study of the social role of rated battleground leader in World of Warcraft2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Tigerström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Tigerström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Micropayments through cryptocurrency mining2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The monetary policies of states and systems built upon them do not naturally allow transactions of a very small value, as the transaction costs exceeds the actual value of the transaction. These types of transactions are called micropayments. This is problematic as it removes the possibility to monetize content that has a valuation that is so low that the costs of the transaction exceeds the value of the content.

    In this thesis we aim to create a system that allows micropayments to monetize low value content. We do so by developing a design theory based on Gregor and Jones conceptual model for design theories within Information Systems research. The system that we develop will use the end users computational power to generate a value, by running a cryptocurrency miner.

    We present the background knowledge required to fully understand the presented design theory. Within the design theory, we present a theoretical framework to base systems on that enables micropayments through cryptocurrency mining. We also present a developed proof of work prototype that proves the validity of the theoretical framework.

    Lastly we discuss our design theory. We conclude that the design theory enables transactions of a very low value, such as 0,0001 \$ cents. Transactions of such small value is not possible with systems built upon states monetary policies. We also conclude that the proposed design theory can be further developed to function independently of cryptocurrency mining. Instead the value for the transaction could be generated through solving complicated problems if institutions are willing to pay for computational power to solve them.

  • Bengtsson de Veen, Lukas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Bengtsson de Veen, Lukas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Skuggorna vilar i ljuset: En studie av det naturlyriska subjektet hos Tomas Tranströmer, Per Westermark och Bengt Anderberg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wendel, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wendel, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    IKT som stöd i undervisningen: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare ser på användningen av digitala hjälpmedel i undervisningen 2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöker jag hur lärare ser på användningen av IKT i undervisningen. Jag fokuserar på tre olika infallsvinklar: hur lärare använder digitala hjälpmedel för att stödja elevers språkinlärning, vad lärare uppger att elevernas tycker om digitala hjälpmedel i undervisningen samt vad lärare uppger är möjligheter respektive begränsningar med att använda IKT i skolan.

    Undersökningen har jag genomfört genom kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra verksamma lärare inom årskurs F-2. Intervjuerna spelades in och leddes med hjälp av en intervjuguide.

    De teoretiska utgångspunkterna grundar sig i aktuell forskning om möjligheter och begränsningar med IKT i undervisningen. Då det råder delade meningar om IKT hjälper elevers lärande eller har negativ inverkan på lärandet, använder jag mig av båda dessa perspektiv i analysen.

    Resultatet av studien visade att lärare uppger att användningen av IKT i undervisningen stödjer elevers språkinlärning, att utifrån respondenternas perspektiv så tycker eleverna att IKT i undervisningen är givande och intressant, samt att lärare kan identifiera både möjligheter respektive begränsningar med IKT. Möjligheterna inkluderar bland annat en ny dimension i undervisningen, motiverande arbetsuppgifter för eleverna, samt att det ger omväxling från ordinarie skoluppgifter. Som begränsningar angavs bland annat problem med att få tekniken att fungera, att det är tidskrävande att lära sig att använda tekniken, samt att det finns brist på digitala hjälpmedel på skolorna vilket i sin tur påverkar utsträckningen att kunna använda IKT i undervisningen.

  • Sjöqvist, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöqvist, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    I mötet med elevers behov och förutsättningar: en kvalitativ studie om pedagogers perspektiv i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie kommer belysa den enskilda pedagogens syn på elevers behov och förutsättningar i skolan. Studien innehåller reflektioner över det egna arbetet och konkreta arbetsmetoder för yrkesverksamma pedagoger.

     

    Den verksamma pedagogens arbete vilar på läroplanens värdegrund. Värdegrunden är gällande för samtliga skolverksamheter i landet och sätter de värden som skolan ska arbeta för. I läroplanens första del skildras skolans centrala värden, däribland om en likvärdig utbildning för alla elever och anpassning utefter deras behov (Skolverket, 2011a).

    Utgångspunkten för denna uppsats börjar där, om pedagogens arbete med elevers behov. Syftet är att kartlägga deras lika och olika uppfattning om behov och förutsättningar. För att möta studiens syfte har en kvalitativ arbetsmetod valts där tre respondenter redogör för sitt arbete och uppfattningar. Läsaren kommer att guidas genom skolans organisation, Skolverkets riktlinjer och pedagogers enskilda uppfattningar som tematiskt analyserats utifrån teoretiska utgångspunkter och tidigare forskning. Detta föranleder till slutsatser om pedagoger som ser elever som enskilda individer med olika behov och förutsättningar samt hur arbetstillvägagångsätten starkt förknippas med kollegiet men också utav resurser.

  • Ljunglöf, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ljunglöf, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    "Folk med fina konton har roligare liv": En kvalitativ studie kring Facebooks påverkan på unga och unga vuxnas självkänsla ur ett intersektionellt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: Arbetet syftar till att undersöka hur unga och unga vuxna konstruerar sina profiler på Facebook och på vilket sätt nätverkssidan påverkar deras självkänsla.Särskilt viktigt är detta då studier har påvisat att självkänsla och psykisk ohälsa är direkt korrelerade.Då tidigare studier saknat ett intersektionellt perspektiv utifrån subjektiva upplevelser av sociala medier är det en viss kunskapslucka som denna studie hoppas kunna bidra till att fylla. Studien har utförts genom intervjuer av unga och unga vuxna mellan 16 och 25 år, med olika tillskrivna kategorier av kön och klass. Genom innehållsanalyser av intervjuerna har centrala teman framtagits och analyserats för att svara på frågeställningarna.Studien verkar för att utifrån Goffmans teorier om “jaget”, Butlers teori om den performativa identiteten och med ett intersektionellt perspektiv förstå hur unga och unga vuxna konstruerar sina liv på Facebook och vad detta har för betydelse för deras självkänsla.Informanterna diskuterar olika normer och idealbilder på Facebook och hur detta påverkar vad de kan lägga upp. Beroende på samspelet mellan de intersektionella kategorierna är olika idealbilder framträdande bland informanterna. “Att inte vara för mycket”, att vara “humoristisk” och att se “anständig ut” är några av dessa idealbilder.Arbetet lyfter även ett centralt tema bland informanterna gällande “den tysta mobbningen” och hur bilder och profiler på Facebook kan leda till en subtil utfrysning av specifika individer. En viktig aspekt som framkommit genom undersökningen är unga och unga vuxnas efterfrågan efter förståelse från vuxna, då de upplever att vad som sker på Internet inte ses som något allvarligt bland vuxna de diskuterat detta med. För professionella inom det sociala arbetet är det viktigt att unga och unga vuxnas upplevelser på Internet tas på allvar, för att kunna ge stöd och för att motverka en låg självkänsla då det kan bidra till andra samhällsproblem.

  • Berglund, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Berglund, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Community-based conservation in Peruvian Amazon. Attempts to save the red uakari of Loreto2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. In Peru, the population of a very rare monkey species called the red uakari (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) lives in the Amazon rainforest in an area called Loreto. The natural resources of Loreto have been exploited due to large anthropogenic pressure which has affected the biodiversity. This thesis focuses on two areas that are now protected; one conservation concession and one community-based conservation reserve, each led by two biologists and researchers. The theory of the tragedy of the commons – a concept first described by Garrett Hardin in an article in the scientific journal Science in 1968 – will be taken into consideration and analysed when studying the common gains to protect the forest, as well as the over usage of resources. This thesis investigates in a qualitative way the risks of overexploiting the rainforest and the actions taken to preserve it, and hence saving the red uakari from becoming extinct. A combination of semi-structured interviews with the two biologists and content analysis of some of their work, amongst others, will assist in the outcome of this thesis, which is intended to be used for future protection of inhabited lands in rainforests that run the risk of being overexploited due to external commercial interests. The supposition of my study was to get a better understanding of community-based action to protect a specific space in an area that is under a great deal of external pressure and it shows that collective action and involvement of local community often has positive outcome.

  • Berdin, Davide
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Berdin, Davide
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    PARLA: mobile application for English pronunciation. A supervised machine learning approach.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Learning and improving a second language is fundamental in the globalised world we live in. In particular, English is the common tongue used everyday by billions of people and the necessity of having good pronunciation in order to avoid misunderstanding is higher then ever. Smartphones and other mobile devices have rapidly become an every-day technology with endless potential given the large size of screens as well as the high portability. Old-fashioned language courses are very useful and important, however using the technology for picking up a new language in an automatic way with less time to dedicated to this process is still a challenge and an open research field. In this thesis, we describe a new method to improve the English language pronunciation of non-native speakers through the usage of a smartphone, using a machine learning approach. The aim is to provide the right tools for those users that want to quickly improve their English pronunciation without attending an actual course. The tests have been conducted on users using the application for two weeks. The results show that the proposed approach is not particularly effective on people due the difficulty in understanding the feedback we delivered.

  • Wedmark, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Wedmark, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    A small scale, high resolution magnetic survey at the archaeological site of Birka, Sweden1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high resolution magnetic survey was carried out at the archaeological site of Birka, situated approximately 20 km west of Stockholm. A new-generation optically pumped cesium magnetometer, G-858 from Geometrics, with a maximum sensitivity of 0.01 nT was used in the survey. An area of totally 504 m2 was covered in three windy days in September 1997 with the cesium magnetometer working in vertical-gradient mode. Remnants of the old houses, some of the oldest ditches and an earlier excavation could be seen in the gradient data after processing. Also a total-field measurement was carried out to search for the oldest defence wall at Birka. The bad positioning that followed with the continuous-scan mode made the data very difficult to process efficiently. Some processing was done in Matlab to eliminate effects that might be caused by the geology, but no substantial archaeological results emerged.This work shows that high resolution magnetic surveys can be efficient in detecting archaeological remains even in a very heterogeneous soil, provided very sensitive equipment and correct choice of method. It also emphasized the importance of good positioning in a survey.

  • Anwar, Deka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Anwar, Deka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Path to Dominance - Disaggregating Intra-rebel Conflict between Parent and Splinter Group in Separatist Insurgency: Case Study of Moro National Liberation Front - Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines, and Karen National Union - Democratic Karen Buddhist Army in Burma2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Common beliefs posit that rebel fragmentation and the emergence of splinter groups are often associated with intra-rebel violence. However, empirical evidence suggests that it is not always the case: there are cases of non-lethal competition between parent and splinter groups across time and terrain. This study explores the cause of lethal and non-lethal conflict between parent and splinter group that represent ethno-nationalist identity. By using theories of rational choice and outbidding strategy, I argue that lethal intra-rebel conflict are less likely when there is a balanced distribution of power between parent and splinter groups, subsequent to organizational fragmentation. This is because intra-rebel conflict against formidable opponents is costly. Further, it presents an existential threat in the event of counterinsurgency or retaliation. Thus, it is expected that rebel groups are more likely to employ non-lethal outbidding strategy in order to become the sole representation of their ethnic group. Using the method of structured focused comparison, this hypothesis is tested by comparing Moro insurgencies in Philippines and Karen insurgencies in Burma. The main finding demonstrates partial support to the causality of distribution power to the lethality of outbidding strategies. In addition, the empirical analysis also shows state intervention and social ties as influencing lethal intra-rebel conflict.

  • Sjödin, Sophia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sjödin, Sophia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    The Forest Fire in Västmanland, South Central Sweden, and its Effects on Soils and Forest Recovery2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forest fires can have a great impact on the relationship between soil organic matter (SOM) and soilbulk density (SBD). SOM will reduce with increased fire intensity, which ultimately leads to more compaction of the soil. The compaction rate might increase to the limit of where root growth will be absent thus leading to actions to restore the soil. This study investigates changes in the relationship between SOM and SBD in spodosol and histosol in Seglingsberg, located in South-central Sweden, where a forest fire occurred summer 2014.  In addition, changes of pH values in the two types of soilwere examined in order to receive information about the chemical states of the different soil types.A total of 29 samples at depths of 0-17 cm were received from one day of fieldwork and these were later analysed concerning the pH, the SBD and the SOM content. The results showed an increase of pH-values in the fire-exposed area compared to pH values measured at the reference site (pH ~5). More importantly, the results from the SBD and SOM analyses indicated that there was in fact an inversely proportional relationship between the two soil parameters. In addition, high pH values were measured at the same subareas of which the highest SBD- and the lowest SOM values were obtained.Statistical analyses were applied on the results in order to conclude if the soil property changes caused by the fire were significantly different from normal conditions or not. The results from the statistical analyses revealed that 25% of the fire-exposed sites had changed significantly. However, more samples should have been taken while in field, since lack of data is thought to have had a great impact on the final results.Although there were no strong statistical evidence for the hypothesis, it is clear that the forest firein Västmanland year 2014 affected both the SOM, SBD and pH values in the soils.

  • Thörnelöf, Ivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Thörnelöf, Ivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Increasing Recycling through Container Deposit: A Fixed Effects analysis of the Swedish increase in Container Deposit September 20102016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyze the impact on recycling from the increase in the deposit on metal cans that took place in Sweden, September 2010. This is done by using a fixed effects model, fixed on municipality, month, and year. Additionally, the thesis investigates the response of different socioeconomic groups to this change by investigating the interaction between deposit and variables for the socioeconomic factors of interest. Interactions for income, education, immigration, environmental awareness, and population density are investigated. The results show that, on avarage, the recycling in each of the Swedish municipalities have increased by 24.739 units per month, this represents an elasticity of recycling with respect to container deposit of 0.04. The results further indicate that there is strong negative interaction between deposit and income, suggesting that as income increases, the individual will be less responsive to a change in deposit. Contrary to theory, the results indicate positive interaction between deposit and education, indicating that, as education increases the individual becomes more responsive to a change in deposit.

  • Hjort, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hjort, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Future directions in the study of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars with the James Webb Space Telescope2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present photometric predictions for C-type Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (AGB) stars from Eriksson et al. (2014) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) instruments. The photometric predictions we have done are for JWST’s general purpose wide-band filters on NIRCam and MIRI covering wavelengths of 0.7 — 21 microns. AGB stars contribute substantially to the integrated light of intermediate-age stellar popula- tions and is a substantial source of the metals (especially carbon) in galaxies. Studies of AGB stars are (among other reasons) important for the understanding of the chemical evolution and dust cycle of galaxies. Since the JWST is scheduled for launch in 2018 it should be a high priority to prepare observing strategies. With these predictions we hope it will be possible to optimize observing strategies of AGB stars and maximize the science return of JWST. By testing our method on Whitelock et al. (2006) objects from the WISE catalog and comparing them with our photometric results based on Eriksson et al. (2014) we have been able to fit 20 objects with models.

    The photometric data set can be accessed at: http://www.astro.uu.se/AGBmodels/

  • Holming, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Holming, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Avtal om deal protection vid offentliga uppköpserbjudanden: Det nya förbudet i takeover-reglernas punkt II.17a2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första februari år 2015 infördes, i linje med motsvarande reglering i engelska Takeover Code, ett förbud mot budrelaterade arrangemang i takeover-reglerna. Vilka avtal förbudet omfattar och i vilka fall dispens kan beviljas utreds i det här arbetet. Bland annat på grund av dess nära relation till den svenska regleringen har dess engelska förebild getts en central roll i analysen. Några av de viktigaste slutsatserna är att irrevocables inte torde omfattas av förbudet och att vissa krav för hur budrelaterade arrangemang får utformas torde gälla även i de situationer då dispens enligt kommentaren till förbudet kan beviljas.