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  • Gustafsson, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Rostami, Jinar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nordström, Eva
    BioArct AB, Stockholm.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Alpha-synuclein oligomer-selective antibodies reduce intracellular accumulation and mitochondrial impairment in alpha-synuclein exposed astrocytes2017In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, ISSN 1742-2094, E-ISSN 1742-2094, Vol. 14, article id 241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to its neurotoxic properties, oligomeric alpha-synuclein (α-syn) has been suggested as an attractive target for passive immunization against Parkinson’s disease (PD). In mouse models of PD, antibody treatment has been shown to lower the levels of pathogenic α-syn species, including oligomers, although the mechanisms of action remain unknown. We have previously shown that astrocytes rapidly engulf α-syn oligomers that are intracellularly stored, rather than degraded, resulting in impaired mitochondria.

    Methods: The aim of the present study was to investigate if the accumulation of α-syn in astrocytes can be affected by α-syn oligomer-selective antibodies. Co-cultures of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes were derived from embryonic mouse cortex and exposed to α-syn oligomers or oligomers pre-incubated with oligomer-selective antibodies.

    Results: In the presence of antibodies, the astrocytes displayed an increased clearance of the exogenously added α-syn, and consequently, the α-syn accumulation in the culture was markedly reduced. Moreover, the addition of antibodies rescued the astrocytes from the oligomer-induced mitochondrial impairment.

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that oligomer-selective antibodies can prevent α-syn accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured astrocytes.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Université Mohamed Premier, Faculté des Sciences; LPTPM, Oujda.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael U.F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva.
    Measurement of the Drell-Yan triple-differential cross section in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 12, article id 059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a measurement of the triple-differential cross section for the Drell-Yan process Z/γ * + where is an electron or a muon. The measurement is performed for invariant masses of the lepton pairs, m ℓℓ , between 46 and 200 GeV using a sample of 20.2 fb−1 of pp collisions data at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2012. The data are presented in bins of invariant mass, absolute dilepton rapidity, |y ℓℓ|, and the angular variable cos θ * between the outgoing lepton and the incoming quark in the Collins-Soper frame. The measurements are performed in the range |y ℓℓ | < 2.4 in the muon channel, and extended to |y ℓℓ | < 3.6 in the electron channel. The cross sections are used to determine the Z boson forward-backward asymmetry as a function of |y ℓℓ | and m ℓℓ . The measurements achieve high-precision, below the percent level in the pole region, excluding the uncertainty in the integrated luminosity, and are in agreement with predictions. These precision data are sensitive to the parton distribution functions and the effective weak mixing angle.

  • Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Nature Conservancy, Delmont, NJ USA..
    King, Katie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Polpanich, Orn-Uma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lacombe, Guillaume
    Int Water Management Inst, Viangchan, Laos..
    Assessing hydrologic changes across the Lower Mekong Basin2017In: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, ISSN 2214-5818, Vol. 12, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study region: In this study, 33 catchments across the Lower Mekong Basin in Southeast Asia are examined to detect historical changes in their hydrological response via a model-based methodology.

    Study focus: Intensive development over the past half century across Southeast Asia's Lower Mekong Basin has inevitably affected natural resources. Large areas have been converted from forests for subsistence and commercial agriculture, and urban development. We implement an innovative approach to screen hydrologic data for detecting impacts of such large-scale changes on hydrological response. In a first step, temporal changes in the rainfall-runoff relationship were assessed using the parsimonious, two-parameter GR2M hydrological model. In a second step, a distribution-free statistical test was applied to detect whether significant changes have occurred in the wet season (high flow) and dry season (low flow) conditions.

    New hydrological insights for the region: Our results indicate that the majority of catchments (64% of those considered) with sufficiently long data records exhibited no discernable trends in hydrological response. Those catchments that did exhibit significant trends in hydrological response were fairly evenly split between increasing trends (between 21% and 24%) and decreasing trends (between 15% and 12%) with time. There was a lack of evidence that these changes where brought about by shifts in precipitation or potential evapotranspiration; however, catchments exhibiting significant increasing trends in hydrological behavior were found to have different land cover compositions (lower percentage of forest coverage and subsequently higher paddy rice coverage) than those exhibiting significant decreasing trends. The approach presented here provides a potentially valuable screening method to highlight regions for further investigation of improved mechanistic understanding. Without this connection, we might be blind to future hydrological shifts that can have significant impact on development.

  • Mcelhinney, L. M.
    et al.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England.;Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Marston, D. A.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Pounder, K. C.
    Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Goharriz, H.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Wise, E. L.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Jennings, D.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Johnson, N.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Civello, A.
    APHA, Dept Pathol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Nunez, A.
    APHA, Dept Pathol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Brooks, T.
    Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Publ Hlth England, Rare & Imported Pathogens Lab, Salisbury, Wilts, England..
    Breed, A. C.
    APHA, Dept Epidemiol Sci, Weybridge, Surrey, England.;Dept Agr & Water Resources, Epidemiol & Hlth Sect 1, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Lawes, J.
    APHA, Dept Epidemiol Sci, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Featherstone, C. A.
    APHA, Thirsk Vet Invest Ctr, Thirsk, England..
    Fooks, A. R.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England.;Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    High prevalence of Seoul hantavirus in a breeding colony of pet rats2017In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 145, no 15, p. 3115-3124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.

  • Ponce-de-Leon, Miguel
    et al.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Quim, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 1, Madrid, Spain..
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Calle-Espinosa, Jorge
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Quim, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 1, Madrid, Spain..
    Mori, Matteo
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Phys, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Latorre, Amparo
    Univ Valencia, Dept Genet, Valencia, Spain.;Univ Valencia, CSIC, Inst Integrat Syst Biol, Valencia, Spain..
    Montero, Francisco
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Quim, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 1, Madrid, Spain..
    Pereto, Juli
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, Inst Integrat Syst Biol, Valencia, Spain.;Univ Valencia, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol, Valencia, Spain..
    Determinism and Contingency Shape Metabolic Complementation in an Endosymbiotic Consortium2017In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 8, article id 2290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial endosymbionts and their insect hosts establish an intimate metabolic relationship. Bacteria offer a variety of essential nutrients to their hosts, whereas insect cells provide the necessary sources of matter and energy to their tiny metabolic allies. These nutritional complementations sustain themselves on a diversity of metabolite exchanges between the cell host and the reduced yet highly specialized bacterial metabolism-which, for instance, overproduces a small set of essential amino acids and vitamins. A well-known case of metabolic complementation is provided by the cedar aphid Cinara cedri that harbors two co-primary endosymbionts, Buchnera aphidicola BCc and Ca. Serratia symbiotica SCc, and in which some metabolic pathways are partitioned between different partners. Here we present a genome-scale metabolic network (GEM) for the bacterial consortium from the cedar aphid iBSCc. The analysis of this GEM allows us the confirmation of cases of metabolic complementation previously described by genome analysis (i.e., tryptophan and biotin biosynthesis) and the redefinition of an event of metabolic pathway sharing between the two endosymbionts, namely the biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate. In silico knock-out experiments with iBSCc showed that the consortium metabolism is a highly integrated yet fragile network. We also have explored the evolutionary pathways leading to the emergence of metabolic complementation between reduced metabolisms starting from individual, complete networks. Our results suggest that, during the establishment of metabolic complementation in endosymbionts, adaptive evolution is significant in the case of tryptophan biosynthesis, whereas vitamin production pathways seem to adopt suboptimal solutions.

  • Stokke, Caroline
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Diagnost Phys, Oslo, Norway..
    Gabina, Pablo Minguez
    Gurutzeta Cruces Univ Hosp, Dept Med Phys & Radiat Protect, Baracaldo, Spain..
    Solny, Pavel
    Czech Tech Univ, Dept Dosimetry & Applicat Ionizing Radiat, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Cicone, Francesco
    Sapienza Univ Rome, St Andrea Hosp, Dept Surg & Med Sci & Translat Med, Nucl Med, Rome, Italy..
    Sandström, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Gleisner, Katarina Sjögreen
    Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, Clin Sci Lund, Lund, Sweden..
    Chiesa, Carlo
    Fdn IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori, Nucl Med Div, Milan, Italy..
    Spezi, Emiliano
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Engn, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales..
    Paphiti, Maria
    Pammakaristos Hosp, Dept Med Phys, Athens, Greece..
    Konijnenberg, Mark
    Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Aldridge, Matt
    UCL Inst Nucl Med, Nucl Med Radiotherapy Phys, London, England.;UCL Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    Tipping, Jill
    Christie NHS Fdn Trust, Nucl Med, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Wissmeyer, Michael
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Dept Nucl Med, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Brans, Boudewijn
    Univ Hosp, Dept Nucl Med, Ghent, Belgium.;Univ Hosp, PET Ctr, Ghent, Belgium..
    Bacher, Klaus
    Univ Ghent, Div Med Phys, Dept Basic Med Sci, Ghent, Belgium..
    Kobe, Carsten
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Dept Nucl Med, Cologne, Germany..
    Flux, Glenn
    Royal Marsden Hosp, Joint Dept Phys, Sutton, Surrey, England.;Inst Canc Res, Sutton, Surrey, England..
    Dosimetry-based treatment planning for molecular radiotherapy: a summary of the 2017 report from the Internal Dosimetry Task Force2017In: EJNMMI Physics, ISSN 2197-7364, E-ISSN 2191-219X, Vol. 4, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European directive on basic safety standards (Council directive 2013/59 Euratom) mandates dosimetry-based treatment planning for radiopharmaceutical therapies. The directive comes into operation February 2018, and the aim of a report produced by the Internal Dosimetry Task Force of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine is to address this aspect of the directive. A summary of the report is presented. A brief review of five of the most common therapy procedures is included in the current text, focused on the potential to perform patient-specific dosimetry. In the full report, 11 different therapeutic procedures are included, allowing additional considerations of effectiveness, references to specific literature on quantitative imaging and dosimetry, and existing evidence for absorbed dose-effect correlations for each treatment. Individualized treatment planning with tracer diagnostics and verification of the absorbed doses delivered following therapy is found to be scientifically feasible for almost all procedures investigated, using quantitative imaging and/or external monitoring. Translation of this directive into clinical practice will have significant implications for resource requirements. Molecular radiotherapy is undergoing a significant expansion, and the groundwork for dosimetry-based treatment planning is already in place. The mandated individualization is likely to improve the effectiveness of the treatments, although must be adequately resourced.

  • Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Godskesen, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Andersson, Lars
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska institutet.
    How to counter undeserving authorship2018In: Insights: the UKSG journal, E-ISSN 2048-7754, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The average number of authors listed on contributions to scientific journals has increased considerably over time. While this may be accounted for by the increased complexity of much research and a corresponding need for extended collaboration, several studies suggest that the prevalence of non-deserving authors on research papers is alarming. In this paper a combined qualitative and quantitative approach is suggested to reduce the number of undeserving authors on academic papers: 1) ask scholars who apply for positions to explain the basics of a random selection of their co-authored papers, and 2) in bibliometric measurements, divide publications and citations by the number of authors.

  • Gustafsson, Christian
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol Oncol & Radiat Phys, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Korhonen, Juha
    Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Dept Nucl Med, Helsinki 00290, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Dept Radiol, Helsinki 00290, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Dept Radiat Therapy, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Helsinki 00290, Finland..
    Persson, Emilia
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol Oncol & Radiat Phys, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol Oncol & Radiat Phys, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Registration free automatic identification of gold fiducial markers in MRI target delineation images for prostate radiotherapy2017In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 5563-5574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The superior soft tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to computed tomography (CT) has urged the integration of MRI and elimination of CT in radiotherapy treatment (RT) for prostate. An intraprostatic gold fiducial marker (GFM) appears hyperintense on CT. On T2-weighted (T2w) MRI target delineation images, the GFM appear as a small signal void similar to calcifications and post biopsy fibrosis. It can therefore be difficult to identify the markers without CT. Detectability of GFMs can be improved using additional MR images, which are manually registered to target delineation images. This task requires manual labor, and is associated with interoperator differences and image registration errors. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an automatic method for identification of GFMs directly in the target delineation images without the need for image registration.

    Methods: T2w images, intended for target delineation, and multiecho gradient echo (MEGRE) images intended for GFM identification, were acquired for prostate cancer patients. Signal voids in the target delineation images were identified as GFM candidates. The GFM appeared as round, symmetric, signal void with increasing area for increasing echo time in the MEGRE images. These image features were exploited for automatic identification of GFMs in a MATLAB model using a patient training dataset (n = 20). The model was validated on an independent patient dataset (n = 40). The distances between the identified GFM in the target delineation images and the GFM in CT images were measured. A human observatory study was conducted to validate the use of MEGRE images.

    Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the automatic method and the observatory study was 84%, 74%, 81% and 98%, 94%, 97%, respectively. The mean absolute difference in the GFM distances for the automatic method and observatory study was 1.28 1.25 mm and 1.14 +/- 1.06 mm, respectively.

    Conclusions: Multiecho gradient echo images were shown to be a feasible and reliable way to perform GFM identification. For clinical practice, visual inspection of the results from the automatic method is needed at the current stage.

  • Söderström, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Bankmän, förtroende och stabilitet: Om könsfördelning i bankstyrelser2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Finansiella företag, och särskilt banker, har en mindre jämn könsfördelning i styrelserna jämfört med andra företag. Forskning visar att kvinnliga styrelseledamöter har högre närvaro, mindre problem med att lägga tid på styrelsearbetet och att kvinnor påverkar hela styrelsen till ökat engagemang. Närvaro, tid och engagemang när det gäller övervakning och kontroll är centrala för hur väl en styrelse övervakar riskerna i ett företag och styr den löpande verksamheten. Detta är särskilt viktigt i finansiella företag och inte minst i banker. Styrningen av enskilda banker kan få återverkningar i hela det finansiella systemet. De nya regleringarna som antagits efter finanskrisen 2008 syftar till att upprätthålla förtroende och stabilitet. Bland annat finns i lagstiftningen numera en begränsning på antalet styrelseuppdrag en och samma person får inneha i finansiella företag. Även de personliga, administrativa sanktioner som införts motledningspersoner i kreditinstitut och värdepappersbolag syftar till ökat ansvarstagande för styrelseledamöter och verkställande direktörer. Artikeln diskuterar mot denna bakgrund könsfördelningen i bankstyrelser och kopplar forskningen kring kvinnors styrelsearbete till regleringssyftena förtroende och stabilitet.

  • Odland, Maria Lisa
    et al.
    Membe-Gadama, Gladys
    Kafulafula, Ursula
    Jacobsen W, Geir
    Kumwenda, James
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. NTNU.
    The Use of Manual Vacuum Aspiration in the Treatment of Incomplete Abortions: A Descriptive Study from Three Public Hospitals in Malawi2018In: International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malawi has a high maternal mortality rate, of which unsafe abortion is a major cause. About 140,000 induced abortions are estimated every year, despite there being a restrictive abortion law in place. This leads to complications, such as incomplete abortions, which need to be treated to avoid further harm. Although manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a safe and cheap method of evacuating the uterus, the most commonly used method in Malawi is curettage. Medical treatment is used sparingly in the country, and the Ministry of Health has been trying to increase the use of MVA. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment of incomplete abortions in three public hospitals in Southern Malawi during a three-year period. All medical files from the female/gynecological wards from 2013 to 2015 were reviewed. In total, information on obstetric history, demographics, and treatment were collected from 7270 women who had been treated for incomplete abortions. The overall use of MVA at the three hospitals during the study period was 11.4% (95% CI, 10.7–12.1). However, there was a major increase in MVA application at one District Hospital. Why there was only one successful hospital in this study is unclear, but may be due to more training and dedicated leadership at this particular hospital. Either way, the use of MVA in the treatment of incomplete abortions continues to be low in Malawi, despite recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Malawi Ministry of Health.

  • Axemo, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Wijwardena, Kumudu
    Department of Community Medicine Health, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Colombo.
    Fonseka, Ruvani
    Joint Doctoral Program in Public Health, University of California, San Diego/San Diego State University, United States of America.
    Cooray, Sharika
    United Nations Population Fund, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Training university teachers and students in Sri Lanka on Gender Based Violence: testing of a participatory training program2018In: MedEdPublisher, ISSN 2312–7996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In all societies, violence is a social problem and violation of human rights. Changing attitudes and behaviors, which accept violence atindividual and societal levels are key components in prevention strategies.

    The aim of this study was to produce educational material on Gender Based Violence (GBV). A participatory study design including educators and university students was used to create four teaching modules. The teaching was evaluated by descriptive surveys before andafter the training and focus group discussions followed the training session. The questionnaire covered attitudes to gender, violence and laws. One hundred eleven teachers and 25 students representing different faculties and universities participated in separate workshops in three Sri Lankan universities. The students lacked knowledge of the meaning of GBV, consequences and existing laws. Women held more gender-equitable attitudes. Both women and men favoured equal participation of work and decision in the households. Male undergraduates showed less accepting attitudes toward rape or blaming women for rape Three categories emerged after the FGDs; Maketraining module compulsory and teacher led; Mind your own business; What can be done.

    The newly prepared and context specific material was well-received by educators and students and they provided valuable inputs, which improved the educational modules.

  • Forslund, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. 950216-3307.
    Olsson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Leder strängare straff till färre brott?: En utvärdering av hur 2010 års straffmätningsreform påverkat brottsfrekvensen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Do longer prison sentences lead to fewer committed crimes? This paper pursues to evaluate this causation through a difference-in-differences analysis. In 2010, there was a reform in Sweden that meant to make prison sentences longer for some crimes. The fact that the reform affected some crimes but not others is exploited as a natural experiment. We use the types of crime that were affected by the reform as a treatment group and the types of crime that were not affected as a control group. Then we assess the difference in frequency change of the two groups of crimes after the reform took effect. When the whole post reform period is analyzed, we find no statistically significant effects. When the effect is isolated one year after the reform was implemented (2011) we find a statistically significant effect of 14.9 %. There is no statistically significant result when the reform is isolated for 2012 and 2013.

  • Pettersson, Louise
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Unnebäck, Tea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hållbarhet för att behålla kund?: En undersökning om förekomsten av CSR hos B2B- och B2C-företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns, både bland individer och företag, ett ökat intresse och en ökad medvetenhet kring betydelsen av hållbar utveckling. Detta har exempelvis inneburit att förväntningarna som ställs på företag har skiftat, från enkom ett fokus på vinstmaximering till att verksamheterna även förväntas bidra till en positiv samhällsutveckling. Därför har intresset för begreppet och fenomenet Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), företagens samhällsansvar, ökat. Den tidigare litteraturen har huvudsakligen fokuserat på varför CSR kan vara värdeskapande för ett företag och hur företag kommunicerar ut och skapar CSR. Denna uppsats fokuserar på varför företag väljer att bedriva CSR-arbete, och därför undersöks vilken sorts företag som väljer att jobba med CSR. Uppsatsen studerar om business-to-business-företag, B2B, och business-to-consumer-företag, B2C, väljer att utföra samt kommunicera ut att de ska genomföra olika mängder av CSR-arbete, och undersöker därmed om intressentgruppen kunder påverkar nivån av CSR hos företaget. För att svara på frågan används multipel OLSregression, med omsättning samt bransch som kontrollvariabler. Studien använder ett index över hur mycket CSR-arbete företag noterade på large cap-segmentet på Stockholmsbörsen sommaren 2017 har utfört och säger sig ska utföra. Resultaten visar att B2B-företag både utför mindre CSR-arbete samt kommunicerar ut att de ska utföra mindre CSR-arbete än B2Cföretag. 

  • Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Litton Fredriksson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Får arbetslöshet fler att studera?: En studie i hur ökad arbetslöshet påverkar män och kvinnors studiedeltagande på universitet och högskolor i Sveriges kommuner.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Valet att utbilda sig kan förklaras utifrån humankapitalteorin där människor antas göra ekonomiskt-rationella val och utbildning ses som en investering med förväntad avkastning i form av ett arbete med högre lön eller status. Tidigare studier har konstaterat arbetsmarknadsläget påverkar hur många som vill studera. Denna studie bidrar till en vidare förståelse sambandet mellan arbetslöshet och studiedeltagande samt hur det skiljer sig beroende på kön och typ av kommun. Frågeställningen som undersöks är: Hur påverkar en ökad arbetslöshet män och kvinnors studiedeltagande på universitet och högskolor i Sveriges kommuner? Resultatet visar att det både finns negativa och positiva samband mellan arbetslöshet och studiedeltagande beroende på vilken grupp som undersöks. Män påverkas generellt mer än kvinnor när arbetslösheten stiger och effekten på studiedeltagande är starkare i storstadskommuner. Några av de faktorer som kan förklara resultaten är olika regionala förutsättningar och att män och kvinnor representerar olika yrkesgrupper. det finns skillnader mellan olika typer av kommuner. I diskussionen analyseras vilka faktorer som kan förklara skillnaden mellan de olika grupperna.

  • Hvalgren, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Englund Davidsson, Linnea
    Income Inequality and Household Debt: A panel data study of 17 OECD-countries from 1995-20152018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between income inequality and household indebtednessusing panel data on 17 OECD-countries over the time period 1995-2015. Motivated by relativeincome theory of consumption and previous empirical research we anticipate a non-monotonicrelationship between changes in household debt and income inequality (measured by the Ginicoefficient),as dynamics between different groups of households in the income spread isexpected to vary at different levels of inequality. Carrying out the empirical analysis we findnotable indications of an inverse U-shape relationship between inequality levels and householdborrowing. We locate an estimated turning point at a Gini-value of 28.84, which indicates apositive marginal effect on household borrowing as inequality grows from levels below thispoint, turning negative as inequality increases further. This suggests that as income inequalitygrows from relatively low levels households increase their rate of borrowing, while at higherlevels of inequality households decrease their borrowing rate in response to growing incomedisparities. Results hold under a random effects model and a pooled OLS model, but fail to provesignificant in the stricter fixed effects model, why we can not draw any definitive conclusionsabout the magnitude of the effect. Nevertheless, the findings of further complimentaryestimations lend credence to our hypothesis. Benefits and limitations of our data and empiricalmethods are comprehensively discussed, as well as the theoretical mechanisms explaining therelationship. Indicative but in the end inconclusive results leaves ample opportunity for furtherinvestigations with more advanced empirical methods.

  • Koffert, Jukka P.
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Southwest Finland Hosp Dist, Turunmaa Hosp, Dept Gastroenterol, Turku, Finland..
    Mikkola, Kirsi
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Virtanen, Kirsi A.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Andersson, Anna-Maria D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden..
    Faxius, Linda
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden..
    Hallsten, Kirsti
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Heglind, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Biomed, Dept Clin & Med Genet, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Guiducci, Letizia
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Pham, Tam
    Silvola, Johanna M. U.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Virta, Jenni
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Eriksson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Abo Akad Univ, Dept Biosci, Turku, Finland..
    Kauhanen, Saila P.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Div Digest Surg & Urol, Turku, Finland..
    Saraste, Antti
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Heart Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Enerback, Sven
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Biomed, Dept Clin & Med Genet, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Iozzo, Patricia
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Parkkola, Riitta
    Turku Univ, Dept Radiol, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, Turku, Finland..
    Gomez, Maria F.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden..
    Nuutila, Pirjo
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, Turku, Finland..
    Metformin treatment significantly enhances intestinal glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes: Results from a randomized clinical trial2017In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 131, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Metformin therapy is associated with diffuse intestinal F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in clinical diagnostics using routine FDG-PET imaging. We aimed to study whether metformin induced glucose uptake in intestine is associated with the improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we compared the effects of metformin and rosiglitazone on intestinal glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial, and further, to understand the underlying mechanism, evaluated the effect of metformin in rats.

    Methods: Forty-one patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to metformin (1 g, b.i.d), rosiglitazone (4 mg, b.i.d), or placebo in a 26-week double-blind trial. Tissue specific intestinal glucose uptake was measured before and after the treatment period using FDG-PET during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. In addition, rats were treated with metformin or vehicle for 12 weeks, and intestinal FDG uptake was measured in vivo and with autoradiography.

    Results: Glucose uptake increased 2-fold in the small intestine and 3-fold in the colon for the metformin group and associated with improved glycemic control. Rosiglitazone increased only slightly intestinal glucose uptake. In rodents, metformin treatment enhanced intestinal FDG retention (P = 0.002), which was localized in the mucosal enterocytes of the small intestine.

    Conclusions: Metformin treatment significantly enhances intestinal glucose uptake from the circulation of patients with type 2 diabetes. This intestine-specific effect is associated with improved glycemic control and localized to mucosal layer. These human findings demonstrate directs effect of metformin on intestinal metabolism and elucidate the actions of metformin.

  • Blomqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Christensen, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    E-kronan, en övergång till ett kontantlöst Sverige: En kvalitativ studie om e-kronans förväntade effekter på penningpolitiken och bankväsendet i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det senaste decenniet har det skett en förändring i Sveriges betalningsmönster där kontanta betalningar nästan helt bytts ut mot elektroniska. I och med denna förändring har Riksbanken påbörjat en utredning om det finns ett behov av en centralbanksutgiven digital valuta, en så kallad e-krona. I denna uppsats analyseras e-kronans förväntade effekter på penningpolitiken och bankväsendet i Sverige. Detta studeras utifrån makroekonomiska teorier samt en kvalitativ undersökning. Studien finner att ett införande av en e-krona utan ränta kan komma att sätta ett zero lower bound på penningpolitiken i Sverige. En räntebärande e-krona kan istället ge Riksbanken möjligheter att utöva en mer kraftfull penningpolitik. Vi finner även att e-kronan kan komma att ses som ett säkert och effektivt betalningsalternativ till dagens betalningsmedel eftersom den vid en utgivning kommer att vara garanterat av Riksbanken. Därmed kan det komma att uppstå en undanträngningseffekt mot de privata bankernas affärsverksamhet vid ett införande av ekronan.

  • Svensson, Robin J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Aarnoutse, Rob E
    Department of Pharmacy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Diacon, Andreas H
    DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research and MRC Centre for TB Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.; TASK Applied Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dawson, Rodney
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.; The Lung Institute, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Gillespie, Stephen H
    School of Medicine, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews Fife, UK.
    Boeree, Martin J
    Department of Lung Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.; University Centre for Chronic Diseases Dekkerswald, Groesbeek, the Netherlands.
    Simonsson, Ulrika S H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    A Population Pharmacokinetic Model Incorporating Saturable Pharmacokinetics and Autoinduction for High Rifampicin Doses2017In: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence suggests that increasing doses of rifampicin may shorten tuberculosis treatment. The PanACEA HIGHRIF1 trial assessed safety, pharmacokinetics, and antimycobacterial activity of rifampicin at doses up to 40 mg/kg. Eighty-three pulmonary tuberculosis patients received 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, or 40 mg/kg rifampicin daily over 2 weeks, supplemented with standard doses of isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in the second week. This study aimed at characterizing rifampicin pharmacokinetics observed in HIGHRIF1 using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. The final population pharmacokinetic model included an enzyme turnover model accounting for time-dependent elimination due to autoinduction, concentration-dependent clearance, and dose-dependent bioavailability. The relationship between clearance and concentration was characterized by a Michaelis–Menten relationship. The relationship between bioavailability and dose was described using an Emax relationship. The model will be key in determining exposure–response relationships for rifampicin and should be considered when designing future trials and when treating future patients with high-dose rifampicin.

  • Ahlbin, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Engvall, Emelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ladies and Gentlemen prepare for landing: En studie om företags, expatriaters och repatriaters förväntningar på repatriering.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Multinationella bolag skickar anställda på utlandsuppdrag för att kunna upprätthålla konkurrenskraft på den globala marknaden och få internationell erfarenhet. Expatriering är ett väl utforskat område som företag lägger ned mycket tid på att förbereda. Däremot har det visat sig vara betydligt mer komplext för företag att planera inför den anställdes hemkomst och genomföra en tillfredsställande repatriering. Forskningen brister i att undersöka om företagen och expatriaten har likvärdiga förväntningar på vad utlandsuppdraget ska uppfylla och leda till i framtiden. Med utgångspunkt i problemen kring en väl fungerande repatriering var syftet med uppsatsen att genom intervjuer undersöka om och hur förväntningar möts inom ett multinationellt bolag. Detta gjordes utifrån ett helhetsperspektiv där expatriat, repatriat och företag inkluderas. Det framgår av den analys som gjorts att förväntningarna möts. Företaget som undersökts har rutiner för en repatriering men det har identifierats att det är viktigare att möta förväntningarna än att ha en utstakad process för repatrieringen. Vidare lyfter expatriater och repatriater fram att det vore positivt om företaget efter hemkomsten tog in fler aspekter än de förväntningar som finns relaterat till arbetet. Genom att göra det kan företaget göra sig ännu mer konkurrenskraftig och ta tillvara på mer kunskap.

  • Nilsson, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tränck, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hur påverkar kognitiv förmåga mäns och kvinnors möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden?: -  En jämförande studie mellan Sverige och Tyskland2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker om det finns någon skillnad i kognitiva förmågor mellan kvinnor och män samt hur dessa förmågor värderas på arbetsmarknaden. Frågeställningen som ska besvaras är hur kognitiv förmåga påverkarsannolikhetenattvarasysselsatt,arbetslösocheji arbetskraften för kvinnor och män i Sverige respektive Tyskland. Metoden som används är multipel linjär regression med heteroskedastiska standardfel. För att se hur stor del av skillnaderna i sysselsättning som kan förklaras av att kvinnor och män har olika kognitiva förmågor används Blinder-Oaxaca dekomponering. Resultaten för Sverige visar att läs- och skrivkunnighet är viktigast för kvinnor medan räknefärdighet äravstörstbetydelseförmän.ITysklandärräknefärdighetviktigastförbägge könen. Gemensamt för länderna är att män har större sannolikhet att vara sysselsatta medan kvinnor oftare befinner sig utanför arbetskraften. Vad det gäller arbetslösheten är det ingen signifikant skillnad mellan könen i något av länderna. Blinder-Oaxaca dekomponeringen visar att det i båda länderna finns en skillnad i sysselsättning mellan könen som inte kan förklaras av olika förmåga.

  • Dahlberg, Karolin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Språkutvecklande Applikationer: Varför använda språkutvecklande Applikationer för att utveckla den språkliga förmågan hos elever i de yngre årskurserna?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kullgren, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att hamna rätt i skolan: En ramfaktorteoretisk studie av lärares erfarenheter av arbetet med kartläggningen av nyanlända elevers kunskaper2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nyman, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pousette, Dennis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Följer matematikboken för årskurs 3 kursplanen?: En studie av det centrala innehållets representation i arbetsböcker för matematik2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka om och i vilken utsträckning införandet av Lgr 11 har förändrat kunskapsinnehållet i matematik från Lpo 94 och om det går att spåra denna förändring i arbetsböckerna som används i matematikundervisningen. De frågor som ställdes för att svara på syftet var hur ämnesinnehållet i kursplanen för matematik förändrats från Lpo 94 till Lgr 11, hur ämnesinnehållet i arbetsböcker för matematik i årskurs 3 förändrats från Lpo 94 till Lgr 11 samt hur och i vilken utsträckning den aktuella läroplanen tar sig uttryck i arbetsböcker för matematik. För att svara på dessa frågor användes två olika analysmetoder med utgångspunkt i ett läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv. Först jämfördes de olika kursplanerna i en komparativ analys och därefter gjordes två kvantitativa innehållsanalyser på två olika arbetsböcker i matematik för årskurs 3. Resultaten från studien visar att kursplanen i Lgr 11 skiljer sig från den i Lpo 94 på flera nivåer. De uppnåendemål som tas upp i kursplanen för årskurs 3 i Lpo 94 finns representerade i Matte Eldorado 3A och 3B, om än i olika stor omfattning. Vidare visar analysen att arbetsböckerna Koll på Matematik 3A och 3B inkluderar det ämnesinnehåll som tillkommit i Lgr 11 men att det behövs vidare studier för att se om detta även gäller för andra arbetsböcker.

  • Lysén, Henriette Petersen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    From flow to show & show to flow: Ledarskap i uppstarten skapar harmoni och arbetsro2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa hur mellanstadielärare i årskurs fem inleder sina lektionergenom att beskåda uppstartens tio första minuter. Fokus har varit lärarnas ledarskap under denna process där strukturen, kroppsspråket och lärarnas engagemang har studerats och dess inverkanpå elevgrupperna. Dessutom har lärarnas medvetenhet kring uppstart och deras syn på ledarskap i uppstartsprocessen även undersökts. Med utgångspunkt i syftet har jag tagit del av relevant litteratur och tidigare aktuell forskning om ledarskap samt använt de klassiska ledarstilarna och den auktoritativa fostransstilen som grund för uppsatsens teoretiska förankring.

     

    Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsansats, där observationer och parintervjuer har använts som datainsamlingsmetod. Sammanfattningsvis har två elevgrupper i årskurs fem samt deras sex lärare i de tre kärnämnen, svenska, matematik och engelska observerats. I anslutning till det genomfördes parintervju med de sex mellanstadielärarna. Studiens resultat utgörs av observationer ställt emot lärarnas resonemang kring medvetenheten om ledarskapets effekt i uppstarten och dess inverkan på elevgrupperna.

     

    I enlighet med studiens resultat kännetecknas uppstarten av två faser, där den ena innebär att eleverna ska infinna sig på sina platser och hitta sitt fokus och den andra där läraren presenterar lektionen. Beroende av lärarnas ledarskap, tydlighet, förmåga att vara konsekventa och engagemang i uppstarten tar det olika lång tid för eleverna att inta sina platser och finna fokusinnan lärtillfället kan börja. Strukturen i uppstarten är av stor vikt likaväl som lärarens förmåga att ha ett positivt förhållningssätt och behålla ett lugn. Lärarens ledarskap från start anses ha stor betydelse för att skapa ett gynnsamt klassrumsklimat som präglas av trygghet och arbetsro. Att ledarskapet präglas av en auktoritativ fostransstil är en fördel och resulterar i ett effektivt lärande.

  • Edlert, Mari
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Petersen, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Läsa matematik?: - En studie om lärares erfarenheter av dyslexi i matematik i skolans mellanår2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Swenne, Christine Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, R
    Uppsala University.
    Compliance to intraoperative basic hygiene in the operating theatre and patient safety culture in Mozambique2016In: Journal of Prevention and Infection Control., Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Surgical site infections are commonly occurring within healthcare, especially in Africa. Good hygiene is the most effective way in which to reduce and prevent infection. However, compliance is often low or insufficient.

    Objective: To assess intraoperative compliance to basic hygiene in the operating theatre and the staffs’ views on patient safety and to assess whether adherence to hand hygiene is related to patient safety culture in a developing country. Methods: The design was a structured observation in order to gathered information on compliance to basic intraoperative hygiene routines in operating theatres in Mozambique. Theatre staff was also asked to complete a survey on patient safety culture.

    Results: The study reveals that none of the work elements were performed in complete compliance to WHO’s guidelines at all times. The theatre staff’s views on patient safety culture showed the highest percentage of positive responses was within “Teamwork Within Hospital Units” and the dimensions with the least positive response was “Nonpunitive Response To Error” and “Staffing”. A medium relation was found between compliance to basic hygiene and the results of the patient safety culture survey.

    Conclusion: This study shows that compliance to basic hygiene during the intraoperative phase in theatre was insufficient. There was a medium relation between the views of the staff on patient safety and their compliance to basic hand hygiene. This implies that working with the attitudes of the staff concerning patient safety could be one way of improving hygiene compliance which would be expected to reduce the number of surgical site infections.

  • Rumar, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pihlström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelse av vårdpersonalens bemötande hos patienter med cancer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's science most of the research is based on how healthcare providers experience the communication with their patients. To be able to understand the patients’ point of view, their experience needs to be further investigated. One group that is more vulnerable than others are the patients with cancer, since their disease is life-threatening and therefore leads to existential questions.

  • Persson de Fine Licht, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Chalmers Univ Technol, Res Inst Sweden RISE, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called "defensive" or "hostile" architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one's ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people's rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

  • Näsström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Andersson, Oliver
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Cloud Computing och entreprenörskap i svenska startups2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how Swedish startup companies look at Cloud Computing technology's ability to develop their entrepreneurship. To investigate this, semistructured interviews have been held with six Swedish startups in different industries. The interviews revolve around the theoretical basis that the essay has presented, mainly from Ross & Blumenstein's theory of how Cloud Computing leads startup companies to entrepreneurial benefits. The data has been analyzed thematically to find recurring themes that appeared during the interviews. Cloud computing can help Swedish entrepreneurs by reducing entry barriers and the opportunity costs, which can reduce risks and provide the opportunity to use the "easy failure" concept. Several Cloud computing providers offer funding for startups, which further strengthens these benefits. Several startups also see operational benefits like simplifications to a global workplace, international collaborations, and reaching a global marketplace. They also see risks associated with security, integrity laws and losing control. Although prominent, there is a great deal of confidence in suppliers' security solutions. There are also signs that many startups can initially adopt this new technology and avoid many of the risks associated with migration itself.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    De Bruin, Pedro Sales
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Search for new high-mass phenomena in the dilepton final state using 36 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 10, article id 182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search is conducted for new resonant and non-resonant high-mass phenomena in dielectron and dimuon final states. The search uses 36.1 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data, collected at s=13" role="presentation">s√=13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015 and 2016. No significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed. Upper limits at 95% credibility level are set on the cross-section times branching ratio for resonances decaying into dileptons, which are converted to lower limits on the resonance mass, up to 4.1 TeV for the E6-motivated Z χ . Lower limits on the qqℓℓ contact interaction scale are set between 2.4 TeV and 40 TeV, depending on the model.

  • Ahlin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Embretsen-Varro, Elin
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Lund Univ, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Lund, Sweden..
    Blomqvist, Carl
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Oncol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Fjällskog, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    High expression of cyclin D1 is associated to high proliferation rate and increased risk of mortality in women with ER-positive but not in ER-negative breast cancers2017In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 164, no 3, p. 667-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclin D1 has a central role in cell cycle control and is an important component of estrogen regulation of cell cycle progression. We have previously shown that high cyclin D expression is related to aggressive features of ER-positive but not ER-negative breast cancer. The aims of the present study were to validate this differential ER-related effect and furthermore explore the relationship between cyclin D overexpression and CCND1 gene amplification status in a node-negative breast cancer case-control study. Immunohistochemical nuclear expression of cyclin D1 (n = 364) and amplification of the gene CCND1 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (n = 255) was performed on tissue microarray sections from patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancer. Patients given adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. The primary event was defined as breast cancer death. Breast cancer-specific survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariable models using conditional logistic regression. Expression of cyclin D1 above the median (61.7%) in ER breast cancer was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer death (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.5-6.8) also when adjusted for tumor size and grade (OR 3.1). No significant prognostic impact of cyclin D1 expression was found among ER-negative cases. Cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated to high expression of the proliferation markers cyclins A (rho 0.19, p = 0.006) and B (rho 0.18, p = 0.003) in ER-positive tumors, but not in ER-negative cases. There was a significant association between CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression (p = 0.003), but CCND1 amplification was not statistically significantly prognostic (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.4-4.4). We confirmed our previous observation that high cyclin D1 expression is associated to high proliferation and a threefold higher risk of death from breast cancer in ER-positive breast cancer.

  • Cervantes, Pedro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Black Holes in Infinite Dimensions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The description of a black hole in the limit of very large number of spacetime dimensions D simplifies considerably. When D approaches infinity, the gravitational field lines of force are infinitely dispersed among the infite number of spacetime directions. This implies that outside the near-horizon region of the black hole the background spacetime will be flat, while the gravitational field will be strongly localized near the horizon. Thus, we can attempt to replace the black hole by a sphere cut off at the horizon in an empty background. In this project we attempt to obtain the physical conditions that the sphere has to meet in order to be able to reproduce the dynamics of the black hole when embedded in the empty background. This is described in the effective equation that we derive starting from the Einstein equations. Finally, we apply our results to take a look at ’black droplets’, black holes localized at the boundary of AdS and extending a finite distance into the bulk.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:15 A1:111a, Uppsala
    Guiastrennec, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Mechanism-based modeling of biological processes involved in oral absorption2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For orally administered drugs, the rate and extent of absorption are governed by the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, the characteristics of the dosage form and the physico-chemical properties of the drug. This thesis primarily aimed to improve the mechanistic understanding and the predictability of processes involved in the absorption of orally administered drugs using a population modeling approach. A secondary aim was to propose an optimized dosing regimen for first line anti-tuberculosis drugs in underweight Indian children.

    A model characterized the effect of pH, mechanical stress and formulation on in vitro extended release (ER) tablet erosion. The model was further used in combination with anatomical tablet location data to predict the in vivo erosion dynamics. The proposed approach could help address challenges related to the development of future ER formulations.

    Gastric emptying regulates the rate of entry of nutrients into the small intestine. Bile acids are essential for the intestinal absorption of lipophilic drugs, but the determination of their local intestinal concentrations is difficult. A modeling framework was developed to characterize the relationships between nutritional intake, rate of gastric emptying, gallbladder emptying–refilling patterns and plasma concentrations of bile acids. This modeling framework could be used in combination with systems pharmacology models to predict the drug-drug interactions and food effects associated with gastric emptying, as well as to link the postprandial changes in plasma bile acid concentrations to the variability in drugs’ absorption.

    Optimal doses of first-line antituberculosis drugs have not been firmly established. In an underweight Indian children population, the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model identified rifampin as single predictor of unfavorable treatment outcome. Children with low body weight and/or HIV coinfection had a higher probability of unfavorable treatment outcome. Doses increase were proposed and could provide crucial information for future guidelines.

    In summary, the developed models enabled the prediction of the in vivo erosion profile of ER formulations based on in vitro dissolution data. A modeling framework predicted the postprandial gastric emptying rate and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Finally, a model-based approach was used to identify risk factors and propose optimized dose recommendations in tuberculosis-infected Indian children.

    List of papers
    1. In Vitro and In Vivo Modeling of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) Matrix Tablet Erosion Under Fasting and Postprandial Status
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Vitro and In Vivo Modeling of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) Matrix Tablet Erosion Under Fasting and Postprandial Status
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    2017 (English)In: Pharmaceutical research, ISSN 0724-8741, E-ISSN 1573-904X, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 847-859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To develop a model linking in vitro and in vivo erosion of extended release tablets under fasting and postprandial status. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed from the in vitro erosion profiles of four hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix tablets studied under a range of experimental conditions. The model was used to predict in vivo erosion of the HPMC matrix tablets in different locations of the gastrointestinal tract, determined by magnetic marker monitoring. In each gastrointestinal segment the pH was set to physiological values and mechanical stress was estimated in USP2 apparatus rotation speed equivalent. Erosion was best described by a Michaelis-Menten type model. The maximal HPMC release rate (V-MAX) was affected by pH, mechanical stress, HPMC and calcium hydrogen phosphate content. The amount of HPMC left at which the release rate is half of V-MAX depended on pH and calcium hydrogen phosphate. Mechanical stress was estimated for stomach (39.5 rpm), proximal (93.3 rpm) and distal (31.1 rpm) small intestine and colon (9.99 rpm). The in silico model accurately predicted the erosion profiles of HPMC matrix tablets under fasting and postprandial status and can be used to facilitate future development of extended release tablets.

    Keyword
    food effect, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, in vitro in vivo correlation, magnetic marker monitoring, NONMEM
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321446 (URN)10.1007/s11095-017-2113-7 (DOI)000396065400016 ()28155077 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2018-01-29
    2. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake
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    2016 (English)In: CPT-PHARMACOMETRICS & SYSTEMS PHARMACOLOGY, ISSN 2163-8306, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 692-700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may potentially be used to predict postprandial changes in drug absorption.

    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314421 (URN)10.1002/psp4.12152 (DOI)000390923300006 ()
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
    Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2018-01-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Model-based prediction of plasma concentration and enterohepatic circulation of total bile acids in humans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based prediction of plasma concentration and enterohepatic circulation of total bile acids in humans
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340234 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-28 Created: 2018-01-28 Last updated: 2018-01-29
    4. Suboptimal Antituberculosis Drug Concentrations and Outcomes in Small and HIV-Coinfected Children in India: Recommendations for Dose Modifications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suboptimal Antituberculosis Drug Concentrations and Outcomes in Small and HIV-Coinfected Children in India: Recommendations for Dose Modifications
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    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    National Category
    Infectious Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340236 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 521-2011-3442
    Available from: 2018-01-28 Created: 2018-01-28 Last updated: 2018-01-29
  • Orstadius, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Holistic Peacebuilding: A Qualitative Study Integrating the Macro- and Micro-scale Peace Process2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Chen, Zijian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Group Discovery in a CollaborativeTagging System2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tagging refers to the process of adding metadata to describe things by usingone or several words. Collaborative Tagging systems, which allow different webusers to tag web content like weblogs, pictures, and bookmarks and so on, haverecently gained great popularity on internet. There are already a greatvariety of debates on internet of the advantages and disadvantages ofcollaborative tagging systems from the aspect of information organizing. Inthis paper, we primarily focus on a collaborative tagging system for groups,more specifically; we try to provide the web users a kind of service in such asystem that can help them to discover their favorite groups. With regard togroup discovery, we will illustrate the users’ problems, the designing idea,the analysis of accuracy of result etc.

  • Malmberg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cramner, Isabella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Det industriella leverantörsbytet: en fallstudie om ett byggföretags bytesprocess2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flertalet studier om industriellt bytesbeteende har kritiserats för att de endast fokuserat på bytesbeslutet. Detta argumenteras enbart ge en ögonblicksbild av bytet, snarare än att analysera den fullständiga bytesprocessen. Syftet med studien är därför att bidra med ökad förståelse för kundens leverantörsbyte genom att undersöka hur bytesprocessen av centrala leverantörsrelationer ser ut i byggföretag och de bakomliggande orsakerna som påverkar bytet. Studien realiseras genom en fallstudie på ett större byggföretag som nyligen bytte bankleverantör. Bytesprocessen kartläggs genom att tillämpa analysverktyget Switching Path Analytical Technique, SPAT. Vidare undersöks bytesprocessens utveckling med hjälp av ekonomiska respektive sociala faktorer. Studiens resultat visar att bytesprocessen utlöstes och influerades av flertalet faktorer, vilket påvisar bytesprocessens komplexitet. Huvudsakligen identifierades ekonomiska faktorer som drivande i leverantörsbytet. Inga belägg finns för att företaget var missnöjda med sin tidigare bankleverantör innan dess att bytesprocessen initierades. Däremot visas bankens agerande under bytesprocessens gång har påverkat byggföretagets beslut om att byta bankleverantör.

  • Broeckx, Bart J. G.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Lab Anim Genet, Fac Vet Med, Merelbeke, Belgium..
    Derrien, Thomas
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Mottier, Stephanie
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Wucher, Valentin
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Cadieu, Edouard
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Hedan, Benoit
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Le Beguec, Celine
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Botherel, Nadine
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Saunders, Jimmy H.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Med Imaging & Orthoped, Fac Vet Med, Merelbeke, Belgium..
    Deforce, Dieter
    Univ Ghent, Fac Pharmaceut Sci, Lab Pharmaceut Biotechnol, Ghent, Belgium..
    Andre, Catherine
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Peelman, Luc
    Univ Ghent, Lab Anim Genet, Fac Vet Med, Merelbeke, Belgium..
    Hitte, Christophe
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    An exome sequencing based approach for genome-wide association studies in the dog2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 15680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely used to identify loci associated with phenotypic traits in the domestic dog that has emerged as a model for Mendelian and complex traits. However, a disadvantage of GWAS is that it always requires subsequent fine-mapping or sequencing to pinpoint causal mutations. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and canine high-density (cHD) SNP genotyping of 28 dogs from 3 breeds to compare the SNP and linkage disequilibrium characteristics together with the power and mapping precision of exome-guided GWAS (EG-GWAS) versus cHD-based GWAS. Using simulated phenotypes, we showed that EG-GWAS has a higher power than cHD to detect associations within target regions and less power outside target regions, with power being influenced further by sample size and SNP density. We analyzed two real phenotypes (hair length and furnishing), that are fixed in certain breeds to characterize mapping precision of the known causal mutations. EG-GWAS identified the associated exonic and 3'UTR variants within the FGF5 and RSPO2 genes, respectively, with only a few samples per breed. In conclusion, we demonstrated that EG-GWAS can identify loci associated with Mendelian phenotypes both within and across breeds.

  • Eriksson, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Monte Carlo simulations of a back scatter time-of-flight neutron spectrometer for the purpose of concept testing.2018Student paper other, 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work focuses on Monte Carlo simulations for finding the optimal back scatter time-of-flight spectrometer design for concept testing at the NESSA facility at Uppsala University. The spectrometer consists of two scintillator detectors, D1 (placed in a neutron beam) and D2 (placed in front of D1), at some distance from each other. A fraction of the neutrons that impinge on D1 back scatter into D2 and information on the neutron energy distribution is acquired using the time-of-flight method. For the given constraints on geometry, resolution and efficiency a best resolution was found to be 6.6% with a corresponding efficiency of 1E-4 which gives a sufficient count rate for a neutron generator producing 1E+11 neutrons/s. In order to achieve a minimum of 10 000 counts/h with the same setup a D2 with an area of at least 7 cm^2 is required.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Åberg, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Evolution of Interactions Involving Intrinsically Disordered Proteins2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the evolution of intrinsically disordered proteins and their interaction partners. The work presented is a combination of phylogenetic analysis, ancestral reconstruction and biophysical characterization in order to examine the evolutionary trajectory of protein-protein interactions involving disorder. The intrinsically disordered domains, NCBD and CID are both part of transcriptional co-regulating proteins. In evolution, NCBD existed before the emergence of CID and the most ancient domains display a low affinity complex with many weak contacts and high degree of conformational heterogeneity. Later in evolution, when NCBD and CID co-exists, a few mutations have altered the interaction in a way that the affinity is increased 25-fold and the conformational heterogeneity is decreased. In the same manner, the interaction is further optimized in extant species, resulting in a high affinity complex with less contacts of higher strength and less conformational heterogeneity. The intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of the tumour suppressing protein p53 and its negative regulator MDM2 date back to the beginning of animal life. The interacting domains are either lost or conserved in distinct phyla indicating a tight co-evolution. Phylogenetic trees produced by only including phyla with a conserved interaction domain follow the species evolution. Resurrection of p53 and MDM2 in the vertebrate lineage display an evolution of a high affinity complex in the ancestor of fish and tetrapods to a slightly improved affinity in modern tetrapods but a substantially lower affinity in zebrafish. The p53 protein family, which also includes p63 and p73, diverged from a common ancestor. The individual proteins display altered affinities to MDM2 which is a result of the high sequence divergence between them. The ionic dependence for the interactions is small, and not in line with other studies of disordered proteins. In conclusion, the work in this thesis have contributed with evolutionary analysis and experimental data of interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins.

    List of papers
    1. Emergence and evolution of an interaction between intrinsically disordered proteins
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergence and evolution of an interaction between intrinsically disordered proteins
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    2017 (English)In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 6, article id e16059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Protein-protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins are important for cellular function and common in all organisms. However, it is not clear how such interactions emerge and evolve on a molecular level. We performed phylogenetic reconstruction, resurrection and biophysical characterization of two interacting disordered protein domains, CID and NCBD. CID appeared after the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes 450-600 million years ago, while NCBD was present in the protostome/deuterostome ancestor. The most ancient CID/NCBD formed a relatively weak complex (K(d similar to)5 mu M). At the time of the first vertebrate-specific whole genome duplication, the affinity had increased (K-d\similar to 200 nM) and was maintained in further speciation. Experiments together with molecular modeling using NMR chemical shifts suggest that new interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins may evolve via a low-affinity complex which is optimized by modulating direct interactions as well as dynamics, while tolerating several potentially disruptive mutations.

    National Category
    Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-322818 (URN)10.7554/eLife.16059 (DOI)000400663100001 ()
    Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-12 Last updated: 2018-01-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Evolution of the p53-MDM2 pathway
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of the p53-MDM2 pathway
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    2017 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, article id 177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The p53 signalling pathway, which controls cell fate, has been extensively studied due to its prominent role in tumor development. The pathway includes the tumor supressor protein p53, its vertebrate paralogs p63 and p73, and their negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4. The p53/p63/p73-MDM system is ancient and can be traced in all extant animal phyla. Despite this, correct phylogenetic trees including both vertebrate and invertebrate species of the p53/p63/p73 and MDM families have not been published. Results: Here, we have examined the evolution of the p53/p63/p73 protein family with particular focus on the p53/ p63/p73 transactivation domain (TAD) and its co-evolution with the p53/p63/p73- binding domain (p53/p63/p73BD) of MDM2. We found that the TAD and p53/p63/p73BD share a strong evolutionary connection. If one of the domains of the protein is lost in a phylum, then it seems very likely to be followed by loss of function by the other domain as well, and due to the loss of function it is likely to eventually disappear. By focusing our phylogenetic analysis to p53/p63/ p73 and MDM proteins from phyla that retain the interaction domains TAD and p53/p63/p73BD, we built phylogenetic trees of p53/p63/p73 and MDM based on both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The trees follow species evolution and contain a total number of 183 and 98 species for p53/p63/p73 and MDM, respectively. We also demonstrate that the p53/p63/p73 and MDM families result from whole genome duplications. Conclusions: The signaling pathway of the TAD and p53/p63/p73BD in p53/p63/p73 and MDM, respectively, dates back to early metazoan time and has since then tightly co-evolved, or disappeared in distinct lineages.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2017
    Keyword
    p53, MDM, Co-evolution, Phylogeny
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334047 (URN)10.1186/s12862-017-1023-y (DOI)000407013500001 ()28774266 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Conservation and divergence in the evolution of binding affinity between p53 and MDM2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conservation and divergence in the evolution of binding affinity between p53 and MDM2
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336917 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-01-28
    4. The binding kinetics of the intrinsically disordered p53 family transactivation domains and MDM2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The binding kinetics of the intrinsically disordered p53 family transactivation domains and MDM2
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336918 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-01-28
  • Tegenu, Tsegaye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Self-development of Private Sector in Ethiopia2018In: Ethiopian business review, Vol. 6, no 58, p. 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Caban, Kelvin
    et al.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Chem, 3000 Broadway,MC3126, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Pavlov, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Gonzalez, Ruben L., Jr.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Chem, 3000 Broadway,MC3126, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    A conformational switch in initiation factor 2 controls the fidelity of translation initiation in bacteria2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, article id 1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiation factor (IF) 2 controls the fidelity of translation initiation by selectively increasing the rate of 50S ribosomal subunit joining to 30S initiation complexes (ICs) that carry an N-formyl-methionyl-tRNA (fMet-tRNA(fMet)). Previous studies suggest that rapid 50S subunit joining involves a GTP- and fMet-tRNA(fMet)-dependent "activation" of IF2, but a lack of data on the structure and conformational dynamics of 30S IC-bound IF2 has precluded a mechanistic understanding of this process. Here, using an IF2-tRNA single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal, we directly observe the conformational switch that is associated with IF2 activation within 30S ICs that lack IF3. Based on these results, we propose a model of IF2 activation that reveals how GTP, fMet-tRNA(fMet), and specific structural elements of IF2 drive and regulate this conformational switch. Notably, we find that domain III of IF2 plays a pivotal, allosteric, role in IF2 activation, suggesting that this domain can be targeted for the development of novel antibiotics.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:00 Skoogsalen, Uppsala
    Morén, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Speech, Voice and Nasal Function in Adults2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common craniofacial malformation. Even after repair of the cleft there may be persistent symptoms affecting speech, voice, nasal breathing, dentition, appearance and quality of life. The aims of the thesis were to: (I) investigate subjective nasal function and nasal airway at clinical examination, (II) evaluate speech by perceptual evaluation, (III) assess voice quality by perceptual evaluation and acoustic analysis and (IV) compare ratings of speech by naïve listeners, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and patients.

    All consecutive patients with complete  unilateral CLP, born 1960-1987, and treated at Uppsala University Hospital were invited. A total of 83 (76%) (I) and 73 (67%) (II, III, IV) of the 109 eligible patients and non-cleft controls (n=63) participated. Patients had been treated in childhood with one- or two-stage palate closure. The participants underwent clinical examination, recording of speech and filled in questionnaires.

    The results showed that: (I) Patients earlier treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, nasal symptoms were not associated with clinical findings or method of palate closure. (II) Seven patients (10%) presented with hypernasality, 12 (16%) had audible nasal emission and/or nasal turbulence, five (7%) had consonant production errors, one (2%) had glottal reinforcements/substitutions, and one had reduced intelligibility. Controls had no quantifiable problems with speech. (III) Among patients, the mean values for the 12 perceptual voice variables on a visual analogue scale (0 = no abnormality, 100 = maximal abnormality) ranged between 1 and 22 and the mean for all was 6 mm. Voice variables were similar between patients and controls except “vocal fry”; this and total mean of all the perceptual voice variables were slightly lower among patients (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018 ). No clear association was found between velopharyngeal insufficiency and dysphonia. (IV). There were positive correlations between speech ratings by naïve listeners and SLPs (r =0.44 to 0.69, p always < 0.001, Spearman). The correlations between ratings of any of these groups and the patients’ self-ratings were weaker (r < 0.40). The patients were less satisfied with their speech and rated themselves to have more speech abnormalities than controls (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in any of the variables regarding speech, voice or nose between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure in any of the studies.

    This thesis shows that adults treated for unilateral CLP have more nasal symptoms and cleft related speech abnormalities compared to the controls, however the prevalence of speech abnormalities are relatively low. Voice quality is not affected. Speech quality is rated differently by naïve listeners, SLPs and patients.

    List of papers
    1. Nasal symptoms and clinical findings in adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nasal symptoms and clinical findings in adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate
    2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, ISSN 2000-656X, E-ISSN 2000-6764, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 383-389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-experienced nasal symptoms among adults treated for UCLP and the association to clinical findings, and to evaluate whether palate closure in one-stage or two-stages affected the symptoms or clinical findings. All people with UCLP born between 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, were considered for participation in this cross-sectional population study with long-term follow-up. Eighty-three patients (76% participation rate) participated, a mean of 37 years after the first operation. Fifty-two patients were treated with one-stage palate closure and 31 with two-stage palate closure. An age-matched group of 67 non-cleft controls completed the same study protocol, which included a questionnaire regarding nasal symptoms, nasal inspection, anterior rhinoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Patients reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms compared with the control group, e.g., nasal obstruction (81% compared with 60%) and mouth breathing (20% compared with 5%). Patients also rated their nasal symptoms as having a more negative impact on their daily life and physical activities than controls. Nasal examination revealed higher frequencies of nasal deformities among patients. No positive correlation was found between nasal symptoms and severity of findings at nasal examination. No differences were identified between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure regarding symptoms or nasal findings. Adult patients treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, symptoms are not associated with findings at clinical nasal examination or method of palate closure.

    Keyword
    Unilateral cleft lip and palate, nasal function, nasal obstruction, olfactory function, clinical examination, adult, surgical protocols
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209465 (URN)10.3109/2000656X.2013.771583 (DOI)000324533400009 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Speech in Adults Treated for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Long-Term Follow-Up After One- or Two-Stage Palate Repair
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speech in Adults Treated for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Long-Term Follow-Up After One- or Two-Stage Palate Repair
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, ISSN 1055-6656, E-ISSN 1545-1569, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 639-649Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate speech in adults treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate with one-stage or two-stage palate closure and compare the speech of the patients with that of a noncleft control group.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with long-term follow-up.

    PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: All unilateral cleft lip and palate patients born from 1960 to 1987 and treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, were invited (n = 109). Participation rate was 67% (n = 73) at a mean of 35 years after primary surgery. Forty-seven had been treated according to one-stage palate closure and 26 according to two-stage palate closure. Pharyngeal flap surgery had been performed in 11 of the 73 patients (15%). The noncleft control group consisted of 63 age-matched volunteers.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Speech-language pathologists rated perceptual speech characteristics from blinded audio recordings.

    RESULTS: Among patients, seven (10%) presented with hypernasality, 12 (16%) had audible nasal emission and/or nasal turbulence, five (7%) had consonant production errors, one (2%) had glottal reinforcements/substitutions, and one (2%) had reduced intelligibility. Controls had no audible signs of velopharyngeal insufficiency and no quantifiable problems with the other speech production variables. No significant differences were identified between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure for any of the variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of speech outcome indicative of velopharyngeal insufficiency among adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate was low but higher compared with individuals without cleft. Whether palatal closure is performed in one or two stages does not seem to affect the speech outcome at a mean age of 35 years.

    Keyword
    adult, cross-sectional, long-term, one-stage repair, speech outcome, two-stage repair, unilateral cleft lip and palate
    National Category
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317289 (URN)10.1597/15-037 (DOI)000413110600003 ()28140670 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Voice quality in adults treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate; long-term follow-up after one- or two-stage palate repair
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Voice quality in adults treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate; long-term follow-up after one- or two-stage palate repair
    (English)In: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, ISSN 1055-6656, E-ISSN 1545-1569Article in journal (Other academic) Accepted
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the current study was to assess voice quality among adults treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), after one- or two-stage palate closure, and compare it to a non-cleft control group.

    Study design: Cross-sectional study in UCLP patients with long-term follow-up and non-cleft controls.

    Participants: UCLP patients born 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, were examined (n=73) at a mean of 35 years after primary surgery. Forty-seven patients (64%) had been treated with one-stage palate closure and 26 with two-stage closure (36%). The non-cleft control group consisted of 63 age-matched volunteers.

    Main outcome measures: Ratings of perceptual voice characteristics from blinded voice recordings with Swedish voice evaluation approach (SVEA) method. Acoustic voice analysis including pitch and spectral measures.

    Results: Among the patients, the mean values for the 12 evaluated variables on a VAS scale (0=no abnormality, 100=maximal abnormality) ranged between 0.1 and 17 and the mean for all was 6 mm. Voice variables were similar between patients and controls except the total mean of all the perceptual voice variables, as well as “vocal fry”; both slightly lower among patients (p = 0.018 and p = 0.009). There was no difference in any variable between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure. No clear relationship was found between VPI and dysphonia.

    Conclusions: The voice characteristics among adults treated for UCLP in childhood are not different from those of individuals without cleft. 

    Keyword
    unilateral cleft lip and palate, adult, long-term, voice, palate repair
    National Category
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Research subject
    Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340092 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-26
    4. Speech in Adults Treated for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate as Rated by Naïve Listeners, Speech-Language Pathologists and Patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speech in Adults Treated for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate as Rated by Naïve Listeners, Speech-Language Pathologists and Patients
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Speech may be affected in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Professional listeners, naïve listeners and patients perceive speech differently. The aim of the study was to evaluate speech among adults treated for unilateral CLP as rated by naïve listeners, speech language pathologists (SLPs) and patients.

    Methods All patients with complete unilateral CLP (UCLP) treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, between 1960 and 1987 were invited. A total of 73 of 109 patients (67%) participated with a mean time of 35 years since initiation of treatment. The non-cleft control group consisted of 55 volunteers. All participants filled out a questionnaire for self-rating of speech and their speech was audio-recorded digitally. Fourteen naïve listeners and four SLPs rated the speech individually from blinded recordings.

    Results

    There were more speech abnormalities among patients compared to controls according to the ratings of naïve listeners and SLPs[Office1] . The patients were less satisfied with their speech and rated themselves to have more speech abnormalities than controls (p < 0.001, Mann Whitney U test). There were positive correlations between the speech ratings by naïve listeners and SLPs (r = 0.44 to 0.69, p always < 0.001, Spearman). The correlations between ratings of any of these groups and the patients’ self-ratings were weaker  (r < 0.40, Spearman).

    Conclusion

    In general, adult patients treated for UCLP during childhood consider their speech as fairly good. However, they were less satisfied than non-cleft controls. The agreement between ratings by naïve listeners and SLPs were good while the agreement between these ratings and self-assessment of speech varied widely. When assessing treatment outcomes in adult patients treated for UCLP, differences in perception of speech abnormalities by professionals, laymen and patients should be taken into account.  

    Keyword
    Adult, Humans, Speech, Cleft Lip-Palate, Nonsyndromic Self-Assessment, Statistics, Nonparametric Control Groups, Hospitals, University, Speech-Language Pathology, Auditory Perception, Treatment Outcome
    National Category
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Research subject
    Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340124 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-26
  • Public defence: 2018-03-17 13:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Erikson, Marja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Krediter i lust och nöd: Skattebönder i Torstuna härad, Västmanlands län, 1770‒18702018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the role of loans and credit for Swedish freeholders (skattebönder) from 1770 to 1870. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of credit for investments to improve agricultural operations, acquire land and respond to rural crises from the household perspective. Three parishes in Mälardalen form the area under investigation. Probate inventories after freeholders together with title deeds and mortgages are the most important source material of the study.The study shows that the way freeholders used credit changed in connection to changing institutional circumstances and shifting rural economic conditions. At the end of the eighteenth century, freeholders’ farming was profitable. The households generally had rather small debts during this period and credits were primarily used for daily transactions. Agriculture expanded in the district until 1815, but this expansion was followed by weaker growth with declining profitability for the freeholders up until around 1850. From 1815, the credit market changed as the Swedish National Bank started to offer beneficial loans. The debts held by freeholders grew rapidly from the 1810s up until about 1850. It is in the thesis shown that the rising indebtedness was caused by both a greater need for capital and by a change in the supply of credit. Land prices increased during the good years and remained at a high level. The households on average made larger land acquisitions than before, which required more capital. Declining profitability in agriculture and crop failures meant that credits were needed to cover income losses and to maintain a material standard. Finally, the availability of preferential bank credits made the freeholders borrowing more. The loans from the National Bank could be seen as a substitute for the limited opportunities to reclaim land in the district. With new loans, households could acquire more land, which was the only way to increase the households' income. However, this with necessity resulted in a continuous reduction of the number of landowners. This process was accentuated in the 1820s and 1840s, when a series of bankruptcies occurred among the landowning farmers.

  • Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Chem & Biotechnol, Bioctr, Box 7015, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Vinogradov, Vasiliy V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Lab Solut Chem Adv Mat & Technol, Pr 49 St, St Petersburg 197101, Russia..
    Terekhov, Aleksey N.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Sheremetevskiy Prosp 8, Ivanovo 153012, Russia..
    Pakhomov, Andrey V.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Sheremetevskiy Prosp 8, Ivanovo 153012, Russia..
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Lab Solut Chem Adv Mat & Technol, Pr 49 St, St Petersburg 197101, Russia..
    Kessler, Vadim G.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Chem & Biotechnol, Bioctr, Box 7015, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles improves burn wound healing and tissue regeneration through specific interaction with blood serum proteins2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 15448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn wounds are one of the most important causes of mortality and especially morbidity around the world. Burn wound healing and skin tissue regeneration remain thus one of the most important challenges facing the mankind. In the present study we have addressed this challenge, applying a solution-stabilized dispersion TiO2 nanoparticles, hypothesizing that their ability to adsorb proteins will render them a strong capacity in inducing body fluid coagulation and create a protective hybrid material coating. The in vitro study of interaction between human blood and titania resulted at enhanced TiO2 concentrations in formation of rather dense gel composite materials and even at lower content revealed specific adsorption pattern initiating the cascade response, promising to facilitate the regrowth of the skin. The subsequent in vivo study of the healing of burn wounds in rats demonstrated formation of a strongly adherent crust of a nanocomposite, preventing infection and inflammation with quicker reduction of wound area compared to untreated control. The most important result in applying the TiO2 dispersion was the apparently improved regeneration of damaged tissues with appreciable decrease in scar formation and skin color anomalies.

  • Wretbring, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienten som partner i hälso- och sjukvårdens förbättringsarbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Framtidens vård måste utformas med dem som kommer att nyttja den. Att inte ta vara på patienternas erfarenheter och engagemang är inte försvarbart. Patienter både vill och kan ta ett större ansvar för sin egen vård och vården måste skapa förutsättningar för att patienten ska bli en medaktör i sin egen vård och behandling. Trots goda försök att göra vården mer patientcentrerad så har vården inte lyckats fullt ut. Kunskap kring hur patienter bör och ska involveras saknas och en gammaldags hieratisk kultur sätter käppar i hjulet för att patienten ska kunna göra sin röst hörd.

    Syfte: Att utforska hur patienter kan involveras i vårdens förbättringsarbete.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med resultat av elva artiklar.

    Resultat: Hälso- och sjukvården måste ta ett större ansvar för att skapa en lärande miljö, där patienten bjuds in som en jämlik partner. För att det ska ske krävs ett uthålligt ledarskap och kunskap om hur förbättringsarbete kan drivas tillsammans med patienter. Innan patienter rekryteras krävs det att vårdgivaren har tänkt igenom syftet med patientinvolveringen Vilka förkunskaper som patienten bör ha och hur vårdgivaren ska kunna tillgodose kunskap och stöd till patienten för att den ska kunna ta en aktiv roll i arbetsgruppen.

    Slutsats: För att patienter ska bli mer involverade i sin egen vård och Hälso- och sjukvårdens utveckling, krävs kunskap om förbättringsarbete och en tillit till patienters expertkunskaper. Det ställer också krav på ledarskap och en kommunikation som stödjer en lärande kultur.  

  • Krause, J.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Seebacher, F.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Domenici, P.
    CNR, IAMC CNR, Ist Ambiente Marino Costiero, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Wilson, A. D. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marras, S.
    CNR, IAMC CNR, Ist Ambiente Marino Costiero, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Svendsen, M. B. S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Strömbom, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA..
    Steffensen, J. F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Krause, S.
    Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Viblanc, P. E.
    Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Couillaud, P.
    Univ Paris 06, Dept Licence Sci & Technol, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Bach, P.
    Inst Rech Dev, UMR MARBEC 248, 0b7,Ave Jean Monnet,CS 30171,, F-34203 Sete, France..
    Sabarros, P. S.
    Inst Rech Dev, UMR MARBEC 248, 0b7,Ave Jean Monnet,CS 30171,, F-34203 Sete, France..
    Zaslansky, P.
    Charite, Julius Wolff Inst Biomechan & Musculoskeletal Reg, Philippstr 13,Haus 11, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Kurvers, R. H. J. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Adapt Rat, Lentzeallee 94, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Injury-mediated decrease in locomotor performance increases predation risk in schooling fish2017In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, no 1727, article id 20160232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs and benefits of group living often depend on the spatial position of individuals within groups and the ability of individuals to occupy preferred positions. For example, models of predation events for moving prey groups predict higher mortality risk for individuals at the periphery and front of groups. We investigated these predictions in sardine (Sardinella aurita) schools under attack from group hunting sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) in the open ocean. Sailfish approached sardine schools about equally often from the front and rear, but prior to attack there was a chasing period in which sardines attempted to swim away from the predator. Consequently, all sailfish attacks were directed at the rear and peripheral positions of the school, resulting in higher predation risk for individuals at these positions. During attacks, sailfish slash at sardines with their bill causing prey injury including scale removal and tissue damage. Sardines injured in previous attacks were more often found in the rear half of the school than in the front half. Moreover, injured fish had lower tail-beat frequencies and lagged behind uninjured fish. Injuries inflicted by sailfish bills may, therefore, hinder prey swimming speed and drive spatial sorting in prey schools through passive self-assortment. We found only partial support for the theoretical predictions from current predator-prey models, highlighting the importance of incorporating more realistic predator-prey dynamics into these models. This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'.

  • Eriksson, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Selvaraju, Ram Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET-MRI Platform.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Velikyan, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Species differences in pancreatic binding of DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin42017In: Acta Diabetologica, ISSN 0940-5429, E-ISSN 1432-5233, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 1039-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Radiolabeled Exendin-4 has been proposed as suitable imaging marker for pancreatic beta cell mass quantification mediated by Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). However, noticeable species variations in basal pancreatic uptake as well as uptake reduction degree due to selective beta cell ablation were observed.

    METHODS: -Exendin4 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the same species. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo data formed the basis for calculating the theoretical in vivo contribution of each pancreatic compartment.

    RESULTS: -Exendin4.

    CONCLUSIONS: IPR as well as the exocrine GLP-1R density is the main determinants of the species variability in pancreatic uptake. Thus, the IPR in human is an important factor for assessing the potential of GLP-1R as an imaging biomarker for pancreatic beta cells.

  • Ernst, Diana
    et al.
    Widera, Christian
    Baerlecken, Niklas T
    Schlumberger, Wolfgang
    Daehnrich, Cornelia
    Schmidt, Reinhold E
    Gabrysch, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Witte, Torsten
    Antibodies against MYC-Associated Zinc Finger Protein: An Independent Marker in Acute Coronary Syndrome?2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Atherosclerosis is considered the pathophysiology underlying cardiovascular (CVD), cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. Evidence supporting an autoimmune component is emerging, with imaging studies correlating MYC-associated zinc finger protein antibody (MAZ-Ab) optical density (OD) with plaque activity. This study compares MAZ-Ab OD on ELISA testing among patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) to healthy controls and investigates the association of MAZ-Ab to traditional CVD risk factors.

    Methods: Patients admitted with ACSs between August 2007 and July 2011 were included. Serum samples taken at presentation were retrospectively tested for MAZ-Ab and compared with serum from healthy volunteers with no CVD risk factors. Large-scale assessment of post-ACS prognostic relevance was performed using the established PLATO cohort.

    Results:  = 0.436).

    Conclusion: MAZ-Ab OD was higher or all ACS phenotypes compared with controls. Given current understanding of MAZ-Ab function, these findings support an autoimmune component to CVD independent of conventional risk factors and indeed the extent of end-organ damage.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-14 09:00 A1:111a
    Umer, Husen Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Computational Modelling of Gene Regulation in Cancer: Coding the noncoding genome2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have enabled quantification of processes within and around us. The information stored within our body converts into petabytes of data. Processing and learning from such data requires comprehensive computational programs and software systems. We developed software programs to systematically investigate the process of gene regulation in the human genome. Gene regulation is a complex process where several genomic elements control expression of a gene through recruiting many transcription factor (TF) proteins. The TFs recognize specific DNA sequences known as motifs. DNA mutations in regulatory elements and particularly in TF motifs may cause gene deregulation. Therefore, defining the landscape of regulatory elements and their roles in cancer and complex diseases is of major importance.

    We developed an algorithm (tfNet) to identify regulatory elements based on transcription factor binding sites. tfNet identified nearly 144,000 regulatory elements in five human cell lines. Investigating the elements we identified TF interaction networks and enrichment of many GWAS SNPs. We also defined the regulatory landscape for other conditions and species. Next, we investigated the role of regulatory elements in cancer. Cancer is initiated and developed by genetic aberrations in the genome. Genetic changes that are present in a cancer genome are obtained through whole genome sequencing technologies. We analyzed somatic mutations that had been detected in 326 whole genomes of liver cancer patients. Our results indicated 907 candidate mutations affecting TF motifs. Genome wide alignment of the mutated motifs revealed a significant enrichment of mutations in a highly conserved position of the CTCF motif. Gene expression analysis exhibited disruption of topologically associated domains in the mutated samples. We also confirmed the mutational pattern in pancreatic, gastric and esophagus cancers. Finally, enrichment of cancer associated gene sets and pathways suggested great role of noncoding mutations in cancer.

    To systematically analyze DNA mutations in TF motifs, we developed an online database system (funMotifs). Publicly available datasets were collected for thousands experiments. The datasets were integrated using a logistic regression model. Functionality annotations and scores for motifs of 519 TFs were derived. The database allows for identification of variants affecting functional motifs in a selected tissue type. Finally, a comprehensive analysis was performed to identify mutations overlapping functional TF motifs in 37 cancer types. Somatic mutations from a pan-cancer cohort of 2,515 cancer whole genomes were investigated. A significant enrichment of mutations in the CpG site of the CEBPB motif was identified. Overall, 10,806 mutated regulatory elements were identified including 406 highly recurrent ones. Genes associated to the mutated elements were highly enriched for cancer-related pathways. Our analyses provide further insights onto the role of regulatory elements and their impacts on cancer development.

    List of papers
    1. Maps of context-dependent putative regulatory regions and genomic signal interactions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maps of context-dependent putative regulatory regions and genomic signal interactions
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 44, no 19, p. 9110-9120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gene transcription is regulated mainly by transcription factors (TFs). ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics provide global binding profiles of TFs, which can be used to identify regulatory regions. To this end we implemented a method to systematically construct cell-type and species-specific maps of regulatory regions and TF-TF interactions. We illustrated the approach by developing maps for five human cell-lines and two other species. We detected similar to 144k putative regulatory regions among the human cell-lines, with the majority of them being similar to 300 bp. We found similar to 20k putative regulatory elements in the ENCODE heterochromatic domains suggesting a large regulatory potential in the regions presumed transcriptionally silent. Among the most significant TF interactions identified in the heterochromatic regions were CTCF and the cohesin complex, which is in agreement with previous reports. Finally, we investigated the enrichment of the obtained putative regulatory regions in the 3D chromatin domains. More than 90% of the regions were discovered in the 3D contacting domains. We found a significant enrichment of GWAS SNPs in the putative regulatory regions. These significant enrichments provide evidence that the regulatory regions play a crucial role in the genomic structural stability. Additionally, we generated maps of putative regulatory regions for prostate and colorectal cancer human cell-lines.

    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310761 (URN)10.1093/nar/gkw800 (DOI)000388016900012 ()27625394 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    AstraZenecaSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Diabetes AssociationeSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
    Note

    De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
    2. A Significant Regulatory Mutation Burden at a High-Affinity Position of the CTCF Motif in Gastrointestinal Cancers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Significant Regulatory Mutation Burden at a High-Affinity Position of the CTCF Motif in Gastrointestinal Cancers
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    2016 (English)In: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 904-913Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Somatic mutations drive cancer and there are established ways to study those in coding sequences. It has been shown that some regulatory mutations are over-represented in cancer. We develop a new strategy to find putative regulatory mutations based on experimentally established motifs for transcription factors (TFs). In total, we find 1,552 candidate regulatory mutations predicted to significantly reduce binding affinity of many TFs in hepatocellular carcinoma and affecting binding of CTCF also in esophagus, gastric, and pancreatic cancers. Near mutated motifs, there is a significant enrichment of (1) genes mutated in cancer, (2) tumor-suppressor genes, (3) genes in KEGG cancer pathways, and (4) sets of genes previously associated to cancer. Experimental and functional validations support the findings. The strategy can be applied to identify regulatory mutations in any cell type with established TF motifs and will aid identifications of genes contributing to cancer.

    Keyword
    mutated binding sites, motifs, noncoding regulatory regions, CTCF, driver mutations, whole-genome sequencing, WGS
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305547 (URN)10.1002/humu.23014 (DOI)000382777100009 ()27174533 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer Society, 15 0878Swedish Research CouncileSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration, DEC 2015/16/W/NZ2/00314
    Available from: 2016-10-20 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
    3. funMotifs: Tissue-specific transcription factor motifs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>funMotifs: Tissue-specific transcription factor motifs
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keyword
    noncoding genome, transcription factor motifs, database, annotation, genetic variants
    National Category
    Bioinformatics (Computational Biology)
    Research subject
    Bioinformatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339915 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-25
    4. Functional annotation of noncoding mutations identifies candidate regulatory aberrations in cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional annotation of noncoding mutations identifies candidate regulatory aberrations in cancer
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keyword
    noncoding genome, transcription factor motifs, regulatory elements, cancer
    National Category
    Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Medical Genetics
    Research subject
    Bioinformatics; Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339913 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-25
  • Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Physiotherapy, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Physiotherapy, Department of Medical and Health Sciences; Linköping University, ehab Väst, County Council of Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation and Department of Medical and Health Sciences .
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Linköping University, Physiotherapy, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Neck-specific exercises with internet-based support compared to neck-specific exercises at a physiotherapy clinic for chronic whiplash-associated disorders: study protocol of a randomized controlled multicentre trial.2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Globally, neck pain is the fourth most common condition associated with longer periods of living withdisability. Annually, approximately 0.3% of the population of Western countries undergo whiplash trauma, and half ofthose individuals will develop chronic problems with highcosts for the individual and society. Evidence for chronicwhiplash-associated disorders (WAD) treatment is scarce, though neck-specific training at a physiotherapy clinic twice aweek for 12 weeks has demonstrated good results. More efficient, flexible rehabilitation with reduced waiting times andlower costs is needed, ideally replacing lengthy on-site treatment series by healthcare providers. Internet-based care hasbeen shown to be a viable alternative for a variety of diseases and interventions, but studies are lacking on Internet-basedinterventions for individuals with chronic neck problems. The aim of the trial described here is to compare the effects ofan Internet-based neck-specific exerciseprogrammetothesameexercisesperformed at a physiotherapy clinic in regardsto self-reported and clinical measures, as well as cost-effectiveness.

    Methods:This prospective, randomized controlled trial will involve 140 participants. Measurements will be made atbaseline, 3 months (end of treatment), and 15 months (12 months after end of intervention) and will include ratings ofpain, disability, satisfaction with care, work ability, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness.

    Discussion:The study results may contribute to the development of a more effective rehabilitation, flexible and equalcare, shorter waiting times, increased availability, and lower costs for healthcare and society.

    Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol ID: NCT03022812, initial release 12/20/2016.