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  • Green, Madeleine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Water management for agriculture under a changing climate: case study of Nyagatare watershed in Rwanda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is today facing a big challenge regarding food deficiency and water scarcity due to climate change. One of these countries is Rwanda, a small landlocked country in the middle of Africa. Rwanda strongly depend on agriculture, both in the aspect of reducing poverty and hunger but also because their economy security depend on it. Because of increasingly fluctuating rainfalls their agriculture becomes more dependent on irrigation and the availability to water resources.

    To investigate how the climate change will affect the amount of water resources in the coming decades, this study is focusing on the watershed and marshland of Muvumba P8 in Nyagatare, Rwanda. A hydrological model was created, in a software called Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), with soil, land use and slope maps for the watershed. Calibrating the model was done with help of Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and run for nine different climate model datasets. An uncertainty had to be taken into account regarding both the measured local data and the downloaded data. To be able to compare the amount of water resources and the irrigation requirements for the rice crop the farmers were growing on the marshland, the crop water requirements for rice was estimated with FAO’s program called CROPWAT. The irrigation system on the marshland allows a double cropping of rice every year and consist of a system depending on elevation differences to create natural fall. There was three reservoirs along the marshland but to limit the project, only the first reservoir was taken into account. This was complemented with existing data and field survey.

    Six out of nine climate models showed a decrease in median discharge over the coming 30 years compared to the CFSR historical median discharge. This means that less water in general will reach the outlet of the watershed in the years to come. At the same time all climate models indicate an increase in irrigation requirements for the rice crops. The seasons are probably going to change, a longer and drier season between June and August and a rainier season between September and November are projected.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-16 10:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Bratu, Cristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Immigration: Policies, Mobility, and Integration2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay I: Labor immigration is an important tool that countries can use to address labor shortages. The design of labor immigration policies may affect flows and the composition of immigrant workers, which can, in turn, have an effect on firms and workers in the host country. I quantify such effects by studying a major Swedish reform that made it significantly easier for firms to recruit non-Europeans. Using a difference-in-differences setup, I exploit variation in the strictness of immigration rules which affected industries differentially before and after the reform. Treated industries are predominantly lower-skilled, and concentrated in sectors like hotels and restaurants and retail trade sectors. Using linked employer-employee data, I study the effect of the reform on both firm-level and individual-level outcomes. I find that the mean earnings at firms in treated industries unambiguously increase. Firms also seem to take advantage of skill complementarities between natives and immigrants and intensify their overall hiring of high-skilled workers. Moreover, I follow native incumbents' employment and earnings over time and find heterogeneous effects along the skill and age dimensions.

    Essay II (with Matz Dahlberg, Mattias Engdahl and Till Nikolka): We evaluate the importance of spillover effects of national migration policies by estimating the effect of stricter rules on family reunification in Denmark in 2002 on migration to neighboring countries. We reach two main conclusions. First, we show that stricter rules for reunification lead to a clear and significant increase in emigration of Danish citizens with immigrant background. Most of the emigrants left Denmark for Sweden, a neighboring country in which reunification was possible. Second, we demonstrate that a significant fraction of the individuals that came to Sweden to reunite with a partner left the country again; within two (eight) years around 20% (50%) had left, with the absolute majority leaving for Denmark. Our results indicate that potential spillover effects from national migration policies should be taken into account when forming migration policy.

    Essay III (with Valentin Bolotnyy): We use administrative Swedish data to show that, conditional on parent income, immigrant children have similar incomes and higher educational attainment in adulthood than native-born Swedes. This result, however, masks the fact that immigrant children born into poor families are more likely than similar natives to both reach the top of the income distribution and to stay at the bottom. Immigrant children from high-income families are also more likely than natives to regress to the economic bottom. Notably, however, children from predominantly-refugee sending countries like Bosnia, Syria, and Iran have higher intergenerational mobility than the average immigrant child in Sweden.

    Essay IV (with Valentin Bolotnyy): Home ownership is an important indicator of socio-economic status and a good proxy for wealth. We show that on average, children of immigrants are less likely to own their homes than children of natives at age thirty. The difference remains even after we control for socio-economic characteristics, parental background, and municipality of residence. We find that parental background - both in terms of parents' income and education, but also their own home ownership status - is the most important determinant of home ownership in adulthood. We additionally investigate the role of age at arrival on outcomes in adulthood and find a significant negative effect of age at arrival on income and education, which also translates into a lower probability of owning a home in adulthood. However, growing up in a highly-educated family may partly mitigate this negative effect.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-14 13:15 Brusewitzsalen, Uppsala
    Holm, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Rise of Online Counterpublics?: The Limits of Inclusion in a Digital Age2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how online platforms mediate the reproduction of privilege, by employing the concept of counterpublics. The term, which has been central to the feminist critique of mainstream public sphere theory, denotes the alternative publics that emerge in response to various exclusions by dominant publics with the goal of targeting and influencing the same. Because the emergence of counterpublics has traditionally been understood as offering the possibility for historically marginalized groups to come together and challenge dominant public discourses, empirical research has often focused on “good” or “progressive” counterpublics. However, the recent rise of racist, antifeminist and climate change denying counter-discourses online, formed by groups that claim to be marginalized from mainstream publics, raises new issues of how we can understand and analyze power and privilege in the public spheres. This thesis therefore sheds light on how privilege is reproduced in the context of online counterpublic dynamics. A revitalized power perspective on the public spheres is developed and subsequently used to analyze the reproduction of privilege in three empirical case studies. First, the rationales behind the broader inclusion of (certain) counterpublics in the dominant public sphere through comment sections is investigated by means of interviews with Swedish mainstream news media editors. Second, the formation of an antifeminist counterpublic on Swedish political blogs is analyzed, with a specific focus on how the privileged position of the antifeminist net-activists facilitated its emergence. Last, it is explored how self-identified white feminists were enabled by Twitter’s architecture to reproduce asymmetrical power relations within the hashtag #solidarityisforwhitewomen; a counterpublic initiated by women of color to question their exclusion from mainstream feminism and online feminist platforms. The thesis demonstrates that while online platforms have provided historically marginalized groups with new possibilities to form counterpublics, these venues at the same time pose new challenges to their inclusion. In particular, online platforms provide privileged groups with new possibilities to influence dominant public discourses directly as well as more indirectly through competition with structurally marginalized groups in the emergence of counterpublics.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-14 10:00 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University.
    Prostate cancer theranostics using GRPR antagonist RM262019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The malignant transformation of cells is often associated with an alteration of their molecular phenotype, resulting in overexpression of several cell surface proteins. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are examples of such pro-teins that are expressed at a high density in prostate cancer. GRPR is primarily expressed in earlier stages of prostate cancer and tends to decrease with disease progression. This expression pattern indicates that GRPR could be a promising target for imaging and treatment of oligometa-static prostate cancer, an early step in prostate cancer progression characterized by limited meta-static spread. In contrast, the expression of PSMA increases with cancer progression and is significantly upregulated as tumors dedifferentiate into higher grade, in androgen-insensitive and metastatic lesions.

    This thesis is based on five original articles (papers I-V) and focuses on the preclinical de-velopment of radiotracers for imaging and treatment of prostate cancer. The work can be divided into three distinct parts: (1) the development and optimization of GRPR-antagonist RM26 for high contrast PET and SPECT imaging of oligometastatic prostate cancer (papers I-III), (2) the preclinical evaluation of 177Lu-labeled RM26 as a potential candidate for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in GRPR-expressing tumors, alone or in combination with anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab (paper IV), and (3) the development of a bispecific heterodimer targeting both PSMA and GRPR in prostate cancer (paper V).

    We have demonstrated that the in vitro and in vivo properties of GRPR antagonist RM26 are strongly influenced by the choice of chelator-radionuclide complex and that long-lived radionuclides are desirable for high-contrast imaging. Furthermore, our data indicate that 55Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 has remarkable potential for next-day high-contrast PET imaging of GRPR-expressing tumors. Experimental PRRT using 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 resulted in a pronounced inhibition of tumor growth and a significantly longer median survival. Interestingly, survival was further improved when trastuzumab was co-injected with 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26. These data indicate that blocking HER2 with trastuzumab decreased the repairing ability of irradiated cells. Finally, we developed a heterodimer (NOTA-DUPA-RM26) for imaging GRPR and PSMA expression in prostate cancer shortly after administration.

    In conclusion, we have successfully developed and preclinically evaluated radioconjugates for GRPR-directed theranostics in oligometastatic prostate cancer using the bombesin antagonistic analog RM26.

    List of papers
    1. The effect of macrocyclic chelators on the targeting properties of the 68Ga-labeled gastrin releasing peptide receptor antagonist PEG2-RM26
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of macrocyclic chelators on the targeting properties of the 68Ga-labeled gastrin releasing peptide receptor antagonist PEG2-RM26
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    2015 (English)In: Nuclear Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0969-8051, E-ISSN 1872-9614, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 446-454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) has been reported in several cancers. Bombesin (BN) analogs are short peptides with a high affinity for GRPR. Different BN analogs were evaluated for radionuclide imaging and therapy of GRPR-expressing tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonistic analog of BN (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2, RM26) conjugated to NOTA via a PEG2 spacer (NOTA-PEG2-RM26) labeled with 68Ga, 111In and Al18F. 68Ga-labeled NOTA-PEG2-RM26 showed high tumor-to-organ ratios.

    Methods

    The influence of different macrocyclic chelators (NOTA, NODAGA, DOTA and DOTAGA) on the targeting properties of 68Ga-labeled PEG2-RM26 was studied in vitro and in vivo.

    Results

    All conjugates were labeled with generator-produced 68Ga with high yields and demonstrated high stability and specific binding to GRPR. The IC50 values of natGa-X-PEG2-RM26 (X = NOTA, DOTA, NODAGA, DOTAGA) were 2.3 ± 0.2, 3.0 ± 0.3, 2.9 ± 0.3 and 10.0 ± 0.6 nM, respectively. The internalization of the conjugates by PC-3 cells was low. However, the DOTA-conjugated analog demonstrated a higher internalization rate compared to other analogs. GRPR-specific uptake was found in receptor-positive normal tissues and PC-3 xenografts for all conjugates. The biodistribution of the conjugates was influenced by the choice of the chelator moiety. Although all radiotracers cleared rapidly from the blood, [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 showed significantly lower uptake in lung, muscle and bone compared to the other analogs. The uptake in tumors (5.40 ± 1.04 %ID/g at 2 h p.i.) and the tumor-to-organ ratios (25 ± 3, 157 ± 23 and 39 ± 4 for blood, muscle and bone, respectively) were significantly higher for the NOTA-conjugate than the other analogs.

    Conclusions

    Chelators had a clear influence on the biodistribution and targeting properties of 68Ga-labeled antagonistic BN analogs. Positively charged [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 provided a low kidney radioactivity uptake, high affinity, high tumor uptake and high image contrast.

    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232120 (URN)10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2014.12.009 (DOI)000353369000005 ()25684649 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2019-07-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Selection of optimal chelator improves the contrast of GRPR imaging using bombesin analogue RM26.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection of optimal chelator improves the contrast of GRPR imaging using bombesin analogue RM26.
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    2016 (English)In: International journal of oncology, ISSN 1791-2423, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 2124-2134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Bombesin (BN) analogs bind with high affinity to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) that are up-regulated in prostate cancer and can be used for the visualization of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radionuclide-chelator complexes on the biodistribution pattern of the 111In-labeled bombesin antagonist PEG2-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 (PEG2-RM26) and to identify an optimal construct for SPECT imaging. A series of RM26 analogs N-terminally conjugated with NOTA, NODAGA, DOTA and DOTAGA via a PEG2 spacer were radiolabeled with 111In and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The conjugates were successfully labeled with 111In with 100% purity and retained binding specificity to GRPR and high stability. The cellular processing of all compounds was characterized by slow internalization. The IC50 values were in the low nanomolar range, with lower IC50 values for positively charged natIn-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 (2.6±0.1 nM) and higher values for negatively charged natIn-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 (4.8±0.5 nM). The kinetic binding studies showed KD values in the picomolar range that followed the same pattern as the IC50 data. The biodistribution of all compounds was studied in BALB/c nu/nu mice bearing PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts. Tumor targeting and biodistribution studies displayed rapid clearance of radioactivity from the blood and normal organs via kidney excretion. All conjugates showed similar uptake in tumors at 4 h p.i. The radioactivity accumulation in GRPR-expressing organs was significantly lower for DOTA- and DOTAGA-containing constructs compared to those containing NOTA and NODAGA. 111In-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 with a positively charged complex showed the highest initial uptake and the slowest clearance of radioactivity from the liver. At 4 h p.i., DOTA- and DOTAGA-coupled analogs showed significantly higher tumor-to-organ ratios compared to NOTA- and NODAGA-containing variants. The NODAGA conjugate demonstrated the best retention of radioactivity in tumors, and, at 24 h p.i., had the highest contrast to blood, muscle and bones.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281358 (URN)10.3892/ijo.2016.3429 (DOI)000372568600037 ()26983776 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2019-07-17Bibliographically approved
    3. High Contrast PET Imaging of GRPR Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Cobalt-Labeled Bombesin Antagonist RM26
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Contrast PET Imaging of GRPR Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Cobalt-Labeled Bombesin Antagonist RM26
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    2017 (English)In: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1555-4309, E-ISSN 1555-4317, article id UNSP 6873684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    High gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression is associated with numerous cancers including prostate and breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to develop a Co-55-labeled PET agent based on GRPR antagonist RM26 for visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. Labeling with Co-57 and Co-55, stability, binding specificity, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics of Co-57-NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 were studied. NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 was successfully radiolabeled with Co-57 and Co-55 with high yields and demonstrated high stability. The radiopeptide showed retained binding specificity to GRPR in vitro and in vivo. Co-57-NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 biodistribution in mice was characterized by rapid clearance of radioactivity from blood and normal non-GRPR-expressing organs and low hepatic uptake. The clearance was predominantly renal with a low degree of radioactivity reabsorption. Tumor-to-blood ratios were approximately 200 (3 h pi) and 1000 (24 h pi). The favorable biodistribution of cobalt-labeled NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 translated into high contrast preclinical PET/CT (using Co-55) and SPECT/CT (using Co-57) images of PC-3 xenografts. The initial biological results suggest that Co-55-NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 is a promising tracer for PET visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors.

    Keywords
    Positron-Emission-Tomography, Receptor-Positive Tumors, In-Vivo Evaluation, Radiolabeled Peptides, Analog; Agonists, Visualization, Proteins, Affinity, Therapy.
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334114 (URN)10.1155/2017/6873684 (DOI)000408099300001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer Society, CAN2014/474; CAN2015/350Swedish Research Council, 2015-02509; 2015-02353Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationScience for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
    Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2019-07-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Trastuzumab cotreatment improves survival of mice with PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts treated with the GRPR antagonist 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trastuzumab cotreatment improves survival of mice with PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts treated with the GRPR antagonist 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26
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    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) are overexpressed in prostate cancer and are suitable for targeted radionuclidetherapy (TRT). We optimized the bombesin-derived GRPR-antagonist PEG2-RM26 for labeling with 177Lu and further determinedthe effect of treatment with 177Lu-labeled peptide alone or in combination with the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab in amurine model. The PEG2-RM26 analog was coupled to NOTA, NODAGA, DOTA and DOTAGA chelators. The peptide-chelatorconjugates were labeled with 177Lu and characterized in vitro and in vivo. A preclinical therapeutic study was performed in PC-3xenografted mice. Mice were treated with intravenous injections (6 cycles) of (A) PBS, (B) DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26, (C) 177LuDOTAGA-PEG2-RM26, (D) trastuzumab or (E) 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 in combination with trastuzumab. 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 demonstrated quantitative labeling yield at high molar activity (450 GBq/μmol), high in vivo stability (5 min pi >98% ofradioligand remained when coinjected with phosphoramidon), high affinity to GRPR (KD = 0.4 0.2 nM), and favorablebiodistribution (1 hr pi tumor uptake was higher than in healthy tissues, including the kidneys). Therapy with 177Lu-DOTAGAPEG2-RM26 induced a significant inhibition of tumor growth. The median survival for control groups was significantly shorterthan for treated groups (Group C 66 days, Group E 74 days). Trastuzumab together with radionuclide therapy significantlyimproved survival. No treatment-related toxicity was observed. In conclusion, based on in vitro and in vivo characterization ofthe four 177Lu-labeled PEG2-RM26 analogs, we concluded that 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 was the most promising analog forTRT. Radiotherapy using 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 effectively inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a murine prostate cancermodel. Anti-HER2 therapy additionally improved survival.

    Keywords
    radionuclide therapy, GRPR, HER2, prostate cancer, lutetium-177
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389561 (URN)10.1002/ijc.32401 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-07-17 Created: 2019-07-17 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
    5. Bispecific GRPR-antagonistic anti-PSMA/GRPR heterodimer for PET and SPECT diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bispecific GRPR-antagonistic anti-PSMA/GRPR heterodimer for PET and SPECT diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are wellvalidated molecular targets that are overexpressed in most prostate cancers (PCa). Given thecomplexity and heterogeneity of PCa, targeting both receptors using bispecific radiotracers couldimprove the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic outcome. The aim of this study was to develop aPSMA/GRPR-targeting bispecific heterodimer for SPECT and PET diagnostic imaging of PCa.Bispecific anti-GRPR/PSMA dimer NOTA-DUPA-RM26 was produced using a combination of solidphase and manual peptide synthesis. The heterodimer was successfully labeled with111In for SPECTand 68Ga for PET with radiochemical yields exceeding 99% for 111In and 98% for 68Ga. Theradiolabeled heterodimers demonstrated high label stability and retained binding specificity to PSMAand GRPR when tested using PC3-PIP cell line expressing both PSMA and GRPR. IC50 values fornatIn-NOTA-DUPA-RM26 were 4±1 nM towards GRPR and 350±240 nM towards PSMA. Cellularprocessing assay revealed a low degree of internalization for 111In-NOTA-DUPA-RM26. In vivobinding specificity tests in PC3-PIP xenografted mice 1 h pi of 111In-NOTA-DUPA-RM26demonstrated partially blockable tumor uptake when co-injected with excess of either PSMA- orGRPR-targeting agents. A pronounced blocking effect was observed for 111In and 68Ga-labeledheterodimer when co-injected simultaneously with excess of PSMA- and GRPR-targeting agents 1 hpi. Biodistribution was studied 1, 3 and 24 h pi for 111In-NOTA-DUPA-RM26, and 1 and 3 h pi for68Ga-NOTA-DUPA-RM26 and revealed a fast clearance of radioprobes from blood and normal organsvia renal excretion. Tumor uptake exceeded the uptake in all normal organs including excretory organsfor both 111In and 68Ga-labeled heterodimers 1 h pi. 68Ga-NOTA-DUPA-RM26 had a significantlylower tumor uptake (8±2%ID/g) compared to 111In-NOTA-DUPA-RM26 (12±2%ID/g), but a two-foldhigher uptake in liver 1h pi. The faster clearance of radioactivity from normal tissues compared totumor lead to an overall increase in tumor-to-organ ratios for both 111In and 68Ga-labeled heterodimers3 h pi. At 24 h pi, tumor-to-organ ratios decreased for 111In-NOTA-DUPA-RM26. MicroPET/CT andmicroSPECT/CT scans confirmed the ex vivo data and suggested that anti-GRPR/PSMA heterodimerNOTA-DUPA-RM26 labeled with galium-68 (for PET) and indium-111 (for SPECT) is a suitablecandidate for imaging of GRPR and PSMA expression in PCa shortly after administration.

    Keywords
    PSMA, GRPR, molecular imaging, prostate cancer
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389562 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-17 Created: 2019-07-17 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 09:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Aktekin, Burak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The Electrochemistry of LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-δ in Li-ion Batteries: Structure, Side-reactions and Cross-talk2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Li-ion batteries in portable electronic products is today widespread and on-going research is extensively dedicated to improve their performance and energy density for use in electric vehicles. The largest contribution to the overall cell weight comes from the positive electrode material, and improvements regarding this component thereby render a high potential for the development of these types of batteries. A promising candidate is LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO), which offers both high power capability and energy density. However, the instability of conventional electrolytes at the high operating potential (~4.7 V vs. Li+/Li) associated with this electrode material currently prevents its use in commercial applications.

    This thesis work aims to investigate practical approaches which have the potential of overcoming issues related to fast degradation of LNMO-based batteries. This, in turn, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of degradation mechanisms. First, the effect of a well-known electrolyte additive, fluoroethylene carbonate is investigated in LNMO-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) cells with a focus on the positive electrode. Relatively poor cycling performance is found with 5 wt% additive while 1 wt% additive does not show a significant difference as compared to additive-free electrolytes. Second, a more fundamental study is performed to understand the effect of capacity fading mechanisms contributing to overall cell failure in high-voltage based full-cells. Electrochemical characterization of LNMO-LTO cells in different configurations show how important the electrode interactions (cross-talk) can be for the overall cell behaviour. Unexpectedly fast capacity fading at elevated temperatures is found to originate from a high sensitivity of LTO to cross-talk.

    Third, in situ studies of LNMO are conducted with neutron diffraction and electron microscopy. These show that the oxygen release is not directly related to cation disordering. Moreover, microstructural changes upon heating are observed. These findings suggest new sample preparation strategies, which allow the control of cation disorder without oxygen loss. Following this guidance, ordered and disordered samples with the same oxygen content are prepared. The negative effect of ordering on electrochemical performance is investigated and changes in bulk electronic structure following cycling are found in ordered samples, accompanied by thick surface films on surface and rock-salt phase domains near surface.

    List of papers
    1. The Effect of the Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of the Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells
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    2017 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 4, p. A942-A948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the electrolyte additive fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) for Li-ion batteries has been widely discussed in literature in recent years. Here, the additive is studied for the high-voltage cathode LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) coupled to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) to specifically study its effect on the cathode side. Electrochemical performance of full cells prepared by using a standard electrolyte (LP40) with different concentrations of FEC (0, 1 and 5 wt%) were compared and the surface of cycled positive electrodes were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that addition of FEC is generally of limited use for this battery system. Addition of 5 wt% FEC results in relatively poor cycling performance, while the cells with 1 wt% FEC showed similar behavior compared to reference cells prepared without FEC. SEM and XPS analysis did not indicate the formation of thick surface layers on the LNMO cathode, however, an increase in layer thickness with increased FEC content in the electrolyte could be observed. XPS analysis on LTO electrodes showed that the electrode interactions between positive and negative electrodes occurred as Mn and Ni were detected on the surface of LTO already after 1 cycle. (C) The Author(s) 2017. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, 2017
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323509 (URN)10.1149/2.0231706jes (DOI)000400958600056 ()
    Available from: 2017-06-14 Created: 2017-06-14 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Understanding the Capacity Loss in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the Capacity Loss in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures
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    2018 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 21, p. 11234-11248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, (LNMO) is an attractive positive electrode because of its operating voltage around 4.7 V (vs Li/Li+) and high power capability. However, problems including electrolyte decomposition at high voltage and transition metal dissolution, especially at elevated temperatures, have limited its potential use in practical full cells. In this paper, a fundamental study for LNMO parallel to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) full cells has been performed to understand the effect of different capacity fading mechanisms contributing to overall cell failure. Electrochemical characterization of cells in different configurations (regular full cells, back-to-back pseudo-full cells, and 3-electrode full cells) combined with an intermittent current interruption technique have been performed. Capacity fade in the full cell configuration was mainly due to progressively limited lithiation of electrodes caused by a more severe degree of parasitic reactions at the LTO electrode, while the contributions from active mass loss from LNMO or increases in internal cell resistance were minor. A comparison of cell formats constructed with and without the possibility of cross-talk indicates that the parasitic reactions on LTO occur because of the transfer of reaction products from the LNMO side. The efficiency of LTO is more sensitive to temperature, causing a dramatic increase in the fading rate at 55 degrees C. These observations show how important the electrode interactions (cross-talk) can be for the overall cell behavior. Additionally, internal resistance measurements showed that the positive electrode was mainly responsible for the increase of resistance over cycling, especially at 55 degrees C. Surface characterization showed that LNMO surface layers were relatively thin when compared with the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on LTO. The SEI on LTO does not contribute significantly to overall internal resistance even though these films are relatively thick. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed that the Mn and Ni observed on the anode were not in the metallic state; the presence of elemental metals in the SEI is therefore not implicated in the observed fading mechanism through a simple reduction process of migrated metal cations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357732 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b02204 (DOI)000434236700007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 42031-1
    Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO): In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li Ion Full Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO): In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li Ion Full Cells
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 3323-3335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) as the positive electrode are prone to fast capacity fading, especially when operated in full cells and at elevated temperatures. The crystal structure of LNMO can adopt a P4(3)32 (cation-ordered) or Fd (3) over barm (disordered) arrangement, and the fading rate of cells is usually mitigated when samples possess the latter structure. However, synthesis conditions leading to disordering also lead to oxygen deficiencies and rock-salt impurities and as a result generate Mn3+. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was performed on disordered and slightly Mn-rich LNMO samples to follow cation ordering-disordering transformations during heating and cooling. The study shows for the first time that there is not a direct connection between oxygen release and cation disordering, as cation disordering is observed to start prior to oxygen release when the samples are heated in a pure oxygen atmosphere. This result demonstrates that it is possible to tune disordering in LNMO without inducing oxygen deficiencies or forming the rock-salt impurity phase. In the second part of the study, electrochemical testing of samples with different degrees of ordering and oxygen content has been performed in LNMO vertical bar vertical bar LTO (Li4Ti5O12) full cells. The disordered sample exhibits better performance, as has been reported in other studies; however, we observe that all cells behave similarly during the initial period of cycling even when discharged at a 10 C rate, while differences arise only after a period of cycling. Additionally, the differences in fading rate were observed to be time-dependent rather than dependent on the number of cycles. This performance degradation is believed to be related to instabilities in LNMO at higher voltages, that is, in its lower lithiation states. Therefore, it is suggested that future studies should target the individual effects of ordering and oxygen content. It is also suggested that more emphasis during electrochemical testing should be placed on the stability of samples in their delithiated state.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
    Keywords
    high-voltage spinel, neutron diffraction, LNMO, cation ordering, oxygen deficiency
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387975 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.8b02217 (DOI)000469885300040 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 42758-1Swedish Energy Agency, 39043-1StandUp
    Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
    4. The role of anionic processes in Li1xNi0.44Mn1.56O4 studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of anionic processes in Li1xNi0.44Mn1.56O4 studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389847 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-08-13
    5. How Mn/Ni ordering controls electrochemical performance in high-voltage spinel LiNi0.44Mn1.56O4 (LNMO) with fixed oxygen content
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Mn/Ni ordering controls electrochemical performance in high-voltage spinel LiNi0.44Mn1.56O4 (LNMO) with fixed oxygen content
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    High voltage spinel, LNMO, cation ordering, oxygen deficiency, rock-salt, anionic redox activity
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389799 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-28 Created: 2019-07-28 Last updated: 2019-08-13
  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 13:15 Sal IV, Uppsala
    Åhlman, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Mötet med det skrivna ordet: Kvinnors läsande och skrivande under 1700-talet2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis study how women in 18th century Sweden used reading and writing and how these skills could be a source of income. Historians have studied how many could read during this period or how writing was taught in the parish school. How these skills were used have, however, been overlooked. The main questions are: How, and in which circumstances, did women use reading and writing? Who were these women? What type of return did reading and writing have?

    To study how literacy was used is not without difficulty. The traces are often scattered in different types of source material. Several types of sources material have therefore been analyzed. Material like moving certificates, funeral sermons, personals, account books, verifications, church protocols, contracts, court records, recipes amongst others have been used.

    This thesis shows that women used reading and writing in different ways. There were not a question of one type of literacy but different types of literacies – it depended on the situation. A writing ability that was limited in one situation could be sufficient in another. By focus on social practice, this thesis argues that women´s reading and writing could have different types of return depending on individual and situation.

  • Falk, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    "A Jerusalemite Armenian. That's a thing of its own": A Case Study about Identity, Agency and Structure among Armenian women2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an analyses of interviews and observations in the Armenian quarter of Jerusalem. It explores the identity and agency of twelve women in a patriarchal context. A context furthermore marked by religion and several conflicts. The aim is to increase knowledge about this unique environment. In order to encompass the complexity of the interplay between the individual women and the surrounding society, a combination of discourse-, structuration- and intersectional theory, has been consulted. The case study illustrates how the women’s individual agency is connected to negotiations of a Jerusalemite Armenian identity, in relation to outlook and social space. Attention is especially given to the identity markers gender, ethnicity and age. These are, together with education, career, marriage and religion, understood to influence the women’s latitude. While individual freedom is of great importance for a few, the majority direct their efforts to exercise agency to the benefits of their community.

  • Rumetshofer, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Playing the European Postal Code Lottery?: Analysis of Time to Market of new Drugs on the European Market2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to investigate the vastly varying time to market of newly approved drugs across Europe. Firtsly, I use a country fixed effects model on data of newly approved drugs from 2014 to 2017 from 18 European countries. I investigate the correlations between medication specific characteristics and the launch time and find that drugs intended to treat HIV, rheumatism or hepatitis are correlated with a faster launch time. Orphan drugs, though they represent a third of the dataset are found to be insignificantly correlated with time to market. Using a drug fixed effects model, I research important country characteristics in relation to the launch time and find that countries with higher imports of medications are correlated with a quicker time to market. Countries with larger medication export sectors experience a longer waiting time, which could be linked to companies trying to hinder the parallel export of new drugs.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 09:15 Siegbahnsalen, Uppsala
    Espadas Escalante, Juan José
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics. Uppsala University.
    On numerical analyses of woven composite laminates: Homogenization, damage and fracture2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation analyzes various mechanical properties of textile reinforced composite laminates.

    The dissertation is based on a total of six published works, which are essentially numerical, although experimental elements are available. The numerical methods used are based on high-resolution finite element models in combination with sophisticated phase-field theories for brittle fracture. A key result is that important mechanical properties in engineering applications, such as fracture or damage resistance, can be substantially affected by the arrangement of the constituent materials at the meso level.

    List of papers
    1. A phase-field model for strength and fracture analyses of fiber-reinforced composites
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A phase-field model for strength and fracture analyses of fiber-reinforced composites
    2019 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 174, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A phase-field model for brittle fracture is proposed and evaluated for strength and fracture analyses of composites. In addition to the elastic properties, this approach makes use of only the fracture toughness and the strength of the material. The capability of the method is shown in analyses of composites at two scales. In laminates, strengths of notched laminates are estimated, including hole size effects. In a lamina, cracks developed in both transverse tension and compression are analyzed and compared to other numerical methods in the literature. The effects of a spectral and a hydrostatic-deviatoric decomposition of the strain energy density, two variants often used in phase-field formulations, are studied. It is shown that the choice of the decomposition affects the fracture development. Results are compared to experiments and simulations in the literature showing the capabilities of the phase-field approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Computational mechanics, Strength, Fracture, Finite element analysis (FEA)
    National Category
    Composite Science and Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368254 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.10.031 (DOI)000469407500008 ()
    Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
    2. A study on the influence of boundary conditions in computational homogenization of periodic structures with application to woven composites
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study on the influence of boundary conditions in computational homogenization of periodic structures with application to woven composites
    2017 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 160, p. 529-537Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of boundary conditions (BCs) in the estimation of elastic properties of periodic structures is investigated using computational homogenization with special focus on planar structures. Uniform displacement, uniform traction, periodic, in-plane periodic and a proposed mix of periodic and traction BCs are used. First, the effect of the BCs is demonstrated in structures with one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity. Mixed BCs are shown to most accurately represent the behavior of layered structures with a small number of repeating unit cells. Then, BCs are imposed on a twill woven composite architecture. Special attention is devoted to investigate the sensitivity of the estimated properties with respect to the BCs and to show differences when considering a single lamina or a laminate. High sensitivity of the in-plane extensional modulus and Poisson's ratio with respect to the type of BCs is found. Moreover, it is shown that the mix of BCs and in-plane periodic BCs are capable to represent an experimental strain field.

    Keywords
    Computational homogenization, Mixed boundary conditions, Heterogeneous structures, Elastic properties, Woven composites, Finite element method
    National Category
    Composite Science and Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-359307 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.10.082 (DOI)000390470300044 ()
    Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
    3. The effect of free-edges and layer shifting on intralaminar and interlaminar stresses in woven composites
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of free-edges and layer shifting on intralaminar and interlaminar stresses in woven composites
    2018 (English)In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 185, p. 212-220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The free-edge effects and relative layer shifting in the interlaminar and intralaminar stresses of plain woven composite laminates under uniaxial extension is investigated numerically using a finite element approach. A computational framework of the free-edge problem for periodic structures with finite width is applied to woven laminates. First, two-layered laminates with three different shifting configurations are studied considering repeating unit cells simulating finite and infinite width. For each configuration, two different widths are considered by trimming the model at different locations in order to investigate different free-edge effects. Then, two four-layered laminates with no shifting and a maximum shifting configuration are analyzed to illustrate the effect of neighboring layers in the stresses. For each shifting configuration, different delamination mechanisms are expected. When considering more layers, it is found that the stacking configuration affects the state of stress and the free-edge effects depending on the shifting. In general, a different behavior than that of unidirectional tape laminates is found, since the interlaminar and intralaminar stresses can be higher than those generated at the free-edges. Particularly, for the maximum shifting configuration results are in agreement with experimental results in the literature where no debonding between yarns was observed at the free-edges.

    Keywords
    Woven composites, Finite element method, Intralaminar stresses, Interlaminar stresses, Free-edge effects, Multiscale modeling
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341485 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.11.014 (DOI)000418961000018 ()
    Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
    4. A study of induced delamination and failure in woven composite laminates subject to short-beam shear testing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of induced delamination and failure in woven composite laminates subject to short-beam shear testing
    2019 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 205, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Failure in woven composite laminates subject to global shear load is studied. Laminates are manufactured, tested and analyzed using X-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and finite element models. It is found that the stress distribution along the thickness direction is dependent on the layer shifting that alters different yarn interactions, which in turn, affects delamination and failure onset A suggested failure mechanism is in agreement with experimental observations.

    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368250 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2018.10.015 (DOI)000453766000026 ()
    Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Analysis of the Influence of Layer Shifting on the Elastic Response and Damage Nucleation and Growth in Woven Composite Laminates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the Influence of Layer Shifting on the Elastic Response and Damage Nucleation and Growth in Woven Composite Laminates
    2018 (English)In: NASA Technical MemorandumsArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368253 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-07-05
    6. Mesoscale analysis of the transverse cracking kinetics in woven composite laminates using a phase-field fracture theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mesoscale analysis of the transverse cracking kinetics in woven composite laminates using a phase-field fracture theory
    2019 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A phase-field approach to fracture is used to simulate transverse cracking kinetics in composite laminates. First, a typical unidirectional tape laminate is modeled and the transverse cracking evolution with the consequent reduction in the in-plane modulus of elasticity is estimated. Then, a four-layered plain weave composite is modeled using different layer shifting configurations. Predictions in the transverse cracking evolution become improved as the shifting configuration of the laminate model become closer to experimental observations. Simulations predict that some cracks do not form perpendicularly to the loading direction, as it has been observed experimentally in similar locations. Only the fracture toughness and the in situ transverse strength of the ply are required without prior knowledge of the position of the cracks or an ad hoc criterion for crack evolution. All the simulations are compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experiments published elsewhere.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering science with specialization in Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-388533 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2019.106523 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-07-01 Created: 2019-07-01 Last updated: 2019-07-05
  • Immonen, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    A Study about the use of Resources to Strengthen the Network Position: A Comparative Case analysis within the Defense industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative research has been performed at Saab Dynamics with the purpose to analyze how resources are used in Saab to improve their processes and increase their market share. The theory used is founded in IMP theory with the implication that companies must move their focus from only considering internal resources into using their network. To analyze the different types resources in the network the 4R model has been used and adopted to two different cases at Saab Dynamics. The first case is about Saabs procurement of one of its suppliers, ACAB, and the second case is about a Country Xs procurement of the man-portable air-defense system RBS 70 NG. To gather data about the cases interviews has been performed with employees at Saab as well as other stakeholders. The result from these interviews were then analyzed based on the 4Rs, answering the questions:

    • What Products are involved in the product development? 
    • Which Production Facilities are involved in the product development?
    • Which Business Units are involved in the product development?
    • What Business relationships are involved in the product development?

    Once the resources were analyzed and compared to separately, the following question was answered:

    • How have resources been combined to expand and strengthen the network?

    The result from the research showed that Saab has a great focus on its suppliers and how they should structure the network for the best potential end-result. In the first case, the procurement resulted in factors such as shorter lead-times, smoother processes and better quality products. The second case showed that Business Relationship resources such as trust played a great part in the procurement. To grow a stronger Business Relationship, Saab used a supplier in Country X which in turn also ended up being a part of the creation of a new innovative component. 

    The end discussion is about the benefits that the procurement of ACAB and weather this could be used as a way for Saab to expand their network while also gaining more control over the Supply Chain. This is something that goes against modern-day literature which often argue that the opposite often is to prefer. In the end there is also a short ethical section with the aim to examine why people chose to work in an industry like Saab Dynamics. To gather the data a few interviews were made with the end result that the respondents believe that the industry is necessary for the protection of Sweden and that it “is a human right to feel safe”.

  • Al-Mashhadi, Ammar Nadhom Farman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Dukic, Milena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Engstrand Lilja, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartoma presenting in a child as a perineal mass2019In: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 2213-5766, Vol. 47, article id 101242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartoma (RMH) is a rare hamartomatous lesion in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It is mostly found in the face and neck region of children. We report a case of solitary RMH located in the perineum of an 8-month-old boy. Microscopic examination of specimen showed a disordered collection of mature adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, adnexal elements and nerve bundles, and immunohistochemistry confirmed a RMH. This case emphasizes the possibility of RMH in the perineum of the children. Even if RMH is a rare condition in the perineum it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a perineal mass in children.

  • Fugelstad, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Gotgatan 83E, SE-I1662 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars Age
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ågren, Gunnar
    Former Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Gotgatan 83E, SE-17662 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sidorchuk, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Opioid-related deaths and previous care for drug use and pain relief in Sweden2019In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 201, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In 2006-2014, the rate of drug-related deaths, typically opioid poisonings, more than doubled in Sweden. Opioid prescriptions for pain control or opioid agonist therapy also increased. In this retrospective study, we compared death rates between individuals whose first recorded contact with prescribed opioids was for pain control and individuals that had received substance use disorder (SUD) treatment before their first recorded opioid prescription.

    Methods: We included 2834 forensically examined individuals (ages 15-64 years) that died of poisoning in Sweden in 2006-2014. For each death we acquired data on previous opioid prescriptions and SUD treatments. We compared three study groups: pain control (n = 788); a SUD treatment group (n = 1629); and a group with no prescription for pain control or SUD treatment (n = 417).

    Results: Overall fatal poisonings increased from 2.77 to 7.79 (per 100,000 individuals) from 2006 to 2014 (relative 181% increase). Fatal poisoning increased from 2006 to 2014 by 269% in the pain control group (0.64 to 2.36 per 100,000) and by 238% in the SUD treatment group (1.35 to 4.57 per 100,000). Heroin-related deaths remained constant; consequently, the increase was likely attributable to prescription opioids.

    Conclusion: A rapid increase in deaths attributable mainly to prescription opioids for pain control, was reported previously in the United States. Our study indicated that increased access to prescription opioids might contribute to higher death rates also in Sweden among patients seeking pain control and individuals with an established SUD; however, deaths related to prescription opioids mainly occurred among those with SUDs.

  • Zsoter, Ervin
    et al.
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England;Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
    Cloke, Hannah L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England;Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England;Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stephens, Elisabeth
    Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
    de Rosnay, Patricia
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Munoz-Sabater, Joaquin
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Prudhomme, Christel
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Pappenberger, Florian
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    How Well Do Operational Numerical Weather Prediction Configurations Represent Hydrology?2019In: Journal of Hydrometeorology, ISSN 1525-755X, E-ISSN 1525-7541, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1533-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land surface models (LSMs) have traditionally been designed to focus on providing lower-boundary conditions to the atmosphere with less focus on hydrological processes. State-of-the-art application of LSMs includes a land data assimilation system (LDAS), which incorporates available land surface observations to provide an improved realism of surface conditions. While improved representations of the surface variables (such as soil moisture and snow depth) make LDAS an essential component of any numerical weather prediction (NWP) system, the related increments remove or add water, potentially having a negative impact on the simulated hydrological cycle by opening the water budget. This paper focuses on evaluating how well global NWP configurations are able to support hydrological applications, in addition to the traditional weather forecasting. River discharge simulations from two climatological reanalyses are compared: one "online" set, which includes land-atmosphere coupling and LDAS with an open water budget, and an "offline" set with a closed water budget and no LDAS. It was found that while the online version of the model largely improves temperature and snow depth conditions, it causes poorer representation of peak river flow, particularly in snowmelt-dominated areas in the high latitudes. Without addressing such issues there will never be confidence in using LSMs for hydrological forecasting applications across the globe. This type of analysis should be used to diagnose where improvements need to be made; considering the whole Earth system in the data assimilation and coupling developments is critical for moving toward the goal of holistic Earth system approaches.

  • Lindholm, Daniel
    et al.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sarno, Giovanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Erlinge, David
    Lund Univ, Dept Cardiol, Lund, Sweden.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Hasvold, Lars Pal
    AstraZeneca, Dept Med, Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Combined association of key risk factors on ischaemic outcomes and bleeding in patients with myocardial infarction2019In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 105, no 15, p. 1175-1181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In patients with myocardial infarction (MI), risk factors for bleeding and ischaemic events tend to overlap, but the combined effects of these factors have scarcely been studied in contemporary real-world settings. We aimed to assess the combined associations of established risk factors using nationwide registries.

    Methods: Using the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies registry, patients with invasively managed MI in 2006-2014 were included. Six factors were assessed in relation to cardiovascular death (CVD)/MI/stroke, and major bleeding: age >= 65, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, multivessel disease, prior bleeding and prior MI.

    Results: We studied 100 879 patients, of whom 20 831 (20.6%) experienced CVD/MI/stroke and 5939 (5.9%) major bleeding, during 3.6 years median follow-up. In adjusted Cox models, all factors were associated with CVD/MI/stroke, and all but prior MI were associated with major bleeding. The majority (53.5%) had >= 2 risk factors. With each added risk factor, there was a marked but gradual increase in incidence of the CVD/MI/stroke. This was seen also for major bleeding, but to a lesser extent, largely driven by prior bleeding as the strongest risk factor.

    Conclusions: The majority of patients with MI had two or more established risk factors. Increasing number of risk factors was associated with higher rate of ischaemic events. When excluding patients with prior major bleeding, bleeding incidence rate increased only minimally with increasing number of risk factors. The high ischaemic risk in those with multiple risk factors highlights an unmet need for additional preventive measures.

  • Olsson Söderhäll, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Trojaborgarnas dolda agenda: En övergripande beskrivning av trojaborgar i Sverige och en jämförelse av olika teorier om trojaborgarnas funktion2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Troy Town is a labyrinth either built of stones or made of turf. They can be found in northern Europe, especially in Scandinavia. The number of Troy Towns in Sweden is outstanding. They are around 400. Most of them are situated on the coast but there are still approximatly 80 inland about 20 of which are located on ancient burial grounds from both bronze and iron age. The Troy Towns in Sweden are mostly marked with round circles of stones, the size of human skulls, and placed directly on the ground. The entrance of a Troy Town is often formed as a cross. There are some turf labyrinths left in Denmark, England and Germany but most of them are overgrown by grass and can no longer be seen. The Troy Towns are hard to date. Away from the coast one can examine their contexts whilst along the coast lichenometry and the sea level may be used to determine the age of them. There are different ways to describe the purpose of them depending on what period they belong to and where they are situated. Researchers do not agree on all the theories and many of them are based on older explanations. Still new theories appear. My purpose apart from describing the Troy Towns is to examine and compare the theories and to evaluate their plausibility.

  • Santoni, Giola
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Solna, Sweden.
    Meinow, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Tomtebodavagen 18A,Floor 10, S-17165 Solna, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Gerontol Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Neurogeriatr, Ctr Alzheimer Res, Solna, Sweden.
    Marengoni, Alessandra
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Solna, Sweden;Univ Brescia, Dept Clin & Expt Sci, Brescia, Italy.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Tomtebodavagen 18A,Floor 10, S-17165 Solna, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Gerontol Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Calderon-Larranaga, Amaia
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Tomtebodavagen 18A,Floor 10, S-17165 Solna, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using an Integrated Clinical and Functional Assessment Tool to Describe the Use of Social and Medical Care in an Urban Community-Dwelling Swedish Older Population2019In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 988-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To describe the use of social and medical care services in a community-dwelling older population from Stockholm, Sweden, using an integrated clinical and functional assessment tool.

    Design: Study based on data from the longitudinal community-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen.

    Setting and Participants: Random sample of people >65 years of age living in the community in central Stockholm between March 2001 and June 2004 (N = 2368).

    Measures: Health status was measured with a health assessment tool (HAT), which combines 5 indicators (gait speed, cognitive function, chronic multimorbidity, mild disability, severe disability) collected during Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen clinical examinations. The amount of formal and informal social care was self-reported in hours per month and recorded by trained nurses at baseline and the 3-year follow-up for those >= 78 years of age at baseline. Data on hospital admissions, 30-day readmissions, days spent in the hospital, primary care visits, and specialist visits were obtained from Stockholm County Council registers (2001-2007).

    Results: At baseline, 10% of the sample received formal social care and 11% received informal care. Annually between baseline and the 3-year follow-up, 15% were admitted to the hospital, 5% were readmitted, 78% visited a specialist, and 89% visited primary care. Those with the best HAT scores received 0.02 hours/month of formal care; those with the worst, 34 h/mo. The corresponding numbers for other variables were 0.02 vs 73 h/mo of informal care, 2 vs 11 hospital admissions per 10 persons/year, 44 vs 226 hospital days per 10 persons/y, 0.4 vs 2 30-day readmissions per 10 persons/y, 37 vs 78 specialist visits per 10 persons/y, and 50 vs 327 primary care visits per 10 persons/y.

    Conclusions/Implications: Because of its high discriminative power, the easy-to-use HAT index could help decision makers to plan medical and social care services.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 09:15 B42, Uppsala
    Wegler, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Proteomics-informed analysis of drug disposition in the human liver and small intestine2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Orally administered drugs are absorbed in the intestine and generally metabolized in the liver. Therefore, understanding factors determining drug distribution and elimination in these tissues is important. This thesis aimed at using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics and functional studies to better understand in vitro model systems used for drug clearance predictions. Further, it aimed at understanding the changes in drug disposition caused by obesity and gastric bypass surgery (GBP).

    The study was initiated by investigating factors influencing MS-based protein quantification by comparing results from different proteomics methods, and by studying protein distribution during subcellular fractionation. The largest variability in protein quantification was ascribed to insufficient enrichment from subcellular fractionation, most likely due to collection of the majority of the proteins in the initial fraction of the fractionation protocols.

    Proteomics and metabolic activity analyses were then used to investigate differences in intrinsic clearance from two commonly used in vitro systems, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes. For some compounds, the faster microsomal metabolism could be explained by a higher available unbound drug concentration and CYP content in the microsomes as compared to in the hepatocytes.

    Next, inter-individual protein expression variability in human liver and jejunum was explored. This showed that proteins covered a wide inter-individual variability spectrum, in which proteins with low variabilities were associated with essential cellular functions, while many proteins with high variabilities were disease-related.

    Further, the effects of obesity, GBP, and weight loss on the proteomes of human liver and jejunum were analyzed. After GBP and subsequent weight loss, patients showed lower levels of jejunal proteins involved in inflammatory response and drug metabolism.

    Finally, proteomics data from patients with and without obesity was combined with parameters from in vitro transport kinetics, and a mechanistic model to predict drug disposition was developed. The model successfully predicted rosuvastatin plasma concentrations in the patients.

    In conclusion, this thesis has provided insights into factors influencing protein quantification and function in vitro. Furthermore, this thesis demonstrates how proteomics contributes to improved understanding of inter-individual and physiological differences, and how it can be used for in vitro-in vivo scaling of drug clearance.

    List of papers
    1. Variability in Mass Spectrometry-based Quantification of Clinically Relevant Drug Transporters and Drug Metabolizing Enzymes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variability in Mass Spectrometry-based Quantification of Clinically Relevant Drug Transporters and Drug Metabolizing Enzymes
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    2017 (English)In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 3142-3151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many different methods are used for mass-spectrometry-based protein quantification in pharmacokinetics and systems pharmacology. It has not been established to what extent the results from these various methods are comparable. Here, we compared six different mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods by measuring the expression of clinically relevant drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in human liver. Mean protein concentrations were in general quantified to similar levels by methods using whole tissue lysates. Methods using subcellular membrane fractionation gave incomplete enrichment of the proteins. When the enriched proteins were adjusted to levels in whole tissue lysates, they were on average 4 fold lower than those quantified directly in whole tissue lysates. The differences in protein levels were propagated into differences in predictions of hepatic clearance. In conclusion, caution is needed when comparing and applying quantitative proteomics data obtained with different methods, especially since membrane fractionation is common practice for protein quantification used in drug clearance predictions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017
    Keywords
    drug transporters, drug metabolizing enzymes, membrane proteins, protein quantification, targeted proteomics, label-free proteomics
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335414 (URN)10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00364 (DOI)000410005100027 ()28767254 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2822, 5715
    Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2019-07-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Subcellular fractionation of human liver reveals limits in global proteomic quantification from isolated fractions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subcellular fractionation of human liver reveals limits in global proteomic quantification from isolated fractions
    2016 (English)In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 509, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The liver plays an important role in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics, including drugs. Determination of concentrations of proteins involved in uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics is required to understand and predict elimination mechanisms in this tissue. In this work, we have fractionated homogenates of snap -frozen human liver by differential centrifugation and performed quantitative mass spectrometry -based proteomic analysis of each fraction. Concentrations of proteins were calculated by the "total protein approach". A total of 4586 proteins were identified by at least five peptides and were quantified in all fractions. We found that the xenobiotics transporters of the canalicular and basolateral membranes were differentially enriched in the subcellular fractions and that phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, the cytochrome P450s and the UDP glucuronyl transferases, have complex subcellular distributions. These findings show that there is no simple way to scale the data from measurements in arbitrarily selected membrane fractions using a single scaling factor for all the proteins of interest. This study also provides the first absolute quantitative subcellular catalog of human liver proteins obtained from frozen tissue specimens. Our data provide quantitative insights into the sub cellular distribution of proteins and can be used as a guide for development of fractionation procedures.

    Keywords
    Human liver, Subcellular fractionation, Absolute quantitative proteomics, Total protein approach, Drug metabolism, Drug transport
    National Category
    Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303255 (URN)10.1016/j.ab.2016.06.006 (DOI)000380866800013 ()27311553 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2822
    Available from: 2016-09-16 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2019-07-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Bridging differences in CYP activity between donor-matched human liver microsomes and hepatocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging differences in CYP activity between donor-matched human liver microsomes and hepatocytes
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Human liver microsomes, Human hepatocytes, Proteomics, Kpuu, Clearance
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Research subject
    Pharmaceutical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389737 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-23 Created: 2019-07-23 Last updated: 2019-07-26
    4. Global expression variability of proteins across and within human tissues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global expression variability of proteins across and within human tissues
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    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala:
    Keywords
    Expression variability, Human liver, Human jejunum, Proteomics, Transcriptomics, Reference genes
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Research subject
    Pharmaceutical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389738 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-23 Created: 2019-07-23 Last updated: 2019-07-26
    5. Effects of obesity and weight loss on global protein expression in human liver and jejunum
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of obesity and weight loss on global protein expression in human liver and jejunum
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Proteomics, Obesity, Gastric bypass, Human liver, Human jejunum
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Research subject
    Pharmaceutical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389739 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-23 Created: 2019-07-23 Last updated: 2019-07-26
    6. Proteomics-informed prediction of rosuvastatin clearance in donors with and without obesity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proteomics-informed prediction of rosuvastatin clearance in donors with and without obesity
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Proteomics, Plasma drug distribution, Pharmacokinetics, Uptake clearance, Prediction model
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Research subject
    Pharmaceutical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389740 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-07-23 Created: 2019-07-23 Last updated: 2019-07-26
  • Ärlebrandt, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brandt, Rakel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    I Sverige är det självklart att alla ska få säga vad de tycker: En kvalitativ textanalys av demokratiska värderingar i läromedel för årskurs 4–62019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och beskriva hur de grundläggande demokratiska värderingarna förmedlas i lärobokstexter i samhällskunskap för mellanstadiet. Enligt läroplanen är det en av skolans uppgifter att förmedla och förankra demokratiska värderingar hos eleverna, och då är det intressant att undersöka hur dessa värderingar förmedlas i de texter som eleverna läser. Med en konstruktivistisk utgångspunkt är det relevant att undersöka de texter som fokuserar på att beskriva demokrati, eftersom eleverna förväntas göra en koppling mellan begreppen demokrati och demokratiska värderingar.

    Genom en kvalitativ textanalys har de fem mest populära läroböckerna utgivna efter Lgr11 undersökts, och studien visar att framförallt jämlikhet mellan könen och allas lika värde till viss del uttrycks explicit, medan individens frihet, individens integritet, människans egenvärde och solidaritet förmedlas mer implicit eller bara förutsätts i texterna. Med värdepedagogisk ansats har analysen gjorts för att bidra med underlag till mer kunskap om vad som förmedlas genom läroböcker mer än ämneskunskap. Variationen i tydlighet och betoningar mellan läroböckerna visar också på vikten av ökad värdepedagogisk medvetenhet hos lärare i valet av läromedel.

  • Bolin, Lovisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hardi, Dalia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Från studenter till studenter: En studie om varför studenter använder sammanfattningar skrivna av andra studenter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att studenter använder sig av sammanfattningar är vanligt förekommande på universiteten idag. I denna uppsats görs en kvalitativ studie kring varför studenter väljer att använda sig av sammanfattningar enligt tre aspekter, tillit, risk samt etik och moral. Studien har gjorts i två delar, en förstudie och en huvudstudie. Förstudien bestod av intervjuer med 22 studenter och huvudundersökningen bestod utav 32 studenter. Syftet med intervjuerna är att kartlägga studenters erfarenheter, tankar och åsikter kring användandet av sammanfattningar skrivna av andra studenter. Teoriavsnittet belyser tillit, risk samt etik och moral för att få en mer djupgående bild av studenters beslut av att använda sammanfattningar. Slutsatsen är att studenter väljer att använda sig av sammanfattningar på grund av 1) det finns en allmän hög nivå av tillit till andra studenter kring deras kunskap och välmening. 2) Trots att studenterna är medvetna om de risker som finns med sammanfattningar väljer de att bortse från dessa i vissa situationer. 3) Majoriteten av studenterna uppgav att det finns ett moraliskt problem med användandet av sammanfattningar. Dock var egenintresset en för stor faktor för att välja bort sammanfattningar.

  • Engberg, Lovisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Marcus, Wibom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Reporäntans effekt på aktiekursen: - har skuldsättningsgrad någon betydelse?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Reporäntan är något som påverkar alla. Mycket forskning har gjorts på den amerikanska marknaden kring reporäntans effekt på aktiekursen, med varierande resultat. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om tillkännagivandet av en förändrad reporänta leder till olika abnormal avkastning beroende på skuldsättningsgrad. Studiens urval består av 4807 stycken observationer på Nasdaq OMX Stockholm under perioden 2009–2018. Dessa observationer fördelas i portföljer utifrån företagens skuldsättningsgrader baserat på marknadsvärden och sedan genomförs en eventstudie. Studien finner inga signifikanta samband mellan en ändrad reporänta och abnormal avkastning baserat på skuldsättningsgrad.

  • Östrand Myrlund, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Avrinningskoefficientens betydelse vid hydraulisk modellering av spillvattenförande ledningssystem2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har sökt kartlägga och kvantifiera hur olika metoder att ansätta avrinningskoefficienter påverkar simuleringsresultaten vid hydraulisk modellering av spillvattenförande ledningssystem. Olika metoder att ansätta avrinningskoefficienter tillämpades på två modellområden av olika karaktär. Varje modellområde bestod av mindre delavrinningsområden kopplade till en ledningsnätsmodell i modellverktyget MIKE URBAN. I MIKE URBAN kopplas ledningssegment i ledningsnätsmodellen samman av noder, även tillrinningen från modellområdets delavrinningsområden har sitt inlopp i dessa noder. Noderna kan motsvara nedstigningsbrunnar, tillsynsbrunnar och rännstensbrunnar i det verkliga ledningsnätssystemet (Blomquist et al. 2016).

    Skillnader i absolut maximalt nodvattendjup mellan olika metoder att ansätta avrinningskoefficienter visualiserades i kartbilder. Resultaten visade att det uppstod skillnader i ledningsnätsmodellernas maximala simulerade nodvattendjup när olika metoder att ansätta avrinningskoefficienter användes. Med regressionsanalyser undersöktes samband mellan relativ förändring i reducerad area och relativ förändring i simulerade maximala nodvattendjup mellan olika metoder att ansätta avrinningskoefficienter. För noder längst uppströms i ledningssystemet påvisades ett positivt linjärt samband mellan relativ förändring i maximalt nodvattendjup och relativ förändring i ansluten reducerad area. Sambandet mellan relativ förändring i maximalt nodvattendjup och relativ förändring i reducerad area skiljde sig i styrka för olika modellsimuleringar. För modellområde J som har ett helt separerat spillvattennät och en homogen bebyggelse låg förklaringsgraden på omkring 50 procent för samtliga modellscenarier. I samtliga modellscenarier för modellområde J låg det maximala nodvattendjupet över nedströms ledningshjässa vilket kan tyda på att begränsningar i ledningsdimensioner har inverkan på det maximala simulerade nodvattendjupet. För modellområde E var sambandet mellan relativ förändring i maximalt nodvattendjup och relativ förändring i ansluten reducerad area starkare än för modellområde J för en majoritet av simuleringsscenarierna.

    Resultaten bör betraktas utifrån studiens begränsade omfattning samt utifrån att modellerna är teoretiska då de inte kalibrerats mot mätdata. Studien visualiserar dock att beroende på vilken metod som använts för att ansätta avrinningskoefficienter kan skillnader i simuleringsresultat bli stora för vissa delar av modellområdet. Fortsatta studier är därför viktiga för en ökad transparens vid hydraulisk modellering av ledningsnätssystem och för att tydliggöra osäkerheter som är kopplade till avrinningskoefficienter.

  • Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Advanced Neutron Spectroscopy in Fusion Research2019In: Journal of fusion energy, ISSN 0164-0313, E-ISSN 1572-9591, Vol. 38, no 3-4, p. 330-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art neutron spectroscopy in fusion research. The focus is on the fundamental nuclear physics and measurement principles. A brief introduction to relevant nuclear physics concepts is given and also a summary of the basic properties of neutron emission from a fusion plasma. Compact monitors/spectrometers like diamond, CLYC and the liquid scintillator are discussed. A longer section describes in some detail the more advanced, designed systems like those based on the thin-foil proton recoil and time-of-flight techniques. Examples of spectroscopy systems installed at JET and planned for ITER are given.

  • Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Liquid Scintillators Neutron Response Function: A Tutorial2019In: Journal of fusion energy, ISSN 0164-0313, E-ISSN 1572-9591, Vol. 38, no 3-4, p. 356-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This tutorial is devoted to the understanding of the different components that are present in the neutron light output pulse height distribution of liquid scintillators in fusion relevant energy ranges. The basic mechanisms for the generation of the scintillation light are briefly discussed. The different elastic collision processed between the incident neutrons and the hydrogen and carbon atoms are described in terms of probability density functions and the overall response function as their convolution. The results from this analytical approach is then compared with those obtained from simplified and full Monte Carlo simulations. Edge effect, finite energy resolution, light output and transport and competing physical processes between neutron and carbon and hydrogen atoms and their impact on the response functions are discussed. Although the analytical treatment here presented allows only for a qualitative comparison with full Monte Carlo simulations it enables an understanding of the main features present in the response function and therefore provides the ground for the interpretation of more complex response functions such those measured in fusion plasmas. Although the main part of this tutorial is focused on the response function to mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons a brief discussion is presented in case of broad neutron energy spectra and how these can be used to infer the underlying properties of fusion plasmas via the application of a forward modelling method.

  • Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gruber, Georg
    Siesta Grp, Vienna, Austria.
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Short sleep-poor sleep?: A polysomnographic study in a large population-based sample of women2019In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, no 4, article id e12812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of studies on the association between total sleep time (TST) and other polysomnographical parameters. A key question is whether a short sleep is an expression of habitual short sleep, or whether it reflects temporary impairment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between TST and amount of sleep stages and sleep continuity measures, in a large population-based sample of women (n = 385), sleeping at home in a normal daily life setting. The results show that sleep efficiency, N1 (min), N2 (min), REM (min), REM% and proportion of long sleep segments, increased with increasing TST, whereas the number of awakenings/hr, the number of arousals/hr, N1% and REM intensity decreased. In addition, longer sleep was more associated with TST being perceived as of "usual" duration and with better subjective sleep quality. TST was not associated with habitual reported sleep duration. It was concluded that short TST of a recorded sleep in a real-life context may be an indicator of poor objective sleep quality for that particular sleep episode. Because individuals clearly perceived this reduction, it appears that self-reports of poor sleep quality often may be seen as indicators of poor sleep quality. It is also concluded that PSG-recorded sleep duration does not reflect habitual reported sleep duration in the present real-life context.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Asimakopoulou, Eleni M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellajosyula, Venugopal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Searches for third-generation scalar leptoquarks in √s = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector2019In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 6, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limits are set on the pair production of scalar leptoquarks, where all possible decays of the leptoquark into a quark (t, b) and a lepton (, ) of the third generation are considered. The limits are presented as a function of the leptoquark mass and the branching ratio into charged leptons for up-type (LQ<sub ) and down-type (/t) leptoquarks. Many results are reinterpretations of previously published ATLAS searches. In all cases, LHC proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of = 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2015 and 2016 are used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1). Masses below 800 GeV are excluded for both LQu and LQd independently of the branching ratio, with masses below about 1 TeV being excluded for the limiting cases of branching ratios equal to zero or unity.

  • Zambrano, Jesus
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, POB 883, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, POB 210, S-10031 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control.
    Machine learning techniques for monitoring the sludge profile in a secondary settler tank2019In: Applied water science, ISSN 2190-5487, E-ISSN 2190-5495, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the performance of two machine learning methods, Gaussian process regression (GPR) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), as two possible methods for monitoring the sludge profile in a secondary settler tank (SST). In GPR, the prediction of the response variable is given as a Gaussian probability density function, whereas in the GMM the probability density function is built as a weighted sum of Gaussian distributions. In both approaches, a residual is calculated and a fault detection criterion is implemented via a recursive decision rule. As case study, GMM and GPR were tested using real data from a sensor measuring the suspended solids concentration as a function of the SST level in a wastewater treatment plant in Bromma, Sweden. Results suggest that GMM gives a faster response but is also more sensitive than GPR to changes during normal conditions.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 13:00 Room E22, VisbyNorberg, Monica
    Engagerat ledarskap för att skapa förutsättningar för allas delaktighet: Utgångspunkter i kvalitetsarbetet2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to increased demands on continuous improvements for organizations, they choose different strategies for improvements such as the use of systematic quality systems to structure the progresses in the business. However, studies have shown that improvement projects often fail due to the leadership and commitment within the organization. Research points out weak or missing techniques and tools connected to committed leadership and let everybody be committed, two important principles in systematic quality systems like Total Quality Management, in Sweden mentioned as the cornerstone model.

    Based on six different studies, this doctoral thesis deepens the knowledge about managers’ prerequisites to use leadership, which can enable commitment to an organization’s quality work in a Swedish context. First, five smaller studies were conducted, mainly focused on diversity, inclusion, and leadership in different kinds of organizations. The results from these five studies created a foundation for the sixth and main study, a case study within an organization dealing with Fast-Moving Consumer Goods. The case study included observations, both non-participation and participation, interviews with CEO, the management group, employees, but included also group measurement and document studies during a year with follow-up interviews.

    In conclusion, the doctoral thesis results have contributed to the development of techniques and tools connected to how a committed leadership can give prerequisites to let everybody be committed. The results have also given the possibility to complement the model Principles-Practices-Tools (PAV) with additional principles, concrete techniques and tools

  • Sjögren, Phillip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Grundämnesanalys på S:t Hans individer: Ett metodologiskt arbete med µXRF2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of using X-Ray fluorescence analysis as a method in ar-chaeological, forensic and osteological studies have resulted in a vast amount of data. It is time and cost efficient, and the method of µXRF element analysis has been of great use to archaeologists, forensic an-thropologists and osteologists to understand dietary customs, techno-logical trade patterns, understanding of diagenesis, elemental accumu-lation in bone and more. Moreover, the method has been crucial due to its non-destructive nature since bones and ancient artifacts are fragile and thus a nonde-structive method is preferable. This essay will give the reader an intro-duction to the basics of micro X-Ray fluorescence analysis and will explore the possibilities of trace elements in right (dexter) and left (sinister) thighbones (femur) on a medieval population in Visby Got-land, namely Sankt Hans. The reader will also come to know the fun-damental principles, applications, strengths and weaknesses of mi-croX-Ray fluorescence, as well as its limitations. Keywords: µXRF, non-destructive, data, method, left, right, thigh-bone, elements, analysis.

  • Große, Tobias Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Challenges for Survivors of Anti-Personnel Mines in Post-Conflict Vista Hermosa, Colombia: Resilience, a Way for Improvement?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research approach is an embedded-single case study, focusing on survivors of APM in Vista Hermosa, Colombia. The first unit of analysis discloses the current challenges of survivors in light of the historical and legal background.

    The civilian population of Vista Hermosa was caught between the frontlines of the various fighting parties during the Colombian conflict. The demilitarized zone (DMZ) - active from 1999 to 2002 - left civilians in the municipality abandoned by the government; its termination let to a further increase of violence and significant anti-personnel mine (APM) contamination. After the Final Peace Agreement in 2016, illegal armed groups are still conducting violent attacks. The legal background presents a plurality of legislative instruments to regulate the necessary assistance to survivors of APM in Colombia. The most relevant international document in this regard is the Ottawa Convention which became effective in Colombia in 2001, enforced from 2011 by ‘The Victims’ Law’, its national counterpart.

    Despite the comprehensive legal rights to rehabilitation and compensation, the empirical section of this study detects a variety of challenges for survivors of APM. Despite the fact that most APM accidents date back more than 10 years, many survivors still suffer from physical and psychological impairments. The poor local health infrastructure, the insurance companies and the lacking knowledge about rights often impeded survivors to access adequate recovery means. Additionally, compensation mechanisms do not function effectively. The violence during the conflict and the fear of reprisal acts often prevented survivors from claiming their compensation rights in the required timeframe. The bureaucratic and opaque procedures of the Unidad para las Victimas constitute a barrier which the survivors can often only overcome with judicial support. The inefficient assistance of the municipality in this regard often causes survivors to abandon their claims. 

    The second unit of analysis of the research elaborates the humanitarian activities of Humanity and Inclusion and Pastoral Social on their ability to increase the resilience of the vulnerable group. The comprehensive assistance of the NGOs seeks to improve conditions for survivors of APM by empowering them in a sustainable manner. The approach offers adaptive capacities such as physical rehabilitation to solve immediate needs. However, most of the projects offer transformational capacities to tackle fundamental issues. Although much progress is still needed before it will be feasible to evaluate potential enduring improvement, intermediate results demonstrate enhanced resilience conditions of the benefiting survivors of APM. This approach is not functionally limited to Vista Hermosa or the beneficiary group of survivors of APM. The positive effects of the assistance can serve as an example for the wider humanitarian field. 

    The research findings are mainly based on open-ended interviews which were conducted in 2017 during a four-month internship with Humanity and Inclusion in Vista Hermosa. More interviews were undertaken afterwards via Skype. In addition, the research is based on a literature review including academic findings, reports, and legal documents.

  • Alm Engvall, Michelle
    Sex Work and Humanitarianism: Understanding Predominant Framings of Sex Work in Humanitarian Response2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study how the issue of sex work occurring within humanitarian contexts is addressed by the humanitarian sector, and what this in turn can say about how the problem itself is framed. The analysis focuses on three types of approaches which were identified. These are: to address humanitarian staff and their behaviour in the field in relation to using transactional sex; understanding sex work as a ‘negative coping strategy’ and addressing underlying vulnerabilities; and using a rights-based and community empowerment approach to sex work.

    By analysing codes of conducts, policies, guidelines, and literature suggesting ways for humanitarian workers and peacekeepers to deal with, position themselves against, and understand sex work in the field, I found that, besides the fact that this issue has not been given enough attention in the humanitarian sector, it has mostly been understood as a form of exploitation, and as a coping strategy either used or forced onto mostly women in contexts of crises. The recurrent themes in many of these approaches, have been the focus on gendered vulnerabilities and power structures between people working within or together with the humanitarian sector and the local population in contexts of crisis. Within these frameworks, the issue of to what extent women engaged in sex work are perceived to have agency is somewhat ambivalent, and some critics have argued that their agency has been denied and that not enough focus has been given to the actual needs and risks of those who engage in sex work. This critique has in turn inspired new guidelines and programmes to be developed.

    By linking the analysis to further debates on sex work and critique of the humanitarian sector, I conclude that the simplistic and victimising portrayal of people engaging in sex work and of people living in contexts of humanitarian crises, as well as the sometimes-lacking reflection of ideologies and frameworks motivating humanitarian operations, can blind us to the more nuanced and diverse needs that people in these situations might have. It can also negatively impact the approaches that we use to address stigmatised issues such as sex work. Therefore, I stress that it remains important to study the processes through which knowledge about these issues is produced, and whose voices are included in the process.

  • Matheson, Giorgia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The rights and experiences of LGBTI refugees in Europe: a comparative study of procedures and practices in Italy and Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main problem of this thesis was the comparative analysis of the procedures in place in Sweden and Italy for the reception and support of LGBTI asylum seekers fleeing from war. The aim was to understand if the Swedish and Italian asylum and social systems are supporting and protecting the rights of LGBTI asylum seekers equally, also by uncovering how these procedures affect individuals. The method used to carry out this study was analysis of secondary documents. Queer and migration research, as well as reports, were used to provide a general framework to the issue, while country-specific data was sought in current domestic legislation and country reports carried out by local and international NGOs invested in LGBTI and migrants rights. The gathered information was examined from a descriptive, critical and constructive perspective, and placed within a prevailing comparative framework. Indeed, at the core of the study, lies a comparison between procedural differences in Sweden and Italy concerning the reception and protection of LGBTI asylum seekers who flee war. It was found that in Sweden and Italy people seeking refuge from war torn countries have much higher possibilities to be granted asylum than any other group of migrants. However, with regards to LGBTI asylum seekers from other countries, the social and asylum system of both are structurally violent in that the exclusion and discrimination against sexual minority refugees is the standard. In fact, LGBTI asylum seekers face similar challenges related to their intersectional identity in Sweden as well as Italy, although to different degrees: compared to Italy, Sweden has more standard procedures set in place that help queer asylees have a better experience. Nevertheless, neither systems hold up to the standard they should as consistent reports describe unlawful practices that violate humanitarian law and breach of Article 3 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Ultimately, LGBTI asylum seekers appear to have virtually no control over any aspect of their application or experience in the asylum and social system in Sweden as well as Italy. Therefore, rather than experiencing a newfound freedom, in entering the Italian and Swedish democratic spaces, these individuals simply experience a different kind of oppression.

  • Begemann, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    European External Border Management and its Narratives: Aspects of Dominance and Neocolonialism in European Foreign Policy during the “Refugee Crisis”2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large numbers of incoming refugees since 2015 were perceived as a major challenge for European cooperation and migratory regimes and the situation has within Europe soon been seen as a crisis. Since then, European states and the European Union (EU) have intensified measures to shut down migrant routes to Europe as well as their attempts to externalise means of protection of refugees in Africa. Based on a theoretical framework consisting of political science border studies, postcolonial studies and the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) together with the study of narratives in politics, this thesis analyses two critical events in this field, the 2015 Valletta Summit on migration where European and African leaders discussed the terms of migration cooperation and the 2018 debate on disembarkation platforms. The focus in this work lies especially on neocolonial elements in the power relations between Europe and Africa and how these are expressed in the narratives that were used to justify and explain the action taken. For this purpose, official documents, speeches, interviews and additional utterances from European heads of states and European politicians as well as from African heads of states and African Union (AU) representatives are analysed. Eventually, the thesis comes to the conclusion that a form of neocolonial exists that is here named implicit or indirect neocolonialism.

  • Chaussende, Pauline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Sustainable Tourism and Public Policy in Europe: A Case Study of the Regional Nature Park of Auvergne Volcanoes, France2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    European Regional Nature Parks are based in rural areas and are involved in the fields of biodiversity and sustainable development. Sustainable tourism is a highly topical issue in Europe and many countries are trying to raise the citizens’ and tourists’ awareness of sustainability issues. It is therefore natural that Regional Nature Parks have become a useful tool in this regard. Implementing the principles of sustainable tourism implies a combination of the socioeconomic goals of regional park tourism and the ecological goals of nature conservation. Nature conservation through tourism has become increasingly market-oriented and more instrumental over the years, which reflects the rise of neoliberalist politics. Accordingly, this thesis will contribute to answering the following question: how is the natural heritage of the RNP of Auvergne Volcanoes used as a tool to promote sustainable tourism on a regional scale within a European framework?

    The thesis focuses mainly on the Regional Nature Park of Auvergne Volcanoes as a cultural, natural and environmental heritage. It investigates whether the Park’s local landscapes are used to turn it into a saleable product within a European framework. The thesis also emphasises the governance aspects of the park through an analysis of the policies and planning documents guiding it. In this way, this thesis focuses on the role of the European Union and of national, regional and local governments in sustainable tourism. It also aims to extend our understanding of the influence of public policy upon the development of sustainable tourism.

  • Vyakaranam, Achyut Ram
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Crona, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Sundin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    C-11-hydroxy-ephedrine-PET/CT in the Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma2019In: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) may be difficult to diagnose because of vague and uncharacteristic symptoms and equivocal biochemical and radiological findings. This was a retrospective cohort study in 102 patients undergoing C-11-hydroxy-ephedrine (C-11-HED)-PET/CT because of symptoms and/or biochemistry suspicious for PCC/PGL and/or with radiologically equivocal adrenal incidentalomas. Correlations utilized CT/MRI, clinical, biochemical, surgical, histopathological and follow-up data. C-11-HED-PET/CT correctly identified 19 patients with PCC and six with PGL, missed one PCC, attained one false positive result (nodular hyperplasia) and correctly excluded PCC/PGL in 75 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of C-11-HED-PET/CT for PCC/PGL diagnosis was 96%, 99%, 96% and 99%, respectively. In 41 patients who underwent surgical resection and for whom correlation to histopathology was available, the corresponding figures were 96%, 93%, 96% and 93%, respectively. Tumor C-11-HED-uptake measurements (standardized uptake value, tumor-to-normal-adrenal ratio) were unrelated to symptoms of catecholamine excess (p > 0.05) and to systolic blood pressure (p > 0.05). In PCC/PGL patients, norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure increased in parallel (R-2 = 0.22, p = 0.016). C-11-HED-PET/CT was found to be an accurate tool to diagnose and rule out PCC/PGL in complex clinical scenarios and for the characterization of equivocal adrenal incidentalomas. PET measurements of tumor C-11-HED uptake were not helpful for tumor characterization.

  • Liu, Haoyu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Waldén, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Cai, Demin
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Biochem & Mol Med, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA.
    Ahl, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Nyman, Margareta
    Lund Univ, Dept Food Technol Engn & Nutr, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Holm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Dietary Fiber in Bilberry Ameliorates Pre-Obesity Events in Rats by Regulating Lipid Depot, Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid Formation and Microbiota Composition2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors associated to metabolic syndrome. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) that contains easily fermentable fiber may strengthen the intestinal barrier function, attenuate inflammation and modulate gut microbiota composition, thereby prevent obesity development. In the current study, liver lipid metabolism, fat depot, cecal and serum short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiome were evaluated in rats fed bilberries in a high-fat (HFD + BB) or low-fat (LFD + BB) setting for 8 weeks and compared with diets containing equal amount of fiber resistant to fermentation (cellulose, HFD and LFD). HFD fed rats did not obtain an obese phenotype but underwent pre-obesity events including increased liver index, lipid accumulation and increased serum cholesterol levels. This was linked to shifts of cecal bacterial community and reduction of major SCFAs. Bilberry inclusion improved liver metabolism and serum lipid levels. Bilberry inclusion under either LFD or HFD, maintained microbiota homeostasis, stimulated interscapular-brown adipose tissue depot associated with increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1; enhanced SCFAs in the cecum and circulation; and promoted butyric acid and butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings suggest that bilberry may serve as a preventative dietary measure to optimize microbiome and associated lipid metabolism during or prior to HFD.

  • Sedig, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Samuelsson, Evelina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Gumaelius, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Lindgren, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Greenhouse Climate Optimization using Weather Forecasts and Machine Learning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult for a small scaled local farmer to support him- or herself. In this investigation a program was devloped to help the small scaled farmer Janne from Sala to keep an energy efficient greenhouse. The program applied machine learning to make predictions of future temperatures in the greenhouse. When the temperature was predicted to be dangerously low for the plants and crops Janne was warned via a HTML web page. To make an as accurate prediction as possible different machine learning algorithm methods were evaluated. XGBoost was the most efficient and accurate method with an cross validation value at 2.33 and was used to make the predictions. The data to train the method with was old data inside and outside the greenhouse provided from the consultancy Bitroot and SMHI. To make predictions in real time weather forecast was collectd from SMHI via their API. The program can be useful for a farmer and can be further developed in the future.

  • Thorsell, Mikaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Evaluation of C. diff Quik Chek Complete® and comparison with GeneXpert to establish a new diagnostic algorithm2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clostridium difficile is the most common antibiotic related diarrhéa disease in Sweden. New recommendations from the Swedish public health authority and European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) had led to that a more advanced diagnostic algorithm is of priority. Hence this study, whose purpose was to investigate whether the performance of the rapid test C. diff Quik Chek Complete® could enable the introduction of a new diagnostic algorithm for detection of toxin-forming C. difficile in laboratory medicine in Sundsvall, according to these new recommendations. In the study 119 patient stool-samples were analysed with both GeneXpert and C. diff Quik Chek Complete® and these two combined fulfils these new recommendations of detecting toxin A and B from toxigenic C. difficile together with the enzyme Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) which is produced by all C. difficile stems. The results shows that C. diff Quik Chek Complete® is well matched with GeneXpert and that most of the samples would come to be answered immediately after analysis with C. diff Quik Chek Complete®. The laboratory will save both time and money to establish C. diff Quik Chek Complete® in their algorithm for diagnosing C. difficile infection.

  • Lacorazza, Camila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Evaluation of environmental samples as a sampling method for detecting pathogens in zebrafish2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish are becoming increasingly popular to use in different kinds of research projects as research animals, replacing rodents in many fields. When using animals for research, it is important to keep track of the animal health in order to get reliable results. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether these pathogens could be found analyzing environmental materials with real-time PCR instead of euthanizing fish and submitting them for histopathology. Also, to see if any material differentiated from the rest regarding accessibility to work with in a routine diagnostic laboratory.

        This study was performed on environmental samples, such as filters, swabs, detritus and water, from a recirculating water system holding zebrafish. The pathogens analyzed were Mycobacterium chelonae, M. haemophilum, M. abscessus, M. marinum, M. fortuitum and Pseudoloma neurophilia, all common pathogens that can affect zebrafish.

        All materials tested gave at least one positive result for most of the pathogens tested. Two pathogens were not detected, M. marinum and M. abscessus. Due to poorly working PCR-system for M. fortuitum, the results for that bacteria were deemed inconclusive. The filter materials and the swabs of the filter materials gave the best results in this small study, although all materials gave satisfactory results.

    In conclusion this study shows that environmental samples can be used to detect pathogens in zebrafish, but larger studies should be performed to better evaluate which material is the best one to use.

  • Ahlgren, Evelina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Retrospective serological and virological survey of influenza D virus among cattle in Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Respiratory diseases in cattle can cause economic losses due to the decreased dairy and meat production. Virus is the main reason for these diseases. Symptoms can be fever, cough and nasal discharge.

        Influenza are a group of viruses belonged in the Ortomyxoviridae family. The big influenza groups are influenza A, B and C. The viruses can cause respiratory signs, and mammals can be affected. Recently a new influenza virus was found in the United States. The influenza virus was found in swine, but the natural host was later considered to be cattle. The virus was named influenza D. Different studies worldwide have confirmed the virus in a variety of regions. Antibodies have also been reported.

        In this study, virologic and serologic methods were used to detect if influenza D circulates among cattle in Sweden. The serologic method performed was indirect ELISA. Serum and milk samples were investigated in the ELISA method. For the virologic detection a real-time RT-PCR was made, with a variety of study material.

        Antibodies against influenza D were found in both serum and milk samples. No virus was found in the real-time RT-PCR. In Sweden the animal keeping is different compared to several other nations. For instance, the conditions of health and hygiene are better in Sweden, this may be an important cause of a system more resistant against spreading of infections. Influenza D could be more common in Sweden, but in that case further researches are needed to determine the prevalence.

  • Hallgren, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Characterization of NeuN expression in the mouse neuronal NSC-34 cell line using RT-qPCR, immunological staining and siRNA-mediated gene suppression2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acute spinal trauma is followed by a secondary injury that causes additional damage to the tissue. The mouse neuronal hybrid cell line NSC-34 is planned for studies regarding this process, wherefore the cell line needed to be established in the laboratory and a proof-of-concept study needed to be performed. A suitable target gene for this study was Neuronal Nucleus (NeuN), a neuronal marker expressed in nearly all neuronal cells although not yet studied in NSC-34.

    Aim: The aim of this project was to characterize the expression of NeuN in differentiated and undifferentiated NSC-34 cells and silence gene expression by using siRNA.

    Methods: RT-qPCR was used to measure NeuN expression during passages 5 to 15 and a comparison was performed between one early and one late passage. Lipofectamine® RNAiMAX was used for siRNA-treatment in different concentrations and several different medium compositions were tested as differentiation media.

    Results: NeuN was expressed in passages 5 to 15, with decreased expression levels in passage 13 (ΔCt 15.36 ± 0.16) compared to passage 5 (ΔCt 15.09 ± 0.16), p < 0.05. The expression levels did not change after differentiation. siRNA-treatment yielded knockdown when using  high concentrations of the reagent (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: NeuN was expressed in a stable, low level throughout passages 5 to 15 with a slightly decreased expression during later passages and no change after differentiation. The siRNA-treatment suppressed gene expression, although further optimization is needed to increase the suppression.

  • Johansson, Seiko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Patient-derived organoid culture for 3D culture of colorectal cancer, renal cancer and osteosarcoma2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is always important to choose appropriate anticancer drugs for cancer patients. At RCL, a division of Uppsala university hospital, drug resistance profiles of patients are evaluated by a cell viability assay called FMCA. However, the number of anticancer drugs that can be evaluated by the FMCA is dependent on the number of viable cancer cells from tissues that can be obtained from each individual patient. Therefore, improvement of cell viability methods is an important issue at RCL. This study was performed to improve the FMCA method by organoid culture from colorectal cancer, renal cancer and osteosarcoma to increase the number of cancer cells. As results, it was successful to expand cryopreserved patient cancer cells to organoids to acquire more cells than before expansion. Organoids showed rounded structure in microscopy images. Thereafter, FMCA was performed on organoids as well as on thawed cryopreserved cancer cells from the original sample. Those results showed that original cancer cells, cryopreserved original cancer cells and expanded organoids derived from those cryopreserved cells had similar resistance profiles. It was also discovered that the organoids secreted VEGF under the cultivation. From those results, it can be concluded that organoids are representative of the original cancer from the patients. It is however needed to improve organoid culture methods, and to further confirm organoids by protein expression analysis and DNA analysis.

  • Barregren, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Att ifrågasätta det autentiska: En undersökning om autenticitet och avslöjade förfalskningar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity is an interesting and, in some ways, even a problematic term. Yet there is a very special feeling when someone observes a cultural object, knowing it is the real thing. The purpose of this thesis is to examine revealed forgeries for aspects of authenticity and discuss whether these revealed forgeries have something unique they can offer as museum objects. To form a premiss for both the analysis and the discussion of different museum objects, the thesis uses theoretical perspectives from Denis Dutton, David Lowenthal and Siân Jones regarding authenticity and cultural objects. Using the theoretical perspectives as a tool for analysis and discussion regarding the different museum objects, varying patterns of authenticity can be seen. The discussion leads to the conclusion that there are qualities revealed forgeries can offer as museum objects. They can contribute as objects of entertainment, educational purposes or as escapism, for the museum visitor.

    This is a two years master’s thesis in Museum and Cultural Heritage Studies.

  • Östling, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Automated Kidney Segmentation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging using U-Net2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manual analysis of medical images such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a trained professional, is time-consuming and results may vary between experts. We propose an automated method for kidney segmentation using a convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model based on the U-Net architecture. Investigations are done to compare segmentations between trained experts, inexperienced operators and the Neural Network model, showing near human expert level performance from the Neural Network. Stratified sampling is performed when selecting which subject volumes to perform manual segmentations on to create training data. Experiments are run to test the effectiveness of transfer learning and data augmentation and we show that one of the most important components of a successful machine learning pipeline is larger quantities of carefully annotated data for training.

  • Saberi Nasseri, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Social capital, environmental policy attitudes and the mediating role of climate change beliefs2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to combat the potential threats of climate change, effective policy setting and implementation is crucial. A variable which has been shown to have significant explanatory power on the success of different public policy areas is social capital; a multidimensional concept encompassing social relationships and norms ability to mobilize and facilitate common goals. In the context of climate change related research, the relationship between social capital or some of its components to environmental variables typically is studied in a vacuum. This using factor analysis or SEM, at times in combination with other statistical techniques. In this study a more extensive SEM is investigated, examining the potential effect of social capital on environmental policy attitudes, with the mediating component climate change beliefs. The relationship between all three concepts were found to be significant, with the proportion of the total effect which is due to the indirect effect being 23%. This present study contributes to the literature by introducing the use of more extensive models, taking the complex relationships in the area into account to a higher degree, in order for more efficient policy making.

  • Rabe, Nasim Estelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Prevalens av nedsättning av hjärtats vänsterkammares longitudinella funktion hos patienter med aortastenos2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Left ventricular function is particularly important to investigate since it has prognostic significance in some heart diseases such as aortic stenosis. One of the relatively new methods to evaluate this is deformation analysis that can produce a measure of global longitudinal strain with speckle-tracking. 

    Objective:The objective was to examine the possibility of measuring left ventricular longitudinal function in patients with aortic stenosis from ECG-gated computed tomography images with the new software Segment CT and investigate prevalence of its reduction. Additionally, a second objective was to evaluate the feasibility of global longitudinal strain analysis from ECG-gated computed tomography in comparison with echocardiography and ejection fraction in a subset of patients. 

    Material and methods:This study included 97 patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent evaluation before planned treatment with transcatheter aortic valve implantation during 2016-2017 at Uppsala Hospital. Global strain was calculated from ECG-gated computed tomography and echocardiography with dedicated software.

    Results:Left ventricular function measured by global strain was impaired in all patients while ejection fraction was decreased in 31 %. Mean global longitudinal strain by ECG-gated computed tomography was -6.46±3.51 % and by echocardiography -10.69±4.23 %. The mean difference between the methods was 4.23 %, which was statistically significant (p=0.02) while the correlation was good (r=0.74).

    Conclusions:The strain analysis of ECG-gated computed tomography images was successful in less than a half of the patients. The results of the two methods showed good correlation but not agreement, further research is thus needed with a higher number of patients.

  • Malm Lindberg, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies.
    The Thought Experimenting Qualities of Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling2019In: Religions, ISSN 2077-1444, E-ISSN 2077-1444, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I examine the possible thought experimenting qualities of SOren Kierkegaard's novel Fear and Trembling and in which way (if any) it can be explanatory. Kierkegaard's preference for pseudonyms, indirect communication, Socratic interrogation, and performativity are identified as features that provide the narrative with its thought experimenting quality. It is also proposed that this literary fiction functions as a Socratic-theological thought experiment due to its influences from both philosophy and theology. In addition, I suggest three functional levels of the fictional narrative that, in different ways, influence its possible explanatory force. As a theoretical background for the investigation, two accounts of literary cognitivism are explored: Noel Carroll's Argument Account and Catherine Elgin's Exemplification Account. In relation to Carroll's proposal, I conclude that Fear and Trembling develops a philosophical argumentation that is dependent on the reader's own existential contribution. In relation to Elgin's thought, the relation between truth and explanatory force is acknowledged. At the end of the article, I argue that it is more accurate to see the explanatory force of Fear and Trembling in relation to its exploratory function.

  • Hammersland, Tina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Malmström, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ex-dagseffekten: En undersökning av marknadseffektiviteten på Stockholmsbörsen år 2000-20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När ett företag väljer att dela ut en del av vinsten till sina aktieägare i form av utdelningar bör aktiepriset på en effektiv marknad sjunka med utdelningsbeloppet då aktien handlas exklusive rätt till utdelning. Tidigare studier har däremot visat att aktiepriset i snitt sjunker med ett lägre belopp än utdelningen, något som benämns ex-dagseffekten. Tidigare studier har även argumenterat för olika teorier om varför ex-dagseffekten uppstår, och pekat på skillnad i beskattning av utdelning och kapitalvinst, eller kortsiktig handel hos investerare som förklarande orsaker. Denna studie undersöker ex-dagseffekten på Stockholmsbörsen genom en eventstudie som har genomförts för åren 2000-2018. Studien finner att det existerar en ex-dagseffekt på Stockholmsbörsen under denna period och vidare att det finns ett positivt samband mellan företagsstorlek och prisfallskvot samt direktavkastning och prisfallskvot. 

  • Andrée, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    En attraktiv plats: En kvalitativ fallstudie av framgångsrik platsmarknadsföring2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie genomfördes en empirisk undersökning av Åres arbete med platsmarknadsföring. Undersökningen gjordes för att öka kunskapen kring hur framgångsrika orter arbetar med att marknadsföra sig. Förhoppningsvis kan undersökningens resultat hjälpa andra orter att framgångsrikt designa sin platsmarknadsföring. Sex kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med representanter från stora och inflytelserika organisationer i Åre. Det visade sig att några av dessa organisationer samarbetade i en sorts planeringsgrupp som skapade långsiktiga mål för ortens utveckling. Det som kan ses som uppseendeväckande med denna planeringsgrupp var dels att representanter från både styrande- och oppositionspartier var involverade men även att näringslivet hade en betydande roll. Organisationerna som var representerade i planeringsgruppen hade tillsammans ett stort inflytande på majoriteten av platsens aktörer, vilket gav upphov till en stor organiseringsmakt. Denna uppsättning av planeringsgruppen var troligen orsaken till samarbetets långsiktiga framgång och bör ses som en betydande framgångsfaktor.

    De få komplikationer som uppkom under arbetet kring platsmarknadsföringen var oftast intressekonflikter om vad som bör prioriteras. Dessa var för det mesta enkla att lösa internt på grund av den tillit som byggts upp över tid mellan individerna i planeringsgruppen. Introduktionen av nya individer till planeringsgruppen identifierades som ett kritiskt moment där större konflikter kunde uppstå, detta på grund av den nya individens bristfälliga förståelse av samarbetet. För att minimera riskerna bör därför nya individer introduceras till planeringsgruppen under en längre tid.

  • Puusepp, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Challenges with gig workers: A mediator perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of worker, the gig worker, is acknowledge and problematized as to what challenges mediators can face with managing them as previous research points out their differences from other workers. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze challenges that a mediator can face when managing gig workers and also elevate the knowledge regarding gig workers on how to work with them. A semi-structured interview was conducted with four participants, three mediators of established gig firms in Sweden and one management consultant and expert in the field of gig economy. The finding indicated that there exist two challenges that mediators can face when managing gig workers: 1) The expectations of the matchmaking 2) Allowing gig workers to be independent

     

  • Jävervall, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Wass, Wilhelm
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Market value and patent quality: A panel study of Swedish firms2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the relationship between the stock market value of firms and patent quality using a recently developed composite index measure. The study is conducted on 137 firms during 1991-2015, which provides 914 unique firm year observations. By defining patent quality through patent value indicators, we analyze each indicator’s relationship to the market value of firms. We find that an extra citation per patent increases a firm’s market value by 5 %, and an extra patent family member per patent increases a firm’s market value by 4 %. Patent counts and patent grants show slight negative effects on the market value of firms. Using the composite index measure, we divide our sample into quartiles containing the most important and least important patents. With the use of this methodological framework, we show that the market can identify and separate the more important patents from the less important patents.