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  • Sheik, Hafsa
    The influence of a blood donors sitting position during time of waiting on the change of haemoglobin concentration during blood donation.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The routines for blood testing were changed during 2010 at the blood bank in UAS. At first, the blood test was taken before the donation and now it is taken after donation. Along with this, the blood bank increased the lowest level for allowance of blood donation with 10 g/L both for men and women. The level is now on 125 g/L and 135 g/L for women respectively men. After the increase, it was noticed that the amount of blood donors were deferred due to low Hb levels in creased. A study made in year 2013, investigated how much the Hb-levels actually was changed during a blood donation. It showed that it was lowered in means by 6 g/L and not 10 g/L as previously thought.The aim of this study was to see if the sitting position of the blood donor during waiting time and the supine position during the time of blood donation may had any effect on the difference of the Hb-level during the blood donation.Data from the 120 blood donors in the earlier study was collected. Hb values, before and after blood donation, were taken from the earlier study and registered times were taken from the database Prosang. The waiting time, time of blood donation and the difference of Hb-levels were calculated and correlated with Spearmanns correlation coefficient.The results did not show any correlation between the times and the difference in Hb-levels. One of the reasons may be that the blood donor physiology differ and thus the change in Hb-level can vary.

  • Petersen, Stephanie
    IMPACT OF CRYOPRESERVATION MEDIA ON SPERM MOTILITY2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The result of cryopreservation of semen is crucial for patients in need of fertility preservation.The cryopreservation method is not optimized since only 10 % the sperms are expected tosurvive the treatment. The sperms are exposed to many risk factors such as oxidative stress,osmotic chock and ice crystallization. To minimize the risks, use of cryoprotectants is needed.The use of cryoprotectants helps the cell to dehydrate as penetrating cryoprotectants cancreate space between ice crystals and cell membrane.Two studies were performed. In study one, two different freezing medias (SpermFreezesolution and Cryoprotect II effect on sperm motility after freezing in were compared). Studytwo investigate whether the motility were best preserved if semen froze with all the contentsof the ejaculate or if the sample should be concentrated, with removal of seminal plasma,epithelium cells and dead sperm cells by gradient centrifugation.The project was performed according to recommended instructions for each freezing media.In total, 55 samples were collected for the first study and 23 samples were collected for thesecond study. The sperm motility was measured both before freezing and after thawing.The Cryoprotect II medium preserved the cells better than the SpermFreeze medium(p=0,006). Using SpermFreeze, higher rate of motility was obtained when centrifugation wereperformed before freezing (p=0,033), while this was not observed when using Cryoprotect II(p=0,055). In conclusion Nidacon preserved sperm more effectively than Vitrolife freezemedium. Vitrolife’s freezing medium preserved the samples better if centrifugation wereperformed before freezing. Nidacons freezing medium gave the same result for the samplesno matter centrifugation were performed before or after freezing.

  • Abdelfatah Possnert, Heba
    Detection of Thymidine Kinase 1 Activity in Whole Blood Using an Oligonucleotide System2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s medical science studies, many tumor markers are being used to monitor cancer cell proliferation, but the number of assays for analysis of these markers are few. The aim of this study was to find an easier and more time-efficient way to measure the activity of a specific tumor marker called tymidine kinase 1 (TK1). This tumor marker is an important enzyme involved in cell proliferation and is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway. TK1 activity is related to the occurrence of hematological malignancies and cell activity and therefore have been used as a marker when monitoring this group of patients in treatment. Measurement of the enzyme activity in this study was performed by using an oligonucleotide assay. Detection of the enzyme activity in whole blood and in plasma has not previously been shown. The TK1 activity measured in whole blood and plasma correlated with TK1 activity measured in serum (R2=0,8651 and R2 =0,9845, respectively). It was found that it is possible to determine the TK1 activity in whole blood but only if the activity was measured on the same day as the blood samples were taken. The results shows that the activity measurement of TK1 in plasma and whole blood can be used as a marker to verify patients' therapy in cancer care. This study is only the beginning and further investigations should be made in the future to determine if the method that is subject to this study has the requested effects.

  • Jakobsson, Linnea
    Evaluation of Correlation between Platelet Function in Platelet apheresis Donors and Function in Thrombapharesis Concentrates Measured with Impedance Aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer)2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transfusion of platelet concentrates (PC) can be necessary for patients to maintain coagulability. It is vital that the platelets maintain viability and function during processing and storage to obtain enhanced coagulability in the transfused patient. Today, no test is used to verify platelet function in either donors or in PC’s. Observing swirling effect is the only test applied to control platelets before transfusion but the method is based on platelet morphology and does not directly evaluate platelet function.Impedance aggregometry (IA) (Multiplate analyzer, Roche Diagnostic) is a promising method for measuring platelet function, measuring changes in impedance over time when platelets adhere to electrodes. IA has been well evaluated for the purpose of analyzing whole blood but analyzing PC’s is a relatively new application of the method.Samples from platelet donors and PC’s were analyzed with IA to evaluate correlation in function between donors and PC’s, in the hope of being able to predict function in PC. Different platelet concentrations were also analyzed to evaluate the impact of varying concentration on impedance. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen and thrombin receptor activating peptide 6 (TRAP-6) were used to induce aggregation. Platelet function was measured in PC’s on day 1 and 4 after donation.A significant correlation was observed between platelet function in donors and in PCs on day 1, measured with ADP. An important finding was also that platelet concentration does affect impedance, in collagen-induced aggregation more than ADP-induced. It is therefore possible that a correlation would also have been found between donors and PC’s analyzed with collagen if the platelet concentration would have been standardized.

  • Velander, Bruno
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Lojalitetsreciprocitet: En fråga om lojalitetsplikt vid lojalitetsbrott2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay seeks to determine the extent to which a breach of the obligation of good faith reducesthe corresponding obligation of the other party to the contract (reciprocity). To be able to graspthe meaning and analyze reciprocity it is necessary to understand the institute of good faith.Thus, the text firstly examines good faith in general, followed by an analysis of reciprocity withinthat institute.

    The paper is based on legal sources typified by strong obligation of good faith.Accordingly, the analysis primarily sheds light on areas where the obligations of good faith arefar-reaching. The general principles of reciprocity, however, are applicable across the board,regardless of how strong the obligations of good faith are. The study evaluates reciprocity inrelation to several types of contracts, but it also interprets reciprocity as a freestanding generalprinciple which is applicable to all contracts.

    The specific obligations of good faith undoubtedly fall within the scope of reciprocity. Arelated and important question, which needs to be addressed, is whether there is a generalobligation of good faith within all type of contracts. The subsequent answer determines theadditional scope of reciprocity. In this matter the essay concludes that the question should beanswered in the affirmative. There is a general obligation of good faith, but the strength of thatobligation varies considerably depending on the type of contract.

    The conclusion of the essay is that there are several general principles within reciprocity.Firstly, there are three prerequisites for reciprocity: (i) a breach of the obligation of good faith; (ii)a mutual obligation of good faith between the involved parties; and (iii) the rule that reciprocitycannot affect a third party.

    Secondly, the paper identifies that the following two questions are the most significantfactors in the assessment of reciprocity: how severe is the breach of good faith and to whichextent does it entail negative economic consequences?

    An essential aspect of the former question is whether the party responsible for the breachhad ill intent and, if so, the degree and severity of that ill intent. Another important factor iswhether the party responsible for the breach is in a superior position.

    Three further examples of factors relevant to the assessment are: when a vulnerable partyis responsible for the breach such circumstances can affect the possibility of reciprocity andmitigate the seriousness of the misconduct in question; occasions when the other party has failedto act (passivity); and when the responsible party suffers consequences in addition to reciprocity.

  • Montelius, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Obligatorisk medling i dispositiva tvistemål: En rättsligt möjlig och praktiskt god idé?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sars, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    "Om tanken inte har slagit honom, att hon inte vill ha sex med honom, då har han inte heller haft något uppsåt": En kvalitativ rättsfallsanalys av tillämpningen av likgiltighetsuppsåt i våldtäktsmål2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med den föreslagna sexualbrottslagstiftningen baserad på frivillighet har brottet våldtäkt och dess utformning återigen blivit föremål för livlig politisk diskussion. Opinionen för den föreslagna regleringen formades i stort efter ett antal uppmärksammade våldtäktsmål i början av 2010-talet. Vissa jurister kritiserade rättsfallen för hur frågan om uppsåt hanterats, men denna fråga har inte uppmärksammats särskilt vid framarbetandet av den föreslagna regleringen.Hur gränsdragningen mellan uppsåtligt respektive oaktsamt handlande ska dras har länge diskuterats i juridisk doktrin. I rättsfallet NJA 2004 s. 176 slogs det fast att likgiltighetsuppsåt är den uppsåtsform som utgör uppsåtets nedre gräns i svensk rätt. Likgiltighetsuppsåt innebär i korthet att en gärningsperson inser risken för att en viss följd kan inträda genom sitt handlande, samt att hen är likgiltig inför att följden faktiskt inträder. Att följden inträder genom hens handlande är inte ett skäl för gärningspersonen att avstå från handlandet.Underrätter verkar ha haft problem med att tillämpa kriterierna för likgiltighetsuppsåt i våldtäktsmål. Domstolar tenderar att beskriva hur bedömningen av uppsåtet gått till på ett kortfattat sätt, att använda sig av begrepp som snarare för tankarna till en mer kvalificerad uppsåtsform och att underkänna uppsåt, trots att en korrekt tillämpning av kriterierna för likgiltighetsuppsåt i vissa fall hade kunnat innebära att uppsåt förelegat. Detta kan möjligen bero på att våldtäkt är ett brott som inte kräver att en viss följd inträder, utan endast att vissa omständigheter föreligger vid vissa sexuella handlingar, vilket innebär att kriterierna för likgiltighetsuppsåt inte passar för våldtäktsbrottet. Det är även tänkbart att underrätterna tycker att kriterierna för likgiltighetsuppsåt är så svårtillämpade, att de helst undviker att använda sig av dem.Om den föreslagna sexualbrottslagstiftningen baserad på frivillighet skulle antas, så kommer inte tillämpningen av likgiltighetsuppsåt i våldtäktsmål påverkas i praktiken. Detta eftersom våldtäktsbrottet inte heller med den föreslagna regleringen skulle innebära att en följd inträder. Att det även föreslås att våldtäkt begången av oaktsamhet ska kriminaliseras är inte heller något som nämnvärt skulle påverka tillämpningen av likgiltighetsuppsåt i våldtäktsmål.För att domstolar ska kunna tillämpa likgiltighetsuppsåt korrekt i mål som rör brott som inte innefattar någon följd, som är fallet vid våldtäkt, samt för att uppnå ett fullgott skydd för den sexuella integriteten och den sexuella självbestämmanderätten borde Högsta domstolen lämna vägledning om hur kriterierna för likgiltighetsuppsåt bör tillämpas i våldtäktsmål.

  • Nilsson, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Intervention eller neutralitet?: En studie kring strejkrätten i kollektivavtalslösa förhållanden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wallgren, Nathalie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Fel i häst enligt konsumentköplagen: Med särskilt fokus på lynnesfel2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Alendal, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Aggressionsbegreppet: En komparativ studie av Förenta nationernas stadgas och Romstadgan för den Internationella brottsmålsdomstolens aggressionsbegrepp2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Rome Statute for The International Criminal Court (henceforth The Rome Statute) now provides, for the first time, a legally binding definition of the concept of Aggression. The definition is based on the United Nations Charter (henceforth The UN Charter) article 2(4). The Rome Statute is the foundation on which the International Criminal Court (henceforth ICC) can prosecute individuals on crimes of aggression post the events. The United Nations (henceforth UN) has the charter to sustain the peace through acting against the acts of aggression of nations, primarily preventively and based on resolutions by the Security Council. It is interesting to compare the UN Charter and the Rome Statute definition to understand how the concept of aggression is used in international law, both in relations between nations and when individuals shall be held accountable for crimes of aggression. In addition, it’s valuable to understand how the two definitions can impact each other and what the implications might be of similarities and differences.


    Hence, this thesis is a comparative study of the concept of aggression in the UN Charter and the Rome Statute. One key conclusion is that there are significant differences in how the aggression is defined in the two documents.


    The use and development of the concept Aggression is first accounted for in a historic context as a foundation for the comparative study.


    Then, acts of aggression in the UN Charter is thoroughly investigated in three steps. The investigation is carried out in accordance with the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Firstly, through an interpretation of acts of aggression in accordance with the ordinary meaning of the term in the context of the UN Charter. Secondly through an investigation of the interpretation in relevant UN bodies and in the practice of nations. Thirdly, the definition of the UN General Assembly, resolution 3314, is investigated and criticised as it does not offer a sufficiently clear delimitation of the concept of aggression.  Resolution 3314 is, however, of key importance and is used subsequently as an element of comparison. The resolution is also compared with the practice of other UN bodies and the wording of the UN Charter. The thesis proves the that aggression has a vague definition in the UN Charter and that the scope of the concept is different in different UN bodies. However, common to all UN Bodies is to define aggression as the first use of force with a specific aggressive intent in international relations. 


    Following on UN, the thesis provides a critical investigation of the concept of aggression in the Rome Statute where key differences relative to the UN Charter are accounted for. The Rome Statute lacks specific aggressive intent and such cannot be made part of the interpretation as it would the statutes wording and systematics. Thus, the Rome Statute does not regard a specific aggressive intent aggravating but looks solely to the gravity and scale of the force used. In addition, the Rome Statute includes a threshold with the purpose of excluding a grey zone from the jurisdiction of ICC. Such grey zone does not exist in the UN Charter. The implication of this is that the Rome Statute excludes acts of violence that, among some international lawyers, are regarded to be in a grey zone of jus ad bellum.


    The conclusions include a summary of the main differences across the UN Charter, different UN Bodies and the Rome Statute. That leads into a discussion on the potential advantages and drawbacks that come out of these differences plus potential effects of the reciprocal influence. The key element of this discussion is that aggressive intent is missing in the Rome Statute and that the statute’s threshold aims to exclude the legal grey zone in jus ad bellum. The thesis concludes that these differences risk to weaken the prohibition of the use of force in the UN Charter and, as a consequence, that this may favour strong and aggressive nations at the expense of smaller and weaker nations.


  • Elphick, Maurice R.
    et al.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, London E1 4NS, England..
    Mirabeau, Olivier
    Paris Sci & Lettres Res Univ, INSERM U830, Inst Curie, Genet & Biol Canc Unit, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Evolution of neuropeptide signalling systems2018In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 221, no 3, article id jeb151092Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuropeptides are a diverse class of neuronal signalling molecules that regulate physiological processes and behaviour in animals. However, determining the relationships and evolutionary origins of the heterogeneous assemblage of neuropeptides identified in a range of phyla has presented a huge challenge for comparative physiologists. Here, we review revolutionary insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling that have been obtained recently through comparative analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data and by 'deorphanisation' of neuropeptide receptors. The evolutionary origins of at least 30 neuropeptide signalling systems have been traced to the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes. Furthermore, two rounds of genome duplication gave rise to an expanded repertoire of neuropeptide signalling systems in the vertebrate lineage, enabling neofunctionalisation and/or subfunctionalisation, but with lineage-specific gene loss and/or additional gene or genome duplications generating complex patterns in the phylogenetic distribution of paralogous neuropeptide signalling systems. We are entering a new era in neuropeptide research where it has become feasible to compare the physiological roles of orthologous and paralogous neuropeptides in a wide range of phyla. Moreover, the ambitious mission to reconstruct the evolution of neuropeptide function in the animal kingdom now represents a tangible challenge for the future.

  • Sandelowsky, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Family Med & Primary Care, NVS, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Acad Primary Hlth Care Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Natalishvili, Natalia
    Bergshamra Ulriksdal Hlth Care Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Krakau, Ingvar
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Family Med & Primary Care, NVS, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Div Clin Epidemiol, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Modin, Sonja
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Family Med & Primary Care, NVS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Nager, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Family Med & Primary Care, NVS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    COPD management by Swedish general practitioners - baseline results of the PRIMAIR study2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 5-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of suffering and death. Evidence-based management of COPD by general practitioners (GPs) is crucial for decreasing the impact of the disease. Efficient strategies include early diagnosis, smoking cessation and multimodal treatment.

    Aim: To describe knowledge about and skills for managing COPD in GPs in Sweden.

    Methods: Prior to COPD education (the PRIMAIR Study), GPs at primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Stockholm replied to 13 written, patient-case based, multiple choice and free-text questions about COPD. Their knowledge and practical management skills were assessed by assigned points that were analyzed with non-parametric tests.

    Results: Overall, 250 GPs at 34 PHCCs replied (89% response rate). Total mean score was 9.9 (maximum 26). Scores were highest on ‘management of smoking cessation’, ‘follow-up after exacerbation’ and ‘diagnostic procedures’. Spirometry was used frequently, although interpretation skills were suboptimal. ‘Management of maintenance therapy’, ‘management of multimorbidity’ and ‘interprofessional cooperation’ had mediocre scores. Scores were unrelated to whether there was a nurse-led asthma/COPD clinic at the PHCC.

    Conclusions: Swedish GPs’ knowledge of COPD and adherence to current guidelines seem insufficient. A nurse-led asthma/COPD clinic at the PHCC does not correlate with sufficient COPD skills in the GPs. The relevance of this study to participants’ actual clinical practice and usefulness of easy-to-access clinical guides are interesting topics for future investigation. To identify problem areas, we suggest using questionnaires prior to educational interventions.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-18 13:00 Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Vargas, Sergio C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Vacua in String Theory: de Sitter and Stability in Flux Compactifications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cosmology has evolved radically in the last decades. Current models demand the presence of dark energy in our universe and the most favored candidate behind this component is a small positive cosmological constant that characterizes a de Sitter (dS) spacetime. Simultaneously, theoretical physicists have stood up to the challenge of building a consistent theory of quantum gravity and string theory has raised as a strong contender.

    In this thesis we present some explorations within supergravity, a low energy limit of string theory, studying non-supersymmetric vacua, its stability, and the possibility of finding dS.

    We study the landscape of flux compactifications to produce dS with non-geometric fluxes. We find precise analytic procedures to find perturbatively stable dS near supersymmetric and no-scale Minkowski in a potential derived from type IIB compactifications. We also provide analytical evidence of naked singularities being produced in supergravity backgrounds after the introduction of anti-Dp-branes, at both vanishing and finite temperature.

    In order to study the problem of semi-classical stability, we explore compactifications with anti-de Sitter as external space. We argue that truncations to closed-string-sector excitations of non-supersymmetric theories may be non-perturbatively protected by the existence of globally defined fake-superpotentials if they are perturbatively stable, a reasoning that goes in line with the standard positive energy theorems.

    We find that non-supersymmetric solutions tend to manifest modes with masses under the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound once the open-string-sector is explored while supersymmetric solutions remain stable. We see this as a hint in the nature of the instabilities predicted by the weak gravity conjecture.

    List of papers
    1. Localised anti-branes in non-compact throats at zero and finite T
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localised anti-branes in non-compact throats at zero and finite T
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 2, article id 018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the 3-form singularities that are typical to anti-brane solutions in supergravity and check whether they can be cloaked by a finite temperature horizon. For anti-D3-branes in the Klebanov-Strassler background, this was already shown numerically to be impossible when the branes are partially smeared. In this paper, we present analytic arguments that also localised branes remain with singular 3-form fluxes at both zero and finite temperature. These results may have important, possibly fatal, consequences for constructions of meta-stable de Sitter vacua through uplifting.

    dS vacua in string theory, Flux compactifications, Gauge-gravity correspondence, Black Holes in String Theory
    National Category
    Other Physics Topics
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251530 (URN)10.1007/JHEP02(2015)018 (DOI)000350689700001 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Universal dS vacua in STU-models
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Universal dS vacua in STU-models
    2015 (English)In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 10, article id 069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stable de Sitter solutions in minimal F-term supergravity are known to lie close to Minkowski critical points. We consider a class of STU-models arising from type IIB compactifications with generalised fluxes. There, we apply an analytical method for solving the equations of motion for the moduli fields based on the idea of treating derivatives of the superpotential of different orders up to third as independent objects. In particular, supersymmetric and no-scale Minkowski solutions are singled out by physical reasons. Focusing on the study of dS vacua close to supersymmetric Minkowski points, we are able to elaborate a complete analytical treatment of the mass matrix based on the sGoldstino bound. This leads to a class of interesting universal dS vacua. We finally explore a similar possibility around no-scale Minkowski points and discuss some examples.

    Flux compactifications, dS vacua in string theory, String Duality
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267222 (URN)10.1007/JHEP10(2015)069 (DOI)000363555500004 ()
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-11-19 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Universal isolation in the AdS landscape
    2016 (English)In: PHYSICAL REVIEW D, ISSN 2470-0010, Vol. 94, no 12, article id 126002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S-3 and S-3 x S-3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

    National Category
    Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311498 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevD.94.126002 (DOI)000389028000011 ()
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2016-12-28 Created: 2016-12-28 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved
    4. A swamp of non-SUSY vacua
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A swamp of non-SUSY vacua
    2017 (English)In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, Vol. 2017, no 11, article id 152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider known examples of non-supersymmetric AdS7 and AdS4 solutions arising from compactifications of massive type IIA supergravity and study their stability, taking into account the coupling between closed- and open-string sector excitations. Generically, open strings are found to develop modes with masses below the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound. We comment on the relation with the Weak Gravity Conjecture, and how this analysis may play an important role in examining the validity of non-supersymmetric constructions in string theory.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2017
    National Category
    Subatomic Physics
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341010 (URN)10.1007/JHEP11(2017)152 (DOI)000416355700006 ()
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2018-05-18 10:15 Humanistiska teatern, Uppsala
    Winberg, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Den statskloka resan: Adelns peregrinationer 1610–16802018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with foreign travel undertaken by the Swedish nobility during the 17th century. The first part contains a close examination of Swedish university orationes on the importance of foreign travel. The focal point of these speeches is prudentia, ‘prudence’, ‘practical judgement’, ‘discretion’, which is considered to be indispensably necessary for statesmen, and preferably acquired by traveling abroad.

    The second part of the thesis deals with traveling in practice. Journals, letters and accounts are scrutinized in order to map where the travellers went, and how much time and money they spent in various places and on different activities. The results show that the more or less compulsory studies at Dutch and German universities were combined with exercitia, i. e. physical exercises, most prominently dancing, fencing and riding. From the 1620s France became more important, and also, from the 1640s, Italy. As their British, Danish, Dutch and German peers, the Swedish noblemen after their sojourn in Paris visited the Loire valley and also made Il giro d’Italia. The growing importance of Paris became evident from the middle of the century: Although it proved extremely expensive, the noblemen spent as much time as possible in the French capital, which was by now compendium orbis, the place where everything desirable in the world was to be found, where exercitia of the best kind flourished and where exquisite manners could be acquired.

    The third part of the thesis studies how the travellers acted when they arrived at home. A study relating to the 1660s demonstrates that a returning grand tourist had to spend a considerable amount of money on conspicuous consumption to reinstate himself in the society and position himself as a liable state servant and marriage partner.

    A general result of the thesis is that traveling undertaken by the nobility formed a part of the 17th century state building process and that it was used as a means of competition both within the nobility and between the nobility and the rapidly growing class of bourgeois civil servants.

  • Taylor, S. A.
    et al.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England; UCL Birkbeck, Ctr Planetary Sci, London, England.
    Coates, A. J.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England; UCL Birkbeck, Ctr Planetary Sci, London, England.
    Jones, G. H.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England; UCL Birkbeck, Ctr Planetary Sci, London, England.
    Wellbrock, A.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England; UCL Birkbeck, Ctr Planetary Sci, London, England.
    Fazakerley, A. N.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England.
    Desai, R. T.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England; UCL Birkbeck, Ctr Planetary Sci, London, England.
    Caro-Carretero, R.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England; Univ Pontificia Comillas, Escuela Tecn Super Ingn ICAI, Madrid, Spain.
    Morooka, Michiko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Schippers, P.
    Observ Paris, LESIA, Meudon, France.
    Waite, J. H.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA.
    Modeling, Analysis, and Interpretation of Photoelectron Energy Spectra at Enceladus Observed by Cassini2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Electron Spectrometer (ELS) of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer has observed photoelectrons produced in the plume of Enceladus. These photoelectrons are observed during Enceladus encounters in the energetic particle shadow where the spacecraft is largely shielded from penetrating radiation by the moon. We present a complex electron spectrum at Enceladus including evidence of two previously unidentified electron populations at 6–10 eV and 10–16 eV. We estimate that the proportion of “hot” (>15 eV) to “cold” (<15 eV) electrons during the Enceladus flybys is ≈ 0.1–0.5%. We have constructed a model of photoelectron production in the plume and compared it with ELS Enceladus flyby data by scaling and energy shifting according to spacecraft potential. We suggest that the complex structure of the electron spectrum observed can be explained entirely by photoelectron production in the plume ionosphere.

  • Allar, Piirsoo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hur ska vi få äpplet att falla långt ifrån trädet?: En ecperimentell studie av hur elever väljer gymnasieprogram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Social snedrekytering är ett stort samhällsproblem, och en av orsakerna till klassbildningen i samhället idag. För två decennier har universitet och högskolor i Sverige aktivt arbetat med att bredda rekryteringen av elever från icke-akademisk bakgrund, men detta utan framgång. Denna studie försöker ta ett första steg i att hitta effektiva metoder som univeristeten kan använda sig av. Det teoretiska ramverket utgörs av nudging-teorin som går ut på att "knuffa" elever mot rätt riktingt genom att exponera dem för högskolealternativet, något som elever med akadeiska bakgrund får naturligt hemifrån. Det är en experimentell studie där eleverna har delats in två gruppern där den ena gruppen för behandling, och den andra gruppen används som kontrollgrupp. Studien utgår från hypotesen att en ökad närvaro av universitetet i utsatta områden kommer påverka målgruppen positivt. Resultaten ger stöd åt denna hypotes. Trots att den misslyckade randomiseringen gjorde det svårt för hypotesen förblev sambandet positivt. Alltså elever som hade fått behandlingen var mer benägna att ange högskoleförberedande program som sitt först val på gymnasiet än kontrollgruppen. 

  • Public defence: 2018-05-16 13:15 B7:113a, Uppsala
    Liu, Chenxiao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Vγ9Vδ2 T cells - response to P. falciparum-derived phosphoantigens and potential for use in colon cancer immunotherapy 2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vγ9Vδ2 T cell is the dominant circulating γδ T cell subset in humans, can expand massively upon malaria infection and are cytotoxic to cancer cells. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are stimulated by phosphoantigens, primarily isoprenoid pyrophosphates like isopentenyl pyrophosphate and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP). Vγ9Vδ2 T cell from human blood were studied for proliferation, response to blood-stage malaria parasites and during colon cancer progression. Vγ9Vδ2 T cell proliferation was stimulated by media from P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes from all asexual blood stages - rings, trophozoites, schizonts and rupturing schizonts as well as sexual stage gametocytes assessed by the protocols we developed to obtain pure cultures of all stages. Further, we demonstrated that the molecules that stimulated the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell proliferation are phosphoantigens that are released from intact infected erythrocytes. This does not require schizont rupture.  Interestingly, the parasites consumed all the iron ion of hemoglobins during their development from the ring to the rupturing schizont stage. We found that an Anopheles gambiae immune cell line responds to HMBPP by activation of MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways. Moreover, transcription of dual oxidase and nitric oxide synthase was upregulated by addition of HMBPP in the midgut of Anopheles gambiae which increases cell tolerance to oxidative stress. A range of small isoprenoid pyrophosphates were found to stimulate proliferation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from PBMCs as was the isoprenoid monophosphate DMAP. However other isoprenoid monophosphates and alcohols did not. We found that cryopreserved unexpectedly increase the proliferation ability of HMBPP–stimulated PBMCs. To test the cytotoxicity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells against adherent colon cancer cell lines, a flow cytometry-based assay was developed. Using the assay we found that proliferated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are cytotoxcitic to various cancer cells and that HMBPP increases cytotoxicity towards adherent colon cancer cells. In a clinical study we found that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells could not always be proliferated from colon cancer patients and that the inflammatory homing receptor CXCR3 was expressed at higher levels in colon cancer patients than the control group. Moreover, at cancer stadium 4 a lower frequency of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells was more common than in the other groups.

    List of papers
    1. Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells proliferate in response to phosphoantigens released from erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum at asexual and gametocyte stages
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells proliferate in response to phosphoantigens released from erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum at asexual and gametocyte stages
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Immunology in the medical area
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347678 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-04-05
    2. Immunogenic and Antioxidant Effects of a Pathogen-Associated Prenyl Pyrophosphate in Anopheles gambiae
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunogenic and Antioxidant Effects of a Pathogen-Associated Prenyl Pyrophosphate in Anopheles gambiae
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, p. e73868-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite efficient vector transmission, Plasmodium parasites suffer great bottlenecks during their developmental stages within Anopheles mosquitoes. The outcome depends on a complex three-way interaction between host, parasite and gut bacteria. Although considerable progress has been made recently in deciphering Anopheles effector responses, little is currently known regarding the underlying microbial immune elicitors. An interesting candidate in this sense is the pathogen-derived prenyl pyrophosphate and designated phosphoantigen (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), found in Plasmodium and most eubacteria but not in higher eukaryotes. HMBPP is the most potent stimulant known of human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, a unique lymphocyte subset that expands during several infections including malaria. In this study, we show that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells proliferate when stimulated with supernatants from intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum cultures, suggesting that biologically relevant doses of phosphoantigens are excreted by the parasite. Next, we used Anopheles gambiae to investigate the immune- and redox- stimulating effects of HMBPP. We demonstrate a potent activation in vitro of all but one of the signaling pathways earlier implicated in the human Vγ9Vδ2 T cell response, as p38, JNK and PI3K/Akt but not ERK were activated in the A. gambiae 4a3B cell line. Additionally, both HMBPP and the downstream endogenous metabolite isopentenyl pyrophosphate displayed antioxidant effects by promoting cellular tolerance to hydrogen peroxide challenge. When provided in the mosquito blood meal, HMBPP induced temporal changes in the expression of several immune genes. In contrast to meso-diaminopimelic acid containing peptidoglycan, HMBPP induced expression of dual oxidase and nitric oxide synthase, two key determinants of Plasmodium infection. Furthermore, temporal fluctuations in midgut bacterial numbers were observed. The multifaceted effects observed in this study indicates that HMBPP is an important elicitor in common for both Plasmodium and gut bacteria in the mosquito.

    National Category
    Research subject
    Medical Cell Biology
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206008 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0073868 (DOI)000323115800125 ()23967351 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-08-26 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Characteristics of Vg9Vd2 T cell in colon cancer progression
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of Vg9Vd2 T cell in colon cancer progression
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Immunology in the medical area
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347680 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-04-05
    4. A flow cytometry method for Vγ9Vδ2 T cell cytotoxicity towards adherent cells and potentiating Vγ9Vδ2 T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A flow cytometry method for Vγ9Vδ2 T cell cytotoxicity towards adherent cells and potentiating Vγ9Vδ2 T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347679 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-04-05
  • Public defence: 2018-05-18 09:00 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Kebede, Getachew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Water in and on ionic materials: Structure, energetics, and vibrations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many chemical and physical phenomena in nature, in industrial processes, and in our daily lives take place at water/solid interfaces. The aim of this thesis is to further our knowledge of such processes at a molecular level. Here theoretical calculations can provide new insights about molecular bonding, structure and dynamics and how these respond to the perturbations from the surroundings. Coalculations can also yield for example vibrational spectra to be directly compared with experimental ones and help in the interpretation. This thesis describes the results of quantum-mechanical and quantum-dynamical studies of water properties on ionic surfaces [NaCl(001), MgO(001) and CaO(001)] and in ionic hydrates [e.g Na2CO3∙10H2O, MgSO4∙11H2O, Al(NO3)3∙9H2O] with especial emphases on surface and interface systems. In particular, calculations of binding energies, OH stretching frequencies, in situ electric field, dipole moments and intra/intermolecular OH distances were performed and analyzed to probe the strength of the water–environment interplay and to disentangle the components of the perturbation. Furthermore, validation of a range of dispersion-inclusive DFT methods for binding energies of interface water and structure and vibrational properties of water in condensed systems also constitutes part of the thesis.

    Two correlations among the investigated properties were established and extensively explored: (i) OH stretching frequency vs. H-bond distance to characterize the H-bond strength and patterns on the surfaces and (ii) OH stretching frequency vs. local electric field to understand the effect of the water/hydroxide environment on the calculated gas-to-bound OH frequency shift behaviour. It was found that both the intact and dissociated water molecules on MgO(001) and CaO(001) follow essentially the same frequency-distance correlations. However, if the frequency is instead correlated against the in situ electric field from the environment, water and hydroxide ion follow different “frequency vs. field” curves. Both water and hydroxide curves, however, can be described by the same model, namely by an electrostatic dipole model presented in the thesis. The gas-to-surface frequency shifts can be traced back to the competition between the signs and magnitudes of the permanent and induced dipole derivatives along the stretching coordinate. Furthermore, the “frequency vs. field” model offers useful insights into the frequency shifts of various surface H-bond motifs on the H2O/MgO interface induced by the adsorption of multilayer cold water.

    List of papers
    1. Comparing van der Waals DFT methods for water on NaCl(001) and MgO(001)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing van der Waals DFT methods for water on NaCl(001) and MgO(001)
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 146, article id 064703Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
    National Category
    Theoretical Chemistry
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315592 (URN)10.1063/1.4971790 (DOI)000394577400037 ()28201901 (PubMedID)
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)
    Available from: 2017-02-15 Created: 2017-02-15 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Fifty shades of water: Benchmarking DFT functionals against diffraction and spectroscopic data for crystalline hydrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fifty shades of water: Benchmarking DFT functionals against diffraction and spectroscopic data for crystalline hydrates
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347222 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Hydrogen-Bond Relations for Surface OH Species
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen-Bond Relations for Surface OH Species
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    2018 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455Article, book review (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: , 2018
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347220 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b10981 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-04-11
    4. Red-shifting and blue-shifting OH groups on metal oxide surfaces - towards a unified picture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Red-shifting and blue-shifting OH groups on metal oxide surfaces - towards a unified picture
    2018 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084Article, book review (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the OH vibrational signatures of water molecules and hydroxide ions on thin water films on MgO(001) and CaO(001), using DFT-generated anharmonic potential energy surfaces. We find that the OH stretching frequencies of intact water molecules on the surface are always downshifted with respect to the gas-phase species while the OH– groups are either upshifted or downshifted. Despite these differences, the main characteristics of the frequency shifts for all three types of surface OH groups (OHw, OsH and OHf) can be accounted for by one unified expression involving the in situ electric field from the surrounding environment, and the molecular properties of the vibrating species (H2O or OH–). The origin behind the different red- and blueshift behaviour can be traced back to the fact that the molecular dipole moment of a gas-phase water molecule increases when an OH bond is stretched, but the opposite is true for the hydroxide ion. We propose that familiarity with the relations presented here will help surface scientists in the interpretation of vibrational OH spectra for thin water films on ionic crystal surfaces.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347218 (URN)10.1039/C8CP00741A (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved
    5. OH vibration at the water / MgO(001) interface
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>OH vibration at the water / MgO(001) interface
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348133 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2018-04-11
  • Nilsson, Andreas
    Transparent solar cell techniques: From a solar irradiance- and environmental perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The task of this master thesis was to investigate the possibility of using transparent solar panels as windows and how they compare to other solar energy technologies. The idea is then to use the UV and IR light to produce energy while letting the visual light pass through. With this also receiving the advantage of less indoor heating of the building and therefore a decreased need for cooling. To make it into a more concrete example the Sergelhuset building in Stockholm, Sweden was chosen as an example. The investigation was made through a solar irradiation simulation for four different cases and an environmental analysis of the alternatives. The result is that the most common way of mounting polycrystalline modules, is the most cost effective alternative but it might not be so good from an environmental perspective in Sweden because of the already low g CO2eq/kWh and not the best location for solar panels. Façade mounted CIGS perform well in energy production but the high investment costs set it down. However, it is better than polycrystalline panels from an environmental perspective. The semitransparent CdTe window will be hard to make economically viable and from an environmental perspective it is debatable. The transparent alternatives focus its absorption on UV and IR light but there are also semi-transparent alternatives that uses also part of the visible light, which makes it not completely transparent. 

  • Gozzi, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hydrometeorological extremes in the Adige river basin, Italy2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at describing the characteristics of daily precipitation and discharge extremes in the Adige river basin at the city of Trento. Annual maximum series for the period 1975−2014 were analyzed in terms of trends, seasonality indices and L-moments. A Mann-Kendall trend analysis showed a weak but significant signal of decreasing ex-tremes; the percentages of sites with significant negative trends were overall larger than the significance levels. Precipitation extremes were characterized primarily by autumn storms, while floods had a stronger seasonality with peaks occurring predominantly in June and July which indicated that the timing not solely explained by rainfall maxima. The Adige basin was found to be a homogenous region with respect to precipitation, but the results did not support a corresponding assumption for discharge. A regional fre-quency analysis was performed for precipitation data and found both the Pearson type III and generalized normal distributions to be adequate regional frequency distributions. The extreme daily precipitation at Trento with a 100-year return period was estimated to be between 114 and 148 mm/d.

  • Brante, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Brunosson, Albina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    To double a recipe: interdisciplinary teaching and learning of mathematical content knowledge in a home economics setting2014In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 301-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines if interdisciplinary teaching can be said to facilitate the learning and use of fractions by Swedish 12-year-old pupils. Home and Consumer Studies is well suited to interdisciplinary teaching, and young people can therefore find it interesting to study maths since the setting is relevant to them. Building on variation theory and a learning study, we examined pupils' (n18) ability to double fractions greater than ½ when using a recipe. The general results show that what is to be learned benefits if it is presented in different ways, that teachers should not take pupils' knowledge for granted, and mathematically that it is not necessary to divide something to be able to double it. We argue that the study shows that genuine problems based on pupils' interest and life world can enhance motivation and, in turn, learning.

  • Uppman, Linnea
    Differences between objective and subjective measurements ofphysical activity with regards to gender and age in obese children2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide and more and more peopleare dying due to their overweight rather than of starvation. Obesity in young children isbecoming more common and the physical activity is decreasing with age. To measurechildren’s daily physical activity sveral methods can be used, such as Actical activity monitorand activity diary.Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a difference between the twomethods mentioned above, current physical activity, age and gender in obese children and toinvestigate how many of these children that reached the recommendations of daily activity.Materials and Methods: All included were subjected to the two activity methods,collection of data from anthropometric measurements and body composition measurements.In total 122 children between the ages 10 to 17 years, 38 girls and 67 boys where included inthis study.Results: None of the children reached the recommended daily activity. Correlations betweenobjective and subjective methods showed a stronger association with the activity monitor thanwith the activity diary. The study showed that girls had a higher fat mass (FM) than boys,while boys had higher fat free mass (FFM).Conclusion: This study showed that physical activity decline with age and boys had higherdaily physical activity. Boys had more tendencies to improve their fat free mass. Girls hadhigher fat mass and lower fat free mass. Which method that gives the most adequate resultsrequires a larger population and more studies of the topic.

  • Aspers, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Forms of uncertainty reduction: decision, valuation, and contest2018In: Theory and society, ISSN 0304-2421, E-ISSN 1573-7853, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 133-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is an intriguing aspect of social life. Uncertainty is epistemic,future-oriented, and implies that we can neither predict nor foresee what will happenwhen acting. In cases in which no institutionalized certainty about future states exists,or can be generated, judgment is needed. This article presents the forms by whichuncertainty is reduced as a result of judgments made about different alternatives in aprocess involving several actors. This type of uncertainty may exist, for example, aboutwhich artist is the best, which offer in the market is more valuable, which football teamis better than all the rest, or which research proposal will get a grant. The result ofdifferent forms of uncertainty reduction is increased certainty concerning alternatives inrelation to one another, such as good and bad, rank lists, scores, quality assessment, andBwinner and losers.^ Based on the result, uncertainty is reduced and action is facilitated.The forms are structural and comprise roles; may be legitimate in a smaller or largerdomain; and may exist in all spheres of life, as exemplified in sports competitions, inlabor markets, and in the ranking of universities. Three forms of uncertainty reductionbased on judgment are identified in this article: (1) decision, made by an authority; (2)valuation, by means of which order arises as a result of actors ascribing values; and (3)contest, by which an order is the result of direct struggle.

  • Martin, Svensson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Autonomous model car: Construction and development for evaluation of indoor positioning system2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work aims for the development of an autonomous model car to evaluate an indoor Ultra-wideband (UWB) positioning system and for the investigation of integrating a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensor to the final system. The goal to be achieved is that the model car should be able to receive a travel plan specified by the user, run autonomously along the plan by receiving the continuously updated position and stop in front of obstacles.

    A prototype of such a model car has been developed. It is shown that it was able to travel along the plan specified by a user with aid of the positioning system and proven that the concept of an autonomous vehicle guided with the positioning system works. The model car was tested and the performance of it merged with the positioning system was evaluated by travelling along a circle and a sharp, 90° corner and by measuring the lap times from the travelling for various error margins. The error margin decides when a destination is deemed reached. The test results show that the model car has limitations to its slowest speed and turning radius. The results also show that the positioning system has significant position updating latency.

    Integrating a LIDAR to the model car is shown to be beneficial, in particular, when adding information of e.g. walls and doors in advance and the LIDAR then acting as a perceptive system to obtain information of the unknown parts of the surrounding. This can then result in a time optimal travel plan that can adapt to a dynamic environment.

  • Olsson, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Barns rättigheter i förskolan: En fallstudie om pedagogers föreställningar och synliggörande av barns rättigheter i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har gjorts i syfte att undersöka förskolepedagogers föreställningar av barns rättigheter och se hur de själva upplever att de arbetar med och synliggör dessa i förskolan. Studien är en fallstudie gjord på en förskola i Sverige där sju kvalitativa intervjuer utförts individuellt med sju förskolepedagoger. Intervjufrågorna har varit utformade på ett sätt för att ta reda på pedagogernas bild av barns rättigheter men också undersöka hur de själva upplever att de arbetar för att synliggöra barns rättigheter i förskolan. I studien har jag utgått ifrån en barndomssociologisk teori med ett fokus utifrån ett barnperspektiv, som barnkonventionen dels går att tolkas utifrån.

    Resultatet visar att barns rättigheter är ett ämne som sällan talas om eller sätts i begrepp på denna förskola, något som behövs göras för att rättigheter ska bli något självklart enligt forskning. Varken sinsemellan pedagoger eller mellan pedagoger och barn. Trots detta visar förskolepedagogerna på exempel där det går att se att de på olika sätt arbetar nära ett värdepedagogiskt arbetssätt som i sin tur är en del av barnkonventionen. De uppvisar också exempel på hur de arbetar med barns integritet och förståelse för andras rättigheter, men ofta sker detta på deras eget sätt och det sker inte mycket samarbete menar man. Nästintill alla uttrycker att barns rättigheter är ett viktigt ämne som man ska arbeta med i förskolan, men samtidigt så verkar det som att ämnet inte är fullt lika aktuellt. Stora barngrupper menar man är ett av hindren som gör att de oftast prioriterar det som gynnar stora gruppens bästa som också resulterat i att pedagogerna styr upp många av aktiviteterna för barnen. Detta lämnar i sin tur mindre utrymme att arbeta så nära barns rättigheter som många av förskolepedagogerna egentligen önskar att de gjorde. Trots att barnperspektivet och arbetet med barns rättigheter brister på förskolan är förskolepedagogerna samtidigt medvetna om detta. De uttrycker en önskan om att arbetet med barns rättigheter och barnkonventionen behöver bättras och synliggöras mer. Dessa behöver sättas i större begrepp än vad de på förskolan gör idag.

  • Jansson, Jennie
    Comparison of three paraffin oils showed no difference in development of humanday-2 cryopreserved embryos:apilotstudy2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In human-assisted reproduction, embryos are cultured in an environment designed to mimic the natural environment of embryo development. To maintain the optimal culture environment, the culture media is covered with oil. Unfortunately, several studies have shown that mineral oils used in embryo cultivation contains toxic substances that have negative effects on embryo development. Before these culture oils are used in production they are washed and filtered. This procedure reduces the concentration of toxic substances to an approved level.The aim of this study was to compare three different paraffin oils effect on embryo development. The study includes two oils from Nidacon (Oil A, Oil B) and one from Vitrolife (Ovoil). To compare the effect on embryo development, time points for important embryonic development stages was noted: first division after thawing, morula, early blastocyst, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst and hatching blastocyst. In addition, blastocyst classification was done on day 5 and 6 according to Gardner and Schoolcraft´s blastocyst classification system.A total of 47 human day-2 cryopreserved embryos were divided in three groups and cultured for 4 days in EmbryoSlides overlaid with Oil A, Oil B or Ovoil respectively. The results showed no significant difference in effect on embryo development regarding morphokinetics and blastocyst classification between the three examined paraffin oils. In conclusion, the results indicated the same quality and toxicity level between the three examined paraffin oils.

  • Eriksson, Louise
    Validation of a colorimetric method for determination of fructosamine in plasma usingMindray BS-3802017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HbA1c and glucose are the most widely used indicators for glucose control, but they havesome disadvantages. Improving the diagnosis of diabetes is always ongoing, other markersare needed as a complement when standard measurements are not sufficient. One alternativeis analysis of fructosamine, which is commercially available and inexpensive.The main aim with this study was to validate a colorimetric method for analyzingfructosamine including investigation of precision, linearity and stability. Fructosamine valueswas compared with HbA1c values with and without genetic variations in the hemoglobingene. An investigation on if serum albumin concentration affects fructosamine values wasalso performed. The colorimetric method was also compared with an enzymatic method foranalysis of frutcotsamine.Blood samples were analyzed as HbA1c on Cobas 6000 c501 and for analysis of thegenetic variants Capillarys 3 TERA was used. Plasma was collected and analyzed onMindray BS-380 as fructosamine and albumin.The methods in this study were comparable and the colorimetric method had greatprecision and linearity. The correlation between HbA1c and fructosamine was R2= 0,402.Fructosamine was not affected by genetic variations in the hemoglobin molecule and may bea useful indicator of high glucose and could replace analysis of HbA1c. Fructosamine wasnot affected by albumin. The enzymatic method was shown to correlate better with HbA1cthan the colorimetric method.In conclusion, analyzing fructosamine could be an alternative to HbA1c when patientshave genetic variants and would improve the glycemic control.

  • Eklund, Ida
    Prevalence of microorganisms in reindeer(Rangifer tarandustarandus)and possible effects of climate changes.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate in the north is changing over time, which affects the nature in many ways. For instance, some microorganisms that cause infections might become more common. This might have negative consequences for reindeer husbandry. In Sweden, this is an industry that is relatively large. However, even though the reindeer is common in the north the knowledge about its diseases is limited.In this study the prevalence of microorganisms that may cause infection in reindeer was investigated. Comparisons between different sami villages and previous studies were performed to detect differences that could occur due to climate changes. The diseases and microorganisms that were analyzed with PCR were malignant catarrhal fever, herpes infections, Chlamydia sp. and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The cause of eye problems in reindeer was also investigated. BVD and bovine leukemia virus where analyzed with ELISA. Next generation sequencing where used for broader screening of samples for microorganisms that might be of interest of future analysis in more detailed follow-up studies.Since not enough samples were available at the time of this study findings could not be linked to changing climate. In the reindeer with eye infection Chlamydia sp., Moraxella sp. and Neisseria sp. can probably be involved causing disease. This should be further investigated to be able to determine whether it is true or not by analyzing samples from individuals without changes in the eyes. The prevalence of reindeers with antibodies against BVD has increased in Sweden since 2012. There will be further studies in this field with reindeers from other northern countries.

  • Rosenberg, Otto
    Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift: Volym 1: Häfte 1, 19071907Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SELIM BIRGER: Über endozoische Samenverbreitung durch Vögel. NILS SVEDELIUS: Über einen Fall von Symbiose zwischen Zoochlorellen und einer marinen Hydroide. NILS SYLVÉN: Eigenartige, rein florale Sprosse bei zwei schwedischen Artemisia-Arten. TYCHO VESTERGREN: Discosia artocreas (Tode) Fr., eine Leptostromatacee mit eigentümlichem Pyknidenbau. CARL SKOTTSBERG: Blommor och insekter på Skabbholmen i Roslagen sommaren 1901. RUTGER SERNANDER: Om några former för art- och varietetsbildning hos lafvarne. HENRIK HESSELMAN: Lars Albert Nilsson (nekrolog). REDOGÖRELSE FÖR SVENSKA BOTANISKA FÖRENINGENS BILDANDE. SAMMANKOMSTER. SMÄRRE MEDDELANDEN: NILS SYLVÉN: Nya svenska fyndorter för Gentiana uliginosa. SELIM BIRGER: Tvenne sällsynta skandinaviska Gentiana-hybrider. Linnéjubileet. Profföreläsningar. REFERAT: TYCHO VESTERGREN: E. Hannig; Ueber pilzfreies Lolium temulentum. TYCHO VESTERGREN: H. Lindberg; Finlands Hippuris-former.

  • Westlund, Arvid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Image analysis tool for geometric variations of the jugular veins in ultrasonic sequences: Development and evaluation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to develop and perform a first evaluation of a software, based on the active contour, which automatically computes the cross-section area of the internal jugular veins through a sequence of 90 ultrasound images. The software is intended to be useful in future research in the field of intra cranial pressure and its associated diseases.

    The biomechanics of the internal jugular veins and its relationship to the intra cranial pressure is studied with ultrasound. It generates data in the form of ultrasound sequences shot in seven different body positions, supine to upright. Vein movements in cross section over the cardiac cycle are recorded for all body positions. From these films, it is interesting to know how the cross-section area varies over the cardiac cycle and between body positions, in order to estimate the pressure.

    The software created was semi-automatic, where the operator loads each individual sequence and sets the initial contour on the first frame. It was evaluated in a test by comparing its computed areas with manually estimated areas.  The test showed that the software was able to track and compute the area with a satisfactory accuracy for a variety of sequences. It is also faster and more consistent than manual measurements. The most difficult sequences to track were small vessels with narrow geometries, fast moving walls, and blurry edges.

    Further development is required to correct a few bugs in the algorithm. Also, the improved algorithm should be evaluated on a larger sample of sequences before using it in research. 

  • Färdvall, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Arbetspendling till Åre by: En studie av pendlingsavstånd mellan år 1990 och 20142018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research has aimed to study commuting distances for people working in Åre village. By analyzing individual statistical data over geographical sites this paper seeks to investigate any changes over time for different groups of the workforce. In addition to presenting raw data of distance calculations, maps constructed in geographical information systems will indicate spatial variations and general patterns. The results show that commuting distances to Åre village have increased between the years of 1990 and 2002, while they have decreased between the years 2002 and 2014. The workers who commute the longest distances are young, have relatively low incomes, lower education and no children living in their homes. The opposite applies for shorter commuting distances where older workers, with relatively high incomes, high education levels and who have children living in their homes. However, when working with statistical data it ́s important to acknowledge the limitations that arise by using numbers to describe reality. Nevertheless, these results indicate that sparsely populated places with growing economies stand out by having declining commuting distances while the general trend for the nation is the opposite with increasing distances. This information can therefore be of use for similar areas to indicate estimated commuting patterns in the future. 

  • Borg, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Förutsättningar för lyckade projekt i komplexa miljöer: En studie om projektkomplexitets inverkan på kvalitetsarbete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that the success of a construction project depends onits initial design work. Thus, it’s interesting to investigate howensuring design work quality is done. Since the mid 70’s SKB has worked on how the final repository of spent long-lived nuclearfuel should be built to satisfy the requirement of total repository from the people and environment for a period of 100,000 years. The project is large and consists of many subprojects; where one of them is carried out by WSP. The quality work in this project has been evaluated to see how the ensuring of reaching required quality and expectations.

    This type of project can be assumed to be complex both to control and execute, in terms of structural complexity, technical complexity and uncertain complexity. By characterizing the project due to its surroundings, content and organizational behaviour and to them apply the dimensions of complexity the aim of the study is to identify how the complexity has effect the quality work. To understand this, semi structured interviews with the project organization has been done.

    The result of the study shows that especially the structural complexity, mainly by the number of collaborated departments, affects the quality work. Also uncertain complexity affects the quality work, due to unclear contract between client and supplier. To receive better quality work in the future the coordination between different departments needs to be better. This involves for example establish project specific methods and routines, for all in the project to use. To be able to deliver successful projects one presumption is that client and supplier agreed on what is to be delivered. If the project scope isn’t clear agreedupon, a satisfied client can never be reached.

  • Svanqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sofie, Henriksson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Avkastning för private equity- ägda börsintroduktioner: En jämförande studie på Stockholmsbörsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom den ekonomiska forskningen finns en tydlig diskrepans gällande synen på private equitybolags inverkan på avkastningen efter en börsintroduktion. Denna studie tar sin utgångspunkt ur detta och syftar till att vidare analysera den långsiktiga avkastningen för private equity-ägda börsintroduktioner på den svenska marknaden. Den svenska börsen är intressant då få vetenskapliga studier har genomförts där med aktuell frågeställning. Studien sker med en kvantitativ metod där t-test och regressionsanalys används för att jämföra avkastningen mellan private equity-ägda och icke private equity-ägda börsintroduktioner under en treårsperiod. Datainsamling görs från 65 bolag som introducerats på Stockholmsbörsen mellan åren 2000-2014. Studien finner inga vetenskapliga belägg för någon skillnad i avkastning mellan icke private equity- och private equity-ägda börsintroduktioner. Däremot finns indikationer på att private equity-ägda börsintroduktioner istället genererar en sämre avkastning under en treårsperiod. Studiens resultat indikerar vidare att ett private equity-ägande bidrar till en mer positiv avkastning under de första sex månaderna efter börsintroduktionen relaterat icke private equity-ägda introduktioner. Denna positiva effekt övergår sedan till en mer negativ avkastning när private equity-ägandet minskas i bolaget.

  • Nygård, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Characterizing substances into pharmacological classes using theirmorphological and metabolic profiles2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of cancers has been improved and new findings in research communities areconstantly found, but there are still many questions about how to treat these complex diseases.One way to treat cancer is to expose cancer cells to drugs that kill the cancer cells to a largerextent than the normal cell from the same as well as other tissue types. Different drugcompounds have diverse molecular effects on the cancer cells and to evaluate them, studies ondifferent cell lines were performed.Experiments were performed to study morphological and metabolic changes on treatedcells. Morphological changes in growing populations of MCF-7 cells and MCF-10A cellswere studied by using a phase contrast video microscopy (IncuCyte) image analysis. Changesin levels of metabolites and proteins were analyzed using two different mass spectrometricmethods. Hierarchical clustering was used to study the relationship between the collectedspectra and the most outstanding subgroup (cluster) was a set of compounds related toestrogens.There were apparent morphological differences between the two different cell lines, bothwhen untreated and after induction of apoptosis. This study shows that, when examining themetabolic patterns, there are tendencies among the substances studied to form clustersaccording their pharmacological classes. Although more studies have to be performed in thisarea it has been showed that there are possibilities to determine which pharmacological class asubstance belongs to by examining the morphological and metabolic patterns.

  • Jissbacke, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    TPA and other small molecules can regulate the lategene expression in Human Papillomavirus (HPV-16)2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cervical cancer is almost exclusively caused by the HPV virus, whit HPV 16 and 18 involved in the majority of cases. The HPV virus can be divided into high risk and low risk types, where the high risk types are most associated with cancer. HPV is spread by sexual skin to skin contact, many people get infected without getting cervical cancer. HPV is also involved in the development of several other types of cancers such as oral and other genital cancers. The HPV virus infects epithelium stem cells and disrupts basic functions of the cells. A high expression of the late genes early in an infection may result in that an HPV 16 infection dies out. The late gene expression was analysed by using a CAT ELISA method, in the cell lines used one of the late genes had been replaced by a CAT reporter gene. Several small molecules where investigated, to study the regulation of the late gene expression. The results of the study was that a regulation of the late gene expression could be seen when pBELMCAT was treated with TPA, TA and RA where TPA gave the highest increase in the late gene expression. TA/RA combined with TPA increased the expression even more. As a conclusion it seems possible for small molecules to be used in treatments for cervical cancer that is caused by HPV 16, to upregulate the late gene expression and maybe be able to eliminate the infection before serious damage and disease can develop.

  • Gustafsson, Felicia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Correlations between anthropometricmeasurements, fasting-insulin andrespiratory quotent in obese children2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of obese children has increased with almost 100 % in a few decades. Deceases like insulin-resistance and type-2 diabetes often comes with overweight and worldwide research to prevent and cure these complications is constantly approaching. This study provides with greater knowledge of what correlations there are between anthropometric measurements, insulin resistance and respiratory quotient.For this study, data from 83 children and teenagers was included. The medical records from their first visit to the pediatric science unit at Uppsala University Hospital was used. To measure basal metabolic rate (BMR), indirect respiratory calorimetrics was used to measure the respiratory ratio at rest and fasting (RQ-BMR), and blood samples were collected to analyze fs-(fasting) insulin. The anthropometric measurements that were taken were waist, waist-height-ratio (WtHR), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-hip-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (AC), waist circumference-height ratio (ACHR), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and Sagittal abdominal diameter-height ratio (SADHR).Correlations between fs-insulin and WHtR, WCHR, SAD and SADHR was found for the whole group of participators in this study. The strongest correlation was to WHtR for boys and SAD for girls. The RQ-BMR correlated the best with SADHR and ACHR. No correlations between RQ-BMR were found specifically for boys or girls.

  • Ibrahimović, Adisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Correlation between how glucagon levels reflect obesity in children with regards to weight, fat mass and fat free mass2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity constitutes a threat to public health all around the world, and more individual’s dies from obesity than from hunger. This condition is increasing worldwide and obesity also occurs in children. According to WHO, there are 42 million overweight children in the world. Obesity and overweight in childhood leads to insulin resistance, elevated blood lipids and cardiovascular effects. Obesity is caused by positive energy intake, poor exercise habits, environmental factors, food habits and stress etc. It is also known that hormones influence the incidence of obesity. It has been found that individuals with overweight and obesity has elevated glucagon levels in the bloodstream Purpose: This work aims to investigate whether there is a difference in glucagon concentration between the sexes at ages 10-18 years with obesity, and if there is an association between glucagon concentration and weight, FM and FFM. Materials and Methods: In this study, obesity is determined by BIA and the caliper in combination as three compartment model. Blood samples were taken by venipuncture and glucagon were analyzed in fasting plasma. Results: BIA and the caliper together had a significant correlation with body composition. Blood glucagon was found to be high in obese children. Conclusion: Glucagon concentration in obese children correlates with weight and FM. However, further investigation is needed regard to how glucagon interact with weight, FM and FFM

  • Doyo, Kader
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    A prospective randomized study to compare Nidoil and Ovoil cultur oils used to culture human embryos in IVF therapy2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the initiation of assisted reproduction techniques, several studies has been performed to improve treatment results by development of culture conditions like embryo oil and culture media used. In this study, two embryonic oils from different companies, Nidoil and Ovoil were examined.Method: In this study, 47 human embryos were used. All embryos were donated for research purposes by couples who had been treated at the clinic in Uppsala University Hospital. The embryos were divided into two groups, one group was cultured with Ovoil and the other with Nidoil.Results: There was no difference between the two oils, the embryo quality was the same in both groups.CONCLUSION: The result was expected because both oils had the same composition and purity.

  • Ordonez, Daniela
    Comparison between two different freezing solutions toevaluate the sperm survival after vapor freezing andsperm preparation.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cryopreservation is used to freeze and store donor’s sperm, from men who are going throughcertain medical treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy and from men withazoopermia or severe oligozoospermia. Stored sperm samples are used in artificialreproductive technologies. Formation of ice crystals is the biggest problem when freezingcells because of the risk severe damage to the cells. To guarantee optimal survival rates infrozen sperm samples, cryoprotectants which protect sperms from ice crystals formations, isadded.The main objective of the study was to compare two different freeze solutions and theirimpact on sperm survival in frozen sperm samples. In addition, an additional aim was todetermine if the amount of motile sperm changes when the samples is left for two hours inroom temperature.In this study, 31 samples were used. Each sample was divided into two groups. The firstgroup was mixed with a SpermFreeze Solution™ and the second group was mixed withSperm CryoProtectTM II. All samples were frozen using cooling vapor and stored in tankswith liquid nitrogen. The concentration of motile sperm was measured after thawing andpreparation. SpermFreeze SolutionTM showed significant better results in the number ofsperm who survived after freezing and thawing process Also, the results showed that werewas no significant difference on concentration of motile sperm in samples after being left atroom temperature for two hours. In summary, an improvement in the process of preparationrecommends to be performed to reduce the mechanical stress to ensure a greater quantity ofmotile sperm after the whole process.

  • Lund, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Ersättning vid marginella intrång i fastighet: Särskilt användandet av normer vid värdering av ersättningens storlek2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudregeln i svensk rätt är att var och en ska ha sin egendom tryggad från övertaganden genom tvång. Den kan dock åsidosättas om det är befogat av angelägna allmänna intressen. Ledningsrätt för allmänt ändamål kan vara ett sådant intresse. Fastighetsägare som tvingas upplåta mark till ledningsrätt ska vara tillförsäkrad full ersättning för förlusten.

    Ersättningen ska utgå från det skadeståndsrättsliga perspektivet om oförändrad förmögenhetsställning. Fastighetsägaren ska inte förlora något på upplåtelsen. Bedömningen av skadans värde görs normalt utifrån marknadsvärdeminskningen på den berörda fastigheten. Marknadsvärdet av fastigheten före skadan jämförs med marknadsvärdet efter skadan. Marknadsvärde är dock ett teoretiskt begrepp som enbart kan bedömas, inte räknas fram med fullständig säkerhet. En konsekvens är att det vid marginella intrång är mycket svårt att värdera skadan utifrån de angivna ramarna. Värdet av det upplåtna området kan därför istället direktuppskattas.

    I praxis har det visats att HD dömt ut ersättning vid marginella intrång för obetydliga skador som inte varit möjliga att bedöma på annat sätt än skönsmässigt. Lantmäteriet har, för att förenkla värderingen av vissa fall av intrång, infört normer för bedömningen. Dessa normer är inte heltäckande, vilket leder till att förrättningslantmätare i den konkreta handläggningen använder metoder som tar tid och inte är kostnadseffektiva i förhållande till de ersättningsnivåer som beslutas. Det finns därför ett behov av att införa normer som förenklar handläggningen, särskilt vid marginella intrång.

    Vid utformningen av normer är en svår fråga vem som ska stå för osäkerheten som följer av en värdering. Är det rimligt att fastighetsägare blir något överkompenserade genom intrångsersättningen? Normer som syftar till att förenkla värderingen bör rimligtvis ha en viss säkerhetsmarginal som säkerställer att fastighetsägare som blivit utsatt för upplåtelse eller markövertagande får full kompensation.

  • Lind, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Sexuellt ofredande: I gränslandet mellan fridsbrott och sexualbrott2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Zamore Odéen, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Rättssäkerhet eller skyndsamhet?: Rätten till domstolsprövning i asylprocessen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wogel, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Förvar som preventiv åtgärd mot brottslighet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Viklund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Bodelning mellan sambor vid separation enligt svensk, slovensk och grekisk rätt: Med beaktande av svenska lagvalsregler2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Tieu, Dennis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Rätten till nödvärn vid våld i nära relationer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rätten till nödvärn finns för att särskilda intressen i samhället ska skyddas. Brott som begåtts i nödvärn anses vara försvarliga och rättssystemet medger att undantag kan tillåtas, men endast med hänsyn till behov och proportionalitet som genomsyrar det svenska rättssystemet. Nödvärnsrätten som den ser ut idag är dock inte helt problemfri, utan svårigheter i tillämpningen kan uppstå. Exempel på det sistnämnda är rätten till nödvärn vid brott i nära relationer. Det som huvudsakligen är problematiskt är sakförhållandet att brottsoffer i nära relationer inte sällan är uteslutna från skyddet som nödvärnsregleringen är avsedd att ge. Skyddets begränsade omfattning beror inte nödvändigtvis enbart på nödvärnsregleringens utformning, utan kan många gånger vara en effekt av de särtypiska brottsomständigheterna i nära relationer.

    Nödvärn som ansvarsfrihetsgrund finns för att skydda ett intresse som anses vara värt att försvara. Ordinärt straffbara gärningar blir istället försvarliga i nödvärn och detta skydd tillfaller envar. Brottsoffer som utsatts för våld i nära relationer kan av olika anledningar många gånger ej nyttja denna nödvärnsrätt. Med detta som utgångspunkt är syftet med denna uppsats att utreda om det finns ett behov att ändra nödvärnsregleringen för att bättre skydda brottsoffer som utsatts för våld i nära relationer.

  • Moderato, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Sexuella övergrepp och självskadebeteende bland ungdomar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Gräsman, Virginia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Det straffrättsliga skyddet mot psykisk påverkan i en hederskontext2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Carlstedt, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Fotbollsrelaterade ordningsstörningar: En analys av SvFF:s nya system med oaktsamhetsansvar för föreningar vid ordningsstörningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Eriksson, Emmy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Direktivet om europeiska företagsråd: En granskning av 2009 års revidering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Forsberg, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Valet av utbildning på gymnasiemarknaden i socialt tillbakasatta områden2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 23-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School Choice in Ethnically and Socioeconomically Heterogeneous Residential Areas

    This article explores how young peoples' strategies when choosing upper secondary education are marked by the segregation and marketization of education. Research is limited to five municipalities in southern Stockholm that are characterized by ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous residential areas. It is argued that the school choice of all pupils at upper secondary level in this region constitutes a socio-geographical space in which the school market is embedded and operates. This space is explored by means of specific multiple correspondence analyses (specific MCA). Using individual census data on all students in the designated municipalities from 2008, the differences between 4 421 pupils are investigated as regards their parents' education, income, occupation, services, and national origin, as well as the pupils' academic merits from comprehensive school. The analysis reveals that, despite a "free" school choice and substantial geographical mobility, pupils' choices are heavily restricted by local social and demographic conditions, not the least those connected to their acquired and inherited assets.