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  • Gross, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Biol Anstalt Helgoland, Helmholtz Zentrum Polar & Meeresforsch, Alfred Wegener Inst, Helgoland, Germany.
    Mård, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Uppsala University.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Links between Nordic and Arctic hydroclimate and vegetation changes: Contribution to possible landscape-scale nature-based solutions2018In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 3663-3673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Nordic and Arctic regions, the rapidly warming climate sustains hydroclimatic and vegetation changes in the landscape. There is evidence for an increase in vegetation density in some regions, a trend that is expected as a response to increasing temperature and precipitation. If the hydroclimatic changes are linked to vegetation response, it could be viewed as a landscape-scale nature-based solution (NBS) that could moderate the runoff response, as denser vegetation should lead to increased evapotranspiration and lower runoff. In this paper, we investigate and compare hydroclimatic changes over a set of basins in the Nordic region and northwest America and compare with changes in vegetation density, analyzed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for three time periods: 1973-1978, 1993-1998, and 2013-2016. Over the period of the 1970s to 1990s, the hydroclimate became warmer and wetter and vegetation density increased, but over a later period from the 1990s to 2010s, vegetation density decreased, despite a continuing warming and wetting of the climate. Although there was a tendency for runoff to decrease in basins where vegetation density increased, the relation between precipitation and runoff was much stronger. Overall, we found weak evidence for vegetation density changes, driven by hydroclimate, to act as NBS on the landscape scale over the studied regions. However, as hydroclimatic changes interact with vegetation changes and their ensuing hydrological responses in complex ways, more detailed investigations are needed to determine the potential NBS effect on the landscape scale across Nordic and Arctic regions.

  • Public defence: 2019-01-18 09:15 Room B21, Uppsala
    Jiang, Wangshu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structural Biology.
    Of spiders, bugs, and men: Structural and functional studies of proteins involved in assembly2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein assembly enables complex machineries while being economical with genetic information. However, protein assembly also constitutes a potential threat to the host, and needs to be carefully regulated.

    Sulfate is a common source of sulfur for cysteine synthesis in bacteria. A putative sulfate permease CysZ from Escherichia coli appears much larger than its apparent molecular mass when analyzed by chromatography and native gel. Clearly CysZ undergoes homo-oligomerization. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we confirmed that CysZ binds to its putative substrate sulfate, and also sulfite with higher affinity. CysZ-mediated sulfate transport—in both E. coli whole cells and proteoliposomes—was inhibited in the presence of sulfite, indicating a feedback inhibition mechanism.

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium causing urinary tract infections. Its simultaneous expression of multiple fimbriae enables colonization and biofilm formation. Fimbriae are surface appendages assembled from protein subunits, with distal adhesins specifically recognizing host-cell receptors. We present the first three structures of P. mirabilis fimbrial adhesins. While UcaD and AtfE adopt the canonical immunoglobulin-like fold, MrpH has a previously unknown fold. The coordination of Zn or Cu ion by three conserved histidine residues in MrpH is required for MrpH-dependent biofilm formation.

    Spider silk is an assembly of large proteins called spidroins. The N-terminal domain (NT) of spidroins senses the pH decrease along the silk spinning gland, and transits from monomer to dimer. A locked NT dimer interlinks spidroin molecules into polymers. We identified a new asymmetric dimer form of NT by x-ray crystallography. With additional evidence from small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), we propose the asymmetric dimer as a common intermediate of NT in silk formation.

    Alzheimer’s disease is a life-threatening dementia, where aggregation-prone Aβ peptides self-assemble into amyloid fibrils. Bri2 BRICHOS is a molecular chaperone that efficiently delays Aβ fibrillation, and protects the region of its pro-protein with high β-propensity from aggregation. Combining SAXS and microscale thermophoresis data, we confirmed binding between Bri2 BRICHOS and its native client peptide. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that three conserved tyrosine residues in Bri2 BRICHOS are important for its anti-Aβ fibrillation activity.

    List of papers
    1. The Escherichia coli CysZ is a pH dependent sulfate transporter that can be inhibited by sulfite
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Escherichia coli CysZ is a pH dependent sulfate transporter that can be inhibited by sulfite
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    2014 (English)In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, ISSN 0005-2736, E-ISSN 1879-2642, Vol. 1838, no 7, p. 1809-1816Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Escherichia coli inner membrane protein CysZ mediates the sulfate uptake subsequently utilized for the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds in cells. Here we report the purification and functional characterization of CysZ. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, we have observed interactions between CysZ and its putative substrate sulfate. Additional sulfur-containing compounds from the cysteine synthesis pathway have also been analyzed for their abilities to interact with CysZ. Our results suggest that CysZ is dedicated to a specific pathway that assimilates sulfate for the synthesis of cysteine. Sulfate uptake via CysZ into E. coil whole cells and proteoliposome offers direct evidence of CysZ being able to mediate sulfate uptake. In addition, the cysteine synthesis pathway intermediate sulfite can interact directly with CysZ with higher affinity than sulfate. The sulfate transport activity is inhibited in the presence of sulfite, suggesting the existence of a feedback inhibition mechanism in which sulfite regulates sulfate uptake by CysZ. Sulfate uptake assays performed at different extracellular pH and in the presence of a proton uncoupler indicate that this uptake is driven by the proton gradient. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    CysZ, Sulfate, Transport, Membrane protein, Inhibition
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-227987 (URN)10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.03.003 (DOI)000336695300014 ()
    Available from: 2014-07-04 Created: 2014-07-02 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Structures of two fimbrial adhesins, AtfE and UcaD, from the uropathogen Proteus mirabilis.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structures of two fimbrial adhesins, AtfE and UcaD, from the uropathogen Proteus mirabilis.
    2018 (English)In: Acta crystallographica. Section D, Structural biology, ISSN 2059-7983, Vol. 74, no Pt 11, p. 1053-1062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The important uropathogen Proteus mirabilis encodes a record number of chaperone/usher-pathway adhesive fimbriae. Such fimbriae, which are used for adhesion to cell surfaces/tissues and for biofilm formation, are typically important virulence factors in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the structures of the receptor-binding domains of the tip-located two-domain adhesins UcaD (1.5 Å resolution) and AtfE (1.58 Å resolution) from two P. mirabilis fimbriae (UCA/NAF and ATF) are presented. The structures of UcaD and AtfE are both similar to the F17G type of tip-located fimbrial receptor-binding domains, and the structures are very similar despite having only limited sequence similarity. These structures represent an important step towards a molecular-level understanding of P. mirabilis fimbrial adhesins and their roles in the complex pathogenesis of urinary-tract infections.

    Keywords
    Proteus mirabilis, adhesins, fimbriae, urinary-tract infection
    National Category
    Structural Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366693 (URN)10.1107/S2059798318012391 (DOI)30387764 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-23
    3. Structural basis for MrpH-dependent Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural basis for MrpH-dependent Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative uropathogen and the major causative agent in catheter-associated  (CAUTI) and complicated UTIs. Mannose resistant Proteus-like fimbriae (MR/P) are crucially important for P. mirabilis infectivity and are required for biofilm formation and auto-aggregation, as well as for bladder and kidney colonisation. Here, the X-ray structure of the MR/P tip-located MrpH adhesin is reported. The structure has an unusual fold not previously observed, and contains a transition metal centre with Cu2+ or Zn2+ ligated by three conserved histidine residues and a ligand. Using metal complementation biofilm assays and site directed mutagenesis of the three histidines we show that an intact metal binding site occupied by zinc or copper is essential for MR/P-mediated biofilm formation. The studies presented here provide important clues as to the mechanism of MR/P-mediated biofilm formation and will serve as a starting point for identifying the physiological MR/P receptor(s).

    Keywords
    fimbriae; adhesins; biofilm; urinary tract infection; Proteus mirabilis
    National Category
    Structural Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366696 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-23
    4. Conversion of spidroin dope to spider silk involves an asymmetric dimer intermediate
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conversion of spidroin dope to spider silk involves an asymmetric dimer intermediate
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Structural Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366699 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-23
    5. Bri2 BRICHOS domain binds Bri23 and depends on conserved face A tyrosine residues for anti-amyloid activity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bri2 BRICHOS domain binds Bri23 and depends on conserved face A tyrosine residues for anti-amyloid activity
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Bri2, BRICHOS, amyloid, Alzheimer's disease, molecular chaperone
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366698 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-23
  • Public defence: 2019-01-11 13:00 B41, Uppsala
    Söderholm, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structural Biology.
    The Importance of Being Promiscuous: Understanding enzyme function, specificity, and evolution through structure2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes are known to be amazingly specific and efficient catalysts. However, many enzymes also have so-called promiscuous functions, i.e., they are able to catalyze other reactions than their main one. The promiscuous activities are often low, serendipitous, and under neutral selection but if conditions arise that make them beneficial, they can play an important role in the evolution of new enzymes. In this thesis, I present three studies where we have characterized different enzyme families by structural and biochemical methods. The studies demonstrate the occurrence of enzyme promiscuity and its potential role in evolution and organismal adaptation.

    In the first study, I describe the characterization of wild type and mutant HisA enzymes from Salmonella enterica. In the first part of this study, we could clarify the mechanistic cycle of HisA by solving crystal structures that showed different conformations of wild type HisA in complex with its labile substrate ProFAR (N´-[(5´-phosphoribosyl)formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide). In the second part of this study, structures of mutant enzymes from a real-time evolution study provided us with an atomic-level description of how HisA had evolved a new function. The HisA mutants had acquired TrpF activity, either in addition to (bifunctional generalists) or instead of (TrpF specialists) their HisA activity. In the second study, I present the crystal structure and demonstrate promiscuous activity of the TrpC enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The activity data demonstrates that the enzyme can turn over a substrate that lacks a substituent that was previously considered essential for catalysis. In the third study, I present the structural and functional characterization of SAM (S-Adenosyl methionine) hydrolases from bacteriophages. These enzymes were discovered because of their ability to rescue auxotrophic bacteria by inducing expression of a promiscuous bacterial enzyme.  

    List of papers
    1. Structure of a phage-encoded SAM hydrolase enzyme provides insights in substrate binding and catalysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure of a phage-encoded SAM hydrolase enzyme provides insights in substrate binding and catalysis
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    SAM hydrolase, phage enzyme
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366689 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-22
    2. Two-step Ligand Binding in a (βα)8 Barrel Enzyme: Substrate-bound Structures Shed New Light on the Catalytic Cycle of HisA
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-step Ligand Binding in a (βα)8 Barrel Enzyme: Substrate-bound Structures Shed New Light on the Catalytic Cycle of HisA
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    2015 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 290, no 41, p. 24657-24668Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    HisA is a (βα)8 barrel enzyme that catalyzes the Amadori rearrangement of ProFAR to PRFAR in the histidine biosynthesis pathway and it is a paradigm for the study of enzyme evolution. Still, its exact catalytic mechanism has remained unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of wild type Salmonella enterica HisA (SeHisA) in its apo state and of mutants D7N and D7N/D176A in complex with two different conformations of the labile substrate ProFAR, which was structurally visualized for the first time. Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetics demonstrated that Asp7 acts as the catalytic base and Asp176 as the catalytic acid. The SeHisA structures with ProFAR display two different states of the long loops on the catalytic face of the structure, and demonstrate that initial binding of ProFAR to the active site is independent of loop interactions. When the long loops enclose the substrate, ProFAR adopts an extended conformation where its non-reacting half is in a product-like conformation. This change is associated with shifts in a hydrogen-bond network including His47, Asp129, Thr171 and Ser202, all shown to be functionally important. The closed-conformation structure is highly similar to the bi-functional HisA homologue PriA in complex with PRFAR, thus proving that structure and mechanism are conserved between HisA and PriA. This study clarifies the mechanistic cycle of HisA and provides a striking example of how an enzyme and its substrate can undergo coordinated conformational changes before catalysis.

    National Category
    Structural Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260701 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M115.678086 (DOI)000362598300003 ()26294764 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 283570
    Available from: 2015-08-23 Created: 2015-08-23 Last updated: 2018-11-22
    3. Structural and functional innovations in the real-time evolution of new (βα)8 barrel enzymes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and functional innovations in the real-time evolution of new (βα)8 barrel enzymes
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    2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 8, p. 4727-4732Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    New genes can arise by duplication and divergence, but there is a fundamental gap in our understanding of the relationship between these genes, the evolving proteins they encode, and the fitness of the organism. Here we used crystallography, NMR dynamics, kinetics, and mass spectrometry to explain the molecular innovations that arose during a previous real-time evolution experiment. In that experiment, the (βα)8 barrel enzyme HisA was under selection for two functions (HisA and TrpF), resulting in duplication and divergence of the hisA gene to encode TrpF specialists, HisA specialists, and bifunctional generalists. We found that selection affects enzyme structure and dynamics, and thus substrate preference, simultaneously and sequentially. Bifunctionality is associated with two distinct sets of loop conformations, each essential for one function. We observed two mechanisms for functional specialization: structural stabilization of each loop conformation and substrate-specific adaptation of the active site. Intracellular enzyme performance, calculated as the product of catalytic efficiency and relative expression level, was not linearly related to fitness. Instead, we observed thresholds for each activity above which further improvements in catalytic efficiency had little if any effect on growth rate. Overall, we have shown how beneficial substitutions selected during real-time evolution can lead to manifold changes in enzyme function and bacterial fitness. This work emphasizes the speed at which adaptive evolution can yield enzymes with sufficiently high activities such that they no longer limit the growth of their host organism, and confirms the (βα)8 barrel as an inherently evolvable protein scaffold.

    Keywords
    HisA, TrpF, adaptive evolution, enzyme performance threshold
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology Structural Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Structural Biology; Biochemistry; Biology with specialization in Molecular Evolution
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320223 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1618552114 (DOI)000400358000052 ()
    Available from: 2017-04-18 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
    4. A bacteriophage enzyme induces bacterial metabolic perturbation that confers a novel promiscuous function
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A bacteriophage enzyme induces bacterial metabolic perturbation that confers a novel promiscuous function
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    2018 (English)In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 1321-1330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    One key concept in the evolution of new functions is the ability of enzymes to perform promiscuous side-reactions that serve as a source of novelty that may become beneficial under certain conditions. Here, we identify a mechanism where a bacteriophage-encoded enzyme introduces novelty by inducing expression of a promiscuous bacterial enzyme. By screening for bacteriophage DNA that rescued an auxotrophic Escherichia coli mutant carrying a deletion of the ilvA gene, we show that bacteriophage-encoded S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) hydrolases reduce SAM levels. Through this perturbation of bacterial metabolism, expression of the promiscuous bacterial enzyme MetB is increased, which in turn complements the absence of IlvA. These results demonstrate how foreign DNA can increase the metabolic capacity of bacteria, not only by transfer of bona fide new genes, but also by bringing cryptic bacterial functions to light via perturbations of cellular physiology.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2018
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355286 (URN)10.1038/s41559-018-0568-5 (DOI)000439505600024 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
    5. Structure and substrate ambiguity of TrpC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure and substrate ambiguity of TrpC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzyme TrpC catalyzes the formation of Indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP) from 1-(o-carboxyphenylamino) 1-deoxyribulose 5-phosphate as part of the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway. The reaction mechanism follows a series of condensation, decarboxylation, and dehydration. The decarboxylation has been assumed to constitute an essential step of the mechanism since no activity with decarboxylated substrate was observed in an early study on the TrpC:TrpF fusion protein from Escherichia coli (Smith 1962). Here, we refute this assumption by demonstrating IGP formation catalyzed by both TrpC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and from E.coli. We show that P. aeruginosa TrpC is more active on decarboxylated substrate than E.coli TrpC and, by solving the crystal structure of P. aeruginosa TrpC, we provide structure-based hypotheses on their difference in promiscuous activity.

    Keywords
    TrpC, IGPS
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Research subject
    Biochemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366660 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-30
  • Shirey, Ryan J.
    et al.
    Scripps Res Inst, Dept Chem, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA;Scripps Res Inst, Skaggs Inst Chem Biol, Worm Inst Res & Med, Dept Immunol, 10550 North Torrey, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.
    Globisch, Daniel
    Scripps Res Inst, Dept Chem, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA;Scripps Res Inst, Skaggs Inst Chem Biol, Worm Inst Res & Med, Dept Immunol, 10550 North Torrey, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.
    Eubanks, Lisa M.
    Scripps Res Inst, Dept Chem, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA;Scripps Res Inst, Skaggs Inst Chem Biol, Worm Inst Res & Med, Dept Immunol, 10550 North Torrey, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.
    Hixon, Mark S.
    Scripps Res Inst, Dept Chem, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA;Scripps Res Inst, Skaggs Inst Chem Biol, Worm Inst Res & Med, Dept Immunol, 10550 North Torrey, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.
    Janda, Kim D.
    Scripps Res Inst, Dept Chem, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA;Scripps Res Inst, Skaggs Inst Chem Biol, Worm Inst Res & Med, Dept Immunol, 10550 North Torrey, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.
    Noninvasive Urine Biomarker Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Monitoring Active Onchocerciasis2018In: ACS INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ISSN 2373-8227, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 1423-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parasitic disease onchocerciasis is the second leading cause of preventable blindness, afflicting more than 18 million people worldwide. Despite an available treatment, ivermectin, and control efforts by the World Health Organization, onchocerciasis remains a burden in many regions. With an estimated 120 million people living in areas at risk of infection, efforts are now shifting from prevention to surveillance and elimination. The lack of a robust, point-of-care diagnostic for an active Onchocerca infection has been a limiting factor in these efforts. Previously, we reported the discovery of the biomarker N-acetyl-tyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG) in human urine samples and its ability to track treatment progression between medicated patients relative to placebo; we also established its capability to monitor disease burden in a jird model. NATOG is a human-produced metabolite of tyramine, which itself is produced as a nematode neurotransmitter. The ability of NATOG to distinguish between active and past infection overcomes the limitations of antibody biomarkers and PCR methodologies. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) diagnostics offer the versatility and simplicity to be employed in the field and are inexpensive enough to be utilized in large-scale screening efforts. Herein, we report the development and assessment of a NATOG-based urine LFIA for onchocerciasis, which accurately identified 85% of analyzed patient samples (N = 27).

  • Samuelsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjork, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Malardalens Hgsk, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fault signatures and bias progression in dissolved oxygen sensors2018In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 1034-1044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilm fouling is known to impact the data quality of sensors, but little is known about the exact effects. We studied the effects of artificial and real biofilm fouling on dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors in full-scale water resource recovery facilities, and how this can automatically be detected. Biofilm fouling resulted in different drift direction and bias magnitudes for optical (OPT) and electrochemical (MEC) DO sensors. The OPT-sensor was more affected by biofilm fouling compared to the MEC-sensor, especially during summer conditions. A bias of 1 mg/L was detected by analysing the impulse response (IR) of the automatic air cleaning system in the DO sensor. The IR is an effect of a temporal increase in DO concentration during the automatic air cleaning. The IRs received distinct pattern changes that were matched with faults including: biofilm fouling, disturbances in the air supply to the cleaning system, and damaged sensor membrane, which can be used for fault diagnosis. The results highlight the importance of a condition-based sensor maintenance schedule in contrast to fixed cleaning intervals. Further, the results stress the importance of understanding and detecting bias due to biofilm fouling, in order to maintain a robust and resource-efficient process control.

  • Markasz, Laszlo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Wanders, Alkwin
    Umea Univ, Dept Biomed Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Szekely, Laszlo
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Div Pathol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engstrand Lilja, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Diminished DEFA6 Expression in Paneth Cells Is Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis2018In: Gastroenterology Research and Practice, ISSN 1687-6121, E-ISSN 1687-630X, article id 7345426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in premature infants with a high morbidity and mortality. Paneth cell dysfunction has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of NEC. Defensin alpha-6 (DEFA6) is a specific marker for Paneth cells acting as part of the innate immunity in the human intestines. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of DEFA6 in infants with NEC. Materials and Methods. Infants who underwent bowel resection for NEC at level III NICU in Sweden between August 2004 and September 2013 were eligible for the study. Macroscopically vital tissues were selected for histopathological evaluation. All infants in the control group underwent laparotomy and had ileostomy due to dysmotility, and samples were taken from the site of the stoma. DEFA6 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. Digital image analysis was used for an objective and precise description of the samples. Results. A total of 12 infants were included in the study, eight with NEC and four controls. The tissue samples were taken from the colon (n = 1), jejunum (n = 1), and ileum (n = 10). Both the NEC and control groups consisted of extremely premature and term infants (control group: 25-40 gestational weeks, NEC group: 23-39 gestational weeks). The postnatal age at the time of surgery varied in both groups (control group: 4-47 days, NEC group: 4-50 days). DEFA6 expression in the NEC group was significantly lower than that in the control group and did not correlate with gestational age. Conclusion. The diminished DEFA6 expression in Paneth cells associated with NEC in this study supports the hypothesis that alpha-defensins are involved in the pathophysiology of NEC. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of alpha-defensins in NEC aiming at finding preventive and therapeutic strategies against NEC.

  • Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden;Menoufia Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Commun, Menoufia 32952, Egypt.
    Velander, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Surg, NL-6229 HX Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 2752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7-2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of similar to 0.7 dB and similar to 1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.

  • Elinder, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Erixson, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Waldenstrom, Daniel
    Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden; IZA, CEPR, Paris Sch Econ, Paris, France.
    Inheritance and wealth inequality: Evidence from population registers2018In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 165, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses population register data on inheritances and wealth in Sweden to estimate the causal impact of inheritances on wealth inequality. We find that inheritances reduce wealth inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient or top wealth shares, but that they increase absolute dispersion. This duality in effects stems from the fact that even though richer heirs inherit larger amounts, the relative importance of the inheritance is larger for less wealthy heirs, who inherit more relative to their pre-inheritance wealth. This is in part driven by the fact that heirs do not inherit debts, which makes the distribution of inheritances more equal than the distribution of wealth among the heirs. Behavioral adjustments seem to mitigate the equalizing effect of inheritances, possibly through higher consumption among the poorer heirs. Inheritance taxation counteracts the equalizing inheritance effect, but redistribution of inheritance tax revenues can reverse this result and make the inheritance tax equalizing. Finally, we also find that inheritances increase intragenerational wealth mobility, but the effect is short-lived.

  • Murugesu, Suganya
    et al.
    Kulliyyah Pharm Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Ma, Malaysia.
    Ibrahim, Zalikha
    Kulliyyah Pharm Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Ma, Malaysia.
    Ahmed, Qamar-Uddin
    Kulliyyah Pharm Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Ma, Malaysia.
    Yusoff, Nik-Idris Nik
    Kulliyyah Pharm Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Ma, Malaysia.
    Uzir, Bisha-Fathamah
    Kulliyyah Pharm Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Ma, Malaysia.
    Perumal, Vikneswari
    Univ Kuala Lumpur, Royal Coll Med Perak, Fac Pharm & Hlth Sci, Ipoh 30450, Perak Darul Rid, Malaysia.
    Abas, Faridah
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Lab Nat Prod, Inst Biosci, Serdang 43300, Selangor Darul, Malaysia.
    Saari, Khozirah
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Lab Nat Prod, Inst Biosci, Serdang 43300, Selangor Darul, Malaysia.
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Univ Karachi, HEJ Res Inst Chem, Int Ctr Chem & Biol Sci, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.
    Khatib, Alfi
    Kulliyyah Pharm Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Ma, Malaysia;Univ Putra Malaysia, Lab Nat Prod, Inst Biosci, Serdang 43300, Selangor Darul, Malaysia.
    Characterization of alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau Leaves by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Molecular Docking Simulation2018In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 9, article id 2402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity. Methods: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their alpha-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding. Conclusion: The study provides informative data on the potential alpha-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.

  • Kerpershoek, Liselot
    et al.
    Maastricht Univ, Alzheimer Ctr Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    de Vugt, Marjolein
    Maastricht Univ, Alzheimer Ctr Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Wolfs, Claire
    Maastricht Univ, Alzheimer Ctr Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Woods, Bob
    Bangor Univ, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Jelley, Hannah
    Bangor Univ, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Orrell, Martin
    Bangor Univ, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Stephan, Astrid
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg DE, Inst Hlth & Nursing Sci, Halle, Germany.
    Bieber, Anja
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg DE, Inst Hlth & Nursing Sci, Halle, Germany.
    Meyer, Gabriele
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg DE, Inst Hlth & Nursing Sci, Halle, Germany.
    Selbaek, Geir
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Geriatr Med, Oslo, Norway.
    Handels, Ron
    Maastricht Univ, Alzheimer Ctr Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands;Karolinska Inst, Div Neurogeriatr, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Div Neurogeriatr, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hopper, Louise
    Dublin City Univ, Sch Nursing & Human Sci, Dublin, Ireland.
    Irving, Kate
    Dublin City Univ, Sch Nursing & Human Sci, Dublin, Ireland.
    Marques, Maria
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Nova Med Sch, CEDOC, Fac Ciencias Med, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Goncalves-Pereira, Manuel
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Nova Med Sch, CEDOC, Fac Ciencias Med, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Portolani, Elisa
    IRCCS Ctr S Giovanni di Dio, Memory Clin, Alzheimers Res Unit, Milan, Italy.
    Zanetti, Orazio
    IRCCS Ctr S Giovanni di Dio, Memory Clin, Alzheimers Res Unit, Milan, Italy.
    Verhey, Frans
    Maastricht Univ, Alzheimer Ctr Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Needs and quality of life of people with middle-stage dementia and their family carers from the European Actifcare study. When informal care alone may not suffice2018In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 897-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The Actifcare (Access to timely formal care) study investigated needs of people with dementia and their families during the phase in which formal care is being considered, and examined whether higher need levels are related to lower quality of life (QOL).Method: From eight European countries 451 people with dementia and their carers participated. Needs were measured with the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly. QOL was measured with the QOL-AD, and carer quality of life was measured with the CarerQol. The relationship between needs and QOL was analysed with multiple regression analyses.Results: Needs were expressed in the domains of psychological distress, daytime activities, company and information. People with dementia rated their unmet needs significantly lower than their carers: the mean number of self-rated unmet needs was 0.95, whereas the mean proxy ratings were 1.66. For met needs, the self-rated mean was 5.5 and was 8 when proxy-rated. The level of needs reported was negatively associated with QOL for both.Conclusion: The study results show that informal carers reported almost twice as many needs as people with dementia. The domains in which needs are expressed should be the primary focus for interventions to support QOL.The perspectives of people with dementia are informative when identifying needs.

  • Ngoc, Trinh Minh
    et al.
    Duy, Nguyen Van
    Hung, Chu Manh
    Hoa, Nguyen Duc
    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc
    Nguyen, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hieu, Nguyen Van
    Ultralow power consumption gas sensor based on a self- heated nanojunction of SnO2 nanowires+2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 63, p. 36323-36330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long duration of a working device with a limited battery capacity requires gas sensors with low power consumption. A self-heated gas sensor is a highly promising candidate to satisfy this requirement. In this study, two gas sensors with sparse and dense SnO2 nanowire (NW) networks were investigated under the Joule heating effect at the nanojunction. Results showed that the local heating nanojunction was effective for NO2 sensing but generally not for reduction gases. At 1 W, the sparse NW sensor showed a good sensing performance to the NO2 gas. The dense SnO2 NW network required a high-power supply for gas-sensitive activation, but was suitable for reduction gases. A power of approximately 500 W was also needed for a fast recovery time. Notably, the dense NW sensor can response to ethanol and H2S gases. Results also showed that the self-heated sensors were simple in design and reproducible in terms of the fabrication process.

  • Deng, Pan
    et al.
    Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Digital Mfg Equipment & Technol, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Fu, Cheng-Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Wu, Zhigang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Digital Mfg Equipment & Technol, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    High purity and viability cell separation of a bacterivorous jakobid flagellate based on a steep velocity gradient induced soft inertial force2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 62, p. 35512-35520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell separation is one of the key limiting factors for precise analysis of non-axenic microbial lab cultures or environmental samples, and it remains a challenge to isolate target cells with high purity and viability via high-throughput cell sorting. During the past decade, hydrodynamic microfluidic platforms have attracted great attention in cell preparation for their high efficiency, robust performance and low cost. Here, we employ the use of a low-velocity sheath flow with high viscosity near the wall and a high-velocity sheath flow with low viscosity on the other side of the sample flow in a soft inertial separation chip. This not only prevents hard interactions between cells and chip walls but, in comparison to previous inertial separation methods, generates a significant increase in deflection of large cells while keeping the small ones in the original flow. We first conducted experiments on a mixture of small and large fluorescent particles (1.0 and 9.9 m, respectively) and removed over 99% of the small particles. The separation efficiency was then tested on a culture of a bacterivorous jakobid flagellate, Seculamonas ecuadoriensis fed on the live bacterium, Klebsiella sp. Using our microfluidic chip, over 94% of live bacteria were removed while maintaining high jakobid cell viability. For comparison, we also conducted size-based cell sorting of the same culture using flow cytometry, which is widely used as a rapid and automated separation tool. Compared with the latter, our chip showed more than 40% higher separation efficiency. Thus, our device provides high purity and viability for cell separation of a sensitive cell sample (jakobid cells). Potentially, the method can be further used for applications in diagnostics, biological analyses and environmental assessment of mixed microbial samples.

  • Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka
    et al.
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Neurosurg, D-45147 Essen, Germany.
    Siegel, Sonja
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Neurosurg, D-45147 Essen, Germany.
    Gammel, Christa
    Univ Hosp Erlangen, Dept Neurosurg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Campbell, Karen
    Cushings Support & Res Fdn, Plymouth, MA 02360 USA.
    Edwin, Leslie
    Cushings Support & Res Fdn, Plymouth, MA 02360 USA.
    Grzywotz, Agnieszka
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Neurosurg, D-45147 Essen, Germany.
    Kuhna, Victoria
    Ev Hosp Oldenburg, Dept Neurosurg, D-26121 Oldenburg, Germany.
    Koltowska-Häggström, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Mueller, Oliver
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Neurosurg, D-45147 Essen, Germany.
    Buchfelder, Michael
    Univ Hosp Erlangen, Dept Neurosurg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Kleist, Bernadette
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Neurosurg, D-45147 Essen, Germany.
    Support Needs of Patients with Cushing's Disease and Cushing's Syndrome: Results of a Survey Conducted in Germany and the USA2018In: International Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 1687-8337, E-ISSN 1687-8345, article id 9014768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Cushing's disease (CD) and Cushing's syndrome (CS) are chronic illnesses, characterized by symptoms of prolonged hypercortisolism, which often changes to hypocortisolism after successful treatment. In view of the high disease burden of CD/CS patients and long-term impaired quality of life, the present survey was conducted to gain information about subjective illness distress and patients' specific needs in terms of supportive measures beyond medical interventions. Patients and Methods. Cross-sectional questionnaire study including patients with CD treated in 2 German neurosurgical tertiary referral centers and CD/CS patient members of a US-based patient support group completed a survey inquiring about disease burden, coping strategies, and support needs. Additionally, the degree of interest in different offers, e.g., internet-based programs and seminars, was assessed. Results. 84 US and 71 German patients answered the questionnaire. Patients in both countries indicated to suffer from Cushing-related symptoms, reduced performance, and psychological problems. 48.8% US patients and 44.4% German patients stated that good medical care and competent doctors helped them the most in coping with the illness. US patients were more interested in support groups (p = 0.035) and in courses on illness coping (p = 0.008) than the German patients, who stated to prefer brochures (p = 0.001). 89.3% of US patients would attend internet-based programs compared to 75.4% of German patients (p = 0.040). There were no differences between groups for the preferred duration of and the willingness to pay for such a program, but US patients would travel longer distances to attend a support meeting (p = 0.027). Conclusion. Patients in both countries need skilled physicians and long-term medical care in dealing with the effects of CD/CS, whereas other support needs differ between patients of both countries. The latter implies that not only disease-specific but also culture-specific training programs would need to be considered to satisfy the needs of patients in different countries.

  • Wu, Pianpian
    et al.
    Kainz, Martin J.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Åkerblom, Staffan
    Sonesten, Lars
    Bishop, Kevin
    The importance of bioconcentration into the pelagicfood web base for methylmercury biomagnification: A meta-analysis2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 646, p. 357-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg) transfer from water into the base of the food web (bioconcentration) and subsequent biomagnification in the aquatic food web leads to most of the MeHg in fish. But how important is bioconcentration compared to biomagnification in predicting MeHg in fish? To answer this question we reviewed articles in which MeHg concentrations in water, plankton (seston and/or zooplankton), as well as fish (planktivorous and small omnivorous fish) were reported. This yielded 32 journal articles with data from 59 aquatic ecosystems at 22 sites around the world. Although there are many case studies of particular aquatic habitats and specific geographic areas that have examined MeHg bioconcentration and biomagnification, we performed a meta-analysis of such studies. Aqueous MeHg was not a significant predictor of MeHg in fish, but MeHg in seston i.e., the base of the aquatic food web, predicted 63% of the variability in fish MeHg. The MeHg bioconcentration factors (i.e., transfer of MeHg from water to seston; BCFw-s) varied from 3 to 7 orders of magnitude across sites and correlated significantly with MeHg in fish. The MeHg biomagnification factors from zooplankton to fish varied much less (logBMFz-f, 0.75 ± 0.31), and did not significantly correlate with fish MeHg, suggesting that zooplanktivory is not as important as bioconcentration in the biomagnification of fish MeHg across the range of ecosystems represented in our meta-analysis. Partial least square (PLS) and linear regression analyses identified several environmental factors associated with increased BCF, including low dissolved organic carbon, low pH, and oligotrophy. Our study reveals the widespread importance of MeHg bioconcentration into the base of the aquatic food web for MeHg at higher trophic levels in aquatic food webs, as well as the major influences on the variability in this bioconcentration.

  • Mantzouki, Evanthia
    et al.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Urrutia Cordero, Pablo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Buck, Moritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Colom-Montero, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Pierson, Don
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    A European Multi Lake Survey dataset of environmental variables , phytoplankton pigments and cyanotoxins2018In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 5, no October, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under ongoing climate change and increasing anthropogenic activity, which continuously challenge ecosystem resilience, an in-depth understanding of ecological processes is urgently needed. Lakes, as providers of numerous ecosystem services, face multiple stressors that threaten their functioning. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are a persistent problem resulting from nutrient pollution and climate-change induced stressors, like poor transparency, increased water temperature and enhanced stratification. Consistency in data collection and analysis methods is necessary to achieve fully comparable datasets and for statistical validity, avoiding issues linked to disparate data sources. The European Multi Lake Survey (EMLS) in summer 2015 was an initiative among scientists from 27 countries to collect and analyse lake physical, chemical and biological variables in a fully standardized manner. This database includes in-situ lake variables along with nutrient, pigment and cyanotoxin data of 369 lakes in Europe, which were centrally analysed in dedicated laboratories. Publishing the EMLS methods and dataset might inspire similar initiatives to study across large geographic areas that will contribute to better understanding lake responses in a changing environment.

  • de Boniface, J.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden;Capio St Gorans Hosp, Breast Ctr, Dept Surg, Sankt Goransplan 1, SE-11281 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frisell, J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Breast & Endocrine Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Andersson, Yvette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Breast-conserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation offers survival benefits over mastectomy without irradiation2018In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 105, no 12, p. 1607-1614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prognostic equivalence between mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy was shown in pivotal trials conducted decades ago. Since then, detection and treatment of breast cancer have improved substantially and recent retrospective analyses point towards a survival benefit for less extensive breast surgery. Evidence for the association of such survival data with locoregional recurrence rates is largely lacking.

    Methods: The Swedish Multicentre Cohort Study prospectively included clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer who had planned sentinel node biopsy between 2000 and 2004. Axillary lymph node dissection was undertaken only in patients with sentinel node metastases. For the present investigation, adjusted survival analyses were used to compare patients who underwent BCS and postoperative radiotherapy with those who received mastectomy without radiotherapy.

    Results: Of 3518 patients in the Swedish Multicentre Cohort Study, 2767 were included in the present analysis; 2338 had BCS with postoperative radiotherapy and 429 had mastectomy without radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 156 months. BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation was superior to mastectomy without irradiation in terms of both overall survival (79.5 versus 64.3 per cent respectively at 13 years; P < 0.001) and breast cancer-specific survival (90.5 versus 84.0 per cent at 13 years; P < 0.001). The local recurrence rate did not differ between the two groups. The axillary recurrence-free survival rate at 13 years was significantly lower after mastectomy without irradiation (98.3 versus 96.2 per cent; P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The present data support the superiority or BCS with postoperative radiotherapy over mastectomy without radiotherapy. The axillary recurrence rate differed significantly, and could be one contributing factor in a complex explanatory model.

  • Pedro, Guilherme Marques
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Estado Mundial e direito internacional em Hans Morgenthau2018In: Relações Internacionais, ISSN 1645-9199, no 58, p. 41-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [pt]

    This article revisits one of the central topics of Hans Morgenthau’s realism – the world state – as a major gateway to one of the most neglected areas in the current historiography of the realist tradition: that of international law. The article thus argues that Morgenthau’s realism can be read in light of Locke’s metaphysical challenge to Hobbes’ view of the state of nature. National interest can in this light be seen as highly conditioned by the republican ideal of popular sovereignty – akin to that of limited government – where law is already operating socially, even before being posited by the state. By developing this parallel with Locke – shared in part by German legal philosophy that preceded Morgenthau – we are in a better position to understand how he accommodates the functional approach in his realist take on international law and on the social prerequisites of a world state.

  • Gregorcic, Bor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Department of Engineering and Physics, Karlstad University.
    Conceptual Blending as an Interpretive Lens for Student Engagement with Technology: Exploring Celestial Motion on an Interactive Whiteboard2018In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present and analyze video data of upper secondary school students’ engagement with a computer-supported collaborative learning environment that enables them to explore astronomical phenomena (Keplerian motion). The students’ activities have an immersive and exploratory character, as students engage in open-ended inquiry and interact physically with the virtual environment displayed on an interactive whiteboard. The interplay of students’ playful exploration through physical engagement with the simulation environment, their attention to physics concepts and laws, and knowledge about the real planets orbiting the Sun presents an analytical challenge for the researcher and instructor encountering such complex learning environments. We argue that the framework of conceptual blending is particularly apt for dealing with the learning environment at hand, because it allows us to take into account the many diverse mental inputs that seem to shape the student activities described in the paper. We show how conceptual blending can be brought together with theoretical ideas concerned with embodied cognition and epistemology of physics, in order to provide researchers and instructors with a powerful lens for looking critically at immersive technology-supported learning environments.

  • Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    et al.
    McKenzie, Len J.
    Collier, Catherine J.
    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
    Duarte, Carlos M.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Jarvis, Jessie C.
    Jones, Benjamin L.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Global challenges for seagrass conservation2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrasses, flowering marine plants that form underwater meadows, play a significant global role in supporting food security, mitigating climate change and supporting biodiversity. Although progress is being made to conserve seagrass meadows in select areas, most meadows remain under significant pressure resulting in a decline in meadow condition and loss of function. Effective management strategies need to be implemented to reverse seagrass loss and enhance their fundamental role in coastal ocean habitats. Here we propose that seagrass meadows globally face a series of significant common challenges that must be addressed from a multifaceted and interdisciplinary perspective in order to achieve global conservation of seagrass meadows. The six main global challenges to seagrass conservation are (1) a lack of awareness of what seagrasses are and a limited societal recognition of the importance of seagrasses in coastal systems; (2) the status of many seagrass meadows are unknown, and up-to-date information on status and condition is essential; (3) understanding threatening activities at local scales is required to target management actions accordingly; (4) expanding our understanding of interactions between the socio-economic and ecological elements of seagrass systems is essential to balance the needs of people and the planet; (5) seagrass research should be expanded to generate scientific inquiries that support conservation actions; (6) increased understanding of the linkages between seagrass and climate change is required to adapt conservation accordingly. We also explicitly outline a series of proposed policy actions that will enable the scientific and conservation community to rise to these challenges. We urge the seagrass conservation community to engage stakeholders from local resource users to international policy-makers to address the challenges outlined here, in order to secure the future of the world’s seagrass ecosystems and maintain the vital services which they supply.

  • Svensson, Josefin
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Communications Division.
    Universen 4:2018: En tidning för Uppsala universitets medarbetare2018Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Innehåll i Universen nr 4:2018

    Sid 2: Ledare

    Sid 3: Emma Tysk är årets Uppsalastudent

    Sid 4: Klimatledarskap i praktiken

    Sid 5: Koldioxidbudgetar ska hjälpa kommunerna att nå klimatmålen

    Sid 6: "Det här är det roligaste jobbet"

    Sid 7: Sista Tea-dagen?

    Sid 8: Utmaning att komma från studieovan miljö

    Sid 9: Samarbete för bättre digitala resurser

    Sid 10: Farmaceutiska fakulteten 50 år: "Vi växer hela tiden"

    Sid 12: Flyktingkrisen i fokus för europeiskt forskningsprojekt

    Sid 13: "Som immunolog är det lätt att vara entusiastisk"

    Sid 14: Gifta - och forskarkollegor

    Sid 17: Läsning signerad Uppsala universitet

    Sid 19: Årets topp 10

    Sid 20: Profilen - Stefan Sjöström

  • Wang, Sheng
    et al.
    China Agr Univ, Coll Biol Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China;Natl Inst Biol Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China;Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Mandell, Jeffrey D.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Kumar, Yogesh
    Purdue Univ, Dept Biol Sci, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
    Sun, Nawei
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Morris, Montana T.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Arbelaez, Juan
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Nasello, Cara
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Genet, Piscataway, NJ USA;Rutgers State Univ, Human Genet Inst New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ USA.
    Dong, Shan
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Duhn, Clif
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Zhao, Xin
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Shanghai Jiatong Univ, Sch Med, Xinhua Hosp, Dept Tradit Chinese Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Zhiyu
    Purdue Univ, Dept Biol Sci, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
    Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Biol Sci, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
    Yu, Dongmei
    Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Ctr Genom Med, Boston, MA USA;Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Boston, MA USA.
    King, Robert A.
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Yale Child Study Ctr, New Haven, CT USA;Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT USA.
    Dietrich, Andrea
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Khalifa, Najah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Huang, Alden Y.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Neurol, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Psychiat & Biobehav Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA.
    Neale, Benjamin M.
    Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Ctr Genom Med, Boston, MA USA;Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Boston, MA USA.
    Coppola, Giovanni
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Neurol, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Psychiat & Biobehav Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA.
    Mathews, Carol A.
    Univ Florida, Dept Psychiat, Genet Inst, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Scharf, Jeremiah M.
    Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Ctr Genom Med, Boston, MA USA;Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Boston, MA USA.
    Fernandez, Thomas V.
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Yale Child Study Ctr, New Haven, CT USA;Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT USA.
    Buxbaum, Joseph D.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    De Rubeis, Silvia
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Grice, Dorothy E.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Xing, Jinchuan
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Genet, Piscataway, NJ USA;Rutgers State Univ, Human Genet Inst New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ USA.
    Heiman, Gary A.
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Genet, Piscataway, NJ USA;Rutgers State Univ, Human Genet Inst New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ USA.
    Tischfield, Jay A.
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Genet, Piscataway, NJ USA;Rutgers State Univ, Human Genet Inst New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ USA.
    Paschou, Peristera
    Purdue Univ, Dept Biol Sci, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
    Willsey, A. Jeremy
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, Inst Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, QBI, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    State, Matthew W.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, UCSF Weill Inst Neurosci, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, QBI, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    De Novo Sequence and Copy Number Variants Are Strongly Associated with Tourette Disorder and Implicate Cell Polarity in Pathogenesis2018In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 24, no 13, p. 3441-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We previously established the contribution of de novo damaging sequence variants to Tourette disorder (TD) through whole-exome sequencing of 511 trios. Here, we sequence an additional 291 TD trios and analyze the combined set of 802 trios. We observe an overrepresentation of de novo damaging variants in simplex, but not multiplex, families; we identify a high-confidence TD risk gene, CELSR3 (cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3); we find that the genes mutated in TD patients are enriched for those related to cell polarity, suggesting a common pathway underlying pathobiology; and we confirm a statistically significant excess of de novo copy number variants in TD. Finally, we identify significant overlap of de novo sequence variants between TD and obsessive-compulsive disorder and de novo copy number variants between TD and autism spectrum disorder, consistent with shared genetic risk.

  • Menniti, Matteo
    Tailoring the magnetic anisotropy in amorphous FeZr-based thin films on flexible and solid substrates2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the magnetic properties of novel amorphous magnetic materials grown on a flexible substrate of polyethylene naphthalate and a silicon wafer have been analyzed and characterized. The analyzed films are two films of amorphous Cobalt-Iron-Zirconium(Co36Fe53Zr11 & Co37Fe55Zr8) grown on the flexible substrate and two films of amorphous (Fe89Zr11) doped with boron (B). The B is implanted in a lattice of rings with inner diameter of 10 μm and outer diameter of 20 μm and with the distance between the center of the rings of either 50 μm or 25 μm. The composition in the doped region is Fe80Zr10B10.

    Various magneto-optical Kerr effect(MOKE) magnetometers are used to measure hysteresis loops of the samples and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is used to find the volume magnetization of the flexible samples. To measure the anisotropy in the flexible films a series of sample holders has been developed to measure various amount of stress using the same sample in magneto-optical magnetometers. The stress induced uniaxial anisotropy is found by measuring hysteresis loops of the flexible samples while bending them with different curvatures. The induced anisotropy is related to the magnetostriction and the magnetostriction constants is estimated for the two flexible samples by assuming values for Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The estimated values for the magnetostriction constant are found to vary with the amount of Zr and to be in the correct order of magnitude for magnetic films.

    The implanted B rings with the short distance of 25 μm between the center showed to have some interaction between the rings. This conclusion is drawn after analyzing first order reversal curves of the samples and looking at the domains under a MOKE-microscope. At very low temperatures the (unimplanted) FeZr matrix is ferromagnetic and seem to have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling with the B rings. At room temperature the rings are still ferromagnetic and they couple to each other.

  • Mason, David C.
    et al.
    Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England.
    Dance, Sarah L.
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England;Univ Reading, Dept Math & Stat, Reading, Berks, England.
    Vetra-Carvalho, Sanita
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England.
    Cloke, Hannah L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Reading, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, Reading, Berks, England;Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England.
    Robust algorithm for detecting floodwater in urban areas using synthetic aperture radar images2018In: Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, ISSN 1931-3195, E-ISSN 1931-3195, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 045011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors are able to detect flood extents in urban areas during both day- and night-time. If obtained in near real time, these flood extents can be used for emergency flood relief management or as observations for assimilation into flood forecasting models. A method for detecting flooding in urban areas using near real-time SAR data is developed and extensively tested under a variety of scenarios involving different flood events and different images. The method uses an SAR simulator in conjunction with LiDAR data of the urban area to predict areas of radar shadow and layover in the image caused by buildings and taller vegetation. Of the urban water pixels visible to the SAR, the flood detection accuracy averaged over the test examples is 83%, with a false alarm rate of 9%. The results indicate that flooding can be detected in the urban area to reasonable accuracy but that this accuracy is limited partly by the SAR's poor visibility of the urban ground surface due to shadow and layover. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  • Henriksson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    The acceleration of the Moon and the Universe - the Mass of the Graviton2017In: Advances in Astrophysics, ISSN 2415-6450, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 184-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To get accurate knowledge about the longitudinal motion of the Moon we must use the oldest preserved interpretable depictions and texts from the ancient cultures. Well documented total solar eclipses from Sumerian cylinder seals, Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Chinese, Hittite and Greek texts, and depictions on the Swedish rock-carvings from the Bronze Age, have been used in an analysis, performed by the author in 2011, to determine the lunar sidereal secular acceleration. It was based on 33 ancient total or almost total solar eclipses back to 3653 BC. In 2014 and 2016 the margins of error was determined. The new value for the lunar sidereal secular acceleration in longitude = -30.128±0.0035 arcseconds/(century)2 ("/cy2). The lunar secular acceleration, from the Lunar Laser Range (LLR) measurements, -25.856 ±0.003"/cy2, must be corrected for the relativistic effect, -3.604"/cy2, in the Earth-Moon inertial system, to get the lunar sidereal secular acceleration, –29.460 "/cy2, corrected for General Relativity. The difference between this value and the new calibration, -0.668±0.0046"/cy2, corresponds to the cosmological acceleration predicted by Dvali et al. in a Modified Theory of gravity. This value corresponds to a mass of the graviton = 1.306 ±0.009 x 10-56 grams.   If this theory is correct, there is no need for the enigmatic Dark Energy.

  • Phoosuwan, Nitikorn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Lundberg, Pranee C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Statistical Analyses Of The Thai Version Of The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Among Thai Women During The Antenatal Period In North-Eastern Thailand2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Rodin, Sergey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Physiol Chem 1, Scheelesvag 2, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rebellato, Paola
    Biothema AB, Handens Stn Vag 17, S-13640 Handen, Sweden.
    Lundin, Arne
    Biothema AB, Handens Stn Vag 17, S-13640 Handen, Sweden.
    Zubarev, Roman A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Physiol Chem 1, Scheelesvag 2, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;IM Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Technol Chem, Moscow, Russia.
    Isotopic resonance at 370 ppm deuterium negatively affects kinetics of luciferin oxidation by luciferase2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 16249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1930s, it has been known that some biochemical and biological processes exhibit abnormal kinetics at a deuterium concentration in the local environment of 250-600 ppm, which is 2-4 times higher that the normal concentration of 150 ppm D. We sought to test if the kinetics of firefly luciferase oxidizing luciferin, the reaction widely used as a read-out in various biochemical assays, is also affected by an elevated deuterium content. To this end, both luciferase and luciferin substrate solutions were prepared based on water with extra deuterium added to a concentration ranging from 150 ppm and up to 10,000 ppm (1%). Upon mixing the solutions, the luminescence intensity at different times was compared with that of the corresponding control solutions with 150 ppm D. A broad negative resonance was detected (p < 10(-6)), with a approximate to 20% drop in luminescence at 370 ppm D. Given that, on average, about half of hydrogen atoms in proteins are not exchangeable in solution, this value corresponds to approximate to 260 ppm of deuterium in all enzyme's hydrogens, in a very good agreement with the prediction of the Isotopic resonance hypothesis.

  • Karademir, Betul
    et al.
    Marmara Univ, Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Genet & Metab Dis Res & Invest Ctr, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Sari, Gulce
    Marmara Univ, Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Genet & Metab Dis Res & Invest Ctr, Istanbul, Turkey;Okan Univ, Fac Engn, Dept Genet & Bioengn, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Jannuzzi, Ayse Tarbin
    Istanbul Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Toxicol, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Musunuri, Sravani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Wicher, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology.
    Grune, Tilman
    German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Mol Toxicol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany;German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, D-85764 Munich, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res DZHK, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Mi, Jia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Binzhou Med Univ, Med & Pharm Res Ctr, Yantai, Peoples R China.
    Hacioglu-Bay, Husniye
    Marmara Univ, Sch Med, Dept Anat, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Jung, Tobias
    German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Mol Toxicol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany;German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, D-85764 Munich, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res DZHK, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Proteomic approach for understanding milder neurotoxicity of Carfilzomib against Bortezomib2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 16318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proteasomal system is responsible for the turnover of damaged proteins. Because of its important functions in oncogenesis, inhibiting the proteasomal system is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. Bortezomib (BTZ) is the first proteasome inhibitor approved by FDA for clinical applications. However neuropathic side effects are dose limiting for BTZ as many other chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore second-generation proteasome inhibitors have been developed including carfilzomib (CFZ). Aim of the present work was investigating the mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy triggered by the proteasome inhibitor BTZ and comparing the pathways affected by BTZ and CFZ, respectively. Neural stem cells, isolated from the cortex of E14 mouse embryos, were treated with BTZ and CFZ and mass spectrometry was used to compare the global protein pool of treated cells. BTZ was shown to cause more severe cytoskeletal damage, which is crucial in neural cell integrity. Excessive protein carbonylation and actin filament destabilization were also detected following BTZ treatment that was lower following CFZ treatment. Our data on cytoskeletal proteins, chaperone system, and protein oxidation may explain the milder neurotoxic effects of CFZ in clinical applications.

  • Albaalbaky, Ahmed
    et al.
    Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS,GPM, F-76800 St Etienne Du Rouvray, France.
    Kvashnin, Yaroslav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Patte, Renaud
    Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS,GPM, F-76800 St Etienne Du Rouvray, France.
    Fresard, Raymond
    Normandie Univ, CRISMAT, CNRS, UNICAEN,ENSICAEN, F-14050 Caen, France.
    Ledue, Denis
    Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS,GPM, F-76800 St Etienne Du Rouvray, France.
    Effects of Ga doping on magnetic and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic delafossite CuCrO2: Ab initio and Monte Carlo approaches2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, no 17, article id 174403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of nonmagnetic impurity doping on magnetic and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic delafossite CuCrO2 are investigated by means of density functional theory calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. Density functional theory calculations show that replacing up to 30% of Cr3+ ions by Ga3+ ones does not significantly affect the remaining Cr-Cr superexchange interactions. Monte Carlo simulations show that CuCr1-xGaxO2 preserves its magnetoelectric properties up to x similar or equal to 0.15 with a spiral ordering, while it becomes disordered at higher fractions. Antiferromagnetic transition shifts towards lower temperatures with increasing x and eventually disappears at x >= 0.2. Our simulations show that Ga3+ doping increases the Curie-Weiss temperature of CuCr1-xGaxO2, which agrees well with experimental observations. Moreover, our results show that the incommensurate ground-state configuration is destabilized by Ga3+ doping under zero applied field associated with an increase of frustration. Finally, coupling between noncollinear magnetic ordering and electric field is reported for x <= 0.15 through simulating P-E hysteresis loops, which leads to ferroelectricity in the extended inverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya model.

  • Gao, Tianle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Chinese Acad Med Sci, Inst Mat Med, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Haisha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    Xu, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Bergman, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Lagerström, Malin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    The Neuropeptide Y System Regulates Both Mechanical and Histaminergic Itch2018In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN 0022-202X, E-ISSN 1523-1747, Vol. 138, no 11, p. 2405-2411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Itch is a somatosensory modality that serves to alert an organism to harmful elements removable by scratching, such as parasites and chemical irritants. Recently, ablation or silencing of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing spinal interneurons was reported to selectively enhance mechanical itch, whereas chemical itch was unaffected. We examined the effect of activating the NPY/Y-1 receptor system on scratch behavior in mice. We found that intrathecal administration of the Y-1 agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (LP-NPY) attenuated itch behavior induced by application of 0.07 g von Frey filament in the nape of the neck compared with saline treatment, indicating that activation of the spinal NPY/Y-1 system dampens mechanical itch. However, intrathecal administration of LP-NPY also attenuated chemically induced scratching provoked by intradermal application of histamine or the mast cell degranulator 48/80 (histaminergic itch), and the latter effect could be reversed by administration of the Y-1 antagonist BIBO3304. Intrathecal application of the native nonselective agonist NPY also attenuated histamine or 48/80-induced scratching. Our analyses emphasize the importance of including additional quantitative parameters to characterize the full spectrum of itch behavior and show that the NPY/Y-1 system dampens both mechanically and chemically induced scratching and hence is shared by the two submodalities of itch.

  • Pincini, D.
    et al.
    UCL, London Ctr Nanotechnol, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England;UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England;Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House,Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, Oxon, England.
    Fabrizi, F.
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House,Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, Oxon, England.
    Beutier, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, SIMaP, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    Nisbet, G.
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House,Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, Oxon, England.
    Elnaggar, H.
    Univ Utrecht, Debye Inst Nanomat Sci, Univ Weg 99, NL-3584 CG Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Dmitrienko, V. E.
    AV Shubnikov Inst Crystallog, FSRC Crystallog & Photon RAS, Moscow 119333, Russia.
    Katsnelson, M. , I
    Kvashnin, Yaroslav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Lichtenstein, A. , I
    Mazurenko, V. V.
    Ural Fed Univ, Dept Theoret Phys & Appl Math, Mira Str 19, Ekaterinburg 620002, Russia.
    Ovchinnikova, E. N.
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Fac Phys, Moscow 119991, Russia.
    Dimitrova, O. , V
    Collins, S. P.
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House,Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, Oxon, England.
    Role of the orbital moment in a series of isostructural weak ferromagnets2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, no 10, article id 104424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The orbital contribution to the magnetic moment of the transition-metal ion in the isostructural weak ferromagnets ACO(3) (A = Mn,Co,Ni) and FeBO3 was investigated by a combination of first-principles calculations, nonresonant x-ray magnetic scattering, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. A nontrivial evolution of the orbital moment as a function of the 3d orbitals filling is revealed, with a particularly large value found in the Co member of the family. Here, the coupling between magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom produced by the spin-orbit interaction results in a large single-ion anisotropy and a peculiar magnetic-moment-induced electron cloud distortion, evidenced by the appearance of a subtle scattering amplitude at space-group-forbidden reflections and significant magnetostrictive effects. Our results, which complement a previous investigation on the sign of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction across the series, highlight the importance of spin-orbit coupling in the physics of weak ferromagnets and prove the ability of modern first-principles calculations to predict the properties of materials where the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is a fundamental ingredient of the magnetic Hamiltonian.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Asimakopoulou, Eleni M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zur Nedden, M.
    Prompt and non-prompt J/psi and psi(2S) suppression at high transverse momentum in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS experiment2018In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 78, no 9, article id 762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A measurement of J/psi and psi(2S) production is presented. It is based on a data sample from Pb+Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV and pp collisions at root s = 5.02 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2015, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.42 nb(-1) and 25 pb(-1) in Pb+Pb and pp, respectively. The measurements of per-event yields, nuclear modification factors, and non-prompt fractions are performed in the dimuon decay channel for 9 < p(T)(mu mu) < 40 GeV in dimuon transverse momentum, and -2 < y(mu mu) < 2 in rapidity. Strong suppression is found in Pb+Pb collisions for both prompt and non-prompt J/psi, increasing with event centrality. The suppression of prompt psi(2S) is observed to be stronger than that of J/psi, while the suppression of non-prompt psi(2S) is equal to that of the non-prompt J/psi within uncertainties, consistent with the expectation that both arise from b-quarks propagating through the medium. Despite prompt and non-prompt J/psi arising from different mechanisms, the dependence of their nuclear modification factors on centrality is found to be quite similar.

  • Norström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Noren, Gabriel
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Cologne, Inst Geol & Mineral, D-50923 Cologne, Germany.
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Massuanganhe, Elidio A.
    Univ Eduardo Mondlane, Dept Geol, CP 257, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Leaf wax delta D inferring variable medieval hydroclimate and early initiation of Little Ice Age (LIA) dryness in southern Mozambique2018In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 170, p. 221-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment sequence from a coastal, hydrologically isolated lake in southern Mozambique was analysed for leaf wax delta D, n-alkane abundance (ACL) and bulk organic geochemistry (delta C-13, TOC, %N), providing a record of past rainfall variability and savanna dynamics over the last 1500 years. The delta D-wax a rainfall reconstruction reveals a stable hydroclimate between 500-700 CE, while ACL and delta C-13 together with previous pollen data suggest savanna vegetation was characterized by a relatively dense woody cover. Highly variable hydroclimate conditions are inferred by delta D-wax between 800-1350 CE, with repeated centennial scale intervals of extreme dry and wet conditions overlapping the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 950-1250 CE). Savanna tree cover stayed relatively intact over this phase. After ca 1250 CE, a progressive change towards drier conditions was initiated, leading up to maximum aridity during the AD 1700s, a period associated with the Little Ice age (LIA; 1500-1850 CE). Tree cover was now replaced by a more grass-dominated savanna. The clear antiphase rainfall patterns between Nhaucati and equatorial East African proxy records gives support to the notion that Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) gradients act as modulator of southern African climate on a multi-decadal time scale, possibly forced by long-term El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. We suggest that strong ENSO variability and greater occurrence of La Nina events triggered the generally wet and unstable MCA in southern Africa. From around 1250 CE, a shift towards a predominance of El Nino induced drier conditions in south-east Africa during the LIA. Our study of vegetation and hydroclimate proxies in parallel suggests that savanna tree and shrub cover was relatively resilient to the abrupt shifts in hydroclimate over the MCA, but more sensitive to the long-term progressive drying over the LIA.

  • Brändas, Erkki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Theoretical Chemistry.
    Hoffmann, Mark
    Preface2018In: International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, ISSN 0020-7608, E-ISSN 1097-461X, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 1-2, article id e25517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume collects 11 selected papers from the scientific contributions presented at the Ninth Congress of the International Society for Theoretical Chemical Physics (ISTCP-IX), organized by the team led by Professor Mark Hoffmann at the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, U.S.A., from July 17 to 22, 2016. The ISTCP-IX Congress in Grand Forks followed the format established at the eight previous meetings:

     

    ISTCP-I:               Professor Ramon Carbo-Dorca, Girona (Spain), June 28 - July 3, 1993

    ISTCP-II:             Professor Sean P. McGlynn, New Orleans (LA, USA), April 9 - 13, 1996

    ISTCP-III:            Professor Miguel Castro, Mexico City (DF, Mexico), November 8 - 13, 1999

    ISTCP-IV:            Professor Jean Maruani, Marly-le-Roi (Paris, France), July 9 - 16, 2002

    ISTCP-V:             Professor Peter Politzer, New Orleans (LA, USA), July 20 - 26, 2005

    ISTCP-VI :           Professor Yan Alexander Wang, Vancouver (BC, Canada), July 19 - 24, 2008

    ISTCP-VI I:          Professor Hiromi Nakai, Waseda (Tokyo, Japan), September 2 - 8, 2011

    ISTCP-VIII:         Professor Péter Surján, Eötvös (Budapest, Hungary), August 25 – 31, 2013.

     

     

    The 2016 venue offered the possibility for the approximately 300 participants from 26 countries to join the Congress. Speakers from each of the countries were joined by students from 9 countries.  Despite being nearly 2000 km from any sea coast (1200 km, if one counts the Arctic Ocean outlet Hudson Bay),  this Congress continued to reflect the strong international characteristics of ISTCP. Countries sending 4 or more delegates include China, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, besides the U.S.A.

     

    The International Society for Theoretical Chemical Physics, ISTCP, was founded in 1990 by Professor János Ladik at the University of Erlangen, Germany. ISTCP has the objectives to promote theoretical developments at the frontier between physics and chemistry. Additionally the goal is to allow younger researchers to interact with leading contributors of the field at regularly organized International Congresses. The Society involves an Honorary Board, a Board of Directors gathering together about 60 scientists (including 5 Nobel Laureates and 2 Wolf Prize laureates) in the fields of Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, and a Board of National Representatives covering about 35 countries/regions. The current President, since July 2000, is Professor Erkki J. Brändas, from Uppsala University, Sweden.

     

    ISTCP Congress Proceedings have been published regularly in the special issues of the International Journal of Quantum Chemistry (IJQC) and partly (2002, 2008) co-published in special volumes of Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics (PTCP). Following this tradition, a small and highly targeted set of articles were solicited from researchers in several forefront fields represented at ISTCP IX.  These 11 articles are divided into 4 reviews, 3 tutorial reviews, 2 perspectives and 2 papers.

     

    ISTCP-IX was organized into 9 thematic Symposia, plus a special symposium honouring Per-Olov Löwdin.  The co-organizers of each of the symposia had significant latitude in inviting leading scientists in their areas, with attention paid to overall geographical, career stage and gender diversity.  Moreover, in an effort to stimulate conversation and cross-disciplinary inquiries, each speaker was limited to only 1 talk, and there were never more than 3 parallel sessions.  It is the careful thought and hard work of the Symposium Organizers that contributed to the success of the Congress.  The Symposia and their Organizers are:

     

     1. Accurate Thermochemistry (Angela Wilson, Branko Ruscic)

     2. Chemical Insights (Paul Ayers, Pedro Salvador)

     3. Complex Systems (Jiali Gao, Nandini Ananth)

     4. Dynamics (George Schatz, Keli Han)

     5. Electronic Structure (Piotr Piecuch, Jiri Pittner)

     6. Subsystems in Density Functional Theory (Tomasz Wesolowski, Christoph Jacob)

     7. Emerging Methods for Quantum N-body Problem (Seiichiro Ten-no, Edward Valeev)

      8. Molecular Properties (Trygve Helgaker)

      9. Per-Olov Löwdin Symposium (Erkki Brändas)

    10. Relativistic Methods (Wenjian Liu, Jochen Autschbach)

     

    In addition to symposia, there were 9 plenary talks for which all participants were gathered.  The early and enthusiastic support of the plenary speakers were critical to providing high visibility for the conference, and we are grateful to them.

    1. Kim Baldridge, Structure-Property Relationships of Curved Aromatic Materials from First Principles

    2. Ria Broer, Theoretical and Computational Studies for the Design of Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    3. Benedetta Mennucci, Ab Initio Simulation of the Optical Spectroscopy of Multichromophoric Systems

    4. William Miller, Symmetrical Quasi-Classical Model for Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Electronically Non-adiabatic Processes

    5. Debashis Mukherjee, A Survey of the Unitary Group Adapted MRCC and MRPT Theories: SU vs SS Approaches

    6. Martin Quack, The Quantum Dynamics of Chiral and Achiral Molecules including Electroweak Parity Violation: Theory and Experiment

    7. Andreas Savin, Multireference Density Functional Theory

    8. Henry F. Schaefer III

    9. Tamar Seideman, Coherent Alignment in Complex Systems

     

    This Preface does not allow a comprehensive account of all the excellent contributions to the conference or to the articles submitted to these proceedings. The 4 Reviews consider relativistic treatment of molecular properties, charge transfer in molecular crystals and in organic polymeric materials, and advances in subsystem embedding.  These are complemented by Tutorial Reviews on molecular motors, the inverse approach to exchange-correlation potentials, and the random phase approach in the context of reduced density matrices.  One full paper considers the chemistry of new super heavy elements and the other on data considerations in petascale computations of chemical and biological systems.  There are Perspectives on non-collinear electronic structure calculations and calculations of atoms and molecules in strong magnetic fields.  The articles in the proceedings can be grouped roughly into extension of theory and calculations into much larger systems than could be considered just a few years ago and extension of precision in theory and calculations.

     

    We are grateful to all organizers for their exceptional work. In particular we want to thank Professor Janos Ladik, Founder of the Society and Honorary Chair. We were sorry to learn that he could not participate in person but his kind interest and strong support in the various matters of the venue were indeed a positive factor. We are indebted to our excellent organizing committee that guided us in producing a well-balanced, global perspective on cutting-edge chemical physics: Gustavo Aucar, T. Daniel Crawford, Peter Gill, Anna Krylov, Hiromi Nakai, Katarzyna Pernal, Péter Surján and Ágnes Szabados. We are also grateful to all session chairs, speakers, poster presenters, as well as all student volunteers, contributing significantly to the great success of the meeting. For more details regarding the Congress we refer to our web site http://istcp-2016.org/.

     

    The ISTCP-IX Congress took place at the Alerus Center, near the University of North Dakota campus. The assistance of the staff at the Alerus Center and at the Greater Grand Forks Convention and Visitors Bureau were critical in facilitating an event of this complexity in this city of only 60,000 people.  But, most of all, it was the unwavering support of former UND President Robert Kelley, Vice President of Academic Affairs and Provost Tom DiLorenzo, Vice President for Research and Economic Development Grant McGimpsey, and Division of Research Staff Cathy Lerud and Carla Kellner that made this happen.

     

    We are pleased to express our sincere thanks to our sponsors.  In addition to generous support from the University of North Dakota and the Greater Grand Forks Convention and Visitors Bureau, which allowed low-cost registration and accommodations for students, we are pleased to be able to acknowledge additional support from Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics and Department of Energy. These contributions from our sponsors have enabled us to maintain the high-quality standard of the Congress.

     

    The guest editors of this Special Issue, finally, want to thank the authors, who accepted our invitation to contribute to these proceedings, and in so doing provide a perspective of some cutting edge areas of inquiry in chemical physics.  The IXth Congress of ISTCP included both these areas and many more. We hope that all researchers with a great interest in theory and methods related to fundamental scientific problems and future progress of our field will appreciate this volume.

     

    Mark Hoffmann

    Erkki Brändas

     

     

  • Perotti, Elisabetta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Extraction of Polarization Parameters in the ‾pp → Ω̄Ω Reaction2018In: FAIRNESS 2017: Fair Next Generation Scientists 2017, 2018, article id UNSP 012019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to extract the polarization of Omega hyperons produced via the strong interaction is presented. Assuming they are spin 3/2 particles, the corresponding spin density matrix can be written in terms of seven non-zero polarization parameters, all retrievable from the angular distribution of the decay products. Moreover by considering the full decay chain Omega ->Lambda K -> p pi K the magnitude of the asymmetry parameters beta Omega and gamma Omega can be obtained. This method, applied here to the specific Omega case, can be generalized to any weakly decaying hyperon and is perfectly suited for the PANDA experiment where hyperon-antihyperon pairs will be copiously produced in proton-antiproton collisions. The aim is to take a step forward towards the understanding of the mechanism that reigns strangeness production in these processes.

  • Lundberg, Pranee
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Perceptions and Practices of Breastfeeding among Somalian Immigrant Women in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By providing optimal nutrition and health benefits to baby and mother, breastfeeding is the most favorable feeding option for infants. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding among Somalian women living in Sweden after migration. Twenty-five Somalian immigrant women participated voluntarily. Data were collected from in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. The interviews took place in an adult school in Uppsala and homes in Uppsala and its surroundings. They were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used, and the Theory of Planned Behavior was the conceptual framework for the construction of categories and subcategories. Four categories emerged: (i) breastfeeding beneficial but doesn’t always work, (ii) effects of cultural and traditional beliefs, (iii) professional support by health care providers, and (vi) feeling stress after childbirth in the new country. The women perceived breastfeeding as positive, but several barriers led them to the combined use of formula and breastfeeding and the early introduction of supplementary food. Cultural, religious and traditional beliefs influenced their feeding practices. In conclusion, the women had not extensively changed their breastfeeding perceptions and practices due to the change of their environment; they mostly followed their cultural beliefs and traditions. Getting understanding of the women’s beliefs and practices is a first step for providing culturally informed health promotion. Antenatal care intervention programs for Somalis should involve the whole family and support breastfeeding by emphasizing its cultural and religious significance.

  • Wallin, Adéle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Structural intrusion, flow disturbance and spillway capacity: CFD modeling of the Torpshammar dam2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the Torpshammar dam two rectangular beams are situated upstream of the spillway gates to stabilize the sidewalls holding the embankment of the dam. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the dam with the bottom outlets open was made to investigate how the flow and discharge capacity is affected by the beams. The results can be used to avoid unexpected consequences due to turbulence caused by the beams, make the beams strong enough to hold the pressure from the flow and get an estimation of the discharge capacity with the beams. Turbulence is one of the hardest things to simulate so the results were compared with previous simulation work made without the beams and physical model tests to validate the results. Also, a sensitivity analysis was made to investigate the method used.

    The beams lowered the velocity (to 17 m/s) and the discharge capacity (to 255 m3/s) compared to the previous work. The force on the beams was directed upward and downstream. The beams increased the turbulence and the vortex shedding frequency was higher for the beam closest to the outlet. The velocity and discharge capacity differed with 6 % compared to model test results. The results can therefore only be used as an estimation, a more detailed computational model and more computational cells are needed to get a better result. The sensitivity analysis showed that the velocity and turbulence depend on the method and further studies need to be made to decide which method gives the closest similarity with reality.

  • Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Dopson, Mark
    Depth and Dissolved Organic Carbon Shape Microbial Communities in Surface Influenced but Not Ancient Saline Terrestrial Aquifers2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, no November, article id 2880Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Tranvik, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Cole, Jonathan J.
    Prairie, Yves T.
    The study of carbon in inland waters-from isolated ecosystems to players in the global carbon cycle2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limnology, and in particular the study of the aquatic carbon cycle initially focused on lakes as isolated ecosys-tems. Later on, investigations followed of lakes as recipi-ents. Current studies of inland water carbon cycling emphasizes fluxes in and out of lakes and other inland waters, in exchange with both upstream landscapes, down-stream recipients, the atmosphere, and the long term sedi-ment sink. This widening of scope has developed in a combination of fundamental science and research moti-vated by applied problems (e.g., effects of dams and climate change). Given that inland waters receive, process, emit and store carbon in globally significant quantities, we anticipate the field to continue this transition, and anthro-pogenic pressure on the environment to increasingly motivate carbon cycle research. In 2007, we (and other co-authors) published an article that introduced the idea of the " active pipe concept " for inland waters, which states that they are not passive conduits from soil to sea but instead divert large quantities of carbon to the atmosphere and to the sediment sink (Cole et al. 2007). Since the origi-nal presentation of the " active pipe, " there has been sub-stantial progress in our understanding of the inland water carbon cycle and its role in the biogeosphere. In this essay, we describe the evolution that has taken place in our field to not only study aquatic ecosystems as the complex microcosms bound by their basins that they definitely are, but also as active players in global cycles (Fig. 1); and, we describe some important anthropogenic effects on the *Correspondence: lars.tranvik@ebc.uu.se

  • Löfberg, My
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Förståelse för värmestrålning: En kvalitativ intervjustudie som undersöker om en laboration på universitetsnivå ökar förståelsen för relationen mellan fenomenen inom värmestrålning.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heat radiation is a phenomenon that students find hard to understand. With this in mind a laboratory called Understanding heat radiation was designed during the spring of 2017 with the aim to give the students who performed it a better understanding of the relationship between the four phenomena of heat radiation, absorption, emission, reflection and transmission. The laboratory was divided into two different experiments focusing on different phenomena.The purpose of this study is to investigate through qualitative semi-structured interviews whether the laboratory gives the students a better understanding of the relationship between these four phenomena in heat radiation.The selection for the study was three-year students at Uppsala University, who studied the program of Engineering Physics and who, at the time of the study, just commenced the course Technical Thermodynamics in which the laboratory was included. The result showed that the students themselves experienced an improved understanding of heat radiation. It also showed indications that the preparation for the laboratory and the understanding of IR camera used during the laboratory were important for the students to be able to understand and explain their findings correctly. The students did not reflect whether their explanations of the results of the laboratory were reasonable or not and they never compared the explanations of each experiment with each other. The selection, ie. student with approximately three years of physics studies, did not appear to have played a decisive role in how much the students understood or were able to explain their results.

  • Mantzouki, Evanthia
    et al.
    Beklioǧlu, Meryem
    Brookes, Justin D.
    de Senerpont Domis, Lisette Nicole
    Dugan, Hilary A.
    Doubek, Jonathan P.
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Nejstgaard, Jens C.
    Pollard, Amina I.
    Ptacnik, Robert
    Rose, Kevin C.
    Sadro, Steven
    Seelen, Laura
    Skaff, Nicholas K.
    Teubner, Katrin
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Ibelings, Bastiaan W.
    Snapshot Surveys for Lake Monitoring, More Than a Shot in the Dark2018In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 6, no November, article id 201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita
    et al.
    Simone, Domenico
    Wu, Xiaofen
    Soler, Lucile
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Lantz, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Dopson, Mark
    Metatranscriptomes Reveal That All Three Domains of Life Are Active but Are Dominated by Bacteria in the Fennoscandian Crystalline Granitic Continental Deep Biosphere2018In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e01792-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continental subsurface is suggested to contain a significant part of the earth's total biomass. However, due to the difficulty of sampling, the deep subsurface is still one of the least understood ecosystems. Therefore, microorganisms inhabiting this environment might profoundly influence the global nutrient and energy cycles. In this study, in situ fixed RNA transcripts from two deep continental groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (a Baltic Sea-influenced water with a residence time of <20 years, defined as "modern marine," and an "old saline" groundwater with a residence time of thousands of years) were subjected to metatranscriptome sequencing. Although small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and mRNA transcripts aligned to all three domains of life, supporting activity within these community subsets, the data also suggested that the groundwaters were dominated by bacteria. Many of the SSU rRNA transcripts grouped within newly described candidate phyla or could not be mapped to known branches on the tree of life, suggesting that a large portion of the active biota in the deep biosphere remains unexplored. Despite the extremely oligotrophic conditions, mRNA transcripts revealed a diverse range of metabolic strategies that were carried out by multiple taxa in the modern marine water that is fed by organic carbon from the surface. In contrast, the carbon dioxide- and hydrogen-fed old saline water with a residence time of thousands of years predominantly showed the potential to carry out translation. This suggested these cells were active, but waiting until an energy source episodically becomes available.IMPORTANCE A newly designed sampling apparatus was used to fix RNA under in situ conditions in the deep continental biosphere and benchmarks a strategy for deep biosphere metatranscriptomic sequencing. This apparatus enabled the identification of active community members and the processes they carry out in this extremely oligotrophic environment. This work presents for the first time evidence of eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial activity in two deep subsurface crystalline rock groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory with different depths and geochemical characteristics. The findings highlight differences between organic carbon-fed shallow communities and carbon dioxide- and hydrogen-fed old saline waters. In addition, the data reveal a large portion of uncharacterized microorganisms, as well as the important role of candidate phyla in the deep biosphere, but also the disparity in microbial diversity when using standard microbial 16S rRNA gene amplification versus the large unknown portion of the community identified with unbiased metatranscriptomes.

  • McCallister, S. L.
    et al.
    Ishikawa, N. F.
    Kothawala, Dolly
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Biogeochemical tools for characterizing organic carbon in inland aquatic ecosystems2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, p. 444-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of inland waters into regional and global carbon (C) budgets requires a comprehensive understand- ing of factors regulating organic carbon (OC) delivery and in situ processing. This study reviews advances in optical, molecular, and isotopic approaches to resolve the sources, ages, and transformations of OC in aquatic systems. OC characterization using excitation emission matrix spectra, Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance provides detailed molecular level insight. Radiocarbon isotopic approaches and compound-specific techniques resolve the input, metabolic fate, and turnover time of OC in ecosystems ranging in size from streams to the open ocean. Accumulating evidence suggests that aquatic OC is composed of diverse biogeochemical components. We conclude with enduring and emerging questions that underscore the role of inland systems in the global C cycle and propose unique combinations of approaches to better discern their role in the delivery and transformation of OC from soils to seas.

  • Riise, Gunnhild
    et al.
    Müller, Roger André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Haaland, Ståle
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Acid rain — a strong external driver that has suppressed water colour variability between lakes2018In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 23, no February, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing water colour observed in lakes in the northern hemisphere is frequently explained by several factors, including the decrease in acid deposition, climate change and recently increased concentrations of Fe. As the anthropogenic sulphate deposition levels off, pressure from an external lake quality driver with regional coverage declines. To inves- tigate the impact of acid rain reduction on lake colour variability, we examined 25 lakes in a lake- district of southeastern Norway by analyzing atmospheric deposition, climate and water chemistry data from 1983 to 2012. We observed a marked shift in lake colour after the wet year 2000, probably triggered by a flush of water that has lifted the base line for lake colour to a higher level. Lakes had synchronous temporal trends of many water quality vari- ables, such as conductivity and several major ions. Our data suggest that this is a response to reduced acid deposition. In contrast, lake colour and colour related variables such as Fe and TOC, showed moderate to low coherence. We propose that declined pressure from a strong external driver promotes the importance of climate variability and local catchment specific processes, giving rise to increased colour variability between lakes with time. Introduction

  • Nikoleris, Nikos
    et al.
    Arm Research, Cambridge UK.
    Hagersten, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Carlson, Trevor E.
    Department of Computer Science, National University of Singapore.
    Delorean: Virtualized Directed Profiling for Cache Modeling in Sampled Simulation2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current practice for accurate and efficient simulation (e.g., SMARTS and Simpoint) makes use of sampling to significantly reduce the time needed to evaluate new research ideas. By evaluating a small but representative portion of the original application, sampling can allow for both fast and accurate performance analysis. However, as cache sizes of modern architectures grow, simulation time is dominated by warming microarchitectural state and not by detailed simulation, reducing overall simulation efficiency. While checkpoints can significantly reduce cache warming, improving efficiency, they limit the flexibility of the system under evaluation, requiring new checkpoints for software updates (such as changes to the compiler and compiler flags) and many types of hardware modifications. An ideal solution would allow for accurate cache modeling for each simulation run without the need to generate rigid checkpointing data a priori.

    Enabling this new direction for fast and flexible simulation requires a combination of (1) a methodology that allows for hardware and software flexibility and (2) the ability to quickly and accurately model arbitrarily-sized caches. Current approaches that rely on checkpointing or statistical cache modeling require rigid, up-front state to be collected which needs to be amortized over a large number of simulation runs. These earlier methodologies are insufficient for our goals for improved flexibility. In contrast, our proposed methodology, Delorean, outlines a unique solution to this problem. The Delorean simulation methodology enables both flexibility and accuracy by quickly generating a targeted cache model for the next detailed region on the fly without the need for up-front simulation or modeling. More specifically, we propose a new, more accurate statistical cache modeling method that takes advantage of hardware virtualization to precisely determine the memory regions accessed and to minimize the time needed for data collection while maintaining accuracy.

    Delorean uses a multi-pass approach to understand the memory regions accessed by the next, upcoming detailed region. Our methodology collects the entire set of key memory accesses and, through fast virtualization techniques, progressively scans larger, earlier regions to learn more about these key accesses in an efficient way. Using these techniques, we demonstrate that Delorean allows for the fast evaluation of systems and their software though the generation of accurate cache models on the fly. Delorean outperforms previous proposals by an order of magnitude, with a simulation speed of 150 MIPS and a similar average CPI error (below 4%).

  • Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tidén, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Påverkas vardagslivet av kontinuerlig glukosmätare: Att vara vårdnadshavare till ett barn med typ 1 diabetes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Henriksson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    King David's Altar in Jerusalem Dated by the Bright Appearance of Comet Encke in 964 BC2018In: Annals of Archaeology, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the time corresponding to our end of May and beginning of June in 964 BC a bright comet with a very long tail dominated the night sky of the northern hemisphere. It was Comet Encke that was very bright during the Bronze Age, but today it is scarcely visible to the naked eye. It first appeared as a small comet close to the zenith, but for every night it became greater and brighter and moved slowly to the north with its tail pointing southwards. In the first week of June the tail was stretched out across the whole sky and at midnight it was visible close to the meridian. In this paper the author wishes to test the hypothesis that this appearance of Comet Encke corresponds to the motion in the sky above Jerusalem of “the sword of the Angel of the Lord”, mentioned in 1 Chronicles, in the Old Testament. Encke was first circumpolar and finally set at the northern horizon on 8 June in 964 BC at 22. This happened according to the historical chronology between 965 and 960 BC. The calculations of the orbit of Comet Encke have been performed by a computer program developed by the author. It has been calibrated from depictions on Swedish rock-carvings, Chinese texts and Sumerian cylinder seals and gives useful results at least back to 2654 BC.

  • Johnsson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Icke farmakologiska behandlingsmetoder vid depression under graviditet: En systematisk litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT 

    Background 

    Depression is common among young women of childbearing age, which means that childbirth occurs during a part of life when many women are mentally vulnerable. About 10 to 20 percent of all pregnant women suffer from depression of varying degree during the antenatal period. Depression increases the risk of growth retardation in the fetus, premature birth and postpartum depression and complicates the bonding between mother and child. The current perception is that women who are taking antidepressants before pregnancy should continue to medicate and that insertation should be made when needed. However, many women do not want to use antidepressant drugs during pregnancy out of fear of adverse affects on the fetus, and for these women more options are needed. Midwifery includes supporting and nursing women during pregnancy, why knowledge about treatment options is important to the occupational group.

    Purpose 

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the non-pharmacological treatments available in pregnancy depression and their advantages and disadvantages.

    Method 

    A systematic review has been made where 28 articles were included in a total of 659 reviewed titles, 110 reviewed abstracts and 44 articles reviewed in full text. The included articles were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and quality assayed according to Willman, Stoltz and Bahtsevani, (2016).

    Results 

    The analysis of the results showed that many forms of non-pharmacological treatments may have mitigating or curing effects in the event of depression during pregnancy. It appears that treatment with yoga, treatment with mind-body therapy, treatment given to couples, treatment given digitally, treatment given in a group and treatment with psychotherapy or counseling  has a positive effect, albeit to a different extent. The result provides support for complementing the basic program of customized maternity care, which is desirable and helps women with antenatal depression and that the positive effect often persists after childbirth.

    Conclusion 

    This degree project showed that many non-pharmacological treatment methods can help women with antenatal depression. Access to treatment methods was usually high and few negative effects were observed. Women can from this be informed that research has shown that in addition to antidepressant medication there are non-pharmacological treatment methods that have a good effect on depression during pregnancy. Further research can show whether treatment options could be offered within the framework of maternal health care programs, and whether it is possible to reduce pregnancy complications caused by depression through these alternative therapies.

    KEYWORDS

    Antenatal depression, depression, maternity, perinatal depression, pregnancy, therapy, treatment

  • Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Patriarca, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Per J. R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Extreme isomeric complexity of dissolved organic matter found across aquatic environments2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural aquatic environment contains an enormous pool of dissolved reduced carbon, present as ultra- complex mixtures that are constituted by an unknown number of compounds at vanishingly small concentrations. We attempted to separate individual structural isomers from several samples using online reversedphase chromatography with selected ion monitoring/tandem mass spectrometry, but found that isomeric complexity still presented a boundary to investigation even after chromatographic simplification of the samples. However, it was possible to determine that the structural complexity differed among samples. Our results also suggest that extreme structural complexity was a ubiquitous feature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in all aquatic systems, meaning that this diversity may play similar roles for recalcitrance and degradation of DOM in all tested environments.

  • Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. bDepartment of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institut de Ciències del Mar, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Peura, Sari
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Buck, Moritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Osman, Omneya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mateos-Rivera, Alejandro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Herrero Ortega, Sonia
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Schaefer, Jeffra K.
    Bouchet, Sylvain
    Tolu, Julie
    Björn, Erik
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Methanogens and Iron-Reducing Bacteria: the Overlooked Members of Mercury-Methylating Microbial Communities in Boreal Lakes2018In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 84, no 23, p. 1-16, article id e01774-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury is a potent human neurotoxin which biomagnifies in aquatic food webs. Although anaerobic microorganisms containing the hgcA gene potentially mediate the formation of methylmercury in natural environments, the di- versity of these mercury-methylating microbial communities remains largely unex- plored. Previous studies have implicated sulfate-reducing bacteria as the main mer- cury methylators in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, we characterized the diversity of mercury-methylating microbial communities of boreal lake sediments us- ing high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and hgcA genes. Our results show that in the lake sediments, Methanomicrobiales and Geobacteraceae also represent abun- dant members of the mercury-methylating communities. In fact, incubation experi- ments with a mercury isotopic tracer and molybdate revealed that only between 38% and 45% of mercury methylation was attributed to sulfate reduction. These re- sults suggest that methanogens and iron-reducing bacteria may contribute to more than half of the mercury methylation in boreal lakes.

  • Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    et al.
    Kothawala, Dolly
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Attermeyer, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Tessier, Emmanuel
    Bodmer, Pascal
    Amouroux, David
    Cleaning and sampling protocol for analysis of mercury and dissolved organic matter in freshwater systems2018In: MethodsX, ISSN 1258-780X, E-ISSN 2215-0161, Vol. 5, p. 1017-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg), and in particular its methylated form (methylmercury, MeHg), is a hazardous substance with the potential to produce significant adverse neurological and other health effects. Enhanced anthropogenic emissions and long-range transport of atmospheric Hg have increased Hg concentrations above background levels in aquatic systems. In this context, the Minamata Convention, a global legally binding agreement that seeks to prevent human exposure to Hg, was signed and enforced by 128 countries, and today more than 90 Parties have ratified it. All these Parties have committed to develop Hg monitoring programs to report the effectiveness of the convention. For this purpose, we provide a standardized cleaning and water sampling protocol for the determination of total-Hg and MeHg in freshwaters at ambient levels. As Hg and organic matter are tightly bound, the protocol also describes sample collection for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition by fluorescence spectroscopy. This protocol is highly useful to non-experts without a prior background in Hg sampling and analysis, and can serve as a useful basis for national monitoring programs. Furthermore, this protocol should help increase quantitative inventories of DOC, inorganic-Hg (IHg) and MeHg concentrations and DOM composition in freshwater, which are severely lacking at a global scale. • Provides a standardized method to collect water samples for IHg, MeHg, DOC and DOM composition from freshwater ecosystems.