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  • Zhu, Huimin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pan, Mingao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Malin B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    High Photon-to-Current Conversion in Solar Cells Based on Light-Absorbing Silver Bismuth Iodide2017In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, no 12, 2592-2596 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, a lead-free silver bismuth iodide (AgI/BiI3) with a crystal structure with space group R (3) over barm is investigated for use in solar cells. Devices based on the silver bismuth iodide deposited from solution on top of TiO2 and the conducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as a hole-transport layer are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is very promising with a power conversion efficiency over 2%, which is higher than the performance of previously reported bismuth-halide materials for solar cells. Photocurrent generation is observed between 350 and 700 nm, and the maximum external quantum efficiency is around 45%. The results are compared to solar cells based on the previously reported material AgBi2I7, and we observe a clearly higher performance for the devices with the new silver and bismuth iodides composition and different crystal structure. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of the most efficient silver bismuth iodide material shows a hexagonal crystal structure with space group R (3) over barm, and from the light absorption spectrum we obtain an indirect band gap energy of 1.62 eV and a direct band gap energy of 1.85 eV. This report shows the possibility for finding new structures of metal-halides efficient in solar cells and points out new directions for further exploration of lead-free metal-halide solar cells.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-19 09:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Bhoi, Sujata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala University.
    Prognostic markers and DNA methylation profiling in lymphoid malignancies2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, great progress has been achieved towards identifying novel biomarkers in lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), at the genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic level for accurate risk-stratification and prediction of treatment response. In paper I, we validated the prognostic relevance of a recently proposed RNA-based marker in CLL, UGT2B17, and analyzed its expression levels in 253 early-stage patients. Besides confirming its prognostic impact in multivariate analysis, we could identify 30% of IGHV-mutated CLL (M-CLL) cases with high expression and poor outcome, which otherwise lacked any other poor-prognostic marker. In paper II, we investigated the prognostic impact of a previously reported 5 CpG signature that divides CLL patients into three clinico-biological subgroups, namely naive B-cell-like CLL (n-CLL), memory B-cell-like CLL (m-CLL) and intermediate CLL (i-CLL), in 135 CLL patients using pyrosequencing. We validated the signature as an independent marker in multivariate analysis and further reported that subset #2 cases were predominantly classified as i-CLL, although displaying a similar outcome as n-CLL. In paper III, we investigated the methylation status and expression level of miR26A1 in both CLL (n=70) and MCL (n=65) cohorts. High miR26A1 methylation was associated with IGHV-unmutated (U-CLL) and shorter overall survival (OS) in CLL, while it was uniformly hypermethylated in MCL. Furthermore, overexpression of miR26A1 resulted in significant downregulation of EZH2 that in turn led to increased apoptosis. In paper IV, we performed DNA methylation profiling in 176 CLL cases assigned to one of 8 major stereotyped subsets (#1-8) in relation to non-subset CLL (n=325) and different normal B-cell subpopulations. Principal component analysis of subset vs. non-subset CLL revealed that U-CLL and M-CLL subsets generally clustered with n-CLL and m-CLL, respectively, indicating common cellular origins. In contrast, subset #2 emerged as the first defined member of the i-CLL subgroup, which in turn alludes to a distinct cellular origin for subset #2 and i-CLL patients. Altogether, this thesis confirms the prognostic significance of RNA and epigenetic-based markers in CLL, provides insight into the mechanism of miRNA deregulation in lymphoid malignancies and further unravels the DNA methylation landscape in stereotyped subsets of CLL.

     

    List of papers
    1. UGT2B17 expression: a novel prognostic marker within IGHV-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>UGT2B17 expression: a novel prognostic marker within IGHV-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
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    2016 (English)In: Haematologica, ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 101, no 2, E63-E65 p.Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
    Abstract
    Keyword
    CLL; UGT2B17; prognostic markers
    National Category
    Hematology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271300 (URN)10.3324/haematol.2015.136440 (DOI)000379156300007 ()26589911 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2017-08-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Prognostic impact of epigenetic classification in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: The case of subset #2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prognostic impact of epigenetic classification in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: The case of subset #2
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    2016 (English)In: Epigenetics, ISSN 1559-2294, E-ISSN 1559-2308, Vol. 11, no 6, 449-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the methylation status of 5 single CpG sites, a novel epigenetic classification of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was recently proposed, classifying CLL patients into 3 clinico-biological subgroups with different outcome, termed memory like CLL (m-CLL), naive like CLL (n-CLL), and a third intermediate CLL subgroup (i-CLL). While m-CLL and n-CLL patients at large corresponded to patients carrying mutated and unmutated IGHV genes, respectively, limited information exists regarding the less defined i-CLL group. Using pyrosequencing, we investigated the prognostic impact of the proposed 5 CpG signature in a well-characterized CLL cohort (135 cases), including IGHV-mutated and unmutated patients as well as clinically aggressive stereotyped subset #2 patients. Overall, we confirmed the signature's association with established prognostic markers. Moreover, in the presence of the IGHV mutational status, the epigenetic signature remained independently associated with both time-to-first-treatment and overall survival in multivariate analyses. As a prime finding, we observed that subset #2 patients were predominantly classified as i-CLL, probably reflecting their borderline IGHV mutational status (97-99% germline identity), though having a similarly poor prognosis as n-CLL patients. In summary, we validated the epigenetic classifier as an independent factor in CLL prognostication and provide further evidence that subset #2 is a member of the i-CLL group, hence supporting the existence of a third, intermediate epigenetic subgroup.

    Keyword
    CLL, epigenetic classification, methylation, prognosis
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303408 (URN)10.1080/15592294.2016.1178432 (DOI)000380902700006 ()27128508 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-19 Last updated: 2017-08-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Epigenetic silencing of miR-26A1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma: Impact on EZH2 expression
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epigenetic silencing of miR-26A1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma: Impact on EZH2 expression
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    2016 (English)In: Epigenetics, ISSN 1559-2294, E-ISSN 1559-2308, Vol. 11, no 5, 335-343 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Downregulation of miR26A1 has been reported in various B-cell malignancies; however, the mechanism behind its deregulation remains largely unknown. We investigated miR26A1 methylation and expression levels in a well-characterized series of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). From 450K methylation arrays, we first observed miR26A1 (cg26054057) as uniformly hypermethylated in MCL (n = 24) (all >75%), while CLL (n = 18) showed differential methylation between prognostic subgroups. Extended analysis using pyrosequencing confirmed our findings and real-time quantitative PCR verified low miR26A1 expression in both CLL (n = 70) and MCL (n = 38) compared to normal B-cells. Notably, the level of miR26A1 methylation predicted outcome in CLL, with higher levels seen in poor-prognostic, IGHV-unmutated CLL. Since EZH2 was recently reported as a target for miR26A1, we analyzed the expression levels of both miR26A1 and EZH2 in primary CLL samples and observed an inverse correlation. By overexpression of miR26A1 in CLL and MCL cell lines, reduced EZH2 protein levels were observed using both Western blot and flow cytometry. In contrast, methyl-inhibitor treatment led to upregulated miR26A1 expression with a parallel decrease of EZH2 expression. Finally, increased levels of apoptosis were observed in miR26A1-overexpressing cell lines, further underscoring the functional relevance of miR26A1. In summary, we propose that epigenetic silencing of miR26A1 is required for the maintenance of increased levels of EZH2, which in turn translate into a worse outcome, as shown in CLL, highlighting miR26A1 as a tumor suppressor miRNA.

    Keyword
    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, DNA methylation, mantle cell lymphoma, microRNA, tumor suppressor
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298924 (URN)10.1080/15592294.2016.1164375 (DOI)000377274700002 ()27052808 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Cancer Society
    Available from: 2016-07-12 Created: 2016-07-12 Last updated: 2017-08-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients carrying stereotyped B-cell receptors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients carrying stereotyped B-cell receptors
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Hematology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328613 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2017-09-06
  • Raatikainen, Rita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sverigefinska skolor och finska modersmålsklasser: En studie av språk och kultur på skolornas webbsidor2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här undersökningen var att undersöka hur sverigefinska grundskolor och finska modersmålsklasser framställer språk och kultur på sina webbsidor. Det fanns tre forskningsfrågor som vägledde arbetets gång och analys av resultat. De forskningsfrågorna var Hur presenterar sverigefinska skolor och finska modersmålsklasser sig själva på sina webbsidor?, Hur definieras begreppen språk och kultur på skolornas webbsidor? och Hur kan man förvalta och uppmärksamma språk och kultur enligt skolornas webbsidor?.

     

    Den här undersökningen genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod i form av analys där data samlades in från fem sverigefinska skolors webbsidor och tre finska modersmålsklassers webbsidor. Teoretiska utgångspunkten för undersökningen var läroplansteori med fokus på språk och kultur. Undersökningen fokuserade mest på finska och svenska språket samt finländska och svenska kulturen.

     

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att de sverigefinska skolorna presenterar sig själva på sina webbsidor på ett positivt sätt medan de finska modersmålsklasserna presenteras väldigt kortfattat. De sverigefinska skolornas webbsidor har rent utseendemässigt en viss koppling till Finland och Sverige vad gäller bilder och färger. Resultatet visar att sverigefinska skolor och finska modersmålsklasser inte direkt definierar begreppen kultur och språk på sina webbsidor, men de begreppen tas upp i flera sammanhang. I stället för kultur och språk fanns det definitioner av begreppen tvåspråkighet och sverigefinsk kultur. Enligt de sverigefinska skolornas webbsidor förvaltas och uppmärksammas den sverigefinska kulturen och det finska och svenska språket genom tvåspråkig undervisning, internationellt arbetssätt, sociala medier och med stöd av föräldrarna. I de finska modersmålsklasserna anses kulturerna och språken uppmärksammas mest genom undervisning. Både de sverigefinska skolorna och de finska modersmålsklasserna strävar efter att eleverna blir tvåspråkiga medborgare i ett mångkulturellt samhälle, får lära sig både den finländska och den svenska kulturen, föra vidare sitt kulturarv samt få möjligheten att skapa en dubbel finsk-svensk identitet.

     

    Nyckelord: finsk modersmålsklass, kultur, språk, sverigefinsk skola, tvåspråkighet, webbsida

  • Youhanan, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    The Digitalization of Omvärlden: a qualitative content analysis of a magazine2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The journalistic field is facing a paradigm shift with the digitalization of offline publications. This research aims to study the Swedish magazine Omvärlden, who since January 2015 has completely converted to an online magazine. The research aims to understand how this digitalization process has affected the content of Omvärlden and if it still upholds classic journalistic quality. Thus the research question is ”how has the digitalization of the magazine Omvärlden affected the journalistic content published on their digital platforms? ”. A qualitative content analysis was performed and the data was anchored in the concept of news form. The analysis was conducted in three steps; 1) comparing the offline magazine with the online magazine, 2) comparing collected data from one single day, June 5th 2017, from all of Omvärlden’s digital platforms; Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Omvarlden.se and Omvarldenberattar.se and finally 3) following an article and comparing how the story is shaped in each digital platform. The results pointed in several directions indicating that the content is indeed adapted to the various digital channels but to different extent. Classic journalistic logics intertwine with digital logics as the content is shaped and re-shaped depending on the platform of publication. The content is both fragmented and adjusted to social and digital media logics. On the other hand, it is also coherent and in accordance with classic journalistic content and news form . Due to the ever changing media environment the research shows journalistic content will have to adapt to several media logics when shaping the content. 

  • Bayer, Bastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Role of Human Rights in EU-Belarus Relations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proven that the burgeoning power of the EU is not negligible. However, it is still debatable whether the EU acts as a smart power in its external human rights policy. Through Joseph Nye's theory of hard, soft, and smart power, this thesis will offer a critical understanding of a wide range of factors which merits the EU's role as a smart power. The contemporary history of Belarus also illustrates that the political, economic, and cultural endeavours of the EU reveal the institution's role as a smart power. Within the theoretical framework predicated on Nye's theory on the aforementioned powers, the EU-Belarus relations will be be analysed in order to lay bare the power of the EU and to shed light on the significance of human rights in the EU policies.

  • Lundqvist, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Styrelseledamots skyldigheter gentemot aktieägarna vid M&A-transaktioner i Delaware2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Court of Chancery in Delaware is, in regard to adjudicating corporate governance issues, the most preeminent court in the United States. The Court is one of equity, and has century-long tradition of dealing with litigation arising out of disputes concerning the internal affairs of corporations. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that sixty-four percent of Fortune 500 companies are incorporated in Delaware. What might be surprising is the frequency of shareholder litigation involving directors in M&A-transactions. The aim of this thesis is to establish what duties directors owe shareholders in the context of an M&A-transaction. The thesis thus includes a brief overview of the subject matter jurisdiction of the courts in Delaware as well as a summary of how corporations are formed and how mergers are carried into effect. The main fiduciary duties directors owe shareholders as well as the standards of review with which director action is judged is then analyzed. This includes the overarching duties of care and loyalty, as well as the duty to act in good faith, the duty of oversight and the duty of disclosure. The analysis regarding the standard of reviews focuses on the business judgment rule, enhanced scrutiny under Unocal, Revlon and Blasius, and finally entire fairness. Furthermore, the effects of the recent Trulia and Corwin verdicts are discussed. 

  • Classon, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    The J in JRPG: Finding collectivism or individualism in games2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper covers the JRPG subgenre as it compares to the greater RPG genre. These will be compared through how games can, through their mechanics, be traced back to which types of society the games originate from. These societal types are collectivism and individualism, as defined by Richard Brislin (2000). The games are divided into Japanese games and Western games, and are examined for evidence of societal ties in their gameplay mechanics that tie them to their country of origin, or evidence that contend those ties. 

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Res Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Per-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    A case of long QT syndrome: challenges on a bumpy road2017In: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 5, no 6, 954-960 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Clinical Message Beta-agonist treatment during pregnancy may unmask the diagnosis of long QT syndrome. The QT prolongation can result in functional AV block. A history of seizure and/or sudden death in a family member should raise suspicion of ventricular tachycardia. More than one mutation may coexist. Refusal of betablocker therapy complicates risk stratification.

  • Yuksel, Onur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    A Sound-Based Intervention for The Artistic Encounter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Art experience, as an important contributor to intellectual experiences, has been studied by many researchers and philosophers to unearth and enhance certain qualities of it [9,16,21,22]. One of the ways of interpreting profound forms of art experience has been relating it with “flow,” a term that indicates a holistic sensation with the act of total involvement, concentration, intrinsic enjoyment and action-awareness [7]. Previous studies argue that looking at art experience as a form of flow, reveals its structural characteristics and dynamics more clearly, and thereby discuss art experience as a flow-conductive activity [8]. Along with that, the flow phenomenon has been studied in the context of musical activities and argued to have strong links with the musical domain [3,5]. Little is known at the moment about how musical sound can facilitate flow in the context of an art experience. This study presents a research through sound design process, with the purpose of facilitating an enhanced art experience i.e., facilitating flow in the artistic encounter. The study presents two primary contributions: (1) a presentation of the design process, consisting of an explorative prestudy at Moderna Museet in Stockholm, a followup sound experiment in an artistic encounter and (2) findings from the evaluation at Uppsala Konstmuseum, focused on identifying the impact that the designed sound artefact has had on individuals’ experiences. The author argues that the sound artefact may create an immersive environment, help initiate the mindset for introspection through the interactive characteristics and elevate conditions for flow to an observable extent. Lastly, critical reflections on the design process are also included in the final chapter to benefit research through sound design community.

  • Anlind, Alice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Improvments and evaluation of data processing in LC-MS metabolomics: for application in in vitro systems pharmacology2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance of established medicines is rapidly increasing while the rate of

    discovery of new drugs and treatments have not increases during the last decades

    (Spiro et al. 2008). Systems pharmacology can be used to find new combinations or

    concentrations of established drugs to find new treatments faster (Borisy et al. 2003).

    A recent study aimed to use high resolution Liquid chromatography–mass

    spectrometry (LC-MS) for in vitro systems pharmacology, but encountered problems

    with unwanted variability and batch effects(Herman et al. 2017). This thesis builds on

    this work by improving the pipeline and comparing alternative methods and evaluating

    used methods. The evaluation of methods indicated that the data quality was often

    not improved substantially by complex methods and pipelines. Instead simpler

    methods such as binning for feature extraction performed best. In-fact many of the

    preprocessing method commonly used proved to have negative or neglect-able effects

    on resulting data quality. Finally the recently introduced Optimal Orthonormal System

    for Discriminant Analysis (OOS-DA) for batch removal was found to be a good

    alternative to the more complex Combat method.

  • Koetz Wildt, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Placing humor in its right place: the need of a distinctive parody exception within EU Trademark Law2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hähle, Philip
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics, Byggteknik.
    Bengs Davies, Sebastian
    Etappsamordning: En studie för att effektivisera kommunikationen och samordningen vid stadsutvecklingsprojekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are currently many ongoing city development projects that aim to improve the housing and work office situation. Due to the scope of these projects, they are generally divided into smaller stages. Within these stages there are many different entrepreneurs working on their own projects, but still share common ground for construction-related deliveries. However, there is currently a lack of incentive for the involved entrepreneurs to improve communication and coordination between themselves. The result of this leads to an increased difficulty to handle the logistics planning. As of late, some projects have an assigned work role, a stage coordinator, whose purpose is to communicate and coordinate with the involved entrepreneurs. However, the concept of this role hasn’t been sufficiently established within the construction sector yet. The concept is relatively new and because of this there hasn’t surfaced a proper working model yet.

    The purpose of this study is to examine and acquire knowledge about the underlying problems that reside between the entrepreneurs within the subject construction stage-coordination. The methodology of gathering information for the study was mainly carried out through interviews with professionals of the construction sector directly affiliated with the subject. Furthermore, the remaining information was gathered through literature about Lean, logistics and visual planning. Lastly, the remaining information were self-conducted study visits of affiliated stages.

    The results showed that there currently is very limited communication and coordination between the entrepreneurs. The respondents from the interviews claimed that there is a reluctance towards cooperating between the parties. The respondents explained that the reasoning behind this was that they wanted to conduct their own operations without having to involve other entrepreneurs. This usually leads to additional maintenance costs which they do not wish to be held accountable for, which they instead want the common client to be responsible over. However, they were positive towards utilisation of a visual planning software that could help them organize planning in-between themselves to help reduce unnecessary workload.

    When the conclusions for the above-mentioned information were made, the authors presented their own suggestions of how the visual planning software could be designed to alleviate communication and coordination in-between the entrepreneurs.

  • Wikner, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Den dömdes insyn i och tillgång till tidigare bevisning i samband med resningsansökan: -  En undersökning av gällande rätt2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Edueng, Khadijah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Kulliyyah Pharm, Jalan Istana, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia..
    Mahlin, Denny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Larsson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergström, Christel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Mechanism-based selection of stabilization strategy for amorphous formulations: Insights into crystallization pathways2017In: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 256, 193-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a step-by-step experimental protocol using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic vapour sorption (DVS), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and a small-scale dissolution apparatus (mu DISS Profiler) to investigate the mechanism (solid-to-solid or solution-mediated) by which crystallization of amorphous drugs occurs upon dissolution. This protocol then guided how to stabilize the amorphous formulation. Indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide and glipizide were selected as model drugs and HPMC (Pharmacoat 606) and PVP (K30) as stabilizing polymers. Spray-dried amorphous indapamide, metolazone and glibenclamide crystallized via solution-mediated nucleation while glipizide suffered from solid-to-solid crystallization. The addition of 0.001%-0.01% (w/v) HPMC into the dissolution medium successfully prevented the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of indapamide and metolazone whereas it only reduced the crystallization rate for glibenclamide. Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of glipizide and PVP K30, at a ratio of 50:50% (w/w) reduced but did not completely eliminate the solid-to-solid crystallization of glipizide even though the overall dissolution rate was enhanced both in the absence and presence of HPMC. Raman spectroscopy indicated the formation of a glipizide polymorph in the dissolution medium with higher solubility than the stable polymorph. As a complementary technique, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of indapamide and glibenclamide with HPMC was performed. It was revealed that hydrogen bonding patterns of the two drugs with HPMC differed significantly, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may play a role in the greater stabilizing effect on supersaturation of indapamide, compared to glibenclamide.

  • Grönhaug, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Förbättring av tillverkningsprocessen för hydraulcylindrar hos Edvins Larssons Mekaniska AB: En automationsförstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a part of Automationsutmaningen which is a programsupported by Tillväxtverket, the program focus on helping small tomedium large manufacturing businesses in need of automatization andflexible solutions to their processing line. Via Robotdalen inVästerås a pilot study in robot automatization was conducted atEdvin Larssons Mekaniska AB (ELMAB), a manufacturer of hydrauliccylinders and industrial grapples. ELMAB want to reduce the manualhandling of materials and reduce their need for personnel, they alsowant to develop and meet future requirements. The purpose of this project is to find what process in the manufacturing chain that is most suitable to a solution in automatization and thereafter come up with suggestions and develop concepts that fulfill set requirements. The pilot study will act asbasis to an investment and show if a solution is profitable. Thepilot study focus on the manufacturing of hydraulic cylinders andthe processes lathe, grinding, washing and coating. The main parts of the report are status analysis and improvement suggestions. The status analysis was conducted through visits and thorough studies of the manufacturing process. Literature studies in production management and industrial robotics have been very important to increasing knowledge and understanding on what to look for in the status analysis and how to draw conclusions for theimprovement suggestions. The status analysis concluded that washing, coating and lathing all could use improvements but that only coating and lathing would benefit from a solution in automatization. Further analysisconcluded that lathing was most beneficial to a solution.Based on a requirements analysis, three concepts on robot cells weredeveloped. All concepts focused on keeping the robot cell flexible.The solution is focused on the difficulty on letting an operatorwork inside the robot cell at the same time as the robot handles adifferent lathe within the cell or if there is a another solutionthat solves the problem. The solution has to work within a safetyaspect. The solution is a portable robot with a built in safetysolution. The solution leads to saved personnel costs and increasesefficiency to the lathes within the cell. The investment has apayback time in less than three years.

  • Cezayirlioglu, Andac Baran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Rethinking Populism: ‘the People’ as a Popular Identity Subject in Bernie Sanders’ Discursive Articulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the articulation of a popular political identity by the US Senator Bernie Sanders and the political coalition he communicates. The analysis part is conducted on two levels: the construction of the populist signifier ‘the people’ and the construction of the antagonist in Sanders’ political communication.

    The theoretical part is mostly driven by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s perspective in radical democracy, identity construction, collectiveness and the chain of equivalence. By deploying theoretically unprejudiced approach, the thesis shows how a popular identity, namely ‘the People’, emerges, how it is communicated in order to put forward an alternative reading of populism which is hotly-debated subject among scholars and political scientists. Furthermore, the thesis elaborates how the theoretical discussion proposes a way of understanding the collective subject of ‘the People’ which appears as an identifiable and contra- conjectural category.

    The analysis ascertains that ‘the people’, as a populist subject, emerges as collective citizens demanding equal rights and taking the larger issues of inequality at stake based on inclusive values and positions, rather than as undemocratic, authoritarian, ethnically and culturally homogenizer subjects. Consequently, any subject causing ‘injustice’ becomes the antagonized other who obliges ‘the People’ to experience misery, oppression, and discrimination.

    The research tackles how Senator Sanders’ political communication brings disperse identities along with the chain of equivalence, how his movement articulates the political front of ‘the People’, and how it signifies the outsider through dichotomizing the political space. The study concludes that Sanders popular articulation provides a critical perspective for us to read populist zeitgeist of the twenty-first century. 

  • Abdulreda, Alico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Giba, Gabriela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Generation Y: En studie om vad som motiverar yngre medarbetare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generation Y or Millennials are people born 1980-1999. They are raised with a more advanced technology like no other generation before them. The technology has affected the individuals from generation Y in a way which has led them to become impatience. Studies have shown that people in generation Y are very emotional compared to other generations before them. Individuals from generation Y are already entering the labour market. Studies have shown that if an organisation wants to have a bright future the employees are a very important access. A leader who knows how to motivate and lead his co-workers has a great asset which may have a positive impact on the organisation. The purpose of this study is to understand what motivates people who are included in generation Y and what kind of leadership suits them best. Most of the theoretical framework came from scientific articles with theories and models of motivation and leadership for generation Y. Semi-structured interviews were chosen for the research method to get right information. The result of the study showed that generation Y is mostly motivated by inner motivation and prefer a leader who can adapt to the many work situations that can occur in the organisations.

  • Senek, Aleksandar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Multiscale Stochastic Neuron Modeling: with applications in deep brain stimulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years deep brain stimulation (DBS) has seen success in curing adverseeffects of several diseases, among those Parkinson. Current method for treatmentuses implanted electrodes of the brain which stimulate neurons via potential fields.The precise mechanism with which DBS works is still being researched. To this end amodel allowing for seamless coupling of DBS-signals and neuron behavior will aid intesting and further development of the existing DBS-signals.

    We simulate the ionic channels in the neuronal membrane as well as the synapticchannels in the dendrites. The scheme has been implemented using URDME, aMATLAB research code, where a C-code solver is available. A neuron tree is loadedthrough the TREES toolbox from which a connectivity matrix can be formulated. Foreach time step the propagation of the electric potential in the neuronal membrane iscalculated in MATLAB using a Crank-Nicholson scheme. The membrane current isthen calculated and (through Livelink for COMSOL) it is sent to a time dependentPDE-solver which calculates the extracellular potential created by a action potential.

    Convergence of the interspike interval (ISI) as the time step decreases is shown, aswell as when the space discretization of a neuronal structure is refined. A majority ofthe computational time is spent evaluating the stochastic simulation of ion-channels,and computes the solution of a reference test in ~80s, compared to the ODE modelwhich takes ~30s. Due to the highly parallel nature of the stochastic solver this timecould be decreased.

    We also show that the stochastic model of a neuron has a different threshold currentfor a potential spike compared to the deterministic model, a systematic study is doneto find the threshold gradient for the stochastic case. Further, the propagationthrough a chain of neurons is simulated where the obtained potential field is realistic.

  • Sjöstedt, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Religion och Magi: Religio et Superstitio2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Rössle, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Historia​ ​för​ ​Folkskolan ​ ​​ ​​ ​Eller Hur​ ​man​ ​gör​ ​sina​ ​undersåtar​ ​till lojala​ ​lutheraner: En​ ​undersökning​ ​om​ ​religioner​ ​i​ ​Läsebok​ ​för​ ​folkskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In​ ​the​ ​late​ ​19th​ ​century,​ ​Sweden​ ​went​ ​through​ ​many​ ​social​ ​and​ ​political​ ​changes​ ​which resulted​ ​in​ ​the​ ​establishment​ ​of​ ​an​ ​educational​ ​system​ ​for​ ​the​ ​broader​ ​masses.​ ​The educational​ ​system​ ​was​ ​designed​ ​to​ ​put​ ​Christianity​ ​at​ ​centre,​ ​or​ ​more​ ​specifically​ ​the Lutheran​ ​faith,​ ​which​ ​was​ ​the​ ​state​ ​religion​ ​of​ ​19th​ ​century​ ​Sweden.​ ​This​ ​paper​ ​focuses​ ​on the​ ​other​ ​religions​ ​that​ ​made​ ​its​ ​way​ ​into​ ​the​ ​school​ ​books​ ​during​ ​that​ ​time,​ ​that​ ​were​ ​not typically​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​religious​ ​education.​ ​Was​ ​any​ ​other​ ​religions​ ​mentioned​ ​at​ ​all,​ ​and​ ​if they​ ​were,​ ​then​ ​how​ ​and​ ​if​ ​possible​ ​why? During​ ​this​ ​study​ ​it​ ​was​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​the​ ​best​ ​place​ ​in​ ​the​ ​books​ ​to​ ​find​ ​informations​ ​about other​ ​religions​ ​was​ ​in​ ​the​ ​history​ ​sections,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​was​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​the​ ​ways​ ​they​ ​were mentioned​ ​was​ ​very​ ​different​ ​from​ ​how​ ​they​ ​mentioned​ ​Lutheran​ ​Christianity.​ ​The “heathen”​ ​religion,​ ​as​ ​it​ ​was​ ​called,​ ​was​ ​portrayed​ ​in​ ​a​ ​national​ ​romantic​ ​light,​ ​but​ ​the Catholic​ ​faith​ ​was​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​an​ ​outdated​ ​version​ ​of​ ​Christianity.​ ​The​ ​way​ ​that​ ​it​ ​was​ ​explained in​ ​the​ ​books​ ​makes​ ​it​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​the​ ​ruling​ ​class​ ​wanted​ ​the​ ​ruled​ ​class​ ​to​ ​know​ ​that Lutheranism​ ​was​ ​the​ ​true​ ​and​ ​real​ ​Christian​ ​faith.

  • Pettersson, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Sheela-na-gig and the creation of her history: a comparative analysis of two theories concerning the mysterious medieval figure2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After scholars started conducting research on the medieval Sheela-na-gig carvings, a number of theories regarding the purpose and origin of the figure have been suggested. The question has been tackled through many different approaches, but still remains unfinished as there are no written records explaining what the Sheela-na-gig figure actually is. Scholars have divided into different areas, approaching the discussion from different disciplines: art history, medieval social history, and religious history (both Christian and pre-Christian) to name a few. As the figure is usually found on Christian buildings but is distinguished by very sexual imagery, it leaves the door open for many interpretations.

    This thesis looks at two common theories on what the Sheela-na-gig is; one which is viewing her as a Romanesque warning against lust and sin, and one which argues that the figure is a folk deity used as an amulet for childbirth, symbolising both life and death. By using discourse theory and a comparative method, this thesis compares the descriptions and arguments of the different theories, and studies the intention behind them. The thesis then shows how the theories choose to focus their search for evidence in order to support their own perspective, while also excluding information which does not serve their particular agenda.

  • Runeson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Performing on a digital stage: A Twitch.tv case study on streamer behavior2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Twitch.tv is a growing platform for game related live streaming. Streamers present themselves live in front of a live audience, where innovative interactions take place. In this study, I looked at two Twitch.tv live streamers with varying audience sizes. The study was conducted to better understand the differences in behavior based on their interaction with their audiences. The research question was as follows: How do two live streamers, one big and one small, interact with their audiences through the use of different features of Twitch.tv? To do this I conducted video analyses of over 60 hours worth of streaming data as well as one interview with one of the live streaming participants. The gathered data was analyzed using Erving Goffman’s (1990) Dramaturgical theory for studying the behaviors during the streamers performances. The results show differences in both performance behavior (Dramatization and Idealization) as well as differences in their streaming interface (Stage and Set pieces). Both streamers where affected by expectations from the audience while creating fronts to maintain these expectations for the benefit of the performance. 

  • Krusing, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Tiricke, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Big datas påverkan på beslutsfattande av kundsegment: - En fallstudie av organisationer inom resebranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through an ever-increasing connectivity, the digital imprints left behind are opening new possibilities for organizations. Big data contains large amounts of consumer data and through analysis this data is transformed into information. This has enabled organizations new forms of how to implement big data to the decision-making process regarding segmentation of consumers. Through a qualitative survey and semi-structured interviews, a case study is used for the research of Destination Gotland and TUI. The purpose of this study is to investigate how big data affects the decision-making process for segmentation at two organizations in the travel industry. The theoretical framework has been designed after thorough research of relevant literature. The Analysis model used in the thesis is a product of the theoretical framework. The results of this study show that big data is affecting how organizations are identifying customer segments. Big data is used a foundation for decision-making but still relies on knowledgeable decision-makers. The type of market the organization is operating in is crucial to the nature decision that can be made regarding segmentation.

  • Harris, Melissa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Left-Right Symmetric Model: Putting lower bounds on the mass of the heavy, charged WR gauge boson2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project I have studied the left-right symmetric model (LRSM) as a candidate beyond standard model theory of particle physics. The most common version of the theory, called the minimal LRSM, has been studied and tested extensively for several decades. I have therefore modied this minimal LRSM by adapting the scalar sector and computing the mass of the charged right-handed gauge bosons WR for this particular scalar sector. I carried out a study of the theory and implemented it into FeynRules, in order to simulate LHC events using MadGraph. This allowed computation of the cross-section for the decay WR to a top and a bottom quark as a function of the mass of WR , which was compared with CMS data for the same decay, with proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV. The final result was a constraint on the mass of WR , with a lower bound of 3 TeV.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 10:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Mehta, Suman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Development of RMT techniques for urban infrastructure planning: Stockholm Bypass (Förbifart) case study2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensor radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) method has extensively been used in near-surface investigations to obtain resistivity models of the subsurface. The main objective of this thesis is to further develop the RMT survey technique for a less paid attention and challenging environment namely on shallow water bodies and in the urban environment. The other objective is to develop a new processing technique to enhance the resolution and sensitivity of the tensor RMT method. For the first time a data acquisition system called ‘boat-towed RMT’ is introduced that has the capability to measure tensor RMT data on water bodies like lakes and rivers. A RMT survey carried out on Lake Mälaren near the city of Stockholm shows the capability and efficiency of the boat-towed RMT system. The resistivity models obtained from the RMT data are consistent from one line to another and show good correlation with the existing geological and drill core data. In general, a three-layer resistivity model was obtained that has a conductive layer interpreted as lake sediments, which is sandwiched between high resistive bedrock and resistive water column. A coherent discontinuity of low resistivity zone was observed in bedrock across all the lines. It was interpreted to originate from a major fracture zone striking in the direction of water bodies. However, due to the lack of penetration, RMT method alone was insufficient to provide a conclusive interpretation of this. Synthetic analysis was performed and showed that lower frequencies using controlled-sources are required to obtain the desired penetration depth. We took the advantage of the Swedish winters and carried out controlled-source RMT measurements on frozen lake at the same location. The new controlled-source models have enough depth penetration to delineate fractured bedrock. Furthermore, in order to improve the resolution and sensitivity of tensor RMT data, a new processing technique was developed that preserves the identity of each transmitter and allows improved resistivity model of the subsurface. These new acquisition and processing techniques should be useful in many different applications for urban infrastructure planning projects especially in Scandinavia where 7% of the land is covered by fresh water bodies and is poorly explored for these purposes.

    List of papers
    1. Boat-towed radio-magnetotellurics: A new technique and case study from the city of Stockholm
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boat-towed radio-magnetotellurics: A new technique and case study from the city of Stockholm
    2015 (English)In: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 80, no 6, B193-B202 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a new data acquisition system and technique to measure the radio magnetotelluric (RMT) signals from distant radio transmitters with the objective of mapping and modeling electric resistivity structures below a river or lake. The acquisition system is towed by a boat; therefore, we call the technique boat-towed RMT. The data acquisition is fast with a production rate of approximately 1  km/hr using a nominal sampling spacing of 10–15 m. Given the ample number of radio transmitters available in most parts of the world, the method can be used for near-surface studies of various targets. We have developed boat-towed RMT measurements on Lake Mälaren near the city of Stockholm in Sweden to determine the feasibility of the method. Approximately 15 km of RMT data were collected during three days above a planned 60-m-deep bypass tunnel with the goal of providing information on the bedrock depth and possible weak zones within the bedrock. The measured resistivity and phase data were of high quality with errors on the order of a few percent. The resistivity models from 2D inversion of the data showed a good correlation with available geologic data in resolving bedrock depth and also resistivity layering within the lake. Resistivity maps derived from the dense 2D models suggested a northeast–southwest-striking low-resistivity zone at less than a 30-m depth. The zone likely represents fractured crystalline bedrock. The boat-towed RMT technique is well suited for water bodies with moderate electric resistivity such as in brackish and freshwater environments.

    National Category
    Geophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267995 (URN)10.1190/GEO2014-0527.1 (DOI)000368347800021 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Resolution and sensitivity of boat-towed RMT data to delineate fracture zones - Example of the Stockholm bypass multi-lane tunnel
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resolution and sensitivity of boat-towed RMT data to delineate fracture zones - Example of the Stockholm bypass multi-lane tunnel
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 139, 131-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The resolution and sensitivity of water-borne boat-towed multi-frequency radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) data for delineating zones of weaknesses in bedrock are examined in this study. 2D modeling of RMT data along 40 profiles in joint transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) as well as determinant mode was used for this purpose. The RMT data were acquired over two water passages from the Lake Malaren near the city of Stockholm where one of the largest underground infrastructure projects, a multi-lane tunnel, in Europe is currently being developed. Comparison with available borehole coring, refraction seismic and bathymetric data was used to scrutinize the RMT resistivity models. A low-resistivity zone observed in the middle of all the profiles is suggested to be from fracture/fault zones striking in the same direction as the water passages. Drilling observations confirm the presence of brittle structures in the bedrock, which manifest themselves as zones of low-resistivity and low-velocity in the RMT and refraction seismic data, respectively. Nevertheless, RMT is an inductive electromagnetic method hence the presence of conductive lake sediments may shield detecting the underlying fractured bedrock. The loss of resolution at depth implies that the structures within the bedrock under the lake sediments cannot reliably be delineated. To support this, a synthetic data analysis was carried out providing useful information on how to improve and plan the lake measurements for future studies. Synthetic modeling results for example suggested that frequencies as low as 3 kHz would be required to reliably resolve the bedrock and fracture zone within it in the study area. The modeling further illustrated the advantage of a fresh water layer that acts as a near-surface homogeneous medium eliminating the static shift effects. While boat-towed RMT data provided substantial information about the subsurface geology, the acquisition system should be upgraded to enable controlled-source data acquisition to increase the penetration depth and to overcome the shortcomings of using only radio-frequencies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
    Keyword
    Boat-towed radio magnetotelluric, Fracture zone, Urban geophysics, Resolution, Synthetic modeling, Controlled source
    National Category
    Geophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-322221 (URN)10.1016/j.jappgeo.2017.02.012 (DOI)000399269400013 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 252-2012-1907The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 363-26512013
    Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Preserving the identity of VLF and LF transmitters for enhanced resolution of geoelectric models of RMT data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preserving the identity of VLF and LF transmitters for enhanced resolution of geoelectric models of RMT data
    Show others...
    (English)In: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Geophysics
    Research subject
    Geophysics with specialization in Solid Earth Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328392 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-22
    4. CSRMT survey on frozen lakes: opportunities for urban applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>CSRMT survey on frozen lakes: opportunities for urban applications
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328395 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-09-01
  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 13:15 B41 BMC, Uppsala
    Lind, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Computational Studies of Protein Synthesis on the Ribosome and Ligand Binding to Riboswitches2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ribosome is a macromolecular machine that produces proteins in all kingdoms of life. The proteins, in turn, control the biochemical processes within the cell. It is thus of extreme importance that the machine that makes the proteins works with high precision. By using three dimensional structures of the ribosome and homology modelling, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations to study the codon specificity of protein synthesis in initiation and termination on an atomistic level. In addition, we have examined the binding of small molecules to riboswitches, which can change the expression of an mRNA.

    The relative affinities on the ribosome between the eukaryotic initiator tRNA to the AUG start codon and six near-cognate codons were determined. The free-energy calculations show that the initiator tRNA has a strong preference for the start codon, but requires assistance from initiation factors 1 and 1A to uphold discrimination against near-cognate codons.

    When instead a stop codon (UAA, UGA or UAG) is positioned in the ribosomal A-site, a release factor binds and terminates protein synthesis by hydrolyzing the nascent peptide chain. However, vertebrate mitochondria have been thought to have four stop codons, namely AGA and AGG in addition to the standard UAA and UAG codons. Furthermore, two release factors have been identified, mtRF1 and mtRF1a. Free-energy calculations were used to determine if any of these two factors could bind to the two non-standard stop codons, and thereby terminate protein synthesis. Our calculations showed that the mtRF’s have similar stop codon specificity as bacterial RF1 and that it is highly unlikely that the mtRF’s are responsible for terminating at the AGA and AGG stop codons.

    The eukaryotic release factor 1, eRF1, on the other hand, can read all three stop codons singlehandedly. We show that eRF1 exerts a high discrimination against near-cognate codons, while having little preference for the different cognate stop codons. We also found an energetic mechanism for avoiding misreading of the UGG codon and could identify a conserved cluster of hydrophobic amino acids which prevents excessive solvent molecules to enter the codon binding site.

    The linear interaction energy method was used to examine binding of small molecules to the purine riboswitch and the FEP method was employed to explicitly calculate the LIE b-parameters. We show that the purine riboswitches have a remarkably high degree of electrostatic preorganization for their cognate ligands which is fundamental for discriminating against different purine analogs.

    List of papers
    1. Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons
    2013 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A key feature of mitochondrial translation is the reduced number of transfer RNAs and reassignment of codons. For human mitochondria, a major unresolved problem is how the set of stop codons are decoded by the release factors mtRF1a and mtRF1. Here we present three-dimensional structural models of human mtRF1a and mtRF1 based on their homology to bacterial RF1 in the codon recognition domain, and the strong conservation between mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomal RNA in the decoding region. Sequence changes in the less homologous mtRF1 appear to be correlated with specific features of the mitochondrial rRNA. Extensive computer simulations of the complexes with the ribosomal decoding site show that both mitochondrial factors have similar specificities and that neither reads the putative vertebrate stop codons AGA and AGG. Instead, we present a structural model for a mechanism by which the ICT1 protein causes termination by sensing the presence of these codons in the A-site of stalled ribosomes.

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-217675 (URN)10.1038/ncomms3940 (DOI)000329396700004 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-05 Created: 2014-02-04 Last updated: 2017-08-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Binding Site Preorganization and Ligand Discrimination in the Purine Riboswitch
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Binding Site Preorganization and Ligand Discrimination in the Purine Riboswitch
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 119, no 3, 773-782 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The progress of RNA research has suggested a wide variety of RNA molecules as possible targets for pharmaceutical drug molecules. Structure-based computational methods for predicting binding modes and affinities are now important tools in drug discovery, but these methods have mainly been focused on protein targets. Here we employ molecular dynamics free-energy perturbation calculations and the linear interaction energy method to analyze the energetics of ligand binding to purine riboswitches. Calculations are carried out for 14 different purine complexes with the guanine and adenine riboswitches in order to examine their ligand recognition principles. The simulations yield binding affinities in good agreement with experimental data and rationalize the selectivity of the riboswitches for different ligands. In particular, it is found that these receptors have an unusually high degree of electrostatic preorganization for their cognate ligands, and this effect is further quantified by explicit free-energy calculations, which show that the standard electrostatic linear interaction energy parametrization is suboptimal in this case. The adenine riboswitch specifically uses the electrostatic preorganization to discriminate against guanine by preventing the formation of a G-U wobble base pair.

    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252042 (URN)10.1021/jp5052358 (DOI)000351329400016 ()25014157 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-04-28 Last updated: 2017-08-27Bibliographically approved
    3. Principles of start codon recognition in eukaryotic translation initiation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Principles of start codon recognition in eukaryotic translation initiation
    2016 (English)In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 44, no 17, 8425-8432 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Selection of the correct start codon during initiation of translation on the ribosome is a key event in protein synthesis. In eukaryotic initiation, several factors have to function in concert to ensure that the initiator tRNA finds the cognate AUG start codon during mRNA scanning. The two initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A are known to provide important functions for the initiation process and codon selection. Here, we have used molecular dynamics free energy calculations to evaluate the energetics of initiator tRNA binding to different near-cognate codons on the yeast 40S ribosomal subunit, in the presence and absence of these two initiation factors. The results show that eIF1 and eIF1A together cause a relatively uniform and high discrimination against near-cognate codons. This works such that eIF1 boosts the discrimination against a first position near-cognate G-U mismatch, and also against a second position A-A base pair, while eIF1A mainly acts on third codon position. The computer simulations further reveal the structural basis of the increased discriminatory effect caused by binding of eIF1 and eIF1A to the 40S ribosomal subunit.

    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312122 (URN)10.1093/nar/gkw534 (DOI)000386158800039 ()27280974 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2011.0081Swedish Research CouncilSwedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)
    Available from: 2017-01-04 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2017-08-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Origin of the omnipotence of eukaryotic release factor 1
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Origin of the omnipotence of eukaryotic release factor 1
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328582 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-27 Created: 2017-08-27 Last updated: 2017-08-27
  • Olménius, Fanny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Boström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Djur som stöd i demensvården: Hur personer med demenssjukdom påverkas av djur i omvårdnaden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year, approximately 25 000 people in Sweden are diagnosed with a form of dementia. The need for adapted care for this demographic is current and thus new forms of care and treatment need to be found and be up to date. There are currently no curing treatment for dementia, instead, focus is to decrease the suffering of the symptoms connected to a dementia diagnosis. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and Animal-assisted activity (AAA) has increased its popularity within different areas of care. Animals can have a positive effect of both physical as psychological symptoms. Thus there are reasons to believe that animals can and should be used by nurses, as a further step of developing patient-centred methods of care.

    Aim: This review looked into the different forms animals can help in the treatment of people with dementia, especially focusing on how animals affect the different but typical symptoms of dementia.

    Method: A review of 18 original articles that has been studying Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) and Animal-Assisted Activity (AAA) or any other form of animals presenting itself in the dementia care. This included several different types of animals, like dogs, cats, aquatic fish and even stuffed animals and a robot seal.

    Result: The result of this review was that animals’ participation in the treatment of people with dementia, or just occurring in these people’s every day life, helped reducing the levels of anxiety and stress, lowered their blood pressure, and if not reduced at least halted the degenerative process of the illness.

    Conclusion: According to the results to this review, animals should be considered to be a valuable asset in the treatment and care of people suffering of dementia, since they increase the quality of life of those with dementia, and in best case scenario reduces the progression of the disease.

  • Nyberg, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    EGG BUOYANCY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITIES OF BALTIC FLOUNDER (PLATICHTHYS FLESUS): DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPAWNING AREAS AND INTER-ANNUAL VARIATION IN CONDITIONS FOR REPRODUCTION2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reproductive success for pelagic spawning Baltic flounders is strongly linked to the hydrodynamics in the spawning areas. Egg survival is dependent upon the ability to achieve neutral buoyancy at a depth interval where temperature and oxygen concentrations are favourable for egg development. The main focus of this thesis was to compare egg survival probabilities of pelagic eggs from Baltic flounder in the Bornholm, Gdansk and Gotland basins, prior to and after the saline water inflow in December 2014. The results showed greatly enhanced survival probabilities in Bornholm basin 2015 (p<0.01), as egg survival increased from 47% in 2014 to 100% the following year. In Gdansk basin the situation was similar, and survival probability increased from 13% to 100% (p<0.01). In Gotland basin no difference in survival probability was identified, although the dominant cause of mortality shifted from sedimentation, i.e. due to low salinity conditions in 2014, to oxygen deficiency in 2015 (p<0,01).

  • Fransson, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Äggläggningspreferenser för honor av väddnätfjäril, Euphydryas aurinia, på området Bälsalvret, Gotland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to get a better understanding of the oviposition-behaviour of the butterflyMarsh Fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia), in the area Bälsalvret on the Island of Gotland. Thestudy may provide helpful information to aid the conservation of the species in the area andalso provide overall knowledge about the female’s preferences when it comes to choosingmicrohabitat and host plant for their eggs.The analysis of the microhabitat preference for oviposition by the Marsh Fritillary showedthat eggs were predominantly laid on large-sized host plant individuals with a warmermicroclimate; with a preference for the rosette diameter, the length and the width of the leafand the number of Succisa pratensis individuals in the vicinity. This indicates that thefemale’s priority is to place the eggs at the most optimal place for their offspring’s survivaland growth.

  • Jacobsson, Viktor
    Betydelsen av en anlagd damm för biologisk mångfald i jordbrukslandskapet: Resultat från inventering av kärlväxter, bottenfauna och fåglar i tidiga stadier av succession2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Mandahl, Nils
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Linda
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Viklund, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Arbajian, Elsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    von Steyern, Fredrik Vult
    Lund Univ, Dept Orthoped Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden..
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Mertens, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Scattered genomic amplification in dedifferentiated liposarcoma2017In: Molecular Cytogenetics, ISSN 1755-8166, E-ISSN 1755-8166, Vol. 10, 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT), well differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) are cytogenetically characterized by near-diploid karyotypes with no or few other aberrations than supernumerary ring or giant marker chromosomes, although DDLS tend to have somewhat more complex rearrangements. In contrast, pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLS) have highly aberrant and heterogeneous karyotypes. The ring and giant marker chromosomes contain discontinuous amplicons, in particular including multiple copies of the target genes CDK4, HMGA2 and MDM2 from 12q, but often also sequences from other chromosomes.

    Results: The present study presents a DDLS with an atypical hypertriploid karyotype without any ring or giant marker chromosomes. SNP array analyses revealed amplification of almost the entire 5p and discontinuous amplicons of 12q including the classical target genes, in particular CDK4. In addition, amplicons from 1q, 3q, 7p, 9p, 11q and 20q, covering from 2 to 14 Mb, were present. FISH analyses showed that sequences from 5p and 12q were scattered, separately or together, over more than 10 chromosomes of varying size. At RNA sequencing, significantly elevated expression, compared to myxoid liposarcomas, was seen for TRIO and AMACR in 5p and of CDK4, HMGA2 and MDM2 in 12q.

    Conclusions: The observed pattern of scattered amplification does not show the characteristics of chromothripsis, but is novel and differs from the well known cytogenetic manifestations of amplification, i. e., double minutes, homogeneously staining regions and ring chromosomes. Possible explanations for this unusual distribution of amplified sequences might be the mechanism of alternative lengthening of telomeres that is frequently active in DDLS and events associated with telomere crisis.

  • John, R.
    et al.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Berritta, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Hinzke, D.
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Phys, D-78457 Constance, Germany..
    Mueller, C.
    Univ Kiel, Inst Mat Sci, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Santos, T.
    Western Digital Corp, San Jose, CA 95131 USA..
    Ulrichs, H.
    Georg August Univ, Phys Inst 1, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Nieves, P.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Burgos, Int Res Ctr Crit Raw Mat Adv Ind Technol ICCRAM, Burgos 09001, Spain..
    Walowski, J.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Mondal, Ritwik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    McCord, J.
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nowak, U.
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Phys, D-78457 Constance, Germany..
    Muenzenberg, M.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Magnetisation switching of FePt nanoparticle recording medium by femtosecond laser pulses2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 4114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manipulation of magnetisation with ultrashort laser pulses is promising for information storage device applications. The dynamics of the magnetisation response depends on the energy transfer from the photons to the spins during the initial laser excitation. A material of special interest for magnetic storage are FePt nanoparticles, for which switching of the magnetisation with optical angular momentum was demonstrated recently. The mechanism remained unclear. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the all-optical switching of FePt nanoparticles. We show that the magnetisation switching is a stochastic process. We develop a complete multiscale model which allows us to optimize the number of laser shots needed to switch the magnetisation of high anisotropy FePt nanoparticles in our experiments. We conclude that only angular momentum induced optically by the inverse Faraday effect will provide switching with one single femtosecond laser pulse.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 09:30 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Ruan, Chang-Qing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Functionalization, Characterization and Applications of Oxidized Nanocellulose Derivatives2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose, a sustainable raw material derived from nature, can be used for various applications following its functionalization and oxidation. Nanocellulose, inheriting the properties of cellulose, can offer new properties due to nanoscale effects, in terms of high specific surface area and porosity. The oxidation of cellulose can provide more active sites on the cellulose chains, improving its functionalization and broadening applications. Two kinds of oxidation and their corresponding applications are described in this thesis: periodate oxidation and Oxone® oxidation.

    2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads were prepared from Cladophora nanocellulose via periodate oxidation, and were further modified with amines via reductive amination. Several diamines were selected as possible crosslinkers to produce porous DAC beads, which showed higher porosity, stability in alkaline solution and enhanced thermal stability.

    After functionalization of DAC beads with L-cysteine (DAC-LC), thiol, amine and carboxyl groups were introduced into the DAC beads, endowing the DAC-LC beads with high adsorption capacity for palladium. The synthesized DAC-LC beads were character­ized with SEM, FTIR, XPS, TGA, BET and XRD and the palladium adsorption process was investigated.

    Chitosan was employed as a crosslinker in functionalization of DAC beads (DAC-CS). The conditions for the synthesis of DAC-CS beads were screened and verifying the stability of the beads in alkaline solution. The DAC-CS beads produced were investigated using SEM, FTIR, XPS, TGA and BET, and the adsorption and desorption capacity of Congo red was studied, indicating DAC-CS beads have potential as sorbent.

    Oxone oxidation of cellulose is a novel one-pot oxidation method in which mainly the hydroxyl groups on C6 are oxidized to produce carboxylic acid groups on the cellulose chains. To increase the efficiency of Oxone oxidation, several reaction parameters were studied. Cellulose pulp and Cladophora nanocellulose were chosen as prototypes to investigate the effects of oxidation, and the physico­chemical properties of the oxidized products were characterized. Cellulose pulp, pretreated with Oxone oxidation, was disintegrated by homogenization to prepare cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The effect of pre­treat­ment on the preparation of CNF was studied, and the results indicated that Oxone oxidation was efficient in the production of CNF.

    List of papers
    1. Preparation of Porous Cellulose Beads via Introduction of Diamine Spacers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparation of Porous Cellulose Beads via Introduction of Diamine Spacers
    2016 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, no 22, 5600-5607 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current work presents a synthesis route based on the reductive amination of 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads with diamines to render micrometer-sized beads with increased specific surface area (SSA) and porosity in the mesoporous range. Specifically, the influence of the reductive amination of 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) using aliphatic and aromatic tethered mono- and diamines on bead microstructure was investigated. Aliphatic and aromatic tethered monoamines were found to have limited utility for producing porous beads whereas the introduction of diamines provided beads with a porous texture and an SSA increasing from <1 to >30 m(2)/g. Both aliphatic and aromatic diamines were found to be useful in producing porous beads having a pore size distribution range of 10 to 100 nm, as verified by N-2 gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry analyses. The true density of the functionalized DAC beads decreased to an average of about 1.36 g/cm(3) as compared to 1.48 g/cm(3) for the unfunctionalized, fully oxidized DAC beads. The total porosity of the beads was, according to mercury porosimetry, in the range of 54-64%. Reductive amination with 1,7-diaminoheptane provided beads that were stable under alkaline conditions (I M NaOH). It was concluded that the introduction of tethered diamines into DAC beads is a facile method for producing mesoporous beads.

    National Category
    Nano Technology Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299045 (URN)10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b01288 (DOI)000377631300017 ()27181427 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationGöran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of Technology
    Available from: 2016-07-13 Created: 2016-07-13 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    2. A green and simple method for preparation of an efficient palladium adsorbent based on cysteine functionalized2,3-dialdehyde cellulose
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A green and simple method for preparation of an efficient palladium adsorbent based on cysteine functionalized2,3-dialdehyde cellulose
    2016 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 4, 2627-2638 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A green and efficient adsorbent for adsorption of palladium ions was prepared from 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) originating from nanocellulose from the green algae Cladophora. The DAC was functionalized with cysteine via reductive amination in a convenient one-pot procedure to provide the adsorbent. The adsorption properties for adsorbing palladium(II) ions, including capacity, adsorption isotherm and kinetics, were studied. The successful reductive amination of cysteine with 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose was confirmed by FT-IR, elemental analysis and XPS. The adsorbent was characterized by SEM, XRD, gas adsorption and TGA. The adsorbent had a high adsorption capacity (130 mg palladium per gram adsorbent) and enabled fast adsorption of palladium(II) ions from solution (80 % of maximum capacity reached in 2 h). Adsorbent materials suitable for both filters (fibrous) and column matrixes (spherical particles) could be obtained in an efficient manner by controlling the degree of oxidation while producing the DAC material.

    Keyword
    2, 3-dialdehyde cellulose, Palladium adsorption, Cellulose beads, Nanocellulose
    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303299 (URN)10.1007/s10570-016-0976-0 (DOI)000380089300028 ()
    Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    3. On the preparation of porous 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads crosslinked with chitosan and their adsorption of Congo red
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the preparation of porous 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads crosslinked with chitosan and their adsorption of Congo red
    2017 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328386 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-23
    4. Favored Surface-limited Oxidation of Cellulose with Oxone® in Water
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Favored Surface-limited Oxidation of Cellulose with Oxone® in Water
    2017 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, 40600-40607 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for favored primary alcohol oxidation of cellulose was developed. Cellulose pulp andCladophora nanocellulose were oxidized in a one-pot procedure by Oxone® (2KHSO5$KHSO4$K2SO4)and efficient reaction conditions were identified. The effects of the reaction on the morphology,viscosity and chemical structure of the products obtained were studied. The primary alcohol groupswere oxidized to carboxyl groups and the content of carboxyl groups was determined byconductometric titration. SEM, capillary-type viscometry and XRD were applied to characterize theproducts and to investigate the influence of oxidation. For the first time, low-cost and stable Oxone®was used as a single oxidant to oxidize cellulose into carboxyl cellulose. The oxidation is an inexpensiveand convenient process to produce carboxylic groups on the surface of the cellulose fibers and to makethe cellulose fibers charged. Particularly, this method can avoid the use of halogens and potentially toxicradicals and constitute a green route to access carboxylated cellulose. Further, sodium bromide could beused as a co-oxidant to the Oxone® and increase the carboxylic acid content by 10–20%. The Oxone®oxidation is a promising method for oxidation of cellulose and might facilitate the production of CNC.

    Keyword
    cellulose, Oxone
    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328237 (URN)10.1039/c7ra06141b (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    5. Cellulose nanofibers prepared via pretreatment based on Oxone® oxidation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellulose nanofibers prepared via pretreatment based on Oxone® oxidation
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328387 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23
  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 09:00 B/B42, Uppsala
    Lindh, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Computational Modelling in Drug Discovery: Application of Structure-Based Drug Design, Conformal Prediction and Evaluation of Virtual Screening2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure-based drug design and virtual screening are areas of computational medicinal chemistry that use 3D models of target proteins. It is important to develop better methods in this field with the aim of increasing the speed and quality of early stage drug discovery.

    The first part of this thesis focuses on the application of structure-based drug design in the search for inhibitors for the protein 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), one of the enzymes in the DOXP/MEP synthetic pathway. This pathway is found in many bacteria (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and in the parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    In order to evaluate and improve current virtual screening methods, a benchmarking data set was constructed using publically available high-throughput screening data. The exercise highlighted a number of problems with current data sets as well as with the use of publically available high-throughput screening data. We hope this work will help guide further development of well designed benchmarking data sets for virtual screening methods.

    Conformal prediction is a new method in the computer-aided drug design toolbox that gives the prediction range at a specified level of confidence for each compound. To demonstrate the versatility and applicability of this method we derived models of skin permeability using two different machine learning methods; random forest and support vector machines.

    List of papers
    1. Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of alpha-Aryl Substituted Fosmidomycin Analogues as Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of alpha-Aryl Substituted Fosmidomycin Analogues as Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 54, no 14, 4964-4976 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The natural antibiotic fosmidomycin acts via inhibition of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), an essential enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Fosmidomycin is active on Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXR (MtDXR), but it lacks antibacterial activity probably because of poor uptake. alpha-Aryl substituted fosmidomycin analogues have more favorable physicochemical properties and are also more active in inhibiting malaria parasite growth. We have solved crystal structures of MtDXR in complex with 3,4-dichlorophenyl substituted fosmidomycin analogues; these show important differences compared to our previously described forsmidomycin-DXR complex. Our best inhibitor has an IC(50) = 0.15 mu M on MtDXR but still lacked activity in a mycobacterial growth assay (MIC > 32 mu g/mL). The combined results, however, provide insights into how DXR accommodates the new inhibitors and serve as an excellent starting point for the design of other novel and more potent inhibitors, particularly against pathogens where uptake is less of a problem, such as the malaria parasite.

    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156614 (URN)10.1021/jm2000085 (DOI)000292892300003 ()21678907 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-08-07 Created: 2011-08-04 Last updated: 2017-08-24Bibliographically approved
    2. Substitution of the phosphonic acid and hydroxamic acid functionalities of the DXR inhibitor FR900098: An attempt to improve the activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substitution of the phosphonic acid and hydroxamic acid functionalities of the DXR inhibitor FR900098: An attempt to improve the activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 0960-894X, E-ISSN 1090-2120, Vol. 21, no 18, 5403-5407 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of FR900098/fosmidomycin analogs were synthesized and evaluated for MtDXR inhibition and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell activity. The design rationale of these compounds involved the exchange of either the phosphonic acid or the hydroxamic acid part for alternative acidic and metal-coordinating functionalities. The best inhibitors provided IC(50) values in the micromolar range, with a best value of 41 mu M.

    Keyword
    Tuberculosis, DXR, Enzyme inhibitor, Fosmidomycin, FR900098
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158288 (URN)10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.07.005 (DOI)000294051800057 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-07 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2017-08-24
    3. DXR Inhibition by Potent Mono- and Disubstituted Fosmidomycin Analogues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>DXR Inhibition by Potent Mono- and Disubstituted Fosmidomycin Analogues
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    2013 (English)In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 56, no 15, 6190-6199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The antimalarial compound fosmidomycin targets DXR, the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the MEP pathway producing the universally essential isoprenoid precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. The MEP pathway is used by a number of pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and apicomplexan parasites, and differs from the classical mevalonate pathway that is essential in humans. Using a structure-based approach, we designed a number of analogues of fosmidomycin, including a series that are substituted in both the Cα and the hydroxamate positions. The latter proved to be a stable framework for the design of inhibitors that extend from the cramped substrate-binding site and can, for the first time, bridge the substrate and cofactor binding sites. A number of these compounds are more potent than fosmidomycin in terms of killing Plasmodium falciparum in an in vitro assay; the best has an IC50 of 40 nM.

    Keyword
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, DXR
    National Category
    Structural Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Structural Biology; Medicinal Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196616 (URN)10.1021/jm4006498 (DOI)000323082400015 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
    Note

    De tre (3) första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2013-03-11 Created: 2013-03-11 Last updated: 2017-08-24Bibliographically approved
    4. Toward a Benchmarking Data Set Able to Evaluate Ligand- and Structure-based Virtual Screening Using Public HTS Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward a Benchmarking Data Set Able to Evaluate Ligand- and Structure-based Virtual Screening Using Public HTS Data
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, Vol. 55, no 2, 343-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual screening has the potential to accelerate and reduce costs of probe development and drug discovery. To develop and benchmark virtual screening methods, validation data sets are commonly used. Over the years, such data sets have been constructed to overcome the problems of analogue bias and artificial enrichment. With the rapid growth of public domain databases containing high-throughput screening data, such as the PubChem BioAssay database, there is an increased possibility to use such data for validation. In this study, we identify PubChem data sets suitable for validation of both structure- and ligand-based virtual screening methods. To achieve this, high-throughput screening data for which a crystal structure of the bioassay target was available in the PDB were identified. Thereafter, the data sets were inspected to identify structures and data suitable for use in validation studies. In this work, we present seven data sets (MMP13, DUSP3, PTPN22, EPHX2, CTDSP1, MAPK10, and CDK5) compiled using this method. In the seven data sets, the number of active compounds varies between 19 and 369 and the number of inactive compounds between 59 405 and 337 634. This gives a higher ratio of the number of inactive to active compounds than what is found in most benchmark data sets. We have also evaluated the screening performance using docking and 3D shape similarity with default settings. To characterize the data sets, we used physicochemical similarity and 2D fingerprint searches. We envision that these data sets can be a useful complement to current data sets used for method evaluation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
    National Category
    Structural Biology Pharmaceutical Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Bioorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248018 (URN)10.1021/ci5005465 (DOI)000349943100014 ()25564966 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-03-26 Created: 2015-03-26 Last updated: 2017-08-24Bibliographically approved
    5. Predicting the Rate of Skin Penetration Using an Aggregated Conformal Prediction Framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting the Rate of Skin Penetration Using an Aggregated Conformal Prediction Framework
    2017 (English)In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 5, 1571-1576 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Skin serves as a drug administration route, and skin permeability of chemicals is of significant interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. An aggregated conformal prediction (ACP) framework was used to build models, for predicting the permeation rate (log K-p) of chemical compounds through human skin. The conformal prediction method gives as an output the prediction range at a given level of confidence for each compound, which enables the user to make a more informed decision when, for example, suggesting the next compound to prepare, Predictive models were built using;both the random forest and the support vector machine methods and were based on experimentally derived permeability data on 211 diverse compounds. The derived models were of similar predictive quality as compared to earlier published models but have the extra advantage of not only presenting a single predicted value for each, compound but also a reliable, individually assigned prediction range. The models use calculated descriptors and can quickly predict the skin permeation rate of new compounds.

    Keyword
    conformal prediction, skin penetration nonconformist, Scikit Learn, random forest, Support vector machines
    National Category
    Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323448 (URN)10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00007 (DOI)000400633300024 ()28335598 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-07-04 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2017-08-24Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 13:00 Auditorium Minus, Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Martinell, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Diabetes Mellitus at the Time for Diagnosis: Studies on Prognostic Factors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this thesis was to identify prognostic factors for chronic diabetes complications that exist at the time of diabetes diagnosis.

    Low level of education (<12 years) and low income (<60% of median) was found to increase the risk to have high (>70 mmol/mol) HbA1c at the time of diagnosis with 34 % and 35 %, respectively.

    Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was 12% in a cohort of patients newly diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetic macular edema was present in 11% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 13% of those with Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). Low beta cell function and low level of education increased the risk for DR with 110% and 43%, respectively. For every unit of increase in body mass index, the risk for DR was reduced by 3%.

    The cellular immunology of LADA patients was a mixture of that observed in both type 1 (T1D) and T2D patients. Compared to patients with T1D, LADA patients had more B-regulatory lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells capable of producing interleukine-35. This indicates a higher anti-inflammatory capacity in LADA patients compared to type T1D patients.

    By imputing age, body mass index, HbA1c at diagnosis, beta cell function and insulin resistance in a cluster analysis, five distinct diabetes clusters were identified. The four clusters representing T2D patients differed in incidence of DR, nephropathy and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This was replicated with similar results in three geographically separate populations.

    By studying socioeconomic background and factors present at the time of diagnosis we can better predict prognosis for chronic diabetes complications. These findings may facilitate better-targeted diabetes screening programs and more individually tailored treatment regimes.

    List of papers
    1. Education, immigration and income as risk factors for hemoglobin A1c >70 mmol/mol when diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adult: a population-based cohort study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Education, immigration and income as risk factors for hemoglobin A1c >70 mmol/mol when diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adult: a population-based cohort study
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this research is to study education, income and immigration as risk factors for high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c &gt;70 mmol/mol (8.6%)) when diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA).Research design and methods Patients were included from the All New Diabetics in Scania study (2008-2013). Level of education, disposable income and immigration year were retrieved from the longitudinal integrated database for labour market research (LISA) register compiled by Statistics Sweden. Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs for HbA1c &gt;70 mmol/mol (8.6%) at diagnosis.Results A total of 3794 patients with incident T2D (n=3 525) or LADA (n=269) were included. Patients with T2D with a low (<=9 years) or medium (10-12 years) levels of education were more likely to have high HbA1c at diagnosis compared with patients with T2D with a high (&gt;12 years) level of education (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.08 to1.66, OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54). Low-income patients with T2D (&lt;60% of median) were more likely to have high HbA1c at diagnosis compared with high-income patients withT2D (&gt;150% of median) (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.79).Conclusions Patients with lower levels of education or low income and are more likely to have HbA1c is &gt;70 mmol/mol (8.6%) when diagnosed with T2D. An understanding of how socioeconomic position influences the clinical presentation at diagnosis may facilitate screening programs designed to target populations at risk for delayed diagnosis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ Specialist Journals, 2017
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321637 (URN)10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000346 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2017-08-22
    2. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis (DRAD) in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis (DRAD) in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA)
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 30, no 8, 1456-1461 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: 

    To study prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) at diagnosis (DRAD) and to estimate contributing risk by sociodemographic, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics present in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA).

    METHODS: 

    Patients (n=2174) recently diagnosed T2D (93%) or LADA (7%) were included upon arrival for their baseline DR screening. Fundus photographs of 4902 eyes were graded by a senior ophthalmologist according to the International Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale. Official registers held by Statistics Sweden provided sociodemographic variables. The National Patient Register and Swedish Prescribed Drug Register were used to assess cardiovascular risk. Beta cell function (HOMA2%b) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%s) were estimated from fasting (f) C-Peptide using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) 2 calculator. Odds ratios (OR) for DRAD were estimated using generalized estimating equation models.

    RESULTS: 

    The prevalence of DRAD was 12% (7% mild and 5% moderate) and of diabetic macular edema it was 11% (all within vascular arch). The prevalence did not significantly differ between T2D and LADA. Due to sample size, the regression analysis of LADA patients did not yield any significant estimates. In T2D low educational level (≤9years) increased risk for DRAD by 44% (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.07-1.93) and <50% beta-cell function adjusted for HbA1c and insulin sensitivity at diagnosis increased the risk by 77% (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.28-2.44). For every unit increase in BMI, risk for DRAD decreased by 3% (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: 

    DRAD prevalence in patients recently diagnosed with T2D or is 12%. Low educational level and low beta cell function at diagnosis are risk factors for DRAD. Estimation of beta cell function from (f)C-Peptide and (f)P-Glucose may be a valuable tool in identifying patients at risk for DRAD.

    Keyword
    Diabetes, Diabetic macular edema, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis (DRAD), Latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA), Type 2 diabetes (T2D)
    National Category
    Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Research subject
    Endocrinology and Diabetology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319750 (URN)10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.08.009 (DOI)000399434900009 ()27593902 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-04-08 Created: 2017-04-08 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Characterization of Cellular Immunology in LADA Patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Cellular Immunology in LADA Patients
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Patients with latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA) have antibodies against the insulin-producing b-cells but at disease onset they are not insulin-dependent. This study presents cellular immunological differences between LADA, type 1, type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.

    Research Design and Methods: All patients and matched (by age, gender and body mass index) healthy controls were recruited from the County of Uppsala, Sweden. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from freshly collected blood to determine proportions of innate, adaptive and regulatory immune cells by using flow cytometry.

    Results: Included were 14 patients with LADA, 16 with type 1 diabetes, 16 with type 2 diabetes and 13 healthy controls. The proportion of CD11c+CD123- antigen presenting cells (APCs) was lower, whilst proportions of CD11c+CD123+ APCs and Interleukin (IL)-35+ tolerogenic APCs were higher in LADA patients compared to patients with type 1 diabetes. The proportion of CD3-CD56highCD16+ Natural Killer (NK) cells was higher in LADA patients than in both healthy controls and type 2 diabetes patients. IL-35+ Treg cell numbers were similar to those observed in both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients, but a lower frequency of IL-35+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was observed in LADA patients than in healthy controls. The proportion of regulatory B (Breg) cells in LADA patients was higher than in healthy controls, type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients and IL-35+ Breg cell numbers were higher than in type 1 diabetes patients.

    Conclusions: LADA patients present a mixed cellular immunological pattern compared to type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. Numbers of APCs, IL-35+ tolerogenic APCs and IL-35+ Breg cells in LADA patients are similar to those observed in type 2 diabetes patients, whereas the changes in NK cells are similar to those observed in type 1 diabetes patients. 

    Keyword
    Cellular immunology, latent autoimmun diabetes in adults, diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, interleukin 35
    National Category
    Immunology in the medical area
    Research subject
    Immunology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328352 (URN)
    Projects
    Diabetes Mellitus at the Time of Diagnosis - Studies on Prognostic Factors
    Note

    De 2 första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Clustering of adult-onset diabetes into novel subgroups guides therapy and improves prediction of outcome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clustering of adult-onset diabetes into novel subgroups guides therapy and improves prediction of outcome
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Diabetes is presently classified into two main forms, type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but especially T2D is highly heterogeneous. A refined classification could provide a powerful tool to identify those at greatest risk of complications already at diagnosis, and enable individualized treatment regimes.

    Method

    We applied a data-driven cluster analysis (k-means and TwoStep hierarchical clustering) in a large cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients (N=8,980) from the Swedish ANDIS (All New Diabetics in Scania) cohorts and related to prospective data from patient records. Replication was performed in three independent cohorts: the Scania Diabetes Registry (SDR, N=1466), ANDIU (All New Diabetics in Uppsala, N=844) and DIREVA (Diabetes Registry Vaasa, N=3485). Cox regression and logistic regression was used to compare risk of diabetic complications and genetic associations.

    Results

    We identified 5 replicable clusters of diabetes patients, with significantly different patient characteristics and risk of diabetic complications. Particularly, belonging to the most insulin-resistant cluster was a strong predictor of diabetic kidney disease, while the insulin deficient cluster 2 had increased risk of retinopathy. In support of the clustering, genetic associations to the clusters differed from those seen in traditional T2D.

    Conclusions

    We could classify patients into five subgroups predicting disease progression and development of diabetic complications more precisely than the current classification. This new classification may help to tailor and target early treatment to patients who would benefit most, thereby representing a first step towards precision medicine in diabetes.

     

    National Category
    Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Research subject
    Endocrinology and Diabetology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328355 (URN)
    Projects
    Diabetes Mellitus at the Time for Diagnosis - Studies on Prognostic Factors
    Funder
    EXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden, 2009-1039Swedish Research Council, 521-2010-3490Swedish Research Council, 2010-5983Linnaeus research environment CADICS, 349-2006-237
    Note

    Tredjeförfattarskapet delas av tredje och fjärde författaren.

    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved
  • Ekström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    The Illicit Information Community: Information - Practical Reflections on the Shadow Library AAARG2017In: Improving Quality of Life Through Information: Proceedings of the XXV Bobcatsss Symposium, Tampere Finland, January 2017 / [ed] Paavo Arvola, Tanja Hintsanen, Serafia Kari, Soile Kolehma, Shan Luolin, Jasmiina Sillanpää, Tampere, 2017, 121-125 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a netnographic analysis of information needs and practices related to the shadow library AAARG. AAARG is regarded as a portal and community for the sharing and distribution of academic and artistic texts, books and articles. The portal in question is defined as an actor within the guerrilla open access movement, a radical node within the larger open access movement, which is analysed as a cultural field using the theoretical framework of Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. AAARG is thereafter discussed in an information-practical sense with re- gards to social interaction between individual users’ needs as well as discursive and constructional origins of such needs. These needs and the practices they create are then examined with regards to the order that the platform itself creates, tied to the cultural field which it is a part of. The conclusion is that alternative knowledge organizational platforms such as AAARG have had and will continue to have a big influence on the discussion of today’s open access models, since they clearly fill a certain demand. The discrepancy between such initiatives and institutional open access activities will therefore need further analysis in a library and information scientific context.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-12 13:15 Auditorium Minus, Uppsala
    Carlsson, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    To Grasp the Unexpected: Information Following a Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect in the Fetus2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore experiences and needs of information following a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect, and to assess the quality of publicly available information websites about congenital heart defects. Study I was a qualitative interview study that explored experiences among 11 parents to prenatally diagnosed children. Respondents tried to grasp the facts today while reflecting on the future, and personal contact with medical specialists was valued. The analysis showed that the Web contained an overwhelming amount of information. Study II was a qualitative interview study that explored experiences among 26 females and males 5-15 weeks after a prenatal diagnosis. Respondents hunted for information in a confusing reality, with a need for information about various topics and methods for information delivery. Although high satisfaction with the specialist information was described, the information was considered overwhelming and complex. Supplemental information was sought via the Web. Insufficient information about induced abortions was described. Study III was a quantitative study that explored content and quality of 67 English websites about congenital heart defects. Few websites included information about prenatal aspects, such as pregnancy termination. The overall quality was poor, especially reliability and information about treatment choices. Study IV was a mixed methods study that explored the quality of 10 Swedish websites about congenital heart defects, from the perspectives of 9 assessors with personal experience of a prenatal diagnosis. Quantitative Likert scale assessments were followed by written open-ended questions and focus group discussions. Quantitative assessments represented unfulfilled quality criterion for treatment choices, and partially fulfilled quality criteria for appearance, details, relevance, suitability and overall quality. Websites had significantly different scores for all investigated quality criteria. Various issues were highlighted in the responses to the open-ended questions and during the discussions, including inappropriate advertisements, biased information, poor illustrations, complex language and poor trustworthiness. In conclusion, expectant parents faced with a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect in the fetus try to grasp the unexpected, an attempt that involves difficulties in relation to information. These are present during the consultation with health professionals and when searching for web-based information. 

    List of papers
    1. Information following a Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect: Experiences among Parents to Prenatally Diagnosed Children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information following a Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect: Experiences among Parents to Prenatally Diagnosed Children
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 2, e0117995Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal screening of pregnant women in Sweden has improved the detection of major congenital heart defects (CHD). The aim was to explore parental experiences and need for information following a prenatal diagnosis of CHD.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews conducted with six fathers and five mothers to seven prenatally diagnosed children. Data were analyzed through content analysis.

    RESULTS: Three themes and 9 categories emerged. Theme 1, Grasping the facts today while reflecting on the future, containing five categories: Difficulties sorting out information when in emotional chaos; Respectful information regarding termination of pregnancy; Early information is crucial; Understanding the facts regarding the anomaly; Preparing for the future. Theme 2, Personal contact with medical specialists who give honest and trustworthy information is valued, containing two categories: Trust in information received from medical specialists and Truth and honesty is valued. Theme 3, An overwhelming amount of information on the Internet, containing two categories: Difficulties in finding relevant information and Easy to focus on cases with a poor outcome when searching the Internet.

    CONCLUSION: Early and honest information in line with individual preferences is crucial to support the decisional process regarding whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy. The use of illustrations is recommended, as a complement to oral information, as it increases comprehension and satisfaction with obtained information. Furthermore, the overwhelming amount of information on the Internet calls for compilation of easily accessible and reliable information sources via the Internet.

    Keyword
    Congenital heart defects, Interview as topic, Parents, Pregnancy, Prenatal diagnosis
    National Category
    Nursing Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Caring Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-244704 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0117995 (DOI)000350061500089 ()25692879 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
    Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Experiences of Informational Needs and Received Information Following a Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of Informational Needs and Received Information Following a Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect
    2016 (English)In: Prenatal Diagnosis, ISSN 0197-3851, E-ISSN 1097-0223, Vol. 36, no 6, 515-522 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the need for information and what information was actually received following a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect, in a country where termination of pregnancy beyond 22 weeks of gestation is not clinically performed.

    METHODS: Twenty-six Swedish-speaking pregnant women (n = 14) and partners (n = 12) were consecutively recruited for semi-structured telephone interviews following the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect. Data was analyzed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: Although high satisfaction with the specialist information was described, the information was considered overwhelming and complex. Objective, honest and detailed information about multiple subjects were needed, delivered repeatedly and supplemented by written information/illustrations. Eighteen respondents had used the Internet to search for information and found issues involving searching difficulties, low quality, and that it was too complex, insufficient or unspecific. Those who terminated the pregnancy criticized that there was a lack of information about termination of pregnancy, both from health professionals and online sources, resulting in unanswered questions and unpreparedness.

    CONCLUSION: Individuals faced with a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect need individualized and repeated information. These needs are not all adequately met, as individuals are satisfied with the specialist consultation but left with unanswered questions regarding pregnancy termination.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Nursing
    Research subject
    Caring Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281384 (URN)10.1002/pd.4815 (DOI)000378541100003 ()26991536 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Content and quality of information websites about congenital heart defects following a prenatal diagnosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Content and quality of information websites about congenital heart defects following a prenatal diagnosis
    2015 (English)In: Interactive Journal of Medical Research, E-ISSN 1929-073X, Vol. 4, no 1, 66-76 p., e4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and their partners use the Internet to search for information following a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore central subjects of content and to assess the accessibility, reliability, usability, and quality of written information on publicly available information websites about congenital heart defects following a prenatal diagnosis.

    METHODS: Following searches on Bing and Google, we included websites containing patient information in English. Hits ranged from 340,000-67,500,000 and the first 50 hits from each search were screened for inclusion (N=600). Of these hits, 39.3% (236/600) were irrelevant. A total of 67 websites were included, of which 37% (25/67) were affiliated with independent information websites, 25% (17/67) with charity/private organizations, 25% (17/67) with hospitals/clinics, and 13% (8/67) had other affiliations. The majority of the websites (76%, 51/67) could not be attributed to an author. A manifest content analysis was performed to explore central subjects of content. The DISCERN instrument was used to assess the quality of information, and the LIDA tool was used to assess accessibility, usability, and reliability of the included websites.

    RESULTS: The content on the majority of the websites included care and treatment of children with congenital heart defects (88%, 59/67), causes of congenital heart defects (88%, 59/67), symptoms of congenital heart defects (85%, 57/67), prevalence of congenital heart defects (81%, 54/67), potential complications of congenital heart defects (75%, 50/67), prenatal diagnostics/screening methods (72%, 48/67), and specific congenital heart defects (72%, 48/67), whereas less than 10% included information about termination of pregnancy (6%, 4/67), care during pregnancy (5%, 3/67), and information specifically directed to partners (1%, 1/67). The mean of the total DISCERN score was 27.9 (SD 9.7, range 16-53). According to the instrument, a majority of the websites were categorized as very poor regarding information about effects of no treatment (88%, 59/67), support for shared decision making (85%, 57/67), achievement of its aims (84%, 56/67), explicit aims (82%, 55/67), risks of each treatment (82%, 55/67), how treatment choices affect overall quality of life (76%, 51/67), and areas of uncertainty (76%, 51/67). The mean of the total LIDA score was 92.3 (SD 13.1, range 61-127). According to the tool, a majority of the websites were categorized as good with regard to registration (97%, 65/67) and browser test (75%, 50/67), whereas a majority were categorized as poor with regard to currency (87%, 58/67), content production (84%, 56/67), and engagability (75%, 50/67).

    CONCLUSIONS: Difficulties in finding relevant information sources using Web search engines and quality deficits on websites are an incentive for health professionals to take an active part in providing adequate and reliable information online about congenital heart defects.

    Keyword
    Consumer health information, Congenital heart defects, Internet, Prenatal diagnosis
    National Category
    Nursing Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Caring Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-242304 (URN)10.2196/ijmr.3819 (DOI)000359673600006 ()25608457 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-01-23 Created: 2015-01-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    4. Quality of Patient Information Websites About Congenital Heart Defects: Mixed-Methods Study of Perspectives Among Individuals With Experience of a Prenatal Diagnosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of Patient Information Websites About Congenital Heart Defects: Mixed-Methods Study of Perspectives Among Individuals With Experience of a Prenatal Diagnosis
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    2017 (English)In: Interactive Journal of Medical Research, E-ISSN 1929-073X, Vol. 6, no 2, e15Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When a heart defect is prenatally diagnosed in the fetus, expectant parents experience a great need for information about various topics. After the diagnosis, the Web is used for supplemental information, and the scarcity of research calls attention to the need to explore patient information websites from the perspectives of the intended consumers.

    Objective: The overarching aim of this study was to explore the quality of Swedish patient information websites about congenital heart defects, from the perspectives of individuals with experience of a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect in the fetus.

    Methods: This was a mixed-methods study of websites identified through systematic searches in the two most used Web-based search engines. Of the total 80 screened hits, 10 hits led to patient information websites about congenital heart defects. A quality assessment tool inspired by a previous study was used to evaluate each website’s appearance, details, relevance, suitability, information about treatment choices, and overall quality. Answers were given on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1, representing the lowest score, to 5, representing the highest score. Each website was assessed individually by persons with experience of continued (n=4) and terminated (n=5) pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis. Assessments were analyzed with Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W, Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman’s test, and a Wilcoxon-Nemenyi-McDonald-Thompson test. In addition, each assessor submitted written responses to open-ended questions in the quality assessment tool, and two joint focus group discussions were conducted with each group of assessors. The qualitative data were analyzed with inductive manifest content analysis.

    Results: Assessments represented a low score (median=2.0) for treatment choices and moderate scores (median=3.0) for appearance, details, relevance, suitability, and overall quality. No website had a median of the highest achievable score for any of the questions in the quality assessment tool. Medians of the lowest achievable score were found in questions about treatment choices (n=4 websites), details (n=2 websites), suitability (n=1 website), and overall quality (n=1 website). Websites had significantly different scores for appearance (P=.01), details (P<.001), relevance (P<.001), suitability (P<.001), treatment choices (P=.04), and overall quality (P<.001). The content analysis of the qualitative data generated six categories: (1) advertisements, (2) comprehensiveness, (3) design, (4) illustrations and pictures, (5) language, and (6) trustworthiness. Various issues with the included websites were highlighted, including the use of inappropriate advertisements, biased information, poor illustrations, complex language, and poor trustworthiness.

    Conclusions: From the perspectives of the intended consumers, patient information websites about congenital heart defects are, to a large extent, inadequate tools for supplemental information following a prenatal diagnosis. Health professionals should initiate discussions with patients about their intentions to use the Web, inform them about the varied quality in the Web-based landscape, and offer recommendations for appropriate Web-based sources.

    Keyword
    congenital heart defects, consumer health information, information literacy, Internet, popular works, pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis
    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Caring Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328480 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-08-30
  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 09:00 A7:107a, Uppsala
    Emilson, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Long-term perspectives on musculoskeletal pain: Health care utilization and integration of behavioral medicine treatment into physical therapy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently no effective methods for treating and preventing chronic pain. The aim of this thesis was to study prognostic factors for health care utilization, and the long-term outcomes of tailored behavioral medicine treatment for patients with musculoskeletal pain. Another aim was to increase knowledge about physical therapists’ assessment and analysis of patients’ pain conditions and to investigate the potential of subgrouping patients based on prognostic factors.

    Methods: In Study I, a prospective population-based cohort was followed over 21 years. Data from three measure points were analyzed: 1995 (n=2425), 2007 (n=1582) and 2016 (n=1184). Study II was a 10-year follow-up of randomized controlled trial (n=97), comparing tailored behavioral medicine treatment and exercise-based physical therapy. In Study III, a descriptive and explorative design was applied, using data from video-recordings of 12 physical therapists. In study IV, assignment to three subgroups based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire was validated against reference instruments, and the stability between two points of measurement was investigated in patients (n=40) who were seeking primary health care due to musculoskeletal pain.

    Results: Chronic pain, female gender and high age predict high health care utilization over 21 years, and a trajectory of stable high health care utilization over the entire period. The differences between groups in favor for tailored behavioral medicine treatment reported at post-treatment and after two years, were not maintained at the 10-year follow-up. A majority of the physical therapists assessed factors for poor prognosis. The analyses were mainly based on biomedical assessments and none of the physical therapists included behavioral factors. Subgroup assignment according to the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire appears to be valid and stable over time.

    Conclusion: Prognostic factors such as chronic pain and female gender need to be considered when allocating health care resources and planning treatment to improve long-term outcomes. The treatment should also be tailored based on individual functional behavioral analyses of key behaviors and on patient´s biomedical and psychosocial condition, including strategies for maintenance of behavioral changes. Evidence-based methods for integrating behavioral medicine treatment into physical therapy need to be further evaluated and improved. 

    List of papers
    1. Association between health care utilization and musculoskeletal pain. A 21-year follow-up of a population cohort
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between health care utilization and musculoskeletal pain. A 21-year follow-up of a population cohort
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have reported the long-term impact of pain on health care utilization. The aim of this study was to describe and predict health care utilization associated with chronic pain in a 21-year follow-up of a population cohort and to identify and describe different trajectories over time.                                                                              Methods: A prospective cohort design was used that included five measurement time points. A representative sample of 3928 subjects (age 20-74) from the south of Sweden was selected. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires, and the response rate was n=2425 (62%). Three time points of 1995, 2007 and 2016 were included in the study. The associations between baseline variables and health care utilization in 2016 were calculated based on logistic regression analysis. Different trajectories for health care utilization were compared and described.                                                             Results: The response rate in 2016 was n=1184 (63%) of the eligible participants. Predictors for high health care utilization at the 21-year follow-up was chronic widespread pain (OR: 3.2, CI: 1.9-5.1), chronic regional pain (OR:1.8, CI: 1.2-2.6), female gender and high age. Trajectory for high health care utilization over the entire period was characterized by high prevalence of chronic pain at baseline and female gender.                                                                                                                     Conclusions: Chronic pain, which may reflect poorer general health, had implications in health care utilization over a 21-year period. A stable high health care utilization trajectory was identified among a small group of the general population characterized by chronic widespread pain and female gender, indicating that treatment of this group has not been successful.

    Keyword
    Musculoskeletal pain, health care utilization, chronic pain, pain prevalence
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328402 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-23
    2. A 10-year follow-up of tailored behavioural medicine treatment and exercise-based physiotherapy in persistent musculoskeletal pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 10-year follow-up of tailored behavioural medicine treatment and exercise-based physiotherapy in persistent musculoskeletal pain
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 31, no 2, 186-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the long-term outcomes of two interventions targeting patients with sub-acute and persistent pain in a primary care physiotherapy setting.

    Design: A 10-year follow-up of a two-armed randomised controlled trial, initially including 97 participants.

    Interventions: Tailored behavioural medicine treatment, applied in a physiotherapy context (experimental condition), and exercise-based physiotherapy (control condition). Main measures: Pain-related disability was the primary outcome. The maximum pain intensity, pain control, fear of movement, sickness-related absence (register data) and perceived benefit and confidence in coping with future pain problems were the secondary outcomes.

    Results: Forty-three (44%) participants responded to the follow-up survey, 20 in the tailored behavioural medicine treatment group and 23 in the exercise-based physiotherapy group. The groups did not differ in terms of the change in the scores for the primary outcome (p=0.17) of pain-related disability between the experimental group (median: 2.5, Q1-Q3: -2.5-14.25), and the control group (median: 0, Q1-Q3: -5-6). Further, there were also no significant differences found for the secondary outcomes except for sickness-related absence, where the exercise-based physiotherapy group had more days of sickness-related absence three months before treatment (p= 0.02), and at the 10-year follow-up (p=0.03).

    Discussion: The beneficial effects favouring tailored behavioural medicine treatment that observed post-treatment and at the two-year follow-up were not maintained 10 years after treatment.

    Keyword
    Chronic pain, behavioural medicine, primary care, physical exercise, long-term compliance
    National Category
    Physiotherapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281461 (URN)10.1177/0269215516639356 (DOI)000394758500005 ()27009057 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Rheumatism Association
    Available from: 2016-03-24 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Physical Therapists' Assessments, Analyses And Use Of Behavioral Change Techniques In Initial Consultations On Musculoskeletal Pain: Direct Observations In Primary Health Care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Therapists' Assessments, Analyses And Use Of Behavioral Change Techniques In Initial Consultations On Musculoskeletal Pain: Direct Observations In Primary Health Care
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    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, S187-S187 p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Physiotherapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313852 (URN)000388943400587 ()
    Available from: 2017-01-26 Created: 2017-01-25 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
    4. Concurrent validity and stability of subgroup assignment based on three levels of pain condition severity in patients with musculoskeletal pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concurrent validity and stability of subgroup assignment based on three levels of pain condition severity in patients with musculoskeletal pain
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    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Pain screening instruments have been used to identify risk factors for poor prognosis and are recommended for the stratification of treatment for musculoskeletal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of subgroup assignment based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire compared with reference instruments: The Pain Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. A secondary aim was to investigate the stability of the subgroup assignment over a defined period of time. Participants (n=40) aged 18-65 years were recruited from five primary health care centers in Sweden. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. The subgroups based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire were predefined to low, moderate or high pain condition severity. The reference instrument data were dichotomized into low or high level based on previously used cut-off scores. Concurrent validity was analyzed with Fisher´s exact test. Stability was calculated using quadraticweighted kappa analysis. The results indicated acceptable psychometric properties of the subgroup assignment based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire regarding concurrent validity, and the stability over two to three weeks. To further increase validity, it is suggested that subgroup assignment is complemented with other measures assessing e.g. pain catastrophizing. In conclusion, assignment to subgroups with low, moderate and high pain condition severities based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire, could be used as a valid base for stratified treatment for patients with musculoskeletal pain.   

    Keyword
    Musculoskeletal pain, psychological factors, stratified care, screening instruments, primary care
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328403 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
  • Envall, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Reproduktionen som mål: En studie om framställningen av det kvinnliga könsorganet och sex i biologiböcker avsedda för högstadiet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka hur det kvinnliga könsorganet porträtteras i biologiböcker för högstadieelever och vilka diskurser om kön och sexualitet som går att skönja genom dessa. Studien är baserad på text och illustrationer ur fem olika biologiböcker som används av högstadieelever idag. För att analysera materialet har Faircloughs kritiska diskursanalys använts och teorier kring hur kön konstrueras genom sociala diskurser har applicerats. Författarnas beskrivningar av klitoris är bristfälliga vilket bidrar till aktivt reproducerande av okunskap. I samtliga böcker jämförs klitoris med penis vilket visar på en diskurs om mannen som norm och kvinnan som avvikande. En del av materialet framställer slidan som passivt kärl för penis, en heteronormativ diskurs som återkommer i vilka sexuella praktiker som porträtteras som ”riktigt” sex. Tvåkönsmodellen som hegemonisk diskurs cementeras genom böckernas binära könsuppdelning och genom de skilda egenskaper som appliceras på respektive kön vid sexuell upphetsning. Studien genomsyras av synen på människan som reproduktiv varelse snarare än social. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-20 13:00 Häggsalen Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Sun, Fengzhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behaviour of Polymer Materials during Nanosectioning: Characterisation and Modelling2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in local fracture processes and micro-machining of polymers and polymer-based composites has attracted increasing attention, in development of composite materials and miniaturisation of polymer components. In this thesis, sectioning (machining) of a glassy polymer and a carbon nanotube based composite at the nanoscale was performed by an instrumented ultramicrotome. The yield stresses and fracture toughness of these materials were determined by analysing the sectioning forces. Fractographic analysis by atomic force microscopy was conducted to characterise the topographies and elastic properties of the sectioned surfaces to explore the deformation and fracture behaviour of the polymer during nanosectioning. The study reveals that a transition from homogenous to shear localised deformation occurred as the uncut chip thickness (depth of cut) or sectioning speed increased to a critical value. Analytical and finite element methods were used to model the nanosectioning process. The shear localised deformation was caused by thermal softening due to plastic dissipation. Although not considering sectioning, the tensile properties of a polymer nanocomposite were additionally investigated, where the degree of nanofibrillation and polyethylene glycol (PEG) content had significant effects.

    List of papers
    1. Polymer fracture and deformation during nanosectioning in an ultramicrotome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymer fracture and deformation during nanosectioning in an ultramicrotome
    2017 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 182, 595-606 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture and deformation behaviour of a thermoplastic in the nanosectioning process is investigated by using an ultramicrotome instrumented with force transducers. For sections with thickness values in the order of 10–100 nm, the specific work of surface formation of polymethyl methacrylate is found to be 6.3 J m−2, which is considerably smaller to macroscopic fracture toughness, but relatively close to the theoretical specific surface energy of 1.5 J m−2 of breaking the covalent bonds. Periodic transverse features, spaced a few hundred nanometres on the sectioned surfaces, are observed by atomic force microscopy for sections above a critical thickness. It reveals that a transition of the deformation mode occurs at a certain thickness, which is in concert with sectioning experiments for other materials showing adiabatic shear bands.

    Keyword
    NanosectioningFractureLocalized deformationPeriodic featuresAdiabatic shearing
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328893 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2017.05.044 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-04
    2. Rate effects on localized shear deformation during nanosectioning of an amorphous thermoplastic polymer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rate effects on localized shear deformation during nanosectioning of an amorphous thermoplastic polymer
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the effects of loading rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic polymer, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sections with a thickness below 100 nm were made at different sectioning speeds by an instrumented ultramicrotome and the sectioning forces were measured. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the topographical features of the sectioned surfaces. Periodic structures of shear localizations were observed to form when the sectioning speed exceeded a critical value. With the measured sectioning parameters and other parameters determined based on previous studies, the effects of sectioning speed on the thermomechanical response of this polymer were analyzed using an existing adiabatic shearing model and a suitable constitutive law. A sectioning speed for the onset of shear localization was predicted, agreeing with the experimental results. The method presented in this work provides an approach to analyze the formation of shear localizations in polymers at the nanometer scale deformation. 

    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328887 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-04
    3. Effect of nanosectioning on surface features and stiffness of an amorphous glassy polymer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of nanosectioning on surface features and stiffness of an amorphous glassy polymer
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Sectioning of a glassy polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate), at the nanoscale was carried out by means of an ultramicrotome. The effects of sectioning thickness and speed on the topography and stiffness over the surface were then investigated by atomic force microscopy. A critical section thickness and speed were identified, below which a flat and smooth cut surfaces were created, with homogeneous elasticity. Above the critical thickness or speed, localized periodic bands were formed on the sectioned surfaces oriented perpendicular to the cutting direction with a nonhomogeneous distribution of the mapped elasticity. Finite-element simulations based on a constitutive model of the polymer reproduced the periodic shear bands observed in the experiments. The influence of sectioning speed on the elastic modulus was predicted by a damage mechanics model and was found to correlate with results obtained by atomic force microscopy. The results lend confidence that critical machining conditions, such as sectioning thickness and speed, can be predicted to avoid undesirable shear localizations and damage formation in manufacture of e.g. small scale optical and photonic applications. 

    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328888 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-04
    4. Finite element modeling of nanosectioning of a glassy polymer based on an elastic-viscoplastic model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite element modeling of nanosectioning of a glassy polymer based on an elastic-viscoplastic model
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element modelling of nanosectioning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is conducted in this work. The modified Mulliken-Boyce model including adiabatic heating was used to depict the elastic-viscoplastic behavior of PMMA during nanosectioning. The simulated results were compared with the experimental results obtained by ultramicrotome nanosectioning. The simulation can capture the basic features of the shear bands formed during nanosectioning, which indicates that the adiabatic heating play a important role in controlling the chip formation. 

    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328889 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-04
    5. Assessing local yield stress and fracture toughness of carbon nanotube poly(methyl methacrylate) composite by nanosectioning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing local yield stress and fracture toughness of carbon nanotube poly(methyl methacrylate) composite by nanosectioning
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    A nanosectioning (cutting) method was used to test the local shear yield stress and fracture toughness of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites, and the effect of MWCNT content on the stress and toughness were investigated. The composites were prepared by a solution casting method, with MWCNT content varying from 0.05-1.0 wt%. A critical MWCNT content was found at 0.1 wt%; below such a critical content the shear yield stress increases by the incorporation of MWCNTs, while above this content the yield stress reduces. The fracture toughness of the composite was effectively enhanced by the addition of MWCNTs, from 17 J/m2 for the neat PMMA to 25 J/m2 for the 1.0 wt% composite. The shear yield stresses obtained by nanosectioning were correlated to nanoindentation measurement, and possible contributions from the MWCNTs to the fracture toughness of the composite were analysed.

    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328890 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-04
    6. Mechanical characteristics of nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposite wound dressings in wet conditions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical characteristics of nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposite wound dressings in wet conditions
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    2017 (English)In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 69, 377-384 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Wood nanocellulose has been proposed for wound dressing applications partly based on its capability to form translucent films with good liquid absorption capabilities. Such properties are adequate for non-healing and chronic wounds where adequate management of exudates is a requirement. In addition, the translucency will allow to follow the wound development without the necessity to remove the dressing from the wound. Understanding the mechanical properties of nanocellulose films and dressings are also most important for tailoring optimizing wound dressing structures with adequate strength, conformability, porosity and exudate management. Mechanical properties are usually assessed in standard conditions (50% relative humidity, RH), which is not relevant in a wound management situation. In this study we have assessed the mechanical properties of three nanocellulose grades varying in the degree of nanofibrillation. The effect of nanofibrillation and of polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition, on the tensile strength, elongation and elastic modulus were assessed after 24 h in water and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the behavior of the nanocellulose dressings after wetting and shed light into the development of mechanical properties in environments, which are relevant from a wound management point of view.

    Keyword
    CNF, Nanocellulose, Bionanocomposites, Plasticizer, Mechanical properties
    National Category
    Medical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323443 (URN)10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.01.049 (DOI)000400199600041 ()28171794 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-07-06 Created: 2017-07-06 Last updated: 2017-09-04Bibliographically approved
  • Muscalu, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Woxberg, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lärares uppfattning om "Kompis med kroppen": Ett hälsofrämjande projekt med fokus på frukt och grönsaker hos barn i skolåldern2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Intaget av frukt och grönsaker hos barn i grundskolan är lägre än rekommenderat. Matvanor grundläggs i tidig ålder och flera försök har gjorts att främja goda matvanor. "Kompis med kroppen", ett ICA-baserat hälsofrämjande projekt, syftar till att inspirera skolbarn till bättre matvanor.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur "Kompis med kroppen" uppfattats av lärare i grundskolan. I examensarbetet tillfrågades lärarna om vad de ansåg om olika delar av projektet samt om de upplevde att det finns ett intresse för hälsofrämjande projekt i grundskolan.

    Metod: Tvärsnittsdesign med webbenkät som undersökningsmetod. Examensarbetet baserades på svar från 263 deltagare, samtliga lärare. Databearbetningen gjordes i SPSS och tester som utfördes var Spearmans rangkorrelation och chi-två test.

    Resultat: Deltagarna var positivt inställda till projektet och upplevde även mottagandet hos eleverna som positivt. En statistisk analys visade att det fanns ett signifikant samband (p<0.001) mellan deltagarnas inställning och elevernas upplevda mottagande. Deltagarnas upplevda effekt på eleverna var att eleverna pratade mer om frukt och grönsaker (42 %), samt att de uppskattade att arbeta med materialet (41 %). De allra flesta lärare genomförde ett butiksbesök (95 %) och gav positiva kommentarer angående besöket, en majoritet använde sig även av arbetsboken (72 %).

    Slutsats: "Kompis med kroppen" tycks genomgående ha upplevts positivt av majoriteten av lärarna som deltog i examensarbetets undersökning. ICA som aktör kan hjälpa till att främja goda matvanor hos barn, men det är möjligt att det behövs en utökad satsning i samhället med större engagemang från samtliga individer för att få en bestående förändring.

  • Saxén, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Laurentia’s Oldest Brachiopods:Lower Cambrian Brachiopods ofthe Montezuma Range, Nevada2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New brachiopod materials from the lower Cambrian (Global Stage 3 and lower Stage 4) of Esmeralda County, Nevada are described and their age distribution and diversity is discussed. The specimens originate from the Fritzaspis, “Fallotaspis”, “Nevadella” and Bonnia-Olenellus biozone which in the area correspond to the Campito Formation and the overlying Poleta Formation. As the specimens from the Gold Coin Member (Begadean Series) and the Montenegro Member (Waucoban Series) of the Campito Formation encompass the oldest samples, they were therefore prioritised as there was not enough time to describe all the specimens. The oldest known trilobites from Laurentia have previously been reported from the Gold Coin Member and it is of interest to determine if the brachiopods from the same member also are the oldest known from Laurentia.As many specimens are poorly preserved, especially the ones from coarse siliciclastic intervals, the determination of their systematic position is somewhat aggravated. Despite this, a diverse fauna including Lingulida, Obolellida, Naukatida, Kutorginida, Orthida and stem-group brachiopods have been successfully identified. A total of 16 taxa were noted for the Campito fauna, including the problematic and rare genera Swantonia and Spinulothele but unfortunately little new information could be gained regarding the characters for these rare genera. Four genera are reported for the first time from the area, not including material described under open nomenclature.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 09:15 4001, Uppsala
    Mattera, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Studying neutron-induced fission at IGISOL-4: From neutron source to yield measurements and model comparisons2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fission yields represent the probability of producing a certain nuclide in a fission event, and are important observables for fission research. For applications, accurate knowledge of the yields is fundamental at all stages of the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors, e.g., for reactivity calculations, or to estimate (spent) fuel inventory. Fission yields also help in the basic understanding of the fission process, for nucleosynthesis models, and for radioactive ion beam production.

    This thesis was developed in the framework of the AlFONS project, the objective of which was to measure neutron-induced fission yields of relevance for partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. The work is performed at the IGISOL-4 facility in JYFL (University of Jyväskylä).

    The first part of this thesis work is dedicated to the development and characterisation of a suitable 9Be(p(30MeV),nx) neutron source for IGISOL-4. The neutron energy spectrum and the neutron yield from a 5mm thick converter were studied with Monte Carlo simulations. Two characterisation campaigns that validated the MCNPX code were also performed. At the maximum current available from the cyclotron at JYFL, a total neutron yield between 2 and 5×1012 neutrons/(sr s) can be obtained. This satisfies the design goal for studies of fission yields.

    The neutron source was used in the measurement of fission yields from high-energy neutron-induced fission of natU at IGISOL-4, discussed in the second part of this thesis. The fission products were online-separated with a dipole magnet. The isobars, with masses in the range A = 128-133, were identified using γ-spectroscopy. Data for the relative yields of tin and antimony, as well as isomeric yield ratios for five nuclides will be reported. The yields show trends not observed in the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, and only in part confirmed by the GEF model.

    The final part of this thesis concerns a study of the performance of different nuclear model codes, that aim at describing the states of the fission fragments right after scission. Reproduction of experimental data serves to benchmark the models and it indicates, to some extent, how reliably the results can be extrapolated to regions where no data exist.

    A methodology to compare and test these models has been developed, which was implemented in the DEℓFIN code. DEℓFIN takes the excited fission fragments, defined by the model under test, and de-excites them in a standardised way using the nuclear model code TALYS. Eliminating any variability in the way the final observables are extracted helps focusing on each model's assumptions. DEℓFIN was tested on five models, and interesting features in the prompt neutron multiplicity were found for some of them. This study will promote a better understanding of the ideas used in the development of fission models.

    List of papers
    1. A neutron source for IGISOL-JYFLTRAP: Design and characterisation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A neutron source for IGISOL-JYFLTRAP: Design and characterisation
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    2017 (English)In: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601X, Vol. 53, no 8, 173-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A white neutron source based on the Be(p,nx) reaction for fission studies at the IGISOLJYFLTRAP facility has been designed and tested. 30 MeV protons impinge on a 5mm thick water-cooled beryllium disc. The source was designed to produce at least 1012 fast neutrons/s on a secondary fission target, in order to reach competitive production rates of fission products far from the valley of stability.

    The Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA were used in the design phase to simulate the neutron energy spectra. Two experiments to characterise the neutron field were performed: the first was carried out at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala (SE), using an Extended-Range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer and a liquid scintillator which used the time-of-flight (TOF) method to determine the energy of the neutrons; the second employed Thin-Film Breakdown Counters for the measurement of the TOF, and activation foils, at the IGISOL facility in Jyväskylä (FI). Design considerations and the results of the two characterisation measurements are presented, providing benchmarks for the simulations.

    National Category
    Subatomic Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328569 (URN)10.1140/epja/i2017-12362-x (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-08-26 Created: 2017-08-26 Last updated: 2017-08-29
    2. A methodology for the intercomparison of nuclear fission codes using TALYS
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A methodology for the intercomparison of nuclear fission codes using TALYS
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    2017 (English)In: EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, E-ISSN 2100-014X, Vol. 146, 04047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Codes for the calculation of fission observables are frequently used to describe experimentally observed phenomena as well as provide predictions in cases where measurements are missing. Assumptions in the models, and tuning of parameters within the codes, often result in a good reproduction of experimental data. In this work we propose a methodology, coded in the newly developed program DELFIN (De-Excitation of FIssion fragmeNts), that can be used to compare some of the assumptions of the various models. Our code makes use of the fission fragments information after scission and processes them in an independent and consistent fashion to obtain measurable fission observables (such as ν(A) distributions and Isomeric Fission Yield ratios). All the available information from the models, such as fragments' excitation energies, spin distributions and yields are provided as input to DELFIN that uses the nuclear reaction code TALYS to handle the de-excitation of the fission fragments. In this way we decouple the fragments relaxation from the actual fission models. We report here the first results of a comparison carried out on the GEF, Point-by-Point and FREYA models for thermal fission of 235U and 239Pu and spontaneous fission of 252Cf.

    National Category
    Subatomic Physics
    Research subject
    Physics with specialization in Applied Nuclear Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317442 (URN)10.1051/epjconf/201714604047 (DOI)
    Conference
    International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, Bruge (BE), September 11-16, 2016.
    Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2017-09-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Comparison of Fission Models with the DElFIN code
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Fission Models with the DElFIN code
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear model codes are used to describe aspects of the fission process. The general aim is a better understanding of the states of the fragments right after scission. A successful description of the available experimental data serves as benchmark for the models and determines the reliability of extrapolations to other fissioning systems and energy domains, where no experimental data exist.

    The DElFIN code has been developed as a tool to compare and test nuclear fission codes. This can be done using the quantities defined right after scission by the fission models and introducing a transparent and consistent way of handling the fragments' de-excitation. Eliminating any variability in the way the final observables are extracted can help focus on the models' assumptions.

    In this work, we present the comparison of the (A) extracted from DElFIN to using excitation energies from GEF, PbP, FREYA, FIFRELIN and CGMF codes.

    National Category
    Subatomic Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328570 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-26 Created: 2017-08-26 Last updated: 2017-08-28
    4. Production of Sn and Sb isotopes in high-energy neutron induced fission of natU
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Sn and Sb isotopes in high-energy neutron induced fission of natU
    Show others...
    (English)In: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601XArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The first systematic measurement of neutron-induced fission yields has been performed at the upgraded IGISOL-4 facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

    The fission products from high-energy neutron-induced fission of natU stopped in a gas cell filled with helium buffer gas, and were online-separated with a dipole magnet. The isobars, with masses in the range A = 128-133, were transported to a tape-implantation station and identified using γ-spectroscopy.

    We report here the relative cumulative isotopic yields of tin (Z = 50) and the relative independent isotopic yields of antimony (Z = 51). Isomeric yield ratios were also obtained for five nuclides.

    The yields of tin show a staggered behaviour around A = 131, not observed in the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation.The yields of antimony also contradict the trend from the evaluation, but are in agreement with a calculation performed using the GEF model, that shows the yield increasing with mass in the range A = 128-133.

    National Category
    Subatomic Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328572 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-26 Created: 2017-08-26 Last updated: 2017-08-28
  • Public defence: 2017-10-12 13:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Adamaki, Angeliki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Seismicity Analyses Using Dense Network Data: Catalogue Statistics and Possible Foreshocks Investigated Using Empirical and Synthetic Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Precursors related to seismicity patterns are probably the most promising phenomena for short-term earthquake forecasting, although it remains unclear if such forecasting is possible. Foreshock activity has often been recorded but its possible use as indicator of coming larger events is still debated due to the limited number of unambiguously observed foreshocks. Seismicity data which is inadequate in volume or character might be one of the reasons foreshocks cannot easily be identified. One method used to investigate the possible presence of generic seismicity behavior preceding larger events is the aggregation of seismicity series. Sequences preceding mainshocks chosen from empirical data are superimposed, revealing an increasing average seismicity rate prior to the mainshocks. Such an increase could result from the tendency of seismicity to cluster in space and time, thus the observed patterns could be of limited predictive value. Randomized tests using the empirical catalogues imply that the observed increasing rate is statistically significant compared to an increase due to simple clustering, indicating the existence of genuine foreshocks, somehow mechanically related to their mainshocks. If network sensitivity increases, the identification of foreshocks as such may improve. The possibility of improved identification of foreshock sequences is tested using synthetic data, produced with specific assumptions about the earthquake process. Complications related to background activity and aftershock production are investigated numerically, in generalized cases and in data-based scenarios. Catalogues including smaller, and thereby more, earthquakes can probably contribute to better understanding the earthquake processes and to the future of earthquake forecasting. An important aspect in such seismicity studies is the correct estimation of the empirical catalogue properties, including the magnitude of completeness (Mc) and the b-value. The potential influence of errors in the reported magnitudes in an earthquake catalogue on the estimation of Mc and b-value is investigated using synthetic magnitude catalogues, contaminated with Gaussian error. The effectiveness of different algorithms for Mc and b-value estimation are discussed. The sample size and the error level seem to affect the estimation of b-value, with implications for the reliability of the assessment of the future rate of large events and thus of seismic hazard.

    List of papers
    1. EVIDENCE OF PRECURSORY PATTERNS IN AGGREGATED TIME SERIES
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>EVIDENCE OF PRECURSORY PATTERNS IN AGGREGATED TIME SERIES
    2016 (English)In: Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, vol. L, 2016, Proceedings of the 14th Intern. Congress, Thessaloniki, May 2016, 2016, Vol. 50Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate temporal changes in seismic activity observed in the West Corinth Gulfand North-West Peloponnese during 2008 to 2010. Two major earthquake sequencestook place in the area at that time (in 2008 and 2010). Our aim is to analyse Greekseismicity to attempt to confirm the existence or non-existence of seismic precursorsprior to the strongest earthquakes. Perhaps because the area is geologically andtectonically complex, we found that it was not possible to fit the data well using aconsistent Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. Nor could weunambiguously identify foreshocks to individual mainshocks. Therefore we soughtpatterns in aggregated foreshock catalogues. We set a magnitude threshold (M3.5)above which all the earthquakes detected in the study area are considered as“mainshocks”, and we combined all data preceding these into a single foreshockcatalogue. This reveals an increase in seismicity rate not robustly observable forindividual cases. The observed effect is significantly greater than that consistent withstochastic models, including ETAS, thus indicating genuine foreshock activity withpotential useful precursory power, if sufficient data is available, i.e. if the magnitudeof completeness is sufficiently low.

    Abstract [el]

    Μελετάμε χρονικές μεταβολές της σεισμικής δραστηριότητας στο Δυτικό ΚορινθιακόΚόλπο και τη Βορειοδυτική Πελοπόννησο κατά τα έτη 2008-2010. Δύο σημαντικέςσεισμικές ακολουθίες σημειώθηκαν στην περιοχή σε αυτή την περίοδο (2008 και 2010).Στόχος είναι να αναλύσουμε τη σεισμικότητα ώστε να επιβεβαιώσουμε την ύπαρξη ή μηπροσεισμικής δραστηριότητας πριν από τους μεγαλύτερους σεισμούς. Λόγω τηςγεωλογικής και τεκτονικής πολυπλοκότητας της περιοχής, δεν ήταν εφικτή η εφαρμογήενός ενιαίου μοντέλου Επιδημικού Τύπου Μετασεισμικών Ακολουθιών (ETAS), ούτε ηαναγνώριση προσεισμών μεμονωμένων κυρίων σεισμών. Επομένως, αναζητήσαμεανάλογα μοτίβα σε ενιαίους καταλόγους προσεισμών. Θέσαμε ένα μέγεθος (Μ3.5)πάνω από το οποίο όλοι οι σεισμοί θεωρούνται “κύριοι”, και συνδυάσαμε τα δεδομέναπου προηγούνται αυτών, σε ένα κοινό κατάλογο. Αναδεικνύεται έτσι μια αύξηση τουρυθμού σεισμικότητας που δεν είναι εμφανής σε μεμονωμένες περιπτώσεις και είναι πιοσημαντική από εκείνη που προβλέπεται από στοχαστικά μοντέλα, όπως το ETAS,υποδηλώνοντας την ύπαρξη προσεισμών που μπορούν να δώσουν τη δυνατότηταπρόγνωσης αν υπάρχει ικανοποιητικό πλήθος δεδομένων, δηλ. αν το μέγεθοςπληρότητας είναι αρκετά χαμηλό.

    Keyword
    Corinth Gulf, Seismicity, Aggregated Foreshock Catalogues, Κορινθιακός Κόλπος, Σεισμικότητα, Ενιαίοι Κατάλογοι Προσεισμών
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Geophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295440 (URN)
    Conference
    14th International Congress, Geological Society of Greece, Thessaloniki, May 2016