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  • Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Is Job Polarization a Recent Phenomenon?Evidence from Sweden, 1950–2013, and a Comparison to the United States2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I first show that Swedish job polarization is––contrary to common belief––a long-run phenomenon: the share of middle-wage jobs has declined relative to the highest- and lowest-paid jobs since at least the 1950s. Based on previous results for the US, I then demonstrate that the same major employment shifts across routine and nonroutine jobs drive long-run job polarization in both Sweden and the US. In particular, the shrinking manufacturing sector, with the subsequent decline of routine manual (blue-collar) jobs, stands out as the main explanation for why job polarization is a long-run phenomenon. However, consistent with the hypothesis of routine-biased technological change, both countries display across-the-board declines of routine jobs from around the 1980s, as well as polarizing employment patterns not only between but also within industries. But despite these trend breaks, Sweden actually experienced a stronger job-polarization process—a more pronounced hollowing out of the job-wage distribution—in the pre- than in the post 1980-era.

  • Seroussi, Eyal
    et al.
    Agr Res Org, Volcani Ctr, Dept Anim Sci, POB 15159, IL-7528809 Rishon Letsiyon, Israel..
    Pitel, Frederique
    Univ Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT,GenPhySE, F-31326 Castanet Tolosan, France..
    Leroux, Sophie
    Univ Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT,GenPhySE, F-31326 Castanet Tolosan, France..
    Morisson, Mireille
    Univ Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT,GenPhySE, F-31326 Castanet Tolosan, France..
    Bornelöv, Susanne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Miyara, Shoval
    Agr Res Org, Volcani Ctr, Dept Anim Sci, POB 15159, IL-7528809 Rishon Letsiyon, Israel..
    Yosefi, Sara
    Agr Res Org, Volcani Ctr, Dept Anim Sci, POB 15159, IL-7528809 Rishon Letsiyon, Israel..
    Cogburn, Larry A.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Anim & Food Sci, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Burt, David W.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Vet Studies, Roslin Inst & Royal Dick, Roslin EH25 9RG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Texas A&M Univ, Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Friedman-Einat, Miriam
    Agr Res Org, Volcani Ctr, Dept Anim Sci, POB 15159, IL-7528809 Rishon Letsiyon, Israel..
    Mapping of leptin and its syntenic genes to chicken chromosome 1p2017Inngår i: BMC Genetics, ISSN 1471-2156, E-ISSN 1471-2156, Vol. 18, 77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Misidentification of the chicken leptin gene has hampered research of leptin signaling in this species for almost two decades. Recently, the genuine leptin gene with a GC-rich (similar to 70%) repetitive-sequence content was identified in the chicken genome but without indicating its genomic position. This suggests that such GC-rich sequences are difficult to sequence and therefore substantial regions are missing from the current chicken genome assembly.

    Results: A radiation hybrid panel of chicken-hamster Wg3hCl2 cells was used to map the genome location of the chicken leptin gene. Contrary to our expectations, based on comparative genome mapping and sequence characteristics, the chicken leptin was not located on a microchromosome, which are known to contain GC-rich and repetitive regions, but at the distal tip of the largest chromosome (1p). Following conserved synteny with other vertebrates, we also mapped five additional genes to this genomic region (ARF5, SND1, LRRC4, RBM28, and FLNC), bridging the genomic gap in the current Galgal5 build for this chromosome region. All of the short scaffolds containing these genes were found to consist of GC-rich (54 to 65%) sequences comparing to the average GC-content of 40% on chromosome 1. In this syntenic group, the RNA-binding protein 28 (RBM28) was in closest proximity to leptin. We deduced the full-length of the RBM28 cDNA sequence and profiled its expression patterns detecting a negative correlation (R = -0.7) between the expression of leptin and of RBM28 across tissues that expressed at least one of the genes above the average level. This observation suggested a local regulatory interaction between these genes. In adipose tissues, we observed a significant increase in RBM28 mRNA expression in breeds with lean phenotypes.

    Conclusion: Mapping chicken leptin together with a cluster of five syntenic genes provided the final proof for its identification as the true chicken ortholog. The high GC-content observed for the chicken leptin syntenic group suggests that other similar clusters of genes in GC-rich genomic regions are missing from the current genome assembly (Galgal5), which should be resolved in future assemblies of the chicken genome.

  • Kadobera, Daniel
    et al.
    Iganga Mayuge Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Indepth Network Maternal Newborn & Child Hlth Wor, Iganga, Uganda.;Minist Hlth, Dept Clin Serv, Kampala, Uganda..
    Waiswa, Peter
    Iganga Mayuge Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Indepth Network Maternal Newborn & Child Hlth Wor, Iganga, Uganda.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Hlth Syst Policy, Stockholm, Sweden.;Makerere Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Maternal Newborn & Child Hlth Ctr Excellence, Kampala, Uganda..
    Peterson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH). Makerere Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Maternal Newborn & Child Hlth Ctr Excellence, Kampala, Uganda.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth IHCAR, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Blencowe, Hannah
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England..
    Lawn, Joy
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth MARCH, London, England..
    Kerber, Kate
    Save Children US, Saving Newborn Lives, Washington, DC USA..
    Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona
    Makerere Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Kampala, Uganda..
    Comparing performance of methods used to identify pregnant women, pregnancy outcomes, and child mortality in the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Uganda2017Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, nr 1, 1356641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In most low and middle-income countries vital events registration for births and child deaths is poor, with reporting of pregnancy outcomes highly inadequate or nonexistent. Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites and periodic population- based household-level surveys can be used to identify pregnancies and retrospectively capture pregnancy outcomes to provide data for decision making. However, little is known about the performance of different methods in identifying pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, yet this is critical in assessing improvements in reducing maternal and newborn mortality and stillbirths.

    Objective: To explore differences between a population-based household pregnancy survey and prospective health demographic surveillance system in identifying pregnancies and their outcomes in rural eastern Uganda.

    Methods: The study was done within the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS site, a member centre of the INDEPTH Network. Prospective data about pregnancies and their outcomes was collected in the routine biannual census rounds from 2006 to 2010 in the HDSS. In 2011 a cross-sectional survey using the pregnancy history survey (PHS) tool was conducted among women aged 15 to 49 years in the HDSS area. We compared differences between the HDSS biannual census updates and the PHS capture of pregnancies identified as well as neonatal and child deaths, stillbirths and abortions.

    Findings: A total of 10,540 women aged 15 to 49 years were interviewed during the PHS. The PHS captured 12.8% more pregnancies than the HDSS in the most recent year (20102011), though between 2006 and 2010 (earlier periods) the PHS captured only 137 (0.8%) more pregnancies overall. The PHS also consistently identified more stillbirths (18.2%), spontaneous abortions (94.5%) and induced abortions (185.8%) than the prospective HDSS update rounds.

    Conclusions: Surveillance sites are designed to prospectively track population-level outcomes. However, the PHS identified more pregnancy-related outcomes than the HDSS in this study. Asking about pregnancy and its outcomes may be a useful way to improve measurement of pregnancy outcomes. Further research is needed to identify the most effective methods of improving the capture of pregnancies and their outcomes within HDSS sites, household surveys and routine health information systems.

  • Siesing, Christina
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Div Oncol & Pathol, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Sorbye, Halfdan
    Univ Bergen, Haukeland Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway..
    Dragomir, Anca
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sect Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pfeiffer, Per
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Odense, Denmark..
    Qvortrup, Camilla
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Odense, Denmark..
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sect Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jirström, Karin
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Div Oncol & Pathol, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Eberhard, Jakob
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Div Oncol & Pathol, Dept Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    High RBM3 expression is associated with an improved survival and oxaliplatin response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, e0182512Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has been shown to correlate, with prolonged survival in several malignant diseases and with the benefit of platinumbased chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate RBM3 in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) as a prognostic factor for overall survival and in relation to benefit of first-line chemotherapy.

    Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was conducted and evaluated in tumours from 455 mCRC patients. Kaplan- Meier analysis and Cox regression proportional hazards models were used to access the impact of RBM3 expression on overall survival (OS) and progressionfree survival (PFS).

    Results: High RBM3 expression, both nuclear and cytoplasmic, was an independent prognostic factor for prolonged OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.90 and HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.91, respectively). PFS was significantly longer in patients with high RBM3 expression who had received first-line oxaliplatin based treatment, compared to those who had received irinotecan based treatment, both regarding nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (p-value 0.020 and 0.022 respectively).

    Conclusion: High RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of prolonged survival in mCRC patients, in particular in patients treated with first-line oxaliplatin based chemotherapy.

  • Winther, Stine Braendegaard
    et al.
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Sdr Blvd 29, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark..
    Österlund, Pia
    Univ Helsinki, Cent Hosp, Dept Oncol, Stenbackinkatu 9,POB 100, FI-00029 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Haartmaninkatu 8,3th Floor,POB 63, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Berglund, Åke
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Qvortrup, Camilla
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Sdr Blvd 29, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark..
    Sorbye, Halfdan
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Oncol, Postboks 1400, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Postboks 1400, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    Pfeiffer, Per
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Sdr Blvd 29, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark..
    Randomized study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 followed by irinotecan) and reduced dose combination therapy (S-1/oxaliplatin followed by S-1/irinotecan) as initial therapy for older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: NORDIC 92017Inngår i: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, 548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a disease of older age, but there is a relative lack of knowledge about effects of chemotherapy in older patients as they are under-represented in clinical trials. Little data can guide whether the strategy in older mCRC patients should be a sequential full-dose monotherapy chemotherapy approach or a dose-reduced combination chemotherapy approach. The oral 5FU prodrug S-1 seems to have less side effects than capecitabine and should be an optimal drug for older patients, but few data are available. Improved geriatric assessments are needed to select which older patients should receive therapy.

    Methods: The NORDIC 9 trial is a Nordic multicenter randomized phase II study comparing full dose monotherapy (S-1 30 mg/m(2) twice daily days 1-14 every 3 weeks, followed by second line irinotecan 250-350 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 3 weeks or 180-250 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 2 weeks) with reduced dose combination therapy (S-1 20 mg/m(2) days 1-14 + oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) iv day 1 every 3 weeks, followed by second line S-1 20 mg/m(2) days 1-14 + irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) day 1 every 3 week) for older patients (>= 70 years) with mCRC who are not candidates for full-dose standard combination therapy. Additional bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) is optional in first-line. Blood samples and tumor tissue will be collected to investigate predictive markers. Geriatric screening tools (G-8, VES-13, Timed-Up-and- Go and Handgrip strength), Charlson Comorbidty Index and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) will be evaluated as predictors of efficacy and toxicity. The target sample size is 150 patients. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival and secondary endpoints are time-to-failure of strategy, overall survival, response rate, toxicity, and correlations between biomarkers, pre-treatment characteristics and geriatric assessments.

    Discussion: The study will add knowledge on how to treat older mCRC patients who are not candidates for standard combination therapy. Furthermore it may provide understanding of efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy in older cancer patients and thus offer a better chance for tailored treatment strategies in these patients.

  • Markovski, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    A Source-to-Source Transformerfor QD-locking2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Locking is a common method of synchronization in parallel programming. Delegation locking is a form of locking where in threads may, under the right circumstances,delegate critical sections to be executed by another thread instead of waiting for the lock. Queue Delegation Locking (QD-locking) is a novel method of delegation locking which drastically improves performance in situations where one or more locks are moderately or heavily contented, and essentially lets a thread delegate a critical section to the thread which currently holds the lock. QD-locking requires critical sections to be written differently than standard phreads mutex locking. In this thesis, we discuss the feasibility of taking a program which uses pthreads mutex locks and automatically transforming it into a program using QD-locking. We describe an implementation of this transformation, called QDTrans, using the qd_lock_lib implementation of QD-locking in the C programming language.We also discuss the quality and performance of code tranformed by QDTrans.QDTrans is currently capable of successfully converting seven out of the nineSPLASH2 benchmarks.

  • Leuchowius, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Classification of High Content Screening Data by Deep Convolutional Neural Networks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In drug discovery, high content screening (HCS) is an imaging-based method forcell-based screening of large libraries of drug compounds. HCS generates enormous amounts of images that need to be analysed and quantified by automated image analysis. This analysis is typically performed by a variety of algorithms segmenting cells and sub-cellular compartments and quantifying properties such as fluorescence intensities, morphological features, and textural characteristics. These quantified data can then be used to train a classifier to classify the imaged cells according to the phenotypic effects of the compounds. Recent developments in machine learning have enabled a new kind of image analysis in which classifiers based on convolutional neural networks can be trained on the image data directly, by passing the image quantification step. This has been shown to produce highly accurate predictions and simplify the analysis process. In this study, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were used to classify HCS images of cells treated with a set of different drug compounds. A set of network architectures and hyper-parameters were explored in order to optimise the classification performance. The results were compared with the accuracies achieved with a classical image analysis pipeline in combination with a classifier. With this data set, the best CNN-based classifier achieved an accuracy of 91.3 %, where as classical image analysis combined with a random forest classifier achieved a classification accuracy of 78.8 %. In addition to the large increase in classification accuracy, CNNs have benefits such as being less biased when it comes to image quantification algorithm selection, and require less hands-on time during optimisation.

  • Ehrencrona Kjellin, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Interactive Topic Modeling for Source Code Analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Trying to make sense of large sets of data is becoming a task very central to computer science in general. Topic models, capable of uncovering the semantic themes pervading through large collections of documents, have seen a surge in popularity in recent years, with applications in a variety of domains. In this thesis, topic models are applied to source code repositories, specifically for the purpose of concept location - offering an overview of which features are contained within asystem, the relationships between such features, and their locality within the system. Topic models are high level statistical tools; their raw output is given in terms of probability distributions, suited neither for simple interpretation nor deep analysis.Interpreting an inferred model in an intuitive manner requires significant post process ingand tools suited for such purposes. Additionally, topic models rarely produce perfectly sensible and coherent topics without some level of supervision - some measure of human interaction is thus typically required for refining the output. Our objective is to simplify the process of topic modeling as it pertains to source code analysis, by addressing the afore mentioned issues. First, by implementing existing methods of semi-supervised topic modeling, offering users tools for iteratively refining an inferred model. Second, by tightly integrating topic modeling with high level visual representations of inferred models, capable of capturing the relationship between terms, documents and features related to a source code repository. We have implemented a fully working prototype of such a system. Through a survey, we have put the tool in the hands of users, thereby demonstrating the system to offer several perceived benefits from a user perspective - in terms of easily comprehending large-scale repositories and in terms of facilitating the process of topic modeling.

  • Guth, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Barn och ungdomars upplevelser av att leva med risk för anafylaxi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Anafylaxi är en akut, svår, oftast snabbt insättandes systemisk överkänslighetsreaktion från flera organsystem och är potentiellt livshotande. Det ses en ökad förekomst av anafylaxi i samhället över tid sedan 90-talet. Syfte: Att undersöka barn och ungdomars (0–19 år) upplevelser av att leva med risk för anafylaxi. Metod: En litteraturstudie med tio kvalitativa artiklar. 170 barn och ungdomar deltog. Sökningar gjordes i PubMed, CINAHL och PsycINFO. En sekundärsökning utfördes. Resultatet presenterades med en syntes. Omvårdnadsteori: Roys adaptionsmodell. Resultat: Upplevelser kategoriserades i Känslomässig påverkan och Begränsningar i vardagen. Faktorer delades in i Mitt hem – Min familj – Min säkerhet, Miljön, Adrenalinpennan, Erfarenhet av anafylaxi, Innehållsförteckningar – ”kan innehålla spår av…”, Okunskap och Källor till stöd. Strategier delades in i Att hela tiden vara på sin vakt – värdera risker, Normalisering och Erfarenhet leder till kunskap, vilket resulterar i självsäkerhet – En genomresa. Slutsats: De allergiska barnen visade en mångfacetterad bild av att leva med risk för anafylaxi, med effekter på livskvalitet och välbefinnande initialt i livet som följd. Problematiken visades paradoxalt vara en övergående börda för de flesta: de allergiska barnen genomgick en första tid av adaption, till följd av vilken allergin blev en del av livet under tonåren. Denna litteraturstudie ger djupare insikt i allergiska barn och ungdomarnas upplevelser, samtidigt som den ger underlag till idéer för framtida forskning, i syfte att ta reda på hur samhället och sjukvården på bästa sätt skall utvecklas, för att främja adaption till att leva med risk för anafylaxi.

  • Hassan, Raz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Säterberg, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Distraktionsmetoder på barn vid medicinska undersökningar för minskat obehag och lidande, en systematisk litteraturövrsikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många barn upplever medicinska undersökningar som något obehagligt och smärtsamt. Det första besöket ett barn har med sjukvården kan ha en avgörande betydelse för hur barnet upplever vården i framtiden, ett negativt första besök kan leda till sjukhusrelaterad rädsla även i vuxen ålder. För att undvika detta är det viktigt att barnet får en positiv upplevelse i samband med vistelsen vilket kan åstadkommas med olika distraktionsmetoder som finns för att ändra barnets upplevelse och på så sätt minska obehag och smärta.

    Syfte: Att undersöka om distraktionsmetoder fungerar vid medicinska undersökningar för att minska lidande och obehag hos barn som vårdas inom pediatrisk sjukvård, primärvård samt inom sluten vård.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturöversikt baserad på 10 kvantitativa artiklar ur databaserna PubMed, The Cochrane Library och Cinahl.

    Resultat: Distraktionsmetoder kan grupperas i olika subgrupper beroende på typen av distraktion: distraktion via handling, distraktion med objekt, distraktion av vuxen samt elektronisk distraktion. Denna studie visar att distraktion generellt är effektivt för reducering av smärta och obehag hos barn under medicinska undersökningar. Beroende på barnets ålder är vissa distraktionsmetoder mer effektiva än vad andra är. Två metoder som visat sig vara effektiva i alla åldrar är distraktion via PlayStation och DITTO.

    Slutsats: Tillämpning av distraktionsmetoder är ett effektivt sätt att reducera smärta och obehag hos barn som utsätts för medicinska undersökningar. Det finns ett stort antal metoder att välja mellan där många är effektiva. Med fördel används distraktioner med objekt eller elektronisk distraktion och med närvarande förälder.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 13:15 Brusewitzsalen, Uppsala
    Österman, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Uppsala Center for Labor Studies.
    Education, Stratification and Reform: Educational Institutions in Comparative Perspective2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main argument of this thesis is that research has to take the institutional character of education seriously. Educational institutions carry considerable weight for outcomes of education and their design is a matter of intense political debate. This work focuses in particular on the institution of tracking that has wide-reaching consequences for the structure of education. The thesis consists of an introductory essay, together with three empirical essays. The empirical essays all acknowledge the main argument but study different outcomes and relationships connected to education. Essay I studies how the institutions of political economy and education together affect equality of income and equality of educational opportunity. This essay contributes to the literature by distinguishing the effects of the different institutions of political economy and education, as well as how they interact to affect the two contrasting conceptions of equality. The results reveal that tracking hinders equality of educational opportunity but is also related to better incomes for vocational education graduates in certain institutional settings. Wage bargaining coordination reinforces the more equal educational opportunities of weakly tracked contexts and improves the relative income of vocational graduates in these contexts. Essay II explores how education and tracking affect social trust. It makes two contributions. First, the empirical approach provides strong support for causal inference. Second, it is the first study to consider how tracking affects social trust. The empirical evidence finds no general effect of educational attainment on social trust, but decreasing tracking has a positive effect on social trust for individuals who come from weakly educated backgrounds. Essay III aims to explain cross-country differences in tracking by focusing on the impact of government partisanship. The study contributes to the literature by being the first comparative study to explore how partisan politics may explain differences in tracking and being one of few comparative studies there are on the topic at all. The results show that tracking is strongly related to a dominance of Christian democratic governments, whereas detracking reforms have mainly been carried out by social democratic governments.

    Delarbeid
    1. Varieties of education and inequality: how the institutions of education and political economy condition inequality
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Varieties of education and inequality: how the institutions of education and political economy condition inequality
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Socio-Economic Review, ISSN 1475-1461, E-ISSN 1475-147XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the relationship between equality of educational opportunity and equality of income in different institutional contexts. By combining insights from the literature on Varieties of Capitalism and education sociology, the study investigates how the educational system and the political economy jointly affect the social stratification of educational choices and condition income differentials between graduates of vocational and general education programmes. The empirical analysis contributes to the literature by contrasting the two conceptions of equality and applying a richer institutional approach than previous studies within the fields of education sociology and Varieties of Capitalism.

     

    The results reveal that tracking hinders equality of educational opportunity but is also related to higher incomes for vocational education graduates in certain contexts. Wage bargaining coordination reinforces the more equal opportunities of weakly tracked contexts and improves the relative income of vocational graduates in these contexts.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017
    Emneord
    varieties of capitalism, coordination, skills, education, equality
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Statskunskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-325108 (URN)10.1093/ser/mwx007 (DOI)
    Prosjekter
    Education, stratification and reform - Educational institutions in comparative perspective (PhD thesis)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-06-21 Laget: 2017-06-21 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-31
    2. In education we trust?: Social trust and institutional reform of education
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>In education we trust?: Social trust and institutional reform of education
    (engelsk)Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Education is one of the most prominently proposed sources of social trust in the literature. Nevertheless, the evidence of a causal relationship between education and social trust leaves much to be desired. This study contributes to this discussion in two ways. First, it uses a design based on educational reforms in European countries, providing strong grounds for causal inference that travels beyond a specific country. Second, it is the first study to consider how the institutional context of education, specifically tracking, impacts the relationship between education and social trust. Tracking has clear effects on the diversity of schools and classes and is argued to be a decisive factor in the effect of education on social trust. The results do not support a general effect of education on social trust. However, detracking reforms do have a substantial positive impact on social trust among individuals from poorly educated backgrounds.

    Emneord
    Trust, Quasi Experiment, Policy, Education
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332620 (URN)
    Prosjekter
    Education, Stratification and Reform - Educational institutions in comparative perspective
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-31 Laget: 2017-10-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-31
    3. Tracking detracking reforms: Political explanations of institutional tracking in education
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Tracking detracking reforms: Political explanations of institutional tracking in education
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present essay explores political explanations for differences in institutional tracking. Tracking refers to the practice in which school children are separated into different tracks according to ability or future plans for further education. Some countries more or less abolished tracking during the decades after the Second World War, whereas others have largely retained that traditional institutional structure of education. What role do partisan politics play for these different trajectories? Tracking is argued to be a truly political issue, as it is closely connected to the reproduction of social stratification and the conditions for social mobility. Hardly any previous comparative studies have aimed to explain the institutional development of tracking, and none have focused on partisan politics. The empirical evidence of this study is based on a novel dataset collected by the author and addressing the development of tracking institutions and reforms from 1960 to 2013 in 31 developed democratic states. In the analyses, government partisanship is used to explain differences in age of selection and in the propensity to decide on detracking reforms. The results show that early selection is strongly related to a dominance of Christian democratic governments, whereas detracking reforms have mainly been carried out by social democratic governments.

    Emneord
    Education, Tracking, Education reform, Political economy, Political parties
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Statskunskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332621 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-31 Laget: 2017-10-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-31
  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 13:15 Geijersalen, Uppsala
    Eddebo, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Religionsfilosofi.
    Death and the Self: A Metaphysical Investigation of the Rationality of Afterlife Beliefs in the Contemporary Intellectual Climate2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation's purpose is to test the hypothesis that beliefs in the possibility of post-mortem survival can be rationally held within the context of the contemporary scientific and philosophical environment. In terms of criteria of rationality, a basic evidentialism is assumed, such that propositions which are sufficiently supported by the available evidence can be rationally held. With regard to the compatibility with contemporary science and philosophy, it follows as a further criterion that the relevant evidence must be satisfactorily anchored within the framework of these traditions.

    The relevant evidence concerns two levels. First, the basic level of the conceptual coherence of afterlife beliefs is addressed, so that the logical possibility of post-mortem survival can be established. Secondly, the viability of the metaphysics which are implied in the support of the logical possibility (i.e. the metaphysics needed to actualize post-mortem survival) is defended, establishing the metaphysical possibility of post-mortem survival. At this stage, reductive physicalism, which is the only position that effectively undermines post-mortem survival, is criticized, and the problem of interaction which burdens several of the survival-enabling ontologies is addressed.

    As for the criterion of scientific compatibility, it is further shown that contemporary physics are compatible with the survival-enabling metaphysics, and that contemporary physics can be argued to provide a moderate positive relevance with regard to these positions.

    The conclusion drawn is that belief in the possibility of post-mortem survival is not only rationally permissible within the framework of contemporary science and philosophy, but also rationally obligatory, i.e. that this possibility cannot rationally be denied with regard to the reviewed evidence.

  • Dolinska, Monika
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Piccini, Alexandre
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wong, Wan Man
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Gelali, Eleni
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Anne-Sofie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Klang, Johannis
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xiao, Pingnan
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yektaei-Karin, Elham
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Strömberg, Ulla Ohlsson
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Hematologi.
    Mustjoki, Satu
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Clin Chem & Hematol, Hematol Res Unit Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Helsinki, Finland..
    Stenke, Leif
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Marja
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Qian, Hong
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Hematol & Regenerat Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leukotriene signaling via ALOX5 and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 is dispensable for in vitro growth of CD34 (+)CD38(-) stem and progenitor cells in chronic myeloid leukemia2017Inngår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 490, nr 2, 378-384 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR-ABL oncoprotein in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are remarkably effective inducing deep molecular remission in most patients. However, they are less effective to eradicate the leukemic stem cells (LSC), resulting in disease persistence. Therefore, there is great need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to specifically target the LSC. In an experimental mouse CML model system, the leukotriene pathway, and specifically, the expression ALOX5, encoding 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), has been reported as a critical regulator of the LSC. Based on these results, the 5-LO inhibitor zileuton has been introduced in clinical trials as a therapeutic option to target the LSC although its effect on primary human CML LSC has not been studied. We have here by using multiplex single cell PCR analyzed the expression of the mediators of the leukotriene pathway in bone marrow (BM) BCR-ABL(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells at diagnosis, and found low or undetectable expression of ALOX5. In line with this, zileuton did not exert significant overall growth inhibition in the long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) and colony (CFU-C) assays of BM CD34(+)CD38(-) cells from 7 CML patients. The majority of the single leukemic BCR-ABL(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells expressed cysteinyl leukotriene receptors CYSLTI and CYSLT2. However, montelukast, an inhibitor of CYSLTI, also failed to significantly suppress CFU-C and LTC-IC growth. These findings indicate that targeting ALOX5 or CYSLTI signaling with leukotriene antagonists, introduced into the clinical practice primarily as prophylaxis and treatment for asthma, may not be a promising pharmacological strategy to eradicate persisting LSC in CML patients. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • Cronander, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Återskapande av naturliga trösklar i mindre vattendrag och våtmarker: Modellutveckling för simulering av förändradeflödesregimer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges markanvändning ser idag annorlunda ut än för 100 år sedan. Det senaste århundradet har våtmarker dikats för att öka mängden odlingsbar areal. I och med utdikning av våtmarker förändrades den kustnära miljön, där många fiskarter har sina lekområden.När en minskning av predatorfisk observerades i Östersjöns kustnära områden i slutet av 1900-talet ansågs att exploatering av fiskens lekområden kunde vara en möjlig orsak för minskningen. För att återskapa naturliga lek- och uppväxtområden diskuteras nu en implementering av naturliga trösklar i diken som avvattnar kustnära våtmarker. I samband med dessa restaureringsarbeten utfärdar man beslutsprocesser tillsammans med bland annat markägare. För att kunna uppskatta och kvantifiera hur närområdet påverkas av en naturlig tröskel behöver effekten av den tilltänkta tröskeln på vattenflöden modelleras.I denna studie har därför en hydraulisk modell utvecklats för att kunna simulera vattenflöden i tre våtmarker som ligger på Öland där implementeringen av naturliga trösklar är tilltänkt: Maren, Hyllekärr och Brokhål. Modellen användes framförallt för att kunna uppskatta hur våtmarkerna översvämmas vid olika vattenföring. Genom ett observerat starkt samband mellan avrinningsområdets yta och vattenföring kunde extrema flödesscenarion simuleras. En metod för att beskriva naturliga trösklars påverkan på uppströms flödesregimer har utvecklats med hydraulisk modellering i HEC-RAS. För att validera modellresultaten uppmättes vattenflöde under vårflod 2017.Modellsimuleringen visade att endast Brokhål visade förväntade resultat, Maren visade förväntade resultat vid högre flöden och Hyllekärr visade orimliga översvämningar. Validering av resultaten visade att höjdmodellen som använts har visat felaktig topografisk information för alla tre våtmarkerna. Avvikelser och felaktigheter i topografi och batymetri har pekats ut som den största bakomliggande felkällan till modellen.Studien visade att naturliga trösklar har ingen, eller extremt liten påverkan på uppströms flödesregimer. Det bör dock poängteras att modellen har kraftiga begränsningar, särskilt höjdmodellens upplösning. Fler försök med modellen samt utveckling av höjdmodellen rekommenderas och resultaten från denna studie bör endast ses som vägledande.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 13:15 Auditorium minus, Uppsala
    Ander, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Cancer during adolescence: Psychological consequences and development of psychological treatment2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present thesis was to examine long-term psychological distress following cancer during adolescence and to develop a tailored psychological intervention to reduce cancer-related distress experienced by young survivors of adolescent cancer that was feasible and acceptable.

    Study I adopted a longitudinal design, assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents diagnosed with cancer from shortly after diagnosis (n=61) up to 10 years after diagnosis (n=28). Findings suggest that development of HRQOL and anxiety and depression is not linear and whilst the majority adjust well, a subgroup report long-term elevated distress. In Study II, experiences of cancer-related psychological distress were explored using unstructured interviews. Participants described cancer treatment as a mental challenge, felt marked and hindered by the cancer experience, and struggled with feelings of inadequacy and insecurity, existential issues, and difficulties handling emotions. Study III was a preliminary investigation of individualised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), alongside the identification and conceptualisation of cancer-related concerns using cognitive-behavioural theory. Significant difficulties with recruitment were encountered. Participants reported cancer-related concerns conceptualised as social avoidance, fear and avoidance of emotions and bodily symptoms, imbalance in activity, and worry and rumination. In Study IV, the acceptability and feasibility of an internet-administered CBT based self-help intervention (ICBT) for young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence was examined using an uncontrolled design and embedded process evaluation. The study protocol for Study IV was included in this thesis along with preliminary findings demonstrating significant difficulties with recruitment.

    Overall, findings suggest that whilst the majority of survivors of adolescent cancer adjust well over time a subgroup report elevated levels of distress and a range of distressing cancer-related experiences. A number of cancer-related difficulties were identified in Study II and III, which may be used to inform the development of future psychological treatments for the population. Preliminary investigation of the psychological interventions examined within this thesis further highlights the need for future development work to enhance the feasibility and acceptability of psychological support for the population. 

    Delarbeid
    1. Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, nr 5, 582-589 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the development of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a cohort diagnosed with cancer during adolescence from shortly after up to 10 years after diagnosis.

    Methods: Participants (n = 61) completed the SF-36 and the HADS shortly; six, 12, and 18 months; and two, three, four, and 10 years (n = 28) after diagnosis. Polynomial change trajectories were used to model development.

    Results: Polynomial change trajectories showed an initial increase which abated over time into a decrease which abated over time for the SF-36 subscales Mental Health and Vitality; an initial decline which abated over time into an increase for HADS anxiety; and an initial decline which abated over time into an increase which abated over time for HADS depression. The SF-36 mental component summary showed no change from two to 10 years after diagnosis whereas the SF-36 physical component summary showed an increase from two years after diagnosis which declined over time. Ten years after diagnosis 29% reported possible anxiety.

    Conclusions: Development of HRQOL and symptoms of anxiety and depression appears to be nonlinear among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence. Well into permanent survivorship an increase in symptoms of anxiety is shown and approximately a third of the participants report possible anxiety. The findings indicate the need for: studies designed to pinpoint the times of highest psychological risk, clinical follow-up focusing on psychological problems, and development of effective psychological interventions for survivors of adolescent cancer

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-262514 (URN)10.1002/pon.3965 (DOI)000374494700014 ()26361085 (PubMedID)
    Eksternt samarbeid:
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Cancer Society, 99 0347 01 0235 02 0690 03 0227 05 0189 10 0649 11 0649 12 0649Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, 1999/021 02/002 04/011 07/044 10/086
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-16 Laget: 2015-09-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Exploration of Psychological Distress Experienced by Survivors of Adolescent Cancer
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Exploration of Psychological Distress Experienced by Survivors of Adolescent Cancer
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Emneord
    adolescence, cancer, psychological distress, psychological treatment, survivorship, qualitative methods
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Medicinsk vetenskap; Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330127 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    U‐Care: Better Psychosocial Care at Lower Cost? Evidence-based assessment and Psychosocial Care via Internet, a Swedish ExampleSwedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, 2013-0039; 2016-0004
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-31 Laget: 2017-10-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-21
    3. A preliminary open trial of individualised cognitive behavioural therapy for young survivors of cancer during adolescence: initial findings and conceptualisation of distress
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A preliminary open trial of individualised cognitive behavioural therapy for young survivors of cancer during adolescence: initial findings and conceptualisation of distress
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A subgroup of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer in adolescence report high levels of psychological distress. Empirically-supported treatments tailored to the concerns experienced by this population are lacking. The aims of this study were to (1) conduct a preliminary evaluation of an individualised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer during adolescence and (2) identify and conceptualise cancer-related psychological concerns using cognitive-behavioural theory.

    Methods: A single-arm trial in which ten AYA (17-25 years) survivors of cancer during adolescence were offered up to 15 sessions of individualised CBT guided by behavioural case formulations was undertaken. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and three months follow-up. Before commencing treatment, two individual qualitative interviews were conducted with each participant. Analysis of cancer-related concerns was guided by qualitative framework analysis and theoretical thematic analysis, and cognitive-behavioural theory was used to inform identification of themes.

    Results: Ten of 201 potential participants invited to participate were included resulting in an overall participation rate of 5%. Nine participants completed treatment and eight completed the follow-up assessment. The majority of concerns reported were cancer-related and conceptualised as social avoidance, fear and avoidance of emotions and bodily symptoms, low mood and unbalance in activity, and worry and rumination.

    Conclusions: Given significant difficulties with recruitment, further research is needed to examine barriers and the impact of mental health literacy and stigma on help seeking in the AYA cancer survivor population. Internet-administered CBT self-help tailored towards the main presenting concerns of AYA cancer survivors may be a promising solution.

    Emneord
    Adolescence, Cancer, Cognitive behaviour therapy, Psychological treatment, Tonår, Cancer, Kognitiv beteendeterapi, Psykologisk behandling
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330126 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    U‐Care: Better Psychosocial Care at Lower Cost? Evidence-based assessment and Psychosocial Care via Internet, a Swedish ExampleSwedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, 2016-0004, 2013-0039
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-31 Laget: 2017-10-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-31
    4. Guided Internet-Administered Self-Help to Reduce Symptoms Of Anxiety and Depression Among Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed With Cancer During Adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): study protocol for a feasibility trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Guided Internet-Administered Self-Help to Reduce Symptoms Of Anxiety and Depression Among Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed With Cancer During Adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): study protocol for a feasibility trial
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 1, e013906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A subgroup of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence reports elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and unmet needs for psychological support. Evidence-based psychological treatments tailored for this population are lacking. This protocol describes a feasibility study of a guided-internet-administered self-help programme (YoungCan) primarily targeting symptoms of anxiety and depression among young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence and of the planned study procedures for a future controlled trial. Methods/analysis The study is an uncontrolled feasibility trial with a pre-post and 3-month follow-up design. Potential participants aged 15-25years, diagnosed with cancer during adolescence, will be identified via the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry. 30 participants will be included. Participants will receive YoungCan, a 12-week therapist-guided, internet-administered self-help programme consisting primarily of cognitive-behavioural therapy organised into individually assigned modules targeting depressive symptoms, worry and anxiety, body dissatisfaction and post-traumatic stress. Interactive peer support and psychoeducative functions are also available. Feasibility outcomes include: recruitment and eligibility criteria; data collection; attrition; resources needed to complete the study and programme; safety procedures; participants' and therapists' adherence to the programme; and participants' acceptability of the programme and study methodology. Additionally, mechanisms of impact will be explored and data regarding symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, body dissatisfaction, reactions to social interactions, quality of life, axis I diagnoses according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and healthcare service use will be collected. Exploratory analyses of changes in targeted outcomes will be conducted. Ethics/dissemination This feasibility protocol was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Uppsala, Sweden (ref: 2016/210). Findings will be disseminated to relevant research, clinical, health service and patient communities through publications in peer-reviewed and popular science journals and presentations at scientific and clinical conferences.

    Emneord
    adolescence, cognitive behavioural therapy, feasibility study, neoplasms, psychological treatment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313898 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013906 (DOI)000395590300138 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, PR2013-0039
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-25 Laget: 2017-01-25 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-31bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 09:00 4101, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Belova, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen.
    Computational dynamics – real and complex2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The PhD thesis considers four topics in dynamical systems and is based on one paper and three manuscripts.

    In Paper I we apply methods of interval analysis in order to compute the rigorous enclosure of rotation number. The described algorithm is supplemented with a method of proving the existence of periodic points which is used to check rationality of the rotation number.

    In Manuscript II we provide a numerical algorithm for computing critical points of the multiplier map for the quadratic family (i.e., points where the derivative of the multiplier with respect to the complex parameter vanishes).

    Manuscript III concerns continued fractions of quadratic irrationals. We show that the generating function corresponding to the sequence of denominators of the best rational approximants of a quadratic irrational is a rational function with integer coefficients. As a corollary we can compute the Lévy constant of any quadratic irrational explicitly in terms of its partial quotients.

    Finally, in Manuscript IV we develop a method for finding rigorous enclosures of all odd periodic solutions of the stationary Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. The problem is reduced to a bounded, finite-dimensional constraint satisfaction problem whose solution gives the desired information about the original problem. Developed approach allows us to exclude the regions in L2, where no solution can exist.

    Delarbeid
    1. Rigorous enclosures of rotation numbers by interval methods.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Rigorous enclosures of rotation numbers by interval methods.
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Computational Dynamics, ISSN 2158-2491, Vol. 3, nr 1, 81-91 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We apply set-valued numerical methods to compute an accurate enclosure of the rotation number. The described algorithm is supplemented with a method of proving the existence of periodic points, which is used to check the rationality of the rotation number. A few numerical experiments are presented to show that the implementation of interval methods produces a good enclosure of the rotation number of a circle map.

    Emneord
    rotation number, circle map, rigorous computation, interval arithmetic, set-valued mathematics
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332153 (URN)10.3934/jcd.2016004 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-24 Laget: 2017-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-26
    2. Critical points of the multiplier map for the quadratic family.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Critical points of the multiplier map for the quadratic family.
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Emneord
    multipliers, quadratic family
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332157 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-24 Laget: 2017-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-26
    3. Quadratic irrationals, generating functions and Lévy constants.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Quadratic irrationals, generating functions and Lévy constants.
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Emneord
    continued fractions, generating functions
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332158 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-24 Laget: 2017-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-26
    4. Finding all solutions of stationary Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Finding all solutions of stationary Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations.
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332279 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-26 Laget: 2017-10-26 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-26
  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 09:15 Polhemssalen, Uppsala
    Jönsson, Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär biofysik.
    Ultrafast Structural and Electron Dynamics in Soft Matter Exposed to Intense X-ray Pulses2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of soft matter using ultrashort high intensity pulses have been made possible through the advent of X-ray free-electrons lasers. The last decade has seen the development of a new type of protein crystallography where femtosecond dynamics can be studied, and single particle imaging with atomic resolution is on the horizon. The pulses are so intense that any sample quickly turns into a plasma. This thesis studies the ultrafast transition from soft matter to warm dense matter, and the implications for structural determination of proteins.                   

    We use non-thermal plasma simulations to predict ultrafast structural and electron dynamics. Changes in atomic form factors due to the electronic state, and displacement as a function of temperature, are used to predict Bragg signal intensity in protein nanocrystals. The damage processes started by the pulse will gate the diffracted signal within the pulse duration, suggesting that long pulses are useful to study protein structure. This illustrates diffraction-before-destruction in crystallography.

    The effect from a varying temporal photon distribution within a pulse is also investigated. A well-defined initial front determines the quality of the diffracted signal. At lower intensities, the temporal shape of the X-ray pulse will affect the overall signal strength; at high intensities the signal level will be strongly dependent on the resolution.

    Water is routinely used to deliver biological samples into the X-ray beam. Structural dynamics in water exposed to intense X-rays were investigated with simulations and experiments. Using pulses of different duration, we found that non-thermal heating will affect the water structure on a time scale longer than 25 fs but shorter than 75 fs. Modeling suggests that a loss of long-range coordination of the solvation shells accounts for the observed decrease in scattering signal.

    The feasibility of using X-ray emission from plasma as an indicator for hits in serial diffraction experiments is studied. Specific line emission from sulfur at high X-ray energies is suitable for distinguishing spectral features from proteins, compared to emission from delivery liquids. We find that plasma emission continues long after the femtosecond pulse has ended, suggesting that spectrum-during-destruction could reveal information complementary to diffraction.

    Delarbeid
    1. Ultrafast self-gating Bragg diffraction of exploding nanocrystals in an X-ray laser
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ultrafast self-gating Bragg diffraction of exploding nanocrystals in an X-ray laser
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, nr 2, 1213-1231 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In structural determination of crystalline proteins using intense femtosecond X-ray lasers, damage processes lead to loss of structural coherence during the exposure. We use a nonthermal description for the damage dynamics to calculate the ultrafast ionization and the subsequent atomic displacement. These effects degrade the Bragg diffraction on femtosecond time scales and gate the ultrafast imaging. This process is intensity and resolution dependent. At high intensities the signal is gated by the ionization affecting low resolution information first. At lower intensities, atomic displacement dominates the loss of coherence affecting high-resolution information. We find that pulse length is not a limiting factor as long as there is a high enough X-ray flux to measure a diffracted signal.

    Emneord
    Ultrafast lasers, UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers, X-ray imaging, Diffraction theory, Ultrafast phenomena
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-242136 (URN)10.1364/OE.23.001213 (DOI)000349166100061 ()
    Merknad

    De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-01-21 Laget: 2015-01-21 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-25bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Simulations of radiation damage as a function of the temporal pulse profile in femtosecond X-ray protein crystallography
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Simulations of radiation damage as a function of the temporal pulse profile in femtosecond X-ray protein crystallography
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 22, nr 2, 256-266 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography of protein nanocrystals using ultrashort and intense pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser has proved to be a successful method for structural determination. However, due to significant variations in diffraction pattern quality from pulse to pulse only a fraction of the collected frames can be used. Experimentally, the X-ray temporal pulse profile is not known and can vary with every shot. This simulation study describes how the pulse shape affects the damage dynamics, which ultimately affects the biological interpretation of electron density. The instantaneously detected signal varies during the pulse exposure due to the pulse properties, as well as the structural and electronic changes in the sample. Here ionization and atomic motion are simulated using a radiation transfer plasma code. Pulses with parameters typical for X-ray free-electron lasers are considered: pulse energies ranging from 10$\sp 4$ to 10$\sp 7$Jcm$\sp $-$2$ with photon energies from 2 to 12keV, up to 100fs long. Radiation damage in the form of sample heating that will lead to a loss of crystalline periodicity and changes in scattering factor due to electronic reconfigurations of ionized atoms are considered here. The simulations show differences in the dynamics of the radiation damage processes for different temporal pulse profiles and intensities, where ionization or atomic motion could be predominant. The different dynamics influence the recorded diffracted signal in any given resolution and will affect the subsequent structure determination.

    Emneord
    X-ray free-electron laser, serial femtosecond crystallography, radiation damage, plasma simulations
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-245210 (URN)10.1107/S1600577515002878 (DOI)000350641100007 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-02-25 Laget: 2015-02-25 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-25bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. FreeDam 1.0 – A Webtool for Free-Electron Laser-Induced Damage in Femtosecond X-ray Crystallography
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>FreeDam 1.0 – A Webtool for Free-Electron Laser-Induced Damage in Femtosecond X-ray Crystallography
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron laser sources have the last decade been available to the scientific community. One of the most successful uses of these new machines has been crys- tallography. When samples are exposed to the intense short X-ray pulses provided by the X-ray free-electron laser, the sample becomes very fast highly ionized and the atomic structure is affected. Here we present a webtool for estimations of the ionization and temperatures in these types of experiments. 

    Emneord
    FreeDam, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, x-ray free-electron laser, radiation damage, serial femtosecond x-ray crystallography, Cretin, simulation, database
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329499 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-09-17 Laget: 2017-09-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-25
    4. Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Indications of radiation damage in ferredoxin microcrystals using high-intensity X-FEL beams
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 22, nr 2, 225-238 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins that contain metal cofactors are expected to be highly radiation sensitive since the degree of X-ray absorption correlates with the presence of high-atomic-number elements and X-ray energy. To explore the effects of local damage in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), Clostridium ferredoxin was used as a model system. The protein contains two [4Fe–4S] clusters that serve as sensitive probes for radiation-induced electronic and structural changes. High-dose room-temperature SFX datasets were collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source of ferredoxin microcrystals. Difference electron density maps calculated from high-dose SFX and synchrotron data show peaks at the iron positions of the clusters, indicative of decrease of atomic scattering factors due to ionization. The electron density of the two [4Fe–4S] clusters differs in the FEL data, but not in the synchrotron data. Since the clusters differ in their detailed architecture, this observation is suggestive of an influence of the molecular bonding and geometry on the atomic displacement dynamics following initial photoionization. The experiments are complemented by plasma code calculations.

    Emneord
    free-electron laser, SFX, serial femtosecond crystallography, radiation damage, protein crystallography, metalloprotein
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-245011 (URN)10.1107/S1600577515002349 (DOI)000350641100004 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-02-23 Laget: 2015-02-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-25bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Ultrafast non-thermal heating of water initiated by an X-ray laser
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ultrafast non-thermal heating of water initiated by an X-ray laser
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294554 (URN)
    Merknad

    De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-24 Laget: 2016-05-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-06
    6. Hit detection in serial femtosecond crystallography using X-ray spectroscopy of plasma emission
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Hit detection in serial femtosecond crystallography using X-ray spectroscopy of plasma emission
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: IUCrJ, Vol. 4, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging and promising method for determining protein structures, making use of the ultrafast and bright X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers. The upcoming X-ray laser sources will produce well above 1000pulses per second and will pose a new challenge: how to quickly determine successful crystal hits and avoid a high-rate data deluge. Proposed here is a hit-finding scheme based on detecting photons from plasma emission after the sample has been intercepted by the X-ray laser. Plasma emission spectra are simulated for systems exposed to high-intensity femtosecond pulses, for both protein crystals and the liquid carrier systems that are used for sample delivery. The thermal radiation from the glowing plasma gives a strong background in the XUV region that depends on the intensity of the pulse, around the emission lines from light elements (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen). Sample hits can be reliably distinguished from the carrier liquid based on the characteristic emission lines from heavier elements present only in the sample, such as sulfur. For buffer systems with sulfur present, selenomethionine substitution is suggested, where the selenium emission lines could be used both as an indication of a hit and as an aid in phasing and structural reconstruction of the protein.

    Emneord
    hit detection, plasma emission spectra, serial femtosecond crystallography, protein structure
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Fysik med inriktning mot biofysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331934 (URN)10.1107/S2052252517014154 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-25 Laget: 2017-10-25 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-25
  • Lin, Yingbo
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, CCK R8 04, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liu, Hongyu
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, CCK R8 04, Stockholm, Sweden.;Guangdong Ocean Univ, Fisheries Coll, Lab Aquat Anim Nutr Feed, Zhanjiang, Peoples R China..
    Waraky, Ahmed
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, CCK R8 04, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Haglund, Felix
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, CCK R8 04, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Agarwal, Prasoon
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Clin Immunol, Dept Lab Med LABMED H5, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jernberg Wiklund, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Warsito, Dudi
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, CCK R8 04, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Olle
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, CCK R8 04, Stockholm, Sweden..
    SUMO-modified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) increases cell cycle progression and cell proliferation2017Inngår i: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 232, nr 10, 2722-2730 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing number of studies have shown nuclear localization of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (nIGF-1R) in tumor cells and its links to adverse clinical outcome in various cancers. Any obvious cell physiological roles of nIGF-1R have, however, still not been disclosed. Previously, we reported that IGF-1R translocates to cell nucleus and modulates gene expression by binding to enhancers, provided that the receptor is SUMOylated. In this study, we constructed stable transfectants of wild type IGF1R (WT) and triple-SUMO-site-mutated IGF1R (TSM) using igf1r knockout mouse fibroblasts (R-). Cell clones (R-WT and R-TSM) expressing equal amounts of IGF1R were selected for experiments. Phosphorylation of IGF-1R, Akt, and Erk upon IGF-1 stimulation was equal in R-WT and R-TSM. WT was confirmed to enter nuclei. TSM did also undergo nuclear translocation, although to a lesser extent. This may be explained by that TSM heterodimerizes with insulin receptor, which is known to translocate to cell nuclei. R-WT proliferated substantially faster than R-TSM, which did not differ significantly from the empty vector control. Upon IGF-1 stimulationG1-S-phase progression of R-WT increased from 12 to 38%, compared to 13 to 20% of R-TSM. The G1-S progression of R-WT correlated with increased expression of cyclin D1, A, and CDK2, as well as downregulation of p27. This suggests that SUMO-IGF-1R affects upstream mechanisms that control and coordinate expression of cell cycle regulators. Further studies to identify such SUMO-IGF-1R dependent mechanisms seem important.

  • Dubiec, Anna
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Intra-individual changes in haemosporidian infections over the nesting period in great tit females2017Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, nr 9, 2385-2392 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in bird populations varies temporally both between years and within a year. In contrast to variation at the population level, relatively little is known about variation in infection attributes at the individual level, especially in non-migratory species. We examined intra-individual changes in the presence and identity of haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over the course of the nesting period in females of great tits (Parus major)-a species considered to be resident over much of its distribution range. Birds were sampled during two stages of the nesting period: nest building and nestling rearing. The mean time interval between sampling occasions was 43 days. Between the first and second samplings, 30.6% of females gained at least one parasite lineage and 18.5% lost the lineage. Haemoproteus gains were over three times more common than Plasmodium gains. The probability of the lineage gain decreased with the date of the first sampling, was higher in individuals in better body condition and differed between years, but was not associated with the host age. The probability of the lineage loss was not explained by any of the considered parameters except for year. These results indicate that in a large proportion of a population, infection attributes (presence/absence and/or parasite identity) may change over the nesting period and the occurrence of such changes may be associated with the individual quality. Consequently, this phenomenon should be taken into account to correctly interpret parasite-mediated effects.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 10:00 Lindhalsalen, Uppsala
    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual Selection and Adaptation to Novel Environments2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The work included in this thesis aims at exploring the environmental sensitivity of benefits and costs of sexual selection through a combined empirical and theoretical effort, to increase our understanding of the impact of environmental change on sexually reproducing populations.Can sexual selection promote adaptation to novel environments? Sexual selection for good genes should accelerate adaptation by granting higher reproductive success to individuals of high genetic quality. However, sexual conflict is a frequent outcome of sexual reproduction and may often be detrimental to population fitness. Experimental evolution has shown that the role of sexual selection in adaptation is variable, because of a complex balance between the detrimental and beneficial effects described above.The present thesis is investigating the role of sexual selection in adaptation by focusing on the sex-specific strength of selection and the intensity of intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) in ancestral and novel environments. The sex-specific strength of selection is a valuable proxy for the benefits of sexual reproduction, since a male-bias in selection caused by sexual selection should allow efficient purging of deleterious alleles with little impact on female fecundity and cost to population fitness.This thesis investigates both sex-specific selection and IaSC across benign and novel environments in two species of seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus and Acanthoscelides obtectus, and includes a theoretical model of the effect of environmental change on of sexual selection. The empirical part of my results indicates that, generally, selection at the adult stage is male biased but that this male bias may be reduced under stress, pointing towards reduced benefits of sexual selection under rapid environmental change. Additional simulations suggest that the frequency dependent nature of sexual selection alone could explain this trend. No empirical support was found for the reduction of IaSC under stress.It is becoming crucial today to understand the impact of environmental change on natural populations. This thesis brings new material adding to our understanding of the role of sexual selection within that particular issue. The outcome of sexual selection is dependent on a variety of mechanisms, such as good genes processes and sexual conflict, which are very likely to be dependent on ecological factors and specificity of the system studied. For that reason, carefully controlled experiments on laboratory systems and mathematical modelling are necessary steps that should ultimately lead to the study of similar questions in natural systems.

    Delarbeid
    1. Sex-specific selection under environmental stress in seed beetles
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sex-specific selection under environmental stress in seed beetles
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, nr 1, 161-173 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing strong selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature. Using fourteen isofemale lines, we measured sex-specific reductions in fitness components, genotype-by-environment interactions and the strength of selection (variance in fitness) in the juvenile and adult stage. As predicted, variance in fitness increased with stress, was consistently greater in males than females for adult reproductive success (implying strong sexual selection), but was similar in the sexes in terms of juvenile survival across all levels of stress. Although genetic variance in fitness increased in magnitude under severe stress, heritability decreased and particularly so in males. Moreover, genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness were common but specific to the type of stress, sex and life stage, suggesting that new environments may change the relative alignment and strength of selection in males and females. Our study thus exemplifies how environmental stress can influence the relative forces of natural and sexual selection, as well as concomitant changes in genetic variance in fitness, which are predicted to have consequences for rates of adaptation in sexual populations.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2017
    Emneord
    adaptation, Callosobruchus maculatus, environmental change, host plant, natural selection, population viability, sexual reproduction, sexual selection, stress, temperature
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331971 (URN)10.1111/jeb.12996 (DOI)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, European Research Council, GENCON AdG-294333Swedish Research Council, 621-2010-5266 261-2014-4523
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-20 Laget: 2017-10-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Intralocus Sexual Conflict and the Tragedy of the Commons in Seed Beetles
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Intralocus Sexual Conflict and the Tragedy of the Commons in Seed Beetles
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 188, nr 4, E98-E112 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of male traits that inflict direct harm on females during mating interactions can result in a so-called tragedy of the commons, where selfish male strategies depress population viability. This tragedy of the commons can be magnified by intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) whenever alleles that reduce fecundity when expressed in females spread in the population because of their benefits in males. We evaluated this prediction by detailed phenotyping of 73 isofemale lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified genetic variation in life history andmorphology, as well as associated covariance in male and female adult reproductive success. In parallel, we created replicated artificial populations of each line and measured their productivity. Genetic constraints limited independent trait expression in the sexes, and we identified several instances of sexually antagonistic covariance between traits and fitness, signifying IaSC. Population productivity was strongly positively correlated to female adult reproductive success but uncorrelated with male reproductive success. Moreover, male (female) phenotypic optima for several traits under sexually antagonistic selection were exhibited by the genotypes with the lowest (highest) population productivity. Our study forms a direct link between individuallevel sex-specific selection and population demography and places lifehistory traits at the epicenter of these dynamics.

    Emneord
    sexual selection, adaptation, sexual antagonism, sexual dimorphism, genetic architecture, population demography
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305304 (URN)10.1086/687963 (DOI)000383774400001 ()27622882 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research CouncilEU, European Research Council, AdG-294333; AGINGSEXDIFF
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-18 Laget: 2016-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. The consequences of sexual selection in well-adapted and amaladapted populations of bean beetles: Sexual selection in maladapted populations
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The consequences of sexual selection in well-adapted and amaladapted populations of bean beetles: Sexual selection in maladapted populations
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modelling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation when it is most needed. Here, we test this prediction using bean beetles that had undergone 80 generations of experimental evolution on two alternative host plants. We isolated and assessed the effect of maladaptation on sex-specific strengths of selection and IaSC by cross-rearing the two experimental evolution regimes on the alternative hosts and estimating within-population genetic (co)variance for fitness in males and females. Two key predictions were upheld: males generally experienced stronger selection compared to females and maladaptation increased selection in females. However, maladaptation consistently decreased male-bias in the strength of selection and IaSC was not reduced in maladapted populations. These findings imply that sexual selection can be disrupted in stressful environmental conditions, thus reducing one of the potential benefits of sexual reproduction in maladapted populations.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331970 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-20 Laget: 2017-10-20 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. The efficiency of purifying sexual selection under environmental change
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The efficiency of purifying sexual selection under environmental change
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection can promote adaptation if sexually selected traits are reliable indicators of the bearer’s condition and overall genetic quality. Moreover, stronger sexual selection in males, as often reported in empirical studies, may efficiently purge deleterious alleles at a low cost to population productivity. However, such benefits of sexual selection have been suggested to be compromised during adaptation in a changing environment due to a disruption of the mate choice process. Indeed, substantial insight has been gained from previous theoretical and empirical studies focusing on exploring female choice and the reliability of male sexual signals across environments. In this study, we show that even if sexually selected traits are honest signals and accurately reflect condition in new environments, the efficacy of sexual selection is likely to be reduced under stress. We model the strength of sex-specific selection in a population with males competing among each other for fertilization success and females experiencing fecundity selection. We observe that, for most of the biologically relevant parameter space describing mating system variation, the strength of sexual selection is reduced relatively to fecundity selection as the population becomes increasingly maladapted under environmental change. This result, which is modulated by the characteristics of the mating system, is a direct consequence of the prominent role of social context (frequency-dependence) in sexual selection.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332106 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-24 Laget: 2017-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-27bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Lagermalm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Lundin, Alice
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Medarbetardriven affärsutveckling: En fallstudie på ett IT-konsultbolag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To contribute to existing knowledge about how to motivate coworkers at consultancy firms to develop business ideas within the company, and how the management can structure and support the process.

    Research questions

    What incentives can improve the coworker-driven business development at a consultancy company? How should the consultant be supported through a process of business development, and by who? What are the qualifications and challenges at a consultancy company that affects the coworker-driven business development?

    Methodology

    This master thesis of 30 ECTS is based on an inductive case study at the IT consultancy firm IT-Con. Primary data was collected through 11 semi-structured interviews, 12 structured interviews, a digital poll with 71 respondents and 2 focus groups. The study was supported by secondary data through literature from the fields of organizational theory, leadership and communication all with focus on business development.

    Findings

    The need of a consequent but adaptable reward model, well communicated goals and transparency regarding resource allocation. The need of active and supportive leadership throughout the process and a long- term commitment from both the consultant and the leader. To avoid an extra burden on the involved employees and to maximize potential, this process should be integrated in the daily routine.

    Keywords

    Business development process, IT-Consultancy, Motivational theory, Active leadership, Communication 

  • Xing, Shan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Shaanxi Key Lab Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Tec, Xian AMS Ctr,Inst Earth Environm, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Shaanxi Key Lab Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Tec, Xian AMS Ctr,Inst Earth Environm, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.;Techn Univ Denmark, Ctr Nucl Technol, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark..
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. United Arab Emirates Univ, Dept Geol, Al Ain 17511, U Arab Emirates..
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandemlaboratoriet.
    Shi, Keliang
    Techn Univ Denmark, Ctr Nucl Technol, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.;Lanzhou Univ, Sch Nucl Sci & Technol, Lanzhou 73000, Gansu, Peoples R China..
    Yi, Peng
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Weijian
    Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Shaanxi Key Lab Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Tec, Xian AMS Ctr,Inst Earth Environm, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Water Circulation and Marine Environment in the Antarctic Traced by Speciation of I-129 and I-1272017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 7726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of anthropogenic I-129 from human nuclear activities are now detected in the surface water of the Antarctic seas. Surface seawater samples from the Drake Passage, Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Seas were analyzed for total I-129 and I-127, as well as for iodide and iodate of these two isotopes. The variability of I-127 and I-129 concentrations and their species (I-127(-)/(IO3-)-I-127, I-129(-)/(IO3-)-I-129) suggest limited environmental impact where ((1.15-3.15) x 10(6) atoms/L for I-129 concentration and (0.61-1.98) x 10(-11) for I-129/I-127 atomic ratios are the lowest ones compared to the other oceans. The iodine distribution patterns provide useful information on surface water transport and mixing that are vital for better understanding of the Southern Oceans effects on the global climate change. The results indicate multiple spatial interactions between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Antarctic Peninsula Coastal Current (APCC). These interactions happen in restricted circulation pathways that may partly relate to glacial melting and icebergs transport. Biological activity during the warm season should be one of the key factors controlling the reduction of iodate in the coastal water in the Antarctic.

  • Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.;Menoufia Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Commun, Menoufia 32952, Egypt..
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Surg, Med Ctr, P Debyelaan 25, NL-6229 HX Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Univ Hosp, Dept Med Sci Transplantat & Regenerat Med, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Intra-body microwave communication through adipose tissue2017Inngår i: HEALTHCARE TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, ISSN 2053-3713, Vol. 4, nr 4, 115-121 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The human body can act as a medium for the transmission of electromagnetic waves in the wireless body sensor networks context. However, there are transmission losses in biological tissues due to the presence of water and salts. This Letter focuses on lateral intra-body microwave communication through different biological tissue layers and demonstrates the effect of the tissue thicknesses by comparing signal coupling in the channel. For this work, the authors utilise the R-band frequencies since it overlaps the industrial, scientific and medical radio (ISM) band. The channel model in human tissues is proposed based on electromagnetic simulations, validated using equivalent phantom and ex-vivo measurements. The phantom and ex-vivo measurements are compared with simulation modelling. The results show that electromagnetic communication is feasible in the adipose tissue layer with a low attenuation of approximate to 2 dB per 20 mm for phantom measurements and 4 dB per 20 mm for ex-vivo measurements at 2 GHz. Since the dielectric losses of human adipose tissues are almost half of ex-vivo tissue, an attenuation of around 3 dB per 20 mm is expected. The results show that human adipose tissue can be used as an intra-body communication channel.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-13 13:00 Auditorium Minus, Uppsala
    Jha, Paridhi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    ‘Two Sides of a Coin’: Quality of Childbirth Services in Indian Public Health Facilities, from the Perspectives of Women and their Care Providers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Skilled birth attendance, usually available by promoting childbirth at health care institutions in low-resource settings, is known to prevent maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. While institutional childbirths in India have increased at an exponential rate, the infrastructure, material and manpower resources to support this practice are lagging, raising concerns about the quality of childbirth services.

    Methodology: A mixed-method approach was used in this project: in-depth interviews with women (n= 13); and focus-group-discussions with the care providers (n=27) were conducted and analysed using Grounded Theory. A cross-sectional survey (n= 1004) assessed prevalence of Fear of Birth (FoB) and postnatal depressive symptoms (PND), along with satisfaction with childbirth services among women in the immediate postpartum period.

    Results: The system of cashless childbirth provided at the public health facilities, in the women’s experiences, came at the hidden cost of them having to make themselves subordinate to the offered services. The prevalence of FoB and PND was 13.1% and 17.1%, respectively, and these were significantly associated (p < 0.001). Among women with vaginal births (VB), 41.2% had experienced a perineal wound and 59% of them underwent repair without local anaesthesia. While the majority of the women were satisfied (VB 68.7%; Caesarean births 79.2%) with the services; women having VBs at Community Health Centres (nearly 81%) were more commonly satisfied compared to those at the District Hospitals (nearly 60%) (p < 0.001). From the care providers’ perspective, maintaining quality of childbirth services was like a balancing act between the realities of low-resource settings with stakeholders’ expectations. While the providers remained proud and committed; the challenges often left them fatigued, disillusioned, irritable and sceptical.

    Conclusion: There is a need to improve the sensitivity with which childbirth services are being delivered to women coming to public health facilities; as well as towards improving the care providers’ work conditions. Suboptimal birth experiences are associated with the women’s perinatal mental health and satisfaction, while perpetual work challenges may make the care providers frustrated and/or apathetic. Improving manpower resources could reduce work-stress in care providers and thereby improve childbirth processes.

    Delarbeid
    1. Cashless childbirth, but at a cost: A grounded theory study on quality of intrapartum care in public health facilities in India
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Cashless childbirth, but at a cost: A grounded theory study on quality of intrapartum care in public health facilities in India
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 39, 78-86 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: this study aimed to explore and understand the perceptions and experiences of women regarding quality of care received during childbirth in public health facilities. Design: qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted and analysed using the Grounded Theory approach. Participants: thirteen women who had given vaginal birth to a healthy newborn infant. Setting: participants were interviewed in their homes in one district of Chhattisgarh, India. Data collection: the interview followed a pre-tested guide comprising one key question: How did the women experience and perceive the care provided during labour and childbirth? Findings: 'cashless childbirth but at a cost: subordination during childbirth' was identified as the core category. Women chose a public health facility due to their socio-economic limitations, and to have a cashless and safe childbirth. Participants expressed a sense of trust in public health facilities, and verbalised that free food and ambulance services provided by the government were appreciated. Care during normal birth was medicalised, and women lacked control over the process of their labour. Often, the women experienced verbal and physical abuse, which led to passive acceptance of all the services provided to avoid confrontation with the providers. Conclusions: increasingly higher numbers of women give birth in public health facilities in Chhattisgarh, India, and women who have no alternative place to have a safe and normal birth are the main beneficiaries. The labour rooms are functional, but there is a need for improvement of interpersonal processes, information-sharing, and sensitive treatment of women seeking childbirth services in public health facilities.

    Emneord
    Birth experience, Institutional delivery, Abuse, Communication, Care providers, Grounded theory
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299546 (URN)10.1016/j.midw.2016.04.012 (DOI)000377935800011 ()27321724 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-07-25 Laget: 2016-07-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-16bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Fear of Childbirth and Depressive Symptoms among Postnatal Women: A Cross-sectional Survey from Chhattisgarh, India
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fear of Childbirth and Depressive Symptoms among Postnatal Women: A Cross-sectional Survey from Chhattisgarh, India
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Women and Birth, ISSN 1871-5192, E-ISSN 1878-1799Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
    Emneord
    Depression/depressiveve symptoms; EPDS; Fear of Birth (phobic disorders); Institutional births; WDEQ Version B
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331599 (URN)10.1016/j.wombi.2017.07.003 (DOI)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-16 Laget: 2017-10-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Satisfaction with childbirth services provided in public health facilities: results from a cross-sectional survey among postnatal women in Chhattisgarh, India
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Satisfaction with childbirth services provided in public health facilities: results from a cross-sectional survey among postnatal women in Chhattisgarh, India
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Accepted
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
    Emneord
    Hindi-translated Scale for 30 Measuring Maternal Satisfaction; intrapartum care; institutional births; Caesarean section; quality of care
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331601 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-16 Laget: 2017-10-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. “The balancing act”: Maintaining the quality of childbirth services in low-resource settings- a Grounded Theory study exploring nurse-midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing services in public health facilities of Chhattisgarh, India
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>“The balancing act”: Maintaining the quality of childbirth services in low-resource settings- a Grounded Theory study exploring nurse-midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing services in public health facilities of Chhattisgarh, India
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331602 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-16 Laget: 2017-10-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-26bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 13:00 Humanistiska Teatern, Uppsala
    Börjesson, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM.
    Resources for scholarly documentation in professional service organizations: A study of Swedish development-led archaeology report writing2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This information studies dissertation deals with the problem that results from research outside academia risk to receive little or no attention if communicated through reports, instead of in mainstream academic genres like research journal articles. The case in focus is Swedish development-led (DL) archaeology, i.e. state regulated archaeology preceding land development. Swedish DL archaeology is organized as a semi-regulated market. The organizations competing on the market are professional service organizations selling research services to land developers. Regional government departments, county administrative boards, function as intermediaries setting up procurement-like processes.

    In previous research on archaeological documentation, the problem with non-use of reports has been described as depending on cultural issues of access, possible to solve if individuals make efforts to communicate and use extra-academic results. This dissertation offers an alternative definition of the problem, highlighting a different set of solutions. The aim is to further the understanding of how the distribution of research duties to professional service organizations affects the scholarly documentation in Swedish archaeology. The aim is met through identification, operationalization and analysis of resources available to report writing DL archaeology practitioners, and an analysis of how practitioners draw on these resources. The results further the understanding of how reports are shaped within the DL archaeology institution. In view of these results, efforts to solve issues of access should target the organization of research in the archaeology discipline, and specifically how scholarly documentation is governed on the archaeology market.

    The dissertation draws on science and technology studies, practice theory, and document theory for the design of the study of documentation resources and contexts in extra-academic research. A mixed methods approach is applied to capture regulative, institutional, and infrastructural resources, and practitioners’ use thereof. Dissertation papers I-III contain analyses of concrete instantiations of the resources: information policy, documentation ideals, and information source use. The fourth paper presents an analysis of how practitioners draw on these resources in their everyday report writing. The dissertation concerns archaeology specifically, but serves as grounds to inquire into the premises for scholarly documentation in other areas of extra-academic research and knowledge-making as well.

    Delarbeid
    1. Information Policy for (Digital) Information in Archaeology: current state and suggestions for development
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Information Policy for (Digital) Information in Archaeology: current state and suggestions for development
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Internet Archaeology, ISSN 1363-5387, E-ISSN 1363-5387, nr 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of digital data capturing and management technologies has transformed information practices in archaeology. Digital documentation and digital infrastructures are integrated in archaeologists' daily work now more than ever. International and national institutions and projects have contributed to the development of digital archiving and curation practices. Because knowledge production in archaeology depends heavily on documentation and information dissemination, and on retrieval of past documentation, the question of how information is managed is profoundly intertwined with the possibilities for knowledge production. Regulations at different levels articulate demands and expectations from the emerging digital information practices, but how are these different regulations coordinated, and do they support archaeological knowledge production?

    In this article we look into the state of information policy - the sum of principles guiding decisions about information - in archaeology and related areas. The aim of the article is to shed light on how information policy directs practice in archaeology, and to show that analysis of such policies is therefore vital. Information policy in legislation and guidelines in Swedish archaeology serves as a case study, and examples from development-led archaeology and the museum sector illustrate how information policies have varied roles across different heritage sectors. There are historical and local trajectories in the policy documents specific to Sweden, but the discussion shows that the emergence of Swedish policies have many parallels with processes in other countries. The article provides recommendations for information policy development for archaeology and related areas.

    Emneord
    Digital humanities; cultural heritage sector; digital heritage; digital archaeology; digital museums; information policy; digital agendas; digitization
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275630 (URN)10.11141/ia.40.4 (DOI)
    Prosjekter
    ARKDIS
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-02-04 Laget: 2016-02-04 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Beyond information policy: Conflicting documentation ideals in extra-academic knowledge making practices
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Beyond information policy: Conflicting documentation ideals in extra-academic knowledge making practices
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 72, nr 4, 674-695 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and explicate documentation ideals parallel to information policy, and by means of this analysis demonstrate how the concept “documentation ideals” is an analytical tool for engaging with political and institutional contexts of information practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a case study of documentation ideals in a debate about quality in archaeological documentation. The methodology draws on idea analysis, and on the science and technology studies’ controversy studies approach.

    Findings – The paper explicates three documentation ideals, how these ideals allocate responsibility for documentation to different actors, how the ideals assign roles to practitioners, and how the ideals point to different beneficiaries of the documentation. Furthermore, the analysis highlights ideas about two different means to reach the documentation ideals.

    Research limitations/implications – The case’s debate reflects opinions of Northern European professionals.

    Social implications – The paper illuminates how documentation ideals tweak and even contest formal information policy in claims on the documentation and on the practitioners doing documentation.

    Originality/value – Documentation ideal analysis is crucial as a complement to formal information policy analysis and to analysis guided by practice theory in attempts to understand the contexts of information practices and documentation, insights central for developing information literacies.

    Emneord
    Archaeology, Information practices, Information policy, Controversy studies, Documentation ideals, Idea analysis, Knowledge making practices
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277190 (URN)10.1108/JDOC-10-2015-0134 (DOI)000379787000004 ()
    Prosjekter
    ARKDIS
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-02-17 Laget: 2016-02-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Grey literature – grey sources?: Nuancing the view on professional documentation: the case of Swedish archaeology
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Grey literature – grey sources?: Nuancing the view on professional documentation: the case of Swedish archaeology
    2015 (svensk)Inngår i: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, nr 6, 1158-1182 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims at nuancing the perception about professional documentation (a.k.a. ‘grey literature’), assuming perception of documentation being a cultural aspect of accessibility.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study explores variations within the archaeological report genre through a bibliometric analysis of source use. Source characteristics are explored as well as correlations between report authors and source originators. Statistical frequency distribution is complemented by a correspondence analysis and a k-Means cluster analysis to explore patterns. The patterns are interpreted as ‘frames of references’ and related to circumstances for archaeological work. The study also discusses source representations.

    Findings

    The source use patterns reveal a latent variation, not visible in the general analysis: a professional/academic frame of reference (mainly among authors affiliated with incorporated businesses and sole proprietorships) and an administrative frame of reference (mainly among authors affiliated with government agencies, foundations and member associations) emerge.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study focuses on Swedish field evaluation reports. Future research could 1) test the results in relation to other types of reports, and 2) go beyond the document perspective to explore source use in documentation practices.

    Social implications

    The results on variations in frames of references among report writers have implication for report readers and user. The results should also be considered in archaeology management and policy-making. On the level of source representation the results call for clarifications of vague representations and possibly omitted sources.

    Originality/value

    This study contextualises archaeological information use and focuses on variations in professional archaeology which has received little previous research attention. The bibliometric approach complements previous qualitative studies of archaeological information.

    Emneord
    Documentation; Reports; Grey literature; Information sources; Information use: Referencing; Bibliometrics; Sociology of professions; Archaeology
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246514 (URN)10.1108/JD-09-2014-0137 (DOI)000369171600003 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-03-08 Laget: 2015-03-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-20bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Research outside academia?: An analysis of resources in extra-academic report writing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Research outside academia?: An analysis of resources in extra-academic report writing
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 2016Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant part of all research takes place in extra-academic organizations. Practitioner researchers often present their results in publications different from those in academia, e.g. in reports, sometimes (and here) referred to as “gray literature”. Gray literature is increasingly available online. However, availability does not mean that reports are exploited to their full potential in research. Disciplines like archaeology have substantial problems with the scholarly communication and knowledge sharing between extra-academic and academic research. This paper approaches this problem from a report-user perspective. For the benefit of potential report users’ gray literature literacies, report-writing practices are analyzed by means of practice theory. Qualitative interviews with six practitioner researchers in Swedish archaeology firms make up the material. The analysis focuses on how report writers draw on regulative, institutional, and infrastructural resources in their practices. Based on the findings about the practices in which reports are written and become informative, the paper presents seven suggestions supporting report users’ potential to critically analyze and use report content. The results contribute to the information science field with insights into extra-academic information practices, and as input in a wider critical discussion of the information-related conditions for research outside academia.

    Emneord
    Scholarly communication; Practitioner researchers; Grey literature; Archaeology; Practice theory
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303766 (URN)
    Konferanse
    Annual Meeting of the Association for Information Science and Technology, Copenhagen, Denmark Oct. 14-18, 2016
    Prosjekter
    ARKDIS
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 340-2012-5751
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-23 Laget: 2016-09-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-20
  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 13:15 ITC 2446, Uppsala
    Francisco Rodríguez, María Andreína
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för datalogi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Analysis, synthesis and application of automaton-based constraint descriptions2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Constraint programming (CP) is a technology in which a combinatorial problem is modelled as a conjunction of constraints on variables ranging over given initial domains, and optionally an objective function on the variables. Such a model is given to a general-purpose solver performing systematic search to find constraint-satisfying domain values for the variables, giving an optimal value to the objective function. A constraint predicate (also known as a global constraint) does two things: from the modelling perspective, it allows a modeller to express a commonly occurring combinatorial substructure, for example that a set of variables must take distinct values; from the solving perspective, it comes with a propagation algorithm, called a propagator, which removes some but not necessarily all impossible values from the current domains of its variables when invoked during search.

    Although modern CP solvers have many constraint predicates, often a predicate one would like to use is not available. In the past, the choices were either to reformulate the model or to write one's own propagator. In this dissertation, we contribute to the automatic design of propagators for new predicates.

    Integer time series are often subject to constraints on the aggregation of the features of all maximal occurrences of some pattern. For example, the minimum width of the peaks may be constrained. Automata allow many constraint predicates for variable sequences, and in particular many time-series predicates, to be described in a high-level way. Our first contribution is an algorithm for generating an automaton-based predicate description from a pattern, a feature, and an aggregator.

    It has previously been shown how to decompose an automaton-described constraint on a variable sequence into a conjunction of constraints whose predicates have existing propagators. This conjunction provides the propagation, but it is unknown how to propagate it efficiently. Our second contribution is a tool for deriving, in an off-line process, implied constraints for automaton-induced constraint decompositions to improve propagation. Further, when a constraint predicate functionally determines a result variable that is unchanged under reversal of a variable sequence, we provide as our third contribution an algorithm for deriving an implied constraint between the result variables for a variable sequence, a prefix thereof, and the corresponding suffix.

    Delarbeid
    1. Automatic generation of descriptions of time-series constraints
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Automatic generation of descriptions of time-series constraints
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proc. 29th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Computer Society, 2017Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    IEEE Computer Society, 2017
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332145 (URN)
    Konferanse
    ICTAI 2017, November 6–8, Boston, MA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-24 Laget: 2017-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Generation of implied constraints for automaton-induced decompositions
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Generation of implied constraints for automaton-induced decompositions
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proc. 25th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, 1076-1083 s.Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    IEEE Computer Society, 2013
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218040 (URN)10.1109/ICTAI.2013.160 (DOI)978-1-4799-2971-9 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    ICTAI 2013, November 4-6, Herndon, VA
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-06 Laget: 2014-02-06 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Implied constraints for AUTOMATON constraints
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Implied constraints for AUTOMATON constraints
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Global Conference on Artificial Intelligence: GCAI 2015, Manchester, UK: Cool Press , 2015, 113-126 s.Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Manchester, UK: Cool Press, 2015
    Serie
    EasyChair Proceedings in Computing, ISSN 2040-557X ; 36
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268653 (URN)
    Konferanse
    GCAI 2015, October 16–18, Tbilisi, Georgia
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-12-18 Laget: 2015-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Time-series constraints: Improvements and application in CP and MIP contexts
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Time-series constraints: Improvements and application in CP and MIP contexts
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Constraint Programming, Springer, 2016, 18-34 s.Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2016
    Serie
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9676
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298447 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-33954-2_2 (DOI)000378993700002 ()978-3-319-33953-5 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    CPAIOR 2016, May 29 – June 1, Banff, Canada
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-12 Laget: 2016-07-04 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Linking prefixes and suffixes for constraints encoded using automata with accumulators
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Linking prefixes and suffixes for constraints encoded using automata with accumulators
    Vise andre…
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming: CP 2014, Springer, 2014, 142-157 s.Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2014
    Serie
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8656
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238534 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-10428-7_13 (DOI)978-3-319-10427-0 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    CP 2014, September 8–12, Lyon, France
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-09-12 Laget: 2014-12-13 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. Systematic derivation of bounds and glue constraints for time-series constraints
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Systematic derivation of bounds and glue constraints for time-series constraints
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming: CP 2016, Springer, 2016, 13-29 s.Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer, 2016
    Serie
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 9892
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302048 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-44953-1_2 (DOI)000389019700003 ()978-3-319-44952-4 (ISBN)
    Konferanse
    CP 2016, September 5–9, Toulouse, France
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council, 2011-6133Swedish Research Council, 2012-4908
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-23 Laget: 2016-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Rangel Smith, Camila
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    De Bruin, Pedro Sales
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Search for direct top squark pair production in events with a Higgs or Z boson, and missing transverse momentum in root s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector2017Inngår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 8, 006Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A search for direct top squark pair production resulting in events with either a same-flavour opposite-sign dilepton pair with invariant mass compatible with a Z boson or a pair of jets compatible with a Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson (h) is presented. Requirements on the missing transverse momentum, together with additional selections on leptons, jets, jets identified as originating from b-quarks are imposed to target the other decay products of the top squark pair. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data at root s = 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 20152016, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1). No excess is observed in the data with respect to the SM predictions. The results are interpreted in two sets of models. In the first set, direct production of pairs of lighter top squarks ((t) over tilde (1)) with long decay chains involving Z or Higgs bosons is considered. The second set includes direct pair production of the heavier top squark pairs ((t) over tilde (2)) decaying via (t) over tilde (2) -> Z (t) over tilde (1) or (t) over tilde (2) -> h (t) over tilde (1). The results exclude at 95% confidence level (t) over tilde (2) and (t) over tilde (1) masses up to about 800 GeV, extending the exclusion region of supersymmetric parameter space covered by previous LHC searches.

  • Jalil, Ali
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    MedicReminder: Ett system för att öka patientens följsamhettill läkemedelsbehandling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has aimed to develop an application that helps people remember to taketheir medicine on time. The applications main function is to notify the user when it's time to take their medicine. The target users for this app is people that consumes several dos of medicine each day which in this case is older people and people that have troubles remembering to take their medicine on time.The challenge was to design a useful interface that even people with limited technical knowledge can use it. However, the acceptance of the application was to have satisfied users that can use all the functionalities that the application has to offer.The required experience was gathered from user interviews and usability-testsessions. Design principals of user-driven development was applied to insure the maximum usability and minimum complexity for using the functions. The Evaluation of all these sessions resulted to a mobile application that has beentested by target users. Results from users shows us improvements in the daily dosetaking making it much easier for the users remembering to take their medicine ontime. All together resulted to a great usability experience making it easy to use thetechnology to simplify people's daily tasks

  • Ahlbom, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Quadratic Programming Modelsin Strategic Sourcing Optimization2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic sourcing allows for optimizing purchases on a large scale.Depending on the requirements of the client and the offers provided forthem, finding an optimal or even a near-optimal solution can become computationally hard. Mixed integer programming (MIP), where theproblem is modeled as a set of linear expressions with an objectivefunction for which an optimal solution results in a minimum objectivevalue, is particularly suitable for finding competitive results. However, given the research and improvements continually being made for quadratic programming (QP), which allows for objective functions with quadratic expressions as well, comparing runtimes and objective values for finding optimal and approximate solutions is advised: for hard problems, applying the correct methods may decrease runtimes by severalorders of magnitude. In this report, comparisons between MIP and QPmodels used in four different problems with three different solverswere made, measuring both optimization and approximation performance interms of runtimes and objective values. Experiments showed that while QP holds an advantage over MIP in some cases, it is not consistentlyefficient enough to provide a significant improvement in comparison with, for example, using a different solver.

  • Garousi, Javad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Andersson, Ken G.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Technol.
    Dam, Johan H.
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Nucl Med.
    Olsen, Birgitte B.
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Nucl Med..
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för Molekylär Avbildning.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för Molekylär Avbildning.
    Buijs, Jos
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk strålningsvetenskap.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Technol.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Technol.
    Thisgaard, Helge
    Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Nucl Med.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    The use of radiocobalt as a label improves imaging of EGFR using DOTA-conjugated Affibody molecule2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5961Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several anti-cancer therapies target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Radionuclide imaging of EGFR expression in tumours may aid in selection of optimal cancer therapy. The In-111-labelled DOTA-conjugated Z(EGFR:2377) Affibody molecule was successfully used for imaging of EGFR-expressing xenografts in mice. An optimal combination of radionuclide, chelator and targeting protein may further improve the contrast of radionuclide imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the targeting properties of radiocobalt-labelled DOTA-Z(EGFR:2377). DOTA-Z(EGFR:2377) was labelled with Co-57 (T-1/2 = 271.8 d), Co-55 (T-1/2 = 17.5 h), and, for comparison, with the positron-emitting radionuclide Ga-68 (T-1/2 = 67.6 min) with preserved specificity of binding to EGFR-expressing A431 cells. The long-lived cobalt radioisotope Co-57 was used in animal studies. Both Co-57-DOTA-Z(EGFR:2377) and Ga-68-DOTA-Z(EGFR:2377) demonstrated EGFR-specific accumulation in A431 xenografts and EGFR-expressing tissues in mice. Tumour-to-organ ratios for the radiocobalt-labelled DOTA-Z(EGFR:2377) were significantly higher than for the gallium-labelled counterpart already at 3 h after injection. Importantly, Co-57-DOTA-Z(EGFR:2377) demonstrated a tumour-to-liver ratio of 3, which is 7-fold higher than the tumour-to-liver ratio for (68)GaDOTA-Z(EGFR:2377). The results of this study suggest that the positron-emitting cobalt isotope 55Co would be an optimal label for DOTA-Z(EGFR:2377) and further development should concentrate on this radionuclide as a label.

  • Sepulveda, Jorge I. Ramirez
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Expt Rheumatol, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kvarnstrom, Marika
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Expt Rheumatol, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Per
    Linkoping Univ, Div Rheumatol, Dept Clin Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Mandl, Thomas
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, Malmo, Sweden..
    Norheim, Katrine Braekke
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Clin Immunol Unit, Stavanger, Norway..
    Johnsen, Svein Joar
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Clin Immunol Unit, Stavanger, Norway..
    Hammenfors, Daniel
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Broegelmann Res Lab, Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, Bergen, Norway..
    Jonsson, Malin V.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Broegelmann Res Lab, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Sect Oral & Maxillofacial Radiol, Dept Clin Dent, Bergen, Norway..
    Skarstein, Kathrine
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Med, Gade Lab Pathol, Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Pathol, Bergen, Norway..
    Brun, Johan G.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Broegelmann Res Lab, Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, Bergen, Norway..
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Rheumatol, Umea, Sweden..
    Bucher, Sara Magnusson
    Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Rheumatol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Baecklund, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Theander, Elke
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, Malmo, Sweden..
    Omdal, Roald
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Clin Immunol Unit, Stavanger, Norway..
    Jonsson, Roland
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Broegelmann Res Lab, Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, Bergen, Norway..
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Expt Rheumatol, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Long-term follow-up in primary Sjogren's syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients2017Inngår i: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 8, 25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate differences in the clinical presentation of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) between the sexes and establish whether male sex is associated with a more severe form of long-term pSS. Methods: Our study population included 967 patients with pSS (899 females and 68 males) from Scandinavian clinical centers. The mean follow-up time (years) was 8.8 +/- 7.6 for women and 8.5 +/- 6.2 for men (ns). Clinical data including serological and hematological parameters and glandular and extraglandular manifestations were compared between men and women. Results: Male patient serology was characterized by more frequent positivity for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB (p = 0. 02), and ANA (p = 0.02). Further, men with pSS were more frequently diagnosed with interstitial lung disease (p = 0. 008), lymphadenopathy (p = 0.04) and lymphoma (p = 0.007). Conversely, concomitant hypothyroidism was more common among female patients (p = 0.009). Conclusions: We observe enhanced serological responses and higher frequencies of lymphoma-related extraglandular manifestations in men with pSS. Notably, lymphoma itself was also significantly more common in men. These observations may reflect an aggravated immune activation and a more severe pathophysiological state in male patients with pSS and indicate a personalized managing of the disease due to the influence of the sex of patients with pSS.

  • Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk farmakogenomik och osteoporos.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Long-term a posteriori dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in a cohort of women2017Inngår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 32, nr 7, 605-616 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary pattern analysis is a useful tool to study the importance of food components in the context of a diet and how they relate to health and disease. The association between dietary patterns and fractures is at present uncertain. We aimed to study associations between dietary patterns and risk of hip fracture in the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 56,736 women (median baseline age 52 years). Diet data was collected in food frequency questionnaires at two investigations and dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis using 31 food groups. Information on hip fractures was collected from the Swedish National Patient Register. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. The two patterns identified-the healthy and Western/convenience dietary patterns-were time-updated and analysed. During a median follow-up time of 25.5 years, 4997 women experienced a hip fracture. Hip fracture rate was 31% lower in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of the healthy dietary pattern [HR (95% CI) 0.69 (0.64; 0.75)]. In contrast, women in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of the Western/convenience dietary pattern had a 50% higher [HR (95% CI) 1.50 (1.38; 1.62)] hip fracture rate. Further, in each stratum of a Western/convenience dietary pattern a higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern was associated with less hip fractures. The present results suggest that a varied healthy diet may be beneficial for the prevention of fragility fractures in women.

  • Petersen, Julian
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Receptor Biol & Signaling, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wright, Shane C.
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Receptor Biol & Signaling, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rodriguez, David
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Matricon, Pierre
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Beräkningsbiologi och bioinformatik. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lahav, Noa
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Inst Chem, IL-91904 Jerusalem, Israel..
    Vromen, Aviv
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Inst Chem, IL-91904 Jerusalem, Israel..
    Friedler, Assaf
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Inst Chem, IL-91904 Jerusalem, Israel..
    Stromqvist, Johan
    Single Technol AB, SE-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    Royal Inst Technol, Dept Appl Phys, Expt Biomol Phys Grp, Sci Life Lab, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Jens
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Beräkningsbiologi och bioinformatik.
    Schulte, Gunnar
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Receptor Biol & Signaling, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Masaryk Univ, Dept Expt Biol, Fac Sci, Kotlarska 2, CS-61137 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Agonist-induced dimer dissociation as a macromolecular step in G protein-coupled receptor signaling2017Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of cell surface receptors. They can exist and act as dimers, but the requirement of dimers for agonist-induced signal initiation and structural dynamics remains largely unknown. Frizzled 6 (FZD6) is a member of Class F GPCRs, which bind WNT proteins to initiate signaling. Here, we show that FZD6 dimerizes and that the dimer interface of FZD6 is formed by the transmembrane a-helices four and five. Most importantly, we present the agonist-induced dissociation/re-association of a GPCR dimer through the use of live cell imaging techniques. Further analysis of a dimerization-impaired FZD6 mutant indicates that dimer dissociation is an integral part of FZD6 signaling to extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2. The discovery of agonistdependent dynamics of dimers as an intrinsic process of receptor activation extends our understanding of Class F and other dimerizing GPCRs, offering novel targets for dimerinterfering small molecules.

  • Gerasimova, Julia V.
    et al.
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, Prof Popova St 2, St Petersburg 197376, Russia..
    Ekman, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet.
    Taxonomy and nomenclature of seven names in Bacidia (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) described from Russia2017Inngår i: Phytotaxa, ISSN 1179-3155, E-ISSN 1179-3163, Vol. 316, nr 3, 292-296 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We aim to increase understanding and improve taxonomy of seven names currently treated in Bacidia that were described from Russian territory based on material collected during 19th-century expeditions: Bacidia alborussula, B. freshfieldii, B. graminum, B. indigens, B. primigenia, B. subabbrevians, and B. xylophila. B. alborussula, B. graminum, and B. indigens are transferred here to Haematomma, Lecania, and Bacidina, respectively. Bacidia freshfieldii and B. subabbrevians belong in the Ramalinaceae and are provisionally kept in Bacidia even though none of them is congeneric with the type of that genus. B. primigenia belongs in Arthrorhaphis, but we refrain from making any new combination owing to its questionable status as a species distinct from A. grisea. B. xylophila is a younger synonym of Lecania subfuscula. We designate lectotypes for names previously not typified and for which syntypes exist: Lecidea alborussula, L. graminum, L. indigens, and L. subabbrevians.

  • Gustavsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms centrum för forskning om offentlig sektor (Score), Stockholms universitet och Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Melldahl, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Länsteatrarnas ekonomiska handlingsutrymme: Intäkter, utgifter och personal 1980–20152017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar hur länsteatrarnas inkomster, utgifter och personalstyrka har förändrats mellan 1980 och 2015, en period som präglats av tre olika kulturpolitiska reformer (sjösatta 1974, 1996 och 2009).

    I ett bakgrundsavsnitt diskuteras bristen på bra kulturstatistik. Obrutna serier med statistik som sträcker sig över olika kulturpolitiska perioder har saknats. För att kunna jämföra länsteatrarnas ekonomiska förhållanden under perioder märkta av olika kulturpolitiska ideal har statistik därför samlats in från olika arkiv och skarvats ihop för hela den nämnda 35-årsperioden.

    Rapportens första undersökande del visar att det har skett en resursmässig förstärkning av länsteatrarna över tid (mätt med konsumentprisindex). Utvecklingen har dock varit ojämn. Den följer bredare trender i samhällsekonomin. Den genomsnittliga länsteaterns intäkter ökade markant mellan 1980 och 1990 (1974 års kulturpolitiska epok), minskade påtagligt mellan 1990 och 1996 (90-talets ekonomiska kris), ökade kraftigt mellan 1996 och 2005 (1996 års kulturpolitiska era), minskade noterbart mellan 2005 och 2012 (det sena 00-talets ekonomiska kris) och ökade något mellan 2012 och 2015 (2009 års kulturpolitiska period). Vi visade också att de genomsnittliga utgifternas utveckling följer samma typ av cykliska förlopp som de genomsnittliga intäkternas.

    Rapportens andra del studerade finansieringens effekter på kärnverksamheten, exemplifierad av personalstyrkans storlek och sammansättning. Länsteatrarnas största utgiftspost utgörs av personalkostnader. För att undersöka om lönekostnadsutvecklingen undergrävt uppräkningen av de offentliga anslagen justerades beloppen med olika löneindex. Nu blev ett motsatt utvecklingsscenario synligt. Istället för den trendmässiga – förvisso försiktiga och periodvisa – ökningen av intäkterna som visades när anslagen räknades om med konsumentprisindex minskade anslagen över tid när de justerades med löneindex. Den genomsnittliga länsteatern kan inte i dag, trots den måttliga resursförstärkningen de senaste åren, köpa lika mycket personal som i början av undersökningsperioden.I en separat delstudie visade vi även att antalet arbetade timmar av anställd ”konstnärlig” personal på teatrarna minskade över tid, medan antalet årsverken för ”administrativ” personal ökade något.

    I en avslutande delstudie ställdes följdfrågor om personalsituationen. Vi visade på den något paradoxala situationen att länsteatrarna – trots lägre köpkraft (mätt med löneindex) och färre ersatta arbetstimmar utförda av anställd konstnärlig personal (årsverken) – lyckats enrollera fler personer. En delförklaring till denna utveckling ligger i att länsteatrarna under de senaste tio åren alltmer börjat befolkas av visstidsoch korttidsanställd personal (med A-skattsedel) och frivilliga eller ofrivilliga företagare (med F- och FA-skattsedel).

  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 13:00 Room B7:101a, Uppsala
    Daurer, Benedikt J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär biofysik.
    Algorithms for Coherent Diffractive Imaging with X-ray Lasers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) has become a very popular technique over the past two decades. CDI is a "lensless" imaging method which replaces the objective lens of a conventional microscope by a computational image reconstruction procedure. Its increase in popularity came together with the development of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) which produce extremely bright and coherent X-rays. By facilitating these unique properties, CDI enables structure determination of non-crystalline samples at nanometre resolution and has many applications in structural biology, material science and X-ray optics among others. This work focuses on two specific CDI techniques, flash X-ray diffractive imaging (FXI) on biological samples and X-ray ptychography.

    While the first FXI demonstrations using soft X-rays have been quite promising, they also revealed remaining technical challenges. FXI becomes even more demanding when approaching shorter wavelengths to allow subnanometre resolution imaging. We described one of the first FXI experiments using hard X-rays and characterized the most critical components of such an experiment, namely the properties of X-ray focus, sample delivery and detectors. Based on our findings, we discussed experimental and computational strategies for FXI to overcome its current difficulties and reach its full potential. We deposited the data in the Coherent X-ray Database (CXIDB) and made our data analysis code available in a public repository. We developed algorithms targeted towards the needs of FXI experiments and implemented a software package which enables the analysis of diffraction data in real time.

    X-ray ptychography has developed into a very useful tool for quantitative imaging of complex materials and has found applications in many areas. However, it involves a computational reconstruction step which can be slow. Therefore, we developed a fast GPU-based ptychographic solver and combined it with a framework for real-time data processing which already starts the ptychographic reconstruction process while data is still being collected. This provides immediate feedback to the user and allows high-throughput ptychographic imaging.

    Finally, we have used ptychographic imaging as a method to study the wavefront of a focused XFEL beam under typical FXI conditions. 

    We are convinced that this work on developing strategies and algorithms for FXI and ptychography is a valuable contribution to the development of coherent diffractive imaging. 

    Delarbeid
    1. Experimental strategies for imaging bioparticles with femtosecond hard X-ray pulses
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Experimental strategies for imaging bioparticles with femtosecond hard X-ray pulses
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: IUCrJ, ISSN 0972-6918, E-ISSN 2052-2525, Vol. 4, 251-262 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328529 (URN)10.1107/S2052252517003591 (DOI)
    Prosjekter
    eSSENCE
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-04-07 Laget: 2017-08-25 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Hummingbird: monitoring and analyzing flash X-ray imaging experiments in real time
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Hummingbird: monitoring and analyzing flash X-ray imaging experiments in real time
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of applied crystallography, ISSN 0021-8898, E-ISSN 1600-5767, Vol. 49, 1042-1047 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-287197 (URN)10.1107/S1600576716005926 (DOI)000377020600036 ()
    Prosjekter
    eSSENCE
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-04-18 Laget: 2016-04-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. SHARP: a distributed GPU-based ptychographic solver
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>SHARP: a distributed GPU-based ptychographic solver
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of applied crystallography, ISSN 0021-8898, E-ISSN 1600-5767, Vol. 49, 1245-1252 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ever brighter light sources, fast parallel detectors and advances in phase retrieval methods have made ptychography a practical and popular imaging technique. Compared to previous techniques, ptychography provides superior robustness and resolution at the expense of more advanced and time-consuming data analysis. By taking advantage of massively parallel architectures, high-throughput processing can expedite this analysis and provide microscopists with immediate feedback. These advances allow real-time imaging at wavelength-limited resolution, coupled with a large field of view. This article describes a set of algorithmic and computational methodologies used at the Advanced Light Source and US Department of Energy light sources. These are packaged as a CUDA-based software environment named SHARP (http://camera.lbl.gov/sharp), aimed at providing state-of-the-art high-throughput ptychography reconstructions for the coming era of diffraction-limited light sources.

    Emneord
    coherent X-ray diffractive imaging, ptychography, nanoscience, X-ray microscopy, phase-contrast X-ray imaging
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300178 (URN)10.1107/S1600576716008074 (DOI)000382755900015 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-04 Laget: 2016-08-04 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24
    4. Nanosurveyor: a framework for real-time data processing
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Nanosurveyor: a framework for real-time data processing
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging, ISSN 2198-0926, Vol. 3, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The ever improving brightness of accelerator based sources is enabling novel observations and discoveries with faster frame rates, larger fields of view, higher resolution, and higher dimensionality.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317013 (URN)10.1186/s40679-017-0039-0 (DOI)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-03-08 Laget: 2017-03-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24
    5. Wavefront sensing of individual XFEL pulses using ptychography
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Wavefront sensing of individual XFEL pulses using ptychography
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The characterization of the wavefront dynamics is important for many X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments, in particular for coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), as the reconstructed image is always the product of the incoming wavefront with the object. An accurate understanding of the wavefront is also important for any experiment wishing to achieve peak power densities, making use of the tightest possible focal spots. With the use of ptychography we demonstrate high-resolution imaging of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) beam focused at the endstation for Atomic, Molecular and Optical (AMO) experiments, including its phase and intensity at every plane along its propagation axis, for each individual pulse. Using a mixed-state approach, we have reconstructed the most dominant beam components that constitute an ensemble of pulses, and from the reconstructed components determined their respective contribution in each of the individual pulses. This enabled us to obtain complete wavefront information about each individual pulse. We hope that our findings aid interpretation of data from past and future LCLS experiments and we propose this method to be used routinely for XFEL beam diagnostics. 

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329011 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-24 Laget: 2017-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-24
  • Hermanson, M.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital.
    Hägglund, G.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital.
    Riad, J.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Skaraborgs Hospital/Skövde.
    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the head-shaft angle in children with cerebral palsy2017Inngår i: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics, ISSN 1863-2521, E-ISSN 1863-2548, Vol. 11, nr 4, 256-262 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at increased risk for hip dislocation. This can be prevented in most cases using surveillance programmes that include radiographic examinations. Known risk factors for hip dislocation include young age, high Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level and high migration percentage (MP). The head-shaft angle (HSA) has recently been described as an additional risk factor. The study aim was to determine inter- and intra-rater reliability of the HSA in a surveillance programme for children with CP.

    Methods We included hip radiographs from the CP surveillance programme CPUP in southern Sweden during the first half of 2016. Fifty radiographs were included from children at GMFCS levels II-V, with a mean age of 6.6 (SD 3.2) years. Three raters measured the HSA of one hip (left or right) at baseline and four weeks later; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate inter- and intra-rater reliability.

    Results Inter-and intra-rater reliability were excellent for the HSA, with ICC 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.96) and ICC 0.99 ( 95% CI 0.98-0.99), respectively.

    Conclusion The HSA showed excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability for children with CP, providing further evidence for use of the HSA as an additional factor for identifying risk for further hip displacement or dislocation.

  • Stawarz, J. E.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Imperial College London.
    Eastwood, J.P.
    Department of Physics, Imperial College London.
    Varsani, A.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    Ergun, R.E.
    Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder.
    Shay, M.A.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware.
    Nakamura, R.
    pace Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    Phan, T.D.
    Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California.
    Burch, J. L.
    South West Research Institute.
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Russell, C. T.
    Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire.
    Magnetospheric Multiscale analysis of intense field-aligned Poynting flux near the Earth's plasma sheet boundary2017Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, nr 14, 7106-7113 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission is employed to examine intense Poynting flux directed along the background magnetic field toward Earth, which reaches amplitudes of nearly 2 mW/m(2). The event is located within the plasma sheet but likely near the boundary at a geocentric distance of 9 RE in association with bulk flow signatures. The fluctuations have wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field of 124-264 km (compared to an ion gyroradius of 280 km), consistent with highly kinetic Alfven waves. While the wave vector remains highly perpendicular to the magnetic field, there is substantial variation of the direction in the perpendicular plane. The field-aligned Poynting flux may be associated with kinetic Alfven waves released along the separatrix by magnetotail reconnection and/or the radiation of waves excited by bursty bulk flow braking and may provide a means through which energy released by magnetic reconnection is transferred to the auroral region.

  • Djurhuus, Sjurdur
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Democracy Promotion through the Lens of Governmentality: The EU and Civil Society in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Yang, Shuo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    The Design of a User Interface for the Mobile Virtual Reality Application2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the constant updating of mobile terminal hardware and the rapid developmentof mobile internet, people’s demand for mobile 3D graphics application is increasing. Therefore, for mobile terminal 3D remote rendering has become a research hotspot. In recent years, the research of remote rendering of mobile terminal can be dividedinto three aspects: rendering standardization, rendering engine design, and key technology research. Among them, the research of rendering engine design focus onrendering quality, efficiency and interactivity. Based on the existing DIBR rendering engine, this report designs and implements the interactive module for mobile terminal, in order to improves and expand the function of the engine. The module isto identify different types of interactive input instructions of mobile terminal users,then map it to interaction primitive sequence and transformed into coordinatechanges of viewpoint in 3D scene, the obtained information pass to other parts of the engine to complete the rendering.This report mainly completes the following work.Firstly, investigating and analyzing the needs of mobile terminal interaction, and combining with existing functions of engine, design the interaction module and dividedit into the primitive map sub module and user input submodule. Secondly, implement two submodules separately, including the definition of the interaction primitives andthe analysis of different input modes. Finally, integrate the interaction module into theDIBR engine, and the relevant running examples are given.

  • Tyrala, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University.
    Wojtaszek, Klaudia
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University.
    Pajek, Marek
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University.
    Kayser, Yves
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB).
    Milne, Christopher
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Sá, Jacinto
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi. Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Szlachetko, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University; Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    State-Population Narrowing Effect in Two-Photon Absorption for Intense Hard X-ray Pulses2017Inngår i: Applied Sciences: APPS, ISSN 1454-5101, E-ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 7, nr 7, 653Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on studies of state-populations during the two-photon absorption process using intense X-ray pulses. The calculations were performed in a time-dependent manner using a simple three-level model expressed by coupled rate equations. We show that the proposed approach describes well the measured rates of X-rays excited in the one-photon and two-photon absorption processes, and allows detailed investigation of the state population dynamics during the course of the incident X-ray pulse. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear interaction of X-ray pulses with atoms leads to a time-narrowing of state populations. This narrowing-effect is attributed to a quadratic incidence X-ray intensity dependence characteristic for nonlinear interactions of photons with matter.

  • Wenting, Jin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Feedback Compilation for Decoupled Access-Execute Techniques2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software level optimization for compilers has become a major research field.Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) technology gives some options for optimization, such as tweaking the voltage or frequency. Improvements in voltage are quickly reaching their limits and hence this thesis work investigates approaches that are focused on dynamic frequency scaling. Finding an optimum with respect to two objectives: performance and energy, has been explored for Decoupled-Access-Execute(DAE) technology with iterative feedback compilations.The goal is to find a close-to-optimum output with a multi-versioned procedure within a limited budget and examine how well and on what aspect DAE can make improvements. This thesis work focuses on automating the compilation with DAE, including program instruction analysis for automatic selection of initial search parameters.

  • Stoyanova, Desislava
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    ANN for Optimization on Large-Scale Structural Acoustics Models2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of transformer design is a challenging task which defines the dimensionsof all the transformer parts, based on a given specification in order to achieve better operating performance. The mechanical force distributions, as a result of the transformer operation, make the structure vibrate at twice the network frequency,and ultimately lead to noise emission from the outer surface of the tank. In this paper,an artificial intelligence technique is proposed for transformer noise data prediction asan optimized alternative to the finite-element method with multi-physics capabilities. The technique uses a feedforward artificial neural network and the back propagation of error learning rule for predicting the noisy data, along with a finite-element modelfor computing a training data set. The method considers two well-known backpropagation algorithms, Levenberg–Marquardt and Bayesian Regularization, and while both of them appear to be extremely efficient when it comes to execution time, Bayesian Regularization presents considerably higher accuracy. The level of accuracyas well as the fast execution time makes the application of artificial neural networksfor finite-element model optimization a viable and efficient approach for industrial use.

  • Ravindran, Adithya
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Implementation of handwritten text recognition using density value of Delauney tessellation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel Word spotting technique for handwritten documentsusing density value of Delaunay triangulation. Delaunay tessellation is constructedfrom a set of data points on a query image and the density value is computed for eachdata point. This information is either directly used for training in a feed-forward neural network or used to compute the probability estimates of a class from Delaunay Tessellation Field Estimation and classification follows using naive Bayesian classifier. This paper discusses the performance of a Delaunay tessellation fieldestimation model and neural network model.

  • Rubensson, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Visualization of Music Designed for Children with Severe Disabilities2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The children participating in the MUMIn-project at the special school Årstagrundsärskola are already developing their learning skills and creativity through music.Although they have a problem. They have not used a program that visualizes the music played in a way that is understandable and rewarding. In order to furtherdevelop their skills in cause-effect relationships, such a program is highly sought after. By creating an application designed to be run on a computer at the same time as thechildren are playing music on MIDI-instruments connected to the same computer, theproblem could be solved. The visualizations would be shown on a projected screen and display animations that were designed to be as easy to understand as possible butstill have room for further exploration if they would be too simple for some of the children. Even though the children were on different skill levels, how they played music along with the visualizations showed that the created application both helps thechildren to connect cause-effect relationships and also help develop other skills like for example motor skills. The created application could because of these results be avery useful learning tool in further work in the MUMIn-project.

  • Rodriguez-Åkerstedt, Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM.
    "Hittar bättre artiklar nu": En studie av biblioteksundervisning i en högskolekontext2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding of the importance of user education in relation to undergraduates´ bachelor thesis. The secondary purpose of the study was to investigate how institutional impact is reflected in student text production. The starting point of the study is an observation of user education at Södertörn University Library, where students in the process of writing their bachelor thesis in tourism participated. This student group became the focus of the study.

            Through a survey, feedback was collected concerning what the students think the user education might have contributed to in relation to their thesis writing. Whether the importance of user education reflected in the papers has been investigated based on a comparative reference analysis that included bachelor theses in tourism science published between 2015 and 2017.

    The students' questionnaire answered in general in the support of the user education, where an increased focus on searching in databases and after scientific articles was emphasized. The comparative reference analysis also did not dispute what was expressed in the questionnaire survey although the difference was marginal to those who participated and those that did not.

    Based on Norman Fairclough's critical discourse analysis, it was investigated how institutional impact was reflected in selected papers. By analysing the user education and guidelines, it was possible to see how a certain type of academic discourse was reproduced in the theses.

    This study describes the importance of library education in several ways. The discourse analysis showed that library education has a role as a genre of governance where academic and disciplinary discourse is reproduced. The survey also showed that library education constitutes a cognitive authority towards the students, which correlated with the reference analysis.

  • Åberg, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Saccoccia, Fulvio
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Grabherr, Manfred
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ore, Wai Ying Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Jemth, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hultqvist, Greta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Evolution of the p53-MDM2 pathway2017Inngår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, 177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The p53 signalling pathway, which controls cell fate, has been extensively studied due to its prominent role in tumor development. The pathway includes the tumor supressor protein p53, its vertebrate paralogs p63 and p73, and their negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4. The p53/p63/p73-MDM system is ancient and can be traced in all extant animal phyla. Despite this, correct phylogenetic trees including both vertebrate and invertebrate species of the p53/p63/p73 and MDM families have not been published. Results: Here, we have examined the evolution of the p53/p63/p73 protein family with particular focus on the p53/ p63/p73 transactivation domain (TAD) and its co-evolution with the p53/p63/p73- binding domain (p53/p63/p73BD) of MDM2. We found that the TAD and p53/p63/p73BD share a strong evolutionary connection. If one of the domains of the protein is lost in a phylum, then it seems very likely to be followed by loss of function by the other domain as well, and due to the loss of function it is likely to eventually disappear. By focusing our phylogenetic analysis to p53/p63/ p73 and MDM proteins from phyla that retain the interaction domains TAD and p53/p63/p73BD, we built phylogenetic trees of p53/p63/p73 and MDM based on both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The trees follow species evolution and contain a total number of 183 and 98 species for p53/p63/p73 and MDM, respectively. We also demonstrate that the p53/p63/p73 and MDM families result from whole genome duplications. Conclusions: The signaling pathway of the TAD and p53/p63/p73BD in p53/p63/p73 and MDM, respectively, dates back to early metazoan time and has since then tightly co-evolved, or disappeared in distinct lineages.

  • Lionel Sagayaraj, Linushiya Ranjani
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Gene Expression Analysis of Loto-Type Toll Receptors in the Onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The expression and role of Loto genes was previously investigated in arthropods and it was concluded that the morphogenetic functions of Loto genes were conserved in the last common ancestors of arthropods. In this paper, possible orthologs of Loto clade genes are analysed and it was found that they possibly play a conserved role in convergent extension of cells from the blastoderm stage to germ band extension stage. The differences and similarities in the number of and expression of Loto clade genes in arthropods and onychophorans are compared and analysed. Unlike in arthropods, the expression of Euperipatoides Loto is strongest in the head including part of the somewhat enigmatic frontal appendages (the onychophoran antennae). I also find a stripped segmental pattern of expression that is similar to that classic expression in transverse segmental stripes of Loto class genes as seen in arthropods. However, these stripes are only week and appear to be mesodermal rather than ectodermal, as in arthropods. These facts are discussed in regard to current hypothesis about the origin of segmentation in panarthropods.Insects, crustaceans and chelicerates each possess a set of several Loto class genes which are also involved in convergent extension. But the myriapod Strigamia only appears to possess one such gene.  I therefore investigated Loto genes in another distantly related myriapod, Glomeris. It appears to only have one Loto gene and this appears to be involved in convergent extension as well. Two Toll genes  of Glomeris (Gm-567 and Gm-596) were incomplete and could according to phylogenetic analysis represent Loto genes. I therefore checked their expression and found that they are not expressed like Loto genes. A third potential Glomeris Loto gene (Gm-399) could not be isolated via PCR.My data suggest a somewhat different role for onychophoran Loto than convergent extension, and that the ancestral set of panarthropod Loto genes may be one, rather than a set.

  • Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Giordano, James
    Departments of Neurology and Biochemistry, Neuroethics Studies Program-Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States.
    The Utility- and Use–of Neurotechnology to Recover Consciousness: Technical and Neuroethical Considerations in Approaching the “Hard Question” of Neuroscience2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 11, 1-3 s., 564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Engström, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för moderna språk, Slaviska språk.
    Ikonens metamorfoser i det postsovjetiska Ryssland2014Inngår i: Med blicken österut: Hyllningsskrift till Per-Arne Bodin / [ed] Per Ambrosiani, Elisabeth Löfstrand, Ewa Teodorowicz-Hellman, Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2014, 67-78 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)