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  • Classon, Anton
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för speldesign.
    The J in JRPG: Finding collectivism or individualism in games2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete täcker JRPG-subgenren och jämför denna med den bredare RPG-genren. Dessa jämförs genom hur spel kan, genom deras mekaniker, spåras tillbaka till vilka typer av samhälle spelen härstammar från. Dessa samhällsformer är kollektivism och individualism, enligt definitionen av Richard Brislin (2000). Spelen är uppdelade i japanska spel och västerländska spel och undersöks för bevis på samhällsband i deras spelmekanik som knyter dem till sitt ursprungsland eller bevis som strider mot dessa band.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Res Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Per-Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg.
    A case of long QT syndrome: challenges on a bumpy road2017Ingår i: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 5, nr 6, 954-960 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Clinical Message Beta-agonist treatment during pregnancy may unmask the diagnosis of long QT syndrome. The QT prolongation can result in functional AV block. A history of seizure and/or sudden death in a family member should raise suspicion of ventricular tachycardia. More than one mutation may coexist. Refusal of betablocker therapy complicates risk stratification.

  • Yuksel, Onur
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    A Sound-Based Intervention for The Artistic Encounter2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konstupplevelsen, som en viktig bidragande faktor till den intellektuella upplevelsen, har studerats av många forskare och filosofer i syfte att demaskera och förstärka dess särskilda karaktärsdrag [9,16,21,22]. Ett sätt på vilket sofistikerade former av konstupplevelser har tolkats har varit genom “flow”; ett begrepp som betecknar en holistisk förnimmelse genom totalt engagemang, koncentration, inneboende njutning och handlings-medvetenhet [7]. Tidigare forskning hävdar att genom att se konstupplevelser som ett “flow” avslöjas dess strukturella karaktärsdrag och dynamik på ett tydligare sätt. Konstupplevelsen undersöks på detta sätt som en aktivitet upplevd genom “flow” [8]. Vidare har begreppet “flow” studerats i relation till musikalisk aktivitet och har ansetts ha starka kopplingar till musikens område [3,5]. Kunskapen är i nuläget begränsad kring hur musikaliskt ljud kan främja “flow” i relation till en konstupplevelse. Denna studie baseras på metoden forskning genom design och har som syfte att främja en förhöjd konstupplevelse, med andra ord att underlätta “flow” i det konstnärliga mötet. Studiens två huvudsakliga bidrag består i: (1) en presentation av designprocessen genom en explorativ förstudie på Moderna Museet i Stockholm, ett uppföljande ljudexperiment i ett konstnärligt sammanhang och (2) resultaten av en utvärdering gjord på Uppsala Konstmuseum med fokus på identifieringen av vilken effekt den designade ljudartefakten har på den individuella upplevelsen. Författaren hävdar att ljudartefakten kan bidra till att skapa en omslutande miljö, bidra till att initiera ett introspektivt tankesätt genom de interaktiva karaktärsdragen samt öka förutsättningarna för “flow” i märkbar omfattning. Slutligen har kritiska reflektioner över designprocessen inkluderats i det sista kapitlet i syfte att bidra till forskningen inom ljuddesign.

  • Anlind, Alice
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Improvments and evaluation of data processing in LC-MS metabolomics: for application in in vitro systems pharmacology2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance of established medicines is rapidly increasing while the rate of

    discovery of new drugs and treatments have not increases during the last decades

    (Spiro et al. 2008). Systems pharmacology can be used to find new combinations or

    concentrations of established drugs to find new treatments faster (Borisy et al. 2003).

    A recent study aimed to use high resolution Liquid chromatography–mass

    spectrometry (LC-MS) for in vitro systems pharmacology, but encountered problems

    with unwanted variability and batch effects(Herman et al. 2017). This thesis builds on

    this work by improving the pipeline and comparing alternative methods and evaluating

    used methods. The evaluation of methods indicated that the data quality was often

    not improved substantially by complex methods and pipelines. Instead simpler

    methods such as binning for feature extraction performed best. In-fact many of the

    preprocessing method commonly used proved to have negative or neglect-able effects

    on resulting data quality. Finally the recently introduced Optimal Orthonormal System

    for Discriminant Analysis (OOS-DA) for batch removal was found to be a good

    alternative to the more complex Combat method.

  • Koetz Wildt, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Placing humor in its right place: the need of a distinctive parody exception within EU Trademark Law2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Hähle, Philip
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik, Byggteknik.
    Bengs Davies, Sebastian
    Etappsamordning: En studie för att effektivisera kommunikationen och samordningen vid stadsutvecklingsprojekt2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are currently many ongoing city development projects that aim to improve the housing and work office situation. Due to the scope of these projects, they are generally divided into smaller stages. Within these stages there are many different entrepreneurs working on their own projects, but still share common ground for construction-related deliveries. However, there is currently a lack of incentive for the involved entrepreneurs to improve communication and coordination between themselves. The result of this leads to an increased difficulty to handle the logistics planning. As of late, some projects have an assigned work role, a stage coordinator, whose purpose is to communicate and coordinate with the involved entrepreneurs. However, the concept of this role hasn’t been sufficiently established within the construction sector yet. The concept is relatively new and because of this there hasn’t surfaced a proper working model yet.

    The purpose of this study is to examine and acquire knowledge about the underlying problems that reside between the entrepreneurs within the subject construction stage-coordination. The methodology of gathering information for the study was mainly carried out through interviews with professionals of the construction sector directly affiliated with the subject. Furthermore, the remaining information was gathered through literature about Lean, logistics and visual planning. Lastly, the remaining information were self-conducted study visits of affiliated stages.

    The results showed that there currently is very limited communication and coordination between the entrepreneurs. The respondents from the interviews claimed that there is a reluctance towards cooperating between the parties. The respondents explained that the reasoning behind this was that they wanted to conduct their own operations without having to involve other entrepreneurs. This usually leads to additional maintenance costs which they do not wish to be held accountable for, which they instead want the common client to be responsible over. However, they were positive towards utilisation of a visual planning software that could help them organize planning in-between themselves to help reduce unnecessary workload.

    When the conclusions for the above-mentioned information were made, the authors presented their own suggestions of how the visual planning software could be designed to alleviate communication and coordination in-between the entrepreneurs.

  • Wikner, Alexandra
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Den dömdes insyn i och tillgång till tidigare bevisning i samband med resningsansökan: -  En undersökning av gällande rätt2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Edueng, Khadijah
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci. Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Kulliyyah Pharm, Jalan Istana, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia..
    Mahlin, Denny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Larsson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Bergström, Christel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Mechanism-based selection of stabilization strategy for amorphous formulations: Insights into crystallization pathways2017Ingår i: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 256, 193-202 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a step-by-step experimental protocol using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic vapour sorption (DVS), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and a small-scale dissolution apparatus (mu DISS Profiler) to investigate the mechanism (solid-to-solid or solution-mediated) by which crystallization of amorphous drugs occurs upon dissolution. This protocol then guided how to stabilize the amorphous formulation. Indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide and glipizide were selected as model drugs and HPMC (Pharmacoat 606) and PVP (K30) as stabilizing polymers. Spray-dried amorphous indapamide, metolazone and glibenclamide crystallized via solution-mediated nucleation while glipizide suffered from solid-to-solid crystallization. The addition of 0.001%-0.01% (w/v) HPMC into the dissolution medium successfully prevented the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of indapamide and metolazone whereas it only reduced the crystallization rate for glibenclamide. Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of glipizide and PVP K30, at a ratio of 50:50% (w/w) reduced but did not completely eliminate the solid-to-solid crystallization of glipizide even though the overall dissolution rate was enhanced both in the absence and presence of HPMC. Raman spectroscopy indicated the formation of a glipizide polymorph in the dissolution medium with higher solubility than the stable polymorph. As a complementary technique, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of indapamide and glibenclamide with HPMC was performed. It was revealed that hydrogen bonding patterns of the two drugs with HPMC differed significantly, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may play a role in the greater stabilizing effect on supersaturation of indapamide, compared to glibenclamide.

  • Grönhaug, Gustav
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Förbättring av tillverkningsprocessen för hydraulcylindrar hos Edvins Larssons Mekaniska AB: En automationsförstudie2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a part of Automationsutmaningen which is a programsupported by Tillväxtverket, the program focus on helping small tomedium large manufacturing businesses in need of automatization andflexible solutions to their processing line. Via Robotdalen inVästerås a pilot study in robot automatization was conducted atEdvin Larssons Mekaniska AB (ELMAB), a manufacturer of hydrauliccylinders and industrial grapples. ELMAB want to reduce the manualhandling of materials and reduce their need for personnel, they alsowant to develop and meet future requirements. The purpose of this project is to find what process in the manufacturing chain that is most suitable to a solution in automatization and thereafter come up with suggestions and develop concepts that fulfill set requirements. The pilot study will act asbasis to an investment and show if a solution is profitable. Thepilot study focus on the manufacturing of hydraulic cylinders andthe processes lathe, grinding, washing and coating. The main parts of the report are status analysis and improvement suggestions. The status analysis was conducted through visits and thorough studies of the manufacturing process. Literature studies in production management and industrial robotics have been very important to increasing knowledge and understanding on what to look for in the status analysis and how to draw conclusions for theimprovement suggestions. The status analysis concluded that washing, coating and lathing all could use improvements but that only coating and lathing would benefit from a solution in automatization. Further analysisconcluded that lathing was most beneficial to a solution.Based on a requirements analysis, three concepts on robot cells weredeveloped. All concepts focused on keeping the robot cell flexible.The solution is focused on the difficulty on letting an operatorwork inside the robot cell at the same time as the robot handles adifferent lathe within the cell or if there is a another solutionthat solves the problem. The solution has to work within a safetyaspect. The solution is a portable robot with a built in safetysolution. The solution leads to saved personnel costs and increasesefficiency to the lathes within the cell. The investment has apayback time in less than three years.

  • Cezayirlioglu, Andac Baran
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media, Medier och kommunikation.
    Rethinking Populism: ‘the People’ as a Popular Identity Subject in Bernie Sanders’ Discursive Articulation2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the articulation of a popular political identity by the US Senator Bernie Sanders and the political coalition he communicates. The analysis part is conducted on two levels: the construction of the populist signifier ‘the people’ and the construction of the antagonist in Sanders’ political communication.

    The theoretical part is mostly driven by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s perspective in radical democracy, identity construction, collectiveness and the chain of equivalence. By deploying theoretically unprejudiced approach, the thesis shows how a popular identity, namely ‘the People’, emerges, how it is communicated in order to put forward an alternative reading of populism which is hotly-debated subject among scholars and political scientists. Furthermore, the thesis elaborates how the theoretical discussion proposes a way of understanding the collective subject of ‘the People’ which appears as an identifiable and contra- conjectural category.

    The analysis ascertains that ‘the people’, as a populist subject, emerges as collective citizens demanding equal rights and taking the larger issues of inequality at stake based on inclusive values and positions, rather than as undemocratic, authoritarian, ethnically and culturally homogenizer subjects. Consequently, any subject causing ‘injustice’ becomes the antagonized other who obliges ‘the People’ to experience misery, oppression, and discrimination.

    The research tackles how Senator Sanders’ political communication brings disperse identities along with the chain of equivalence, how his movement articulates the political front of ‘the People’, and how it signifies the outsider through dichotomizing the political space. The study concludes that Sanders popular articulation provides a critical perspective for us to read populist zeitgeist of the twenty-first century. 

  • Abdulreda, Alico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Giba, Gabriela
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Generation Y: En studie om vad som motiverar yngre medarbetare2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste 30 åren har tekniken gjort allt större framsteg vilket har lett till att människan idag är mer beroende av den. Människor från de äldre generationerna måste lära sig hur den nya tekniken fungerar medan den yngre generationen inte behöver lika lång lärotid för att förstå den i och med att de är uppväxta med den nya tekniken. På grund av att de olika generationerna har olika uppväxter har det resulterat i att de resonerar olika.  För att en organisation ska ha en god framtid är medarbetarna en viktig tillgång. Den yngre generation identifieras som generation Y eller Millenials och är redan en viktig del av arbetsmarknaden. Genom att lära sig hur generation Y resonerar och ta reda på hur de motiveras, samt hur man leder dem kan innebära en fördel som kan ha en positiv påverkan på organisationen.  I denna kvalitativa forskningsansats undersöks hur generation Y fungerar, vad som påverkar dem och hur de resonerar. Studien utgår från två frågeställningar; vad det är som motiverar yngre medarbetare och vilken typ av ledarskap som ska användas för att motivera unga medarbetare. Syftet med studien är att förstå hur yngre medarbetare motiveras och hur de ska ledas inom organisationen.   Studien är en fallstudiedesign där arbetets teoretiska referensram bygger på vetenskapliga artiklar. Teorierna och modellerna redovisar hur yttre samt inre motivation påverkar individens motivation, skillnaden de två motivationsteorierna Selfdetermination Theoryoch Cognitive Evaluation Theory för att senare utgå från studier om hur de olika generationerna resonerar och avslutas med olika ledarskapsmodeller som visar vilka faktorer som en ledare ska ta hänsyn till för att kunna leda generation Y. Vidare består undersökningsmetoden för det empiriska underlaget av semi-strukturerade intervjuer för att få information om vad som motiverar den yngre generationen och vilka ledaregenskaper en ledare ska ha. Respondenterna består av fem chefer från olika generationer och fem medarbetare inom generation Y.  Studiens slutsats visar att individer inom generation Y motiveras främst av inre motivation. Inre motivation innebär att individen deltar i aktiviteten för sin egen skull, för att han eller hon är intresserad av den samt för tillfredställelsen. Den faktor som påverkar individer inom generation Y är främst relationen till chefer och kollegor. Vidare visade det sig att individer inom generation Y har ett större behov av en förstärkt inre motivation samt uppmuntran och uppmärksamhet. Individer inom generation Y ser främst att arbetsuppgifterna är roliga och utmanande då de motiverar individen att arbeta.   För att leda individer inom generation Y finns det inget specifikt ledarskap som fungerar bäst. Studien visar att chefer ska anpassa sin ledarskapsstil för att kunna tillfredsställa de krav som generation Y har på arbetslivet. De ledarskapsfaktorer som är viktigast för en ledare är att kunna kommunicera med sina medarbetare där ledaren ska framföra saker och ting på ett tydligt sätt samt att stödja, vägleda och uppmuntra sina medarbetare.

  • Senek, Aleksandar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för beräkningsvetenskap.
    Multiscale Stochastic Neuron Modeling: with applications in deep brain stimulation2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years deep brain stimulation (DBS) has seen success in curing adverseeffects of several diseases, among those Parkinson. Current method for treatmentuses implanted electrodes of the brain which stimulate neurons via potential fields.The precise mechanism with which DBS works is still being researched. To this end amodel allowing for seamless coupling of DBS-signals and neuron behavior will aid intesting and further development of the existing DBS-signals.

    We simulate the ionic channels in the neuronal membrane as well as the synapticchannels in the dendrites. The scheme has been implemented using URDME, aMATLAB research code, where a C-code solver is available. A neuron tree is loadedthrough the TREES toolbox from which a connectivity matrix can be formulated. Foreach time step the propagation of the electric potential in the neuronal membrane iscalculated in MATLAB using a Crank-Nicholson scheme. The membrane current isthen calculated and (through Livelink for COMSOL) it is sent to a time dependentPDE-solver which calculates the extracellular potential created by a action potential.

    Convergence of the interspike interval (ISI) as the time step decreases is shown, aswell as when the space discretization of a neuronal structure is refined. A majority ofthe computational time is spent evaluating the stochastic simulation of ion-channels,and computes the solution of a reference test in ~80s, compared to the ODE modelwhich takes ~30s. Due to the highly parallel nature of the stochastic solver this timecould be decreased.

    We also show that the stochastic model of a neuron has a different threshold currentfor a potential spike compared to the deterministic model, a systematic study is doneto find the threshold gradient for the stochastic case. Further, the propagationthrough a chain of neurons is simulated where the obtained potential field is realistic.

  • Sjöstedt, Samuel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Religionshistoria.
    Religion och Magi: Religio et Superstitio2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Rössle, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Historia​ ​för​ ​Folkskolan ​ ​​ ​​ ​Eller Hur​ ​man​ ​gör​ ​sina​ ​undersåtar​ ​till lojala​ ​lutheraner: En​ ​undersökning​ ​om​ ​religioner​ ​i​ ​Läsebok​ ​för​ ​folkskolan2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In​ ​the​ ​late​ ​19th​ ​century,​ ​Sweden​ ​went​ ​through​ ​many​ ​social​ ​and​ ​political​ ​changes​ ​which resulted​ ​in​ ​the​ ​establishment​ ​of​ ​an​ ​educational​ ​system​ ​for​ ​the​ ​broader​ ​masses.​ ​The educational​ ​system​ ​was​ ​designed​ ​to​ ​put​ ​Christianity​ ​at​ ​centre,​ ​or​ ​more​ ​specifically​ ​the Lutheran​ ​faith,​ ​which​ ​was​ ​the​ ​state​ ​religion​ ​of​ ​19th​ ​century​ ​Sweden.​ ​This​ ​paper​ ​focuses​ ​on the​ ​other​ ​religions​ ​that​ ​made​ ​its​ ​way​ ​into​ ​the​ ​school​ ​books​ ​during​ ​that​ ​time,​ ​that​ ​were​ ​not typically​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​religious​ ​education.​ ​Was​ ​any​ ​other​ ​religions​ ​mentioned​ ​at​ ​all,​ ​and​ ​if they​ ​were,​ ​then​ ​how​ ​and​ ​if​ ​possible​ ​why? During​ ​this​ ​study​ ​it​ ​was​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​the​ ​best​ ​place​ ​in​ ​the​ ​books​ ​to​ ​find​ ​informations​ ​about other​ ​religions​ ​was​ ​in​ ​the​ ​history​ ​sections,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​was​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​the​ ​ways​ ​they​ ​were mentioned​ ​was​ ​very​ ​different​ ​from​ ​how​ ​they​ ​mentioned​ ​Lutheran​ ​Christianity.​ ​The “heathen”​ ​religion,​ ​as​ ​it​ ​was​ ​called,​ ​was​ ​portrayed​ ​in​ ​a​ ​national​ ​romantic​ ​light,​ ​but​ ​the Catholic​ ​faith​ ​was​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​an​ ​outdated​ ​version​ ​of​ ​Christianity.​ ​The​ ​way​ ​that​ ​it​ ​was​ ​explained in​ ​the​ ​books​ ​makes​ ​it​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​the​ ​ruling​ ​class​ ​wanted​ ​the​ ​ruled​ ​class​ ​to​ ​know​ ​that Lutheranism​ ​was​ ​the​ ​true​ ​and​ ​real​ ​Christian​ ​faith.

  • Pettersson, Joanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    The Sheela-na-gig and the creation of her history: a comparative analysis of two theories concerning the mysterious medieval figure2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    After scholars started conducting research on the medieval Sheela-na-gig carvings, a number of theories regarding the purpose and origin of the figure have been suggested. The question has been tackled through many different approaches, but still remains unfinished as there are no written records explaining what the Sheela-na-gig figure actually is. Scholars have divided into different areas, approaching the discussion from different disciplines: art history, medieval social history, and religious history (both Christian and pre-Christian) to name a few. As the figure is usually found on Christian buildings but is distinguished by very sexual imagery, it leaves the door open for many interpretations.

    This thesis looks at two common theories on what the Sheela-na-gig is; one which is viewing her as a Romanesque warning against lust and sin, and one which argues that the figure is a folk deity used as an amulet for childbirth, symbolising both life and death. By using discourse theory and a comparative method, this thesis compares the descriptions and arguments of the different theories, and studies the intention behind them. The thesis then shows how the theories choose to focus their search for evidence in order to support their own perspective, while also excluding information which does not serve their particular agenda.

  • Runeson, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik och media.
    Performing on a digital stage: A Twitch.tv case study on streamer behavior2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Twitch.tv är en växande livestreaming-plattform, främst inriktad på spel. Streamers presenterar sig själva framför en livepublik. Detta leder till nya och intressanta interaktioner. I denna studie studerar jag två Twitch.tv livestreamers för att undersöka skillnaderna i beteende baserat på den interaktion som förekommer mellan dem och deras publik. Streamers publikstorlek varierade. För att undersöka skillnaderna användes följande forskningsfråga: Hur använder två livestreamers Twitch.tv för att interagera med sin respektive publik när publikstorleken skiljer sig? För att undersöka detta utfördes över 60 timmar videoanalys samt en intervju med en av deltagarna. Den insamlade datan analyserades med Erving Goffman’s (1990) Dramaturgical-teori. Resultaten visar på skillnader i beteende (Dramatisering samt Idealisering) samt skillnader mellan de båda streaminggränssnitten (Scen och kulisser). Båda deltagarna påverkades av förväntningar från deras respektive publiker samt skapade framsidor (fronts) för att leva upp till dessa förväntningar till uppträdandets fördel. 

  • Krusing, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Tiricke, Leo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Big datas påverkan på beslutsfattande av kundsegment: - En fallstudie av organisationer inom resebranschen2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Till följd av den digitala utvecklingen har organisationer börjat inhämta och lagra stora mängder digital data. Den digitala datan som samlats in av organisationer benämns som big data och utgörs av personlig information om individer. En grundläggande del vid ett tillämpande av big data i organisationers arbete är en analys av insamlad information. Med hjälp av en analys transformeras datan till förståelig information som sedan kan appliceras i beslutsfattandeprocesser inom organisationer. Beslutsfattare inom organisationer använder information som är utvunnen från big data för att stärka deras argument vid situationer där beslut ska fattas. Big data har utvecklat och möjliggjort nya former av hur organisationer genomför beslutsfattandeprocessen gällande segmentering av konsumenter. Med avseende på det bredare utbud av information som finns tillgänglig om individer tilltar organisationers möjligheter för en ökad förståelse om individen. Informationen som samlas in av organisationer kan ha både dagsaktuell och historisk karaktär. Syftet med uppsatsen är att med hjälp av en undersökning granska två svenska reseföretags användande av big data i deras beslutsfattade vid identifiering av nya segment. Studien utgår från en fallstudiedesign som undersöker två svenska företag inom resebranschen med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer. Det teoretiska ramverk uppsatsen bygger på har utformats utefter problemformuleringen och tar därför upp big data, beslutsfattande och segmentering. Detta leder fram till en analysmodell som förklarar hur dessa begrepp förhåller sig till varandra. De resultat undersökningen påvisar är att organisationers identifiering av nya kundsegment påverkas av big data på olika sätt. Big data används som underlag för beslut men är fortfarande i behov av kompetenta beslutsfattare med sakkunskap om marknaden och konsumenter. Beroende på vilken marknad organisationen är verksam på är typen av data avgörande för vilka beslut gällande identifiering av segment som kan fattas.

  • Harris, Melissa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Left-Right Symmetric Model: Putting lower bounds on the mass of the heavy, charged WR gauge boson2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project I have studied the left-right symmetric model (LRSM) as a candidate beyond standard model theory of particle physics. The most common version of the theory, called the minimal LRSM, has been studied and tested extensively for several decades. I have therefore modied this minimal LRSM by adapting the scalar sector and computing the mass of the charged right-handed gauge bosons WR for this particular scalar sector. I carried out a study of the theory and implemented it into FeynRules, in order to simulate LHC events using MadGraph. This allowed computation of the cross-section for the decay WR to a top and a bottom quark as a function of the mass of WR , which was compared with CMS data for the same decay, with proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV. The final result was a constraint on the mass of WR , with a lower bound of 3 TeV.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 10:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Mehta, Suman
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Development of RMT techniques for urban infrastructure planning: Stockholm Bypass (Förbifart) case study2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensor radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) method has extensively been used in near-surface investigations to obtain resistivity models of the subsurface. The main objective of this thesis is to further develop the RMT survey technique for a less paid attention and challenging environment namely on shallow water bodies and in the urban environment. The other objective is to develop a new processing technique to enhance the resolution and sensitivity of the tensor RMT method. For the first time a data acquisition system called ‘boat-towed RMT’ is introduced that has the capability to measure tensor RMT data on water bodies like lakes and rivers. A RMT survey carried out on Lake Mälaren near the city of Stockholm shows the capability and efficiency of the boat-towed RMT system. The resistivity models obtained from the RMT data are consistent from one line to another and show good correlation with the existing geological and drill core data. In general, a three-layer resistivity model was obtained that has a conductive layer interpreted as lake sediments, which is sandwiched between high resistive bedrock and resistive water column. A coherent discontinuity of low resistivity zone was observed in bedrock across all the lines. It was interpreted to originate from a major fracture zone striking in the direction of water bodies. However, due to the lack of penetration, RMT method alone was insufficient to provide a conclusive interpretation of this. Synthetic analysis was performed and showed that lower frequencies using controlled-sources are required to obtain the desired penetration depth. We took the advantage of the Swedish winters and carried out controlled-source RMT measurements on frozen lake at the same location. The new controlled-source models have enough depth penetration to delineate fractured bedrock. Furthermore, in order to improve the resolution and sensitivity of tensor RMT data, a new processing technique was developed that preserves the identity of each transmitter and allows improved resistivity model of the subsurface. These new acquisition and processing techniques should be useful in many different applications for urban infrastructure planning projects especially in Scandinavia where 7% of the land is covered by fresh water bodies and is poorly explored for these purposes.

    Delarbeten
    1. Boat-towed radio-magnetotellurics: A new technique and case study from the city of Stockholm
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Boat-towed radio-magnetotellurics: A new technique and case study from the city of Stockholm
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 80, nr 6, B193-B202 s.Artikel i tidskrift, Editorial material (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a new data acquisition system and technique to measure the radio magnetotelluric (RMT) signals from distant radio transmitters with the objective of mapping and modeling electric resistivity structures below a river or lake. The acquisition system is towed by a boat; therefore, we call the technique boat-towed RMT. The data acquisition is fast with a production rate of approximately 1  km/hr using a nominal sampling spacing of 10–15 m. Given the ample number of radio transmitters available in most parts of the world, the method can be used for near-surface studies of various targets. We have developed boat-towed RMT measurements on Lake Mälaren near the city of Stockholm in Sweden to determine the feasibility of the method. Approximately 15 km of RMT data were collected during three days above a planned 60-m-deep bypass tunnel with the goal of providing information on the bedrock depth and possible weak zones within the bedrock. The measured resistivity and phase data were of high quality with errors on the order of a few percent. The resistivity models from 2D inversion of the data showed a good correlation with available geologic data in resolving bedrock depth and also resistivity layering within the lake. Resistivity maps derived from the dense 2D models suggested a northeast–southwest-striking low-resistivity zone at less than a 30-m depth. The zone likely represents fractured crystalline bedrock. The boat-towed RMT technique is well suited for water bodies with moderate electric resistivity such as in brackish and freshwater environments.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geofysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267995 (URN)10.1190/GEO2014-0527.1 (DOI)000368347800021 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Forskningsrådet Formas
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-01 Skapad: 2015-12-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Resolution and sensitivity of boat-towed RMT data to delineate fracture zones - Example of the Stockholm bypass multi-lane tunnel
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Resolution and sensitivity of boat-towed RMT data to delineate fracture zones - Example of the Stockholm bypass multi-lane tunnel
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 139, 131-143 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The resolution and sensitivity of water-borne boat-towed multi-frequency radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) data for delineating zones of weaknesses in bedrock are examined in this study. 2D modeling of RMT data along 40 profiles in joint transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) as well as determinant mode was used for this purpose. The RMT data were acquired over two water passages from the Lake Malaren near the city of Stockholm where one of the largest underground infrastructure projects, a multi-lane tunnel, in Europe is currently being developed. Comparison with available borehole coring, refraction seismic and bathymetric data was used to scrutinize the RMT resistivity models. A low-resistivity zone observed in the middle of all the profiles is suggested to be from fracture/fault zones striking in the same direction as the water passages. Drilling observations confirm the presence of brittle structures in the bedrock, which manifest themselves as zones of low-resistivity and low-velocity in the RMT and refraction seismic data, respectively. Nevertheless, RMT is an inductive electromagnetic method hence the presence of conductive lake sediments may shield detecting the underlying fractured bedrock. The loss of resolution at depth implies that the structures within the bedrock under the lake sediments cannot reliably be delineated. To support this, a synthetic data analysis was carried out providing useful information on how to improve and plan the lake measurements for future studies. Synthetic modeling results for example suggested that frequencies as low as 3 kHz would be required to reliably resolve the bedrock and fracture zone within it in the study area. The modeling further illustrated the advantage of a fresh water layer that acts as a near-surface homogeneous medium eliminating the static shift effects. While boat-towed RMT data provided substantial information about the subsurface geology, the acquisition system should be upgraded to enable controlled-source data acquisition to increase the penetration depth and to overcome the shortcomings of using only radio-frequencies.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Boat-towed radio magnetotelluric, Fracture zone, Urban geophysics, Resolution, Synthetic modeling, Controlled source
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geofysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-322221 (URN)10.1016/j.jappgeo.2017.02.012 (DOI)000399269400013 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Forskningsrådet Formas, 252-2012-1907Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU), 363-26512013
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-17 Skapad: 2017-05-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Preserving the identity of VLF and LF transmitters for enhanced resolution of geoelectric models of RMT data
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Preserving the identity of VLF and LF transmitters for enhanced resolution of geoelectric models of RMT data
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geofysik
    Forskningsämne
    Geofysik med inriktning mot fasta jordens fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328392 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-22
    4. CSRMT survey on frozen lakes: opportunities for urban applications
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>CSRMT survey on frozen lakes: opportunities for urban applications
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geofysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328395 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-01
  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 13:15 B41 BMC, Uppsala
    Lind, Christoffer
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Beräkningsbiologi och bioinformatik.
    Computational Studies of Protein Synthesis on the Ribosome and Ligand Binding to Riboswitches2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ribosome is a macromolecular machine that produces proteins in all kingdoms of life. The proteins, in turn, control the biochemical processes within the cell. It is thus of extreme importance that the machine that makes the proteins works with high precision. By using three dimensional structures of the ribosome and homology modelling, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations to study the codon specificity of protein synthesis in initiation and termination on an atomistic level. In addition, we have examined the binding of small molecules to riboswitches, which can change the expression of an mRNA.

    The relative affinities on the ribosome between the eukaryotic initiator tRNA to the AUG start codon and six near-cognate codons were determined. The free-energy calculations show that the initiator tRNA has a strong preference for the start codon, but requires assistance from initiation factors 1 and 1A to uphold discrimination against near-cognate codons.

    When instead a stop codon (UAA, UGA or UAG) is positioned in the ribosomal A-site, a release factor binds and terminates protein synthesis by hydrolyzing the nascent peptide chain. However, vertebrate mitochondria have been thought to have four stop codons, namely AGA and AGG in addition to the standard UAA and UAG codons. Furthermore, two release factors have been identified, mtRF1 and mtRF1a. Free-energy calculations were used to determine if any of these two factors could bind to the two non-standard stop codons, and thereby terminate protein synthesis. Our calculations showed that the mtRF’s have similar stop codon specificity as bacterial RF1 and that it is highly unlikely that the mtRF’s are responsible for terminating at the AGA and AGG stop codons.

    The eukaryotic release factor 1, eRF1, on the other hand, can read all three stop codons singlehandedly. We show that eRF1 exerts a high discrimination against near-cognate codons, while having little preference for the different cognate stop codons. We also found an energetic mechanism for avoiding misreading of the UGG codon and could identify a conserved cluster of hydrophobic amino acids which prevents excessive solvent molecules to enter the codon binding site.

    The linear interaction energy method was used to examine binding of small molecules to the purine riboswitch and the FEP method was employed to explicitly calculate the LIE b-parameters. We show that the purine riboswitches have a remarkably high degree of electrostatic preorganization for their cognate ligands which is fundamental for discriminating against different purine analogs.

    Delarbeten
    1. Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A key feature of mitochondrial translation is the reduced number of transfer RNAs and reassignment of codons. For human mitochondria, a major unresolved problem is how the set of stop codons are decoded by the release factors mtRF1a and mtRF1. Here we present three-dimensional structural models of human mtRF1a and mtRF1 based on their homology to bacterial RF1 in the codon recognition domain, and the strong conservation between mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomal RNA in the decoding region. Sequence changes in the less homologous mtRF1 appear to be correlated with specific features of the mitochondrial rRNA. Extensive computer simulations of the complexes with the ribosomal decoding site show that both mitochondrial factors have similar specificities and that neither reads the putative vertebrate stop codons AGA and AGG. Instead, we present a structural model for a mechanism by which the ICT1 protein causes termination by sensing the presence of these codons in the A-site of stalled ribosomes.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-217675 (URN)10.1038/ncomms3940 (DOI)000329396700004 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-02-05 Skapad: 2014-02-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-27Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Binding Site Preorganization and Ligand Discrimination in the Purine Riboswitch
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Binding Site Preorganization and Ligand Discrimination in the Purine Riboswitch
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 119, nr 3, 773-782 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The progress of RNA research has suggested a wide variety of RNA molecules as possible targets for pharmaceutical drug molecules. Structure-based computational methods for predicting binding modes and affinities are now important tools in drug discovery, but these methods have mainly been focused on protein targets. Here we employ molecular dynamics free-energy perturbation calculations and the linear interaction energy method to analyze the energetics of ligand binding to purine riboswitches. Calculations are carried out for 14 different purine complexes with the guanine and adenine riboswitches in order to examine their ligand recognition principles. The simulations yield binding affinities in good agreement with experimental data and rationalize the selectivity of the riboswitches for different ligands. In particular, it is found that these receptors have an unusually high degree of electrostatic preorganization for their cognate ligands, and this effect is further quantified by explicit free-energy calculations, which show that the standard electrostatic linear interaction energy parametrization is suboptimal in this case. The adenine riboswitch specifically uses the electrostatic preorganization to discriminate against guanine by preventing the formation of a G-U wobble base pair.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Fysikalisk kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252042 (URN)10.1021/jp5052358 (DOI)000351329400016 ()25014157 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-04-29 Skapad: 2015-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-27Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Principles of start codon recognition in eukaryotic translation initiation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Principles of start codon recognition in eukaryotic translation initiation
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 44, nr 17, 8425-8432 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Selection of the correct start codon during initiation of translation on the ribosome is a key event in protein synthesis. In eukaryotic initiation, several factors have to function in concert to ensure that the initiator tRNA finds the cognate AUG start codon during mRNA scanning. The two initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A are known to provide important functions for the initiation process and codon selection. Here, we have used molecular dynamics free energy calculations to evaluate the energetics of initiator tRNA binding to different near-cognate codons on the yeast 40S ribosomal subunit, in the presence and absence of these two initiation factors. The results show that eIF1 and eIF1A together cause a relatively uniform and high discrimination against near-cognate codons. This works such that eIF1 boosts the discrimination against a first position near-cognate G-U mismatch, and also against a second position A-A base pair, while eIF1A mainly acts on third codon position. The computer simulations further reveal the structural basis of the increased discriminatory effect caused by binding of eIF1 and eIF1A to the 40S ribosomal subunit.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biokemi och molekylärbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312122 (URN)10.1093/nar/gkw534 (DOI)000386158800039 ()27280974 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse, KAW 2011.0081VetenskapsrådetSwedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-04 Skapad: 2017-01-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-27Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Origin of the omnipotence of eukaryotic release factor 1
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Origin of the omnipotence of eukaryotic release factor 1
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biokemi och molekylärbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328582 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-27 Skapad: 2017-08-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-27
  • Olménius, Fanny
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Boström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Djur som stöd i demensvården: Hur personer med demenssjukdom påverkas av djur i omvårdnaden2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Varje år insjuknar uppskattningsvis 25 000 personer i Sverige i någon form av demenssjukdom. Behovet av anpassad vård för denna specifika grupp kräver nya och även utvecklade omvårdnadsmetoder. I nuläget finns ingen botande behandling för de olika demenssjukdomarna, utan fokus ligger vid att mildra besvären av sjukdomsbundna symtom. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) och Animal-assisted activity (AAA) har blivit allt mer populärt inom olika områden av omvårdnadsarbete. Djur kan inverka positivt på både fysiologiska och psykologiska symtom, och därmed användas av sjuksköterskor som ett ytterligare verktyg inom den personcentrerade omvårdnaden.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur personer med demenssjukdom påverkas av omvårdnadsåtgärder som innefattar djur.

    Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Arbetet behandlade 18 artiklar som på något sätt använde sig av Animal-Assisted Therapy eller Animal-Assisted Activities eller som på annat sätt hade djur inom demenssjukvården. Studien innefattade djur som hund, katt, akvariefisk, fågel och både gosedjur och mer avancerad djurrobot.

    Resultat: Studiens resultat visar hur djurs deltagande i omvårdnadsarbetet med demenssjuka personer, eller att bara finnas i deras vårdmiljö, hjälpte att minska nivåerna av ångest och stress, sänkte blodtrycket, och även om de inte minskade den degenerativa utvecklingen av demenssjukdomar, så visade resultat att de inte blev sämre.

    Slutsats: Enligt denna litteraturstudie framgår det att djur av olika slag bör ses som en värdefull tillgång inom omvårdnadsarbetet av demenssjuka, då det ökar livskvalité och bromsar sjukdomens fortskridande.

  • Nyberg, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    EGG BUOYANCY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITIES OF BALTIC FLOUNDER (PLATICHTHYS FLESUS): DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPAWNING AREAS AND INTER-ANNUAL VARIATION IN CONDITIONS FOR REPRODUCTION2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The reproductive success for pelagic spawning Baltic flounders is strongly linked to the hydrodynamics in the spawning areas. Egg survival is dependent upon the ability to achieve neutral buoyancy at a depth interval where temperature and oxygen concentrations are favourable for egg development. The main focus of this thesis was to compare egg survival probabilities of pelagic eggs from Baltic flounder in the Bornholm, Gdansk and Gotland basins, prior to and after the saline water inflow in December 2014. The results showed greatly enhanced survival probabilities in Bornholm basin 2015 (p<0.01), as egg survival increased from 47% in 2014 to 100% the following year. In Gdansk basin the situation was similar, and survival probability increased from 13% to 100% (p<0.01). In Gotland basin no difference in survival probability was identified, although the dominant cause of mortality shifted from sedimentation, i.e. due to low salinity conditions in 2014, to oxygen deficiency in 2015 (p<0,01).

  • Fransson, Lina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Äggläggningspreferenser för honor av väddnätfjäril, Euphydryas aurinia, på området Bälsalvret, Gotland2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to get a better understanding of the oviposition-behaviour of the butterflyMarsh Fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia), in the area Bälsalvret on the Island of Gotland. Thestudy may provide helpful information to aid the conservation of the species in the area andalso provide overall knowledge about the female’s preferences when it comes to choosingmicrohabitat and host plant for their eggs.The analysis of the microhabitat preference for oviposition by the Marsh Fritillary showedthat eggs were predominantly laid on large-sized host plant individuals with a warmermicroclimate; with a preference for the rosette diameter, the length and the width of the leafand the number of Succisa pratensis individuals in the vicinity. This indicates that thefemale’s priority is to place the eggs at the most optimal place for their offspring’s survivaland growth.

  • Jacobsson, Viktor
    Betydelsen av en anlagd damm för biologisk mångfald i jordbrukslandskapet: Resultat från inventering av kärlväxter, bottenfauna och fåglar i tidiga stadier av succession2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Mandahl, Nils
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Linda
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Viklund, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Arbajian, Elsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    von Steyern, Fredrik Vult
    Lund Univ, Dept Orthoped Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden..
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Mertens, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Scattered genomic amplification in dedifferentiated liposarcoma2017Ingår i: Molecular Cytogenetics, ISSN 1755-8166, E-ISSN 1755-8166, Vol. 10, 25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT), well differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) are cytogenetically characterized by near-diploid karyotypes with no or few other aberrations than supernumerary ring or giant marker chromosomes, although DDLS tend to have somewhat more complex rearrangements. In contrast, pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLS) have highly aberrant and heterogeneous karyotypes. The ring and giant marker chromosomes contain discontinuous amplicons, in particular including multiple copies of the target genes CDK4, HMGA2 and MDM2 from 12q, but often also sequences from other chromosomes.

    Results: The present study presents a DDLS with an atypical hypertriploid karyotype without any ring or giant marker chromosomes. SNP array analyses revealed amplification of almost the entire 5p and discontinuous amplicons of 12q including the classical target genes, in particular CDK4. In addition, amplicons from 1q, 3q, 7p, 9p, 11q and 20q, covering from 2 to 14 Mb, were present. FISH analyses showed that sequences from 5p and 12q were scattered, separately or together, over more than 10 chromosomes of varying size. At RNA sequencing, significantly elevated expression, compared to myxoid liposarcomas, was seen for TRIO and AMACR in 5p and of CDK4, HMGA2 and MDM2 in 12q.

    Conclusions: The observed pattern of scattered amplification does not show the characteristics of chromothripsis, but is novel and differs from the well known cytogenetic manifestations of amplification, i. e., double minutes, homogeneously staining regions and ring chromosomes. Possible explanations for this unusual distribution of amplified sequences might be the mechanism of alternative lengthening of telomeres that is frequently active in DDLS and events associated with telomere crisis.

  • John, R.
    et al.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Berritta, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Hinzke, D.
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Phys, D-78457 Constance, Germany..
    Mueller, C.
    Univ Kiel, Inst Mat Sci, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Santos, T.
    Western Digital Corp, San Jose, CA 95131 USA..
    Ulrichs, H.
    Georg August Univ, Phys Inst 1, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Nieves, P.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Burgos, Int Res Ctr Crit Raw Mat Adv Ind Technol ICCRAM, Burgos 09001, Spain..
    Walowski, J.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Mondal, Ritwik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    McCord, J.
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nowak, U.
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Phys, D-78457 Constance, Germany..
    Muenzenberg, M.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Dept Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Magnetisation switching of FePt nanoparticle recording medium by femtosecond laser pulses2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 4114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manipulation of magnetisation with ultrashort laser pulses is promising for information storage device applications. The dynamics of the magnetisation response depends on the energy transfer from the photons to the spins during the initial laser excitation. A material of special interest for magnetic storage are FePt nanoparticles, for which switching of the magnetisation with optical angular momentum was demonstrated recently. The mechanism remained unclear. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the all-optical switching of FePt nanoparticles. We show that the magnetisation switching is a stochastic process. We develop a complete multiscale model which allows us to optimize the number of laser shots needed to switch the magnetisation of high anisotropy FePt nanoparticles in our experiments. We conclude that only angular momentum induced optically by the inverse Faraday effect will provide switching with one single femtosecond laser pulse.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 09:30 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Ruan, Chang-Qing
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Nanoteknologi och funktionella material.
    Functionalization, Characterization and Applications of Oxidized Nanocellulose Derivatives2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose, a sustainable raw material derived from nature, can be used for various applications following its functionalization and oxidation. Nanocellulose, inheriting the properties of cellulose, can offer new properties due to nanoscale effects, in terms of high specific surface area and porosity. The oxidation of cellulose can provide more active sites on the cellulose chains, improving its functionalization and broadening applications. Two kinds of oxidation and their corresponding applications are described in this thesis: periodate oxidation and Oxone® oxidation.

    2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads were prepared from Cladophora nanocellulose via periodate oxidation, and were further modified with amines via reductive amination. Several diamines were selected as possible crosslinkers to produce porous DAC beads, which showed higher porosity, stability in alkaline solution and enhanced thermal stability.

    After functionalization of DAC beads with L-cysteine (DAC-LC), thiol, amine and carboxyl groups were introduced into the DAC beads, endowing the DAC-LC beads with high adsorption capacity for palladium. The synthesized DAC-LC beads were character­ized with SEM, FTIR, XPS, TGA, BET and XRD and the palladium adsorption process was investigated.

    Chitosan was employed as a crosslinker in functionalization of DAC beads (DAC-CS). The conditions for the synthesis of DAC-CS beads were screened and verifying the stability of the beads in alkaline solution. The DAC-CS beads produced were investigated using SEM, FTIR, XPS, TGA and BET, and the adsorption and desorption capacity of Congo red was studied, indicating DAC-CS beads have potential as sorbent.

    Oxone oxidation of cellulose is a novel one-pot oxidation method in which mainly the hydroxyl groups on C6 are oxidized to produce carboxylic acid groups on the cellulose chains. To increase the efficiency of Oxone oxidation, several reaction parameters were studied. Cellulose pulp and Cladophora nanocellulose were chosen as prototypes to investigate the effects of oxidation, and the physico­chemical properties of the oxidized products were characterized. Cellulose pulp, pretreated with Oxone oxidation, was disintegrated by homogenization to prepare cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The effect of pre­treat­ment on the preparation of CNF was studied, and the results indicated that Oxone oxidation was efficient in the production of CNF.

    Delarbeten
    1. Preparation of Porous Cellulose Beads via Introduction of Diamine Spacers
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Preparation of Porous Cellulose Beads via Introduction of Diamine Spacers
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, nr 22, 5600-5607 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current work presents a synthesis route based on the reductive amination of 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads with diamines to render micrometer-sized beads with increased specific surface area (SSA) and porosity in the mesoporous range. Specifically, the influence of the reductive amination of 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) using aliphatic and aromatic tethered mono- and diamines on bead microstructure was investigated. Aliphatic and aromatic tethered monoamines were found to have limited utility for producing porous beads whereas the introduction of diamines provided beads with a porous texture and an SSA increasing from <1 to >30 m(2)/g. Both aliphatic and aromatic diamines were found to be useful in producing porous beads having a pore size distribution range of 10 to 100 nm, as verified by N-2 gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry analyses. The true density of the functionalized DAC beads decreased to an average of about 1.36 g/cm(3) as compared to 1.48 g/cm(3) for the unfunctionalized, fully oxidized DAC beads. The total porosity of the beads was, according to mercury porosimetry, in the range of 54-64%. Reductive amination with 1,7-diaminoheptane provided beads that were stable under alkaline conditions (I M NaOH). It was concluded that the introduction of tethered diamines into DAC beads is a facile method for producing mesoporous beads.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nanoteknik Materialteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299045 (URN)10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b01288 (DOI)000377631300017 ()27181427 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Knut och Alice Wallenbergs StiftelseGöran Gustafssons Stiftelse för främjande av vetenskaplig forskning vid Uppsala universitet och Kungl tekniska högskolan (UU/KTH)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-07-13 Skapad: 2016-07-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. A green and simple method for preparation of an efficient palladium adsorbent based on cysteine functionalized2,3-dialdehyde cellulose
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A green and simple method for preparation of an efficient palladium adsorbent based on cysteine functionalized2,3-dialdehyde cellulose
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, nr 4, 2627-2638 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A green and efficient adsorbent for adsorption of palladium ions was prepared from 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) originating from nanocellulose from the green algae Cladophora. The DAC was functionalized with cysteine via reductive amination in a convenient one-pot procedure to provide the adsorbent. The adsorption properties for adsorbing palladium(II) ions, including capacity, adsorption isotherm and kinetics, were studied. The successful reductive amination of cysteine with 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose was confirmed by FT-IR, elemental analysis and XPS. The adsorbent was characterized by SEM, XRD, gas adsorption and TGA. The adsorbent had a high adsorption capacity (130 mg palladium per gram adsorbent) and enabled fast adsorption of palladium(II) ions from solution (80 % of maximum capacity reached in 2 h). Adsorbent materials suitable for both filters (fibrous) and column matrixes (spherical particles) could be obtained in an efficient manner by controlling the degree of oxidation while producing the DAC material.

    Nyckelord
    2, 3-dialdehyde cellulose, Palladium adsorption, Cellulose beads, Nanocellulose
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nanoteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303299 (URN)10.1007/s10570-016-0976-0 (DOI)000380089300028 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-15 Skapad: 2016-09-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. On the preparation of porous 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads crosslinked with chitosan and their adsorption of Congo red
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>On the preparation of porous 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads crosslinked with chitosan and their adsorption of Congo red
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nanoteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328386 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23
    4. Favored Surface-limited Oxidation of Cellulose with Oxone® in Water
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Favored Surface-limited Oxidation of Cellulose with Oxone® in Water
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, 40600-40607 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for favored primary alcohol oxidation of cellulose was developed. Cellulose pulp andCladophora nanocellulose were oxidized in a one-pot procedure by Oxone® (2KHSO5$KHSO4$K2SO4)and efficient reaction conditions were identified. The effects of the reaction on the morphology,viscosity and chemical structure of the products obtained were studied. The primary alcohol groupswere oxidized to carboxyl groups and the content of carboxyl groups was determined byconductometric titration. SEM, capillary-type viscometry and XRD were applied to characterize theproducts and to investigate the influence of oxidation. For the first time, low-cost and stable Oxone®was used as a single oxidant to oxidize cellulose into carboxyl cellulose. The oxidation is an inexpensiveand convenient process to produce carboxylic groups on the surface of the cellulose fibers and to makethe cellulose fibers charged. Particularly, this method can avoid the use of halogens and potentially toxicradicals and constitute a green route to access carboxylated cellulose. Further, sodium bromide could beused as a co-oxidant to the Oxone® and increase the carboxylic acid content by 10–20%. The Oxone®oxidation is a promising method for oxidation of cellulose and might facilitate the production of CNC.

    Nyckelord
    cellulose, Oxone
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nanoteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328237 (URN)10.1039/c7ra06141b (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-21 Skapad: 2017-08-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Cellulose nanofibers prepared via pretreatment based on Oxone® oxidation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cellulose nanofibers prepared via pretreatment based on Oxone® oxidation
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Nanoteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328387 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-23 Skapad: 2017-08-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23
  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 09:00 B/B42, Uppsala
    Lindh, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för organisk farmaceutisk kemi.
    Computational Modelling in Drug Discovery: Application of Structure-Based Drug Design, Conformal Prediction and Evaluation of Virtual Screening2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure-based drug design and virtual screening are areas of computational medicinal chemistry that use 3D models of target proteins. It is important to develop better methods in this field with the aim of increasing the speed and quality of early stage drug discovery.

    The first part of this thesis focuses on the application of structure-based drug design in the search for inhibitors for the protein 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), one of the enzymes in the DOXP/MEP synthetic pathway. This pathway is found in many bacteria (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and in the parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    In order to evaluate and improve current virtual screening methods, a benchmarking data set was constructed using publically available high-throughput screening data. The exercise highlighted a number of problems with current data sets as well as with the use of publically available high-throughput screening data. We hope this work will help guide further development of well designed benchmarking data sets for virtual screening methods.

    Conformal prediction is a new method in the computer-aided drug design toolbox that gives the prediction range at a specified level of confidence for each compound. To demonstrate the versatility and applicability of this method we derived models of skin permeability using two different machine learning methods; random forest and support vector machines.

    Delarbeten
    1. Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of alpha-Aryl Substituted Fosmidomycin Analogues as Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of alpha-Aryl Substituted Fosmidomycin Analogues as Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase
    Visa övriga...
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 54, nr 14, 4964-4976 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The natural antibiotic fosmidomycin acts via inhibition of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), an essential enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Fosmidomycin is active on Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXR (MtDXR), but it lacks antibacterial activity probably because of poor uptake. alpha-Aryl substituted fosmidomycin analogues have more favorable physicochemical properties and are also more active in inhibiting malaria parasite growth. We have solved crystal structures of MtDXR in complex with 3,4-dichlorophenyl substituted fosmidomycin analogues; these show important differences compared to our previously described forsmidomycin-DXR complex. Our best inhibitor has an IC(50) = 0.15 mu M on MtDXR but still lacked activity in a mycobacterial growth assay (MIC > 32 mu g/mL). The combined results, however, provide insights into how DXR accommodates the new inhibitors and serve as an excellent starting point for the design of other novel and more potent inhibitors, particularly against pathogens where uptake is less of a problem, such as the malaria parasite.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biokemi och molekylärbiologi Annan medicinsk grundvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156614 (URN)10.1021/jm2000085 (DOI)000292892300003 ()21678907 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-08-07 Skapad: 2011-08-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-24Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Substitution of the phosphonic acid and hydroxamic acid functionalities of the DXR inhibitor FR900098: An attempt to improve the activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Substitution of the phosphonic acid and hydroxamic acid functionalities of the DXR inhibitor FR900098: An attempt to improve the activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 0960-894X, E-ISSN 1090-2120, Vol. 21, nr 18, 5403-5407 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of FR900098/fosmidomycin analogs were synthesized and evaluated for MtDXR inhibition and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell activity. The design rationale of these compounds involved the exchange of either the phosphonic acid or the hydroxamic acid part for alternative acidic and metal-coordinating functionalities. The best inhibitors provided IC(50) values in the micromolar range, with a best value of 41 mu M.

    Nyckelord
    Tuberculosis, DXR, Enzyme inhibitor, Fosmidomycin, FR900098
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158288 (URN)10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.07.005 (DOI)000294051800057 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-07 Skapad: 2011-09-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-24
    3. DXR Inhibition by Potent Mono- and Disubstituted Fosmidomycin Analogues
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>DXR Inhibition by Potent Mono- and Disubstituted Fosmidomycin Analogues
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    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 56, nr 15, 6190-6199 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The antimalarial compound fosmidomycin targets DXR, the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the MEP pathway producing the universally essential isoprenoid precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. The MEP pathway is used by a number of pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and apicomplexan parasites, and differs from the classical mevalonate pathway that is essential in humans. Using a structure-based approach, we designed a number of analogues of fosmidomycin, including a series that are substituted in both the Cα and the hydroxamate positions. The latter proved to be a stable framework for the design of inhibitors that extend from the cramped substrate-binding site and can, for the first time, bridge the substrate and cofactor binding sites. A number of these compounds are more potent than fosmidomycin in terms of killing Plasmodium falciparum in an in vitro assay; the best has an IC50 of 40 nM.

    Nyckelord
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, DXR
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Strukturbiologi
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot strukturbiologi; Läkemedelskemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196616 (URN)10.1021/jm4006498 (DOI)000323082400015 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Stiftelsen för strategisk forskning (SSF)Vetenskapsrådet
    Anmärkning

    De tre (3) första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Tillgänglig från: 2013-03-11 Skapad: 2013-03-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-24Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Toward a Benchmarking Data Set Able to Evaluate Ligand- and Structure-based Virtual Screening Using Public HTS Data
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Toward a Benchmarking Data Set Able to Evaluate Ligand- and Structure-based Virtual Screening Using Public HTS Data
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    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, Vol. 55, nr 2, 343-353 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual screening has the potential to accelerate and reduce costs of probe development and drug discovery. To develop and benchmark virtual screening methods, validation data sets are commonly used. Over the years, such data sets have been constructed to overcome the problems of analogue bias and artificial enrichment. With the rapid growth of public domain databases containing high-throughput screening data, such as the PubChem BioAssay database, there is an increased possibility to use such data for validation. In this study, we identify PubChem data sets suitable for validation of both structure- and ligand-based virtual screening methods. To achieve this, high-throughput screening data for which a crystal structure of the bioassay target was available in the PDB were identified. Thereafter, the data sets were inspected to identify structures and data suitable for use in validation studies. In this work, we present seven data sets (MMP13, DUSP3, PTPN22, EPHX2, CTDSP1, MAPK10, and CDK5) compiled using this method. In the seven data sets, the number of active compounds varies between 19 and 369 and the number of inactive compounds between 59 405 and 337 634. This gives a higher ratio of the number of inactive to active compounds than what is found in most benchmark data sets. We have also evaluated the screening performance using docking and 3D shape similarity with default settings. To characterize the data sets, we used physicochemical similarity and 2D fingerprint searches. We envision that these data sets can be a useful complement to current data sets used for method evaluation.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Strukturbiologi Farmaceutisk synteskemi
    Forskningsämne
    Kemi med inriktning mot bioorganisk kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248018 (URN)10.1021/ci5005465 (DOI)000349943100014 ()25564966 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-26 Skapad: 2015-03-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-24Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Predicting the Rate of Skin Penetration Using an Aggregated Conformal Prediction Framework
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Predicting the Rate of Skin Penetration Using an Aggregated Conformal Prediction Framework
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, nr 5, 1571-1576 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Skin serves as a drug administration route, and skin permeability of chemicals is of significant interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. An aggregated conformal prediction (ACP) framework was used to build models, for predicting the permeation rate (log K-p) of chemical compounds through human skin. The conformal prediction method gives as an output the prediction range at a given level of confidence for each compound, which enables the user to make a more informed decision when, for example, suggesting the next compound to prepare, Predictive models were built using;both the random forest and the support vector machine methods and were based on experimentally derived permeability data on 211 diverse compounds. The derived models were of similar predictive quality as compared to earlier published models but have the extra advantage of not only presenting a single predicted value for each, compound but also a reliable, individually assigned prediction range. The models use calculated descriptors and can quickly predict the skin permeation rate of new compounds.

    Nyckelord
    conformal prediction, skin penetration nonconformist, Scikit Learn, random forest, Support vector machines
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicinska grundvetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323448 (URN)10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00007 (DOI)000400633300024 ()28335598 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-07-04 Skapad: 2017-07-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-24Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 13:00 Auditorium Minus, Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Martinell, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Diabetes Mellitus at the Time for Diagnosis: Studies on Prognostic Factors2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this thesis was to identify prognostic factors for chronic diabetes complications that exist at the time of diabetes diagnosis.

    Low level of education (<12 years) and low income (<60% of median) was found to increase the risk to have high (>70 mmol/mol) HbA1c at the time of diagnosis with 34 % and 35 %, respectively.

    Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was 12% in a cohort of patients newly diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetic macular edema was present in 11% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 13% of those with Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). Low beta cell function and low level of education increased the risk for DR with 110% and 43%, respectively. For every unit of increase in body mass index, the risk for DR was reduced by 3%.

    The cellular immunology of LADA patients was a mixture of that observed in both type 1 (T1D) and T2D patients. Compared to patients with T1D, LADA patients had more B-regulatory lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells capable of producing interleukine-35. This indicates a higher anti-inflammatory capacity in LADA patients compared to type T1D patients.

    By imputing age, body mass index, HbA1c at diagnosis, beta cell function and insulin resistance in a cluster analysis, five distinct diabetes clusters were identified. The four clusters representing T2D patients differed in incidence of DR, nephropathy and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This was replicated with similar results in three geographically separate populations.

    By studying socioeconomic background and factors present at the time of diagnosis we can better predict prognosis for chronic diabetes complications. These findings may facilitate better-targeted diabetes screening programs and more individually tailored treatment regimes.

    Delarbeten
    1. Education, immigration and income as risk factors for hemoglobin A1c >70 mmol/mol when diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adult: a population-based cohort study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Education, immigration and income as risk factors for hemoglobin A1c >70 mmol/mol when diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adult: a population-based cohort study
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, Vol. 5, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this research is to study education, income and immigration as risk factors for high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c &gt;70 mmol/mol (8.6%)) when diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA).Research design and methods Patients were included from the All New Diabetics in Scania study (2008-2013). Level of education, disposable income and immigration year were retrieved from the longitudinal integrated database for labour market research (LISA) register compiled by Statistics Sweden. Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs for HbA1c &gt;70 mmol/mol (8.6%) at diagnosis.Results A total of 3794 patients with incident T2D (n=3 525) or LADA (n=269) were included. Patients with T2D with a low (<=9 years) or medium (10-12 years) levels of education were more likely to have high HbA1c at diagnosis compared with patients with T2D with a high (&gt;12 years) level of education (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.08 to1.66, OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54). Low-income patients with T2D (&lt;60% of median) were more likely to have high HbA1c at diagnosis compared with high-income patients withT2D (&gt;150% of median) (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.79).Conclusions Patients with lower levels of education or low income and are more likely to have HbA1c is &gt;70 mmol/mol (8.6%) when diagnosed with T2D. An understanding of how socioeconomic position influences the clinical presentation at diagnosis may facilitate screening programs designed to target populations at risk for delayed diagnosis.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BMJ Specialist Journals, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi Endokrinologi och diabetes
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321637 (URN)10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000346 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-18 Skapad: 2017-05-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-22
    2. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis (DRAD) in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA)
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis (DRAD) in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA)
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    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 30, nr 8, 1456-1461 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: 

    To study prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) at diagnosis (DRAD) and to estimate contributing risk by sociodemographic, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics present in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA).

    METHODS: 

    Patients (n=2174) recently diagnosed T2D (93%) or LADA (7%) were included upon arrival for their baseline DR screening. Fundus photographs of 4902 eyes were graded by a senior ophthalmologist according to the International Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale. Official registers held by Statistics Sweden provided sociodemographic variables. The National Patient Register and Swedish Prescribed Drug Register were used to assess cardiovascular risk. Beta cell function (HOMA2%b) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%s) were estimated from fasting (f) C-Peptide using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) 2 calculator. Odds ratios (OR) for DRAD were estimated using generalized estimating equation models.

    RESULTS: 

    The prevalence of DRAD was 12% (7% mild and 5% moderate) and of diabetic macular edema it was 11% (all within vascular arch). The prevalence did not significantly differ between T2D and LADA. Due to sample size, the regression analysis of LADA patients did not yield any significant estimates. In T2D low educational level (≤9years) increased risk for DRAD by 44% (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.07-1.93) and <50% beta-cell function adjusted for HbA1c and insulin sensitivity at diagnosis increased the risk by 77% (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.28-2.44). For every unit increase in BMI, risk for DRAD decreased by 3% (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: 

    DRAD prevalence in patients recently diagnosed with T2D or is 12%. Low educational level and low beta cell function at diagnosis are risk factors for DRAD. Estimation of beta cell function from (f)C-Peptide and (f)P-Glucose may be a valuable tool in identifying patients at risk for DRAD.

    Nyckelord
    Diabetes, Diabetic macular edema, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis (DRAD), Latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA), Type 2 diabetes (T2D)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Endokrinologi och diabetes
    Forskningsämne
    Endokrinologi och Diabetologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319750 (URN)10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.08.009 (DOI)000399434900009 ()27593902 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-08 Skapad: 2017-04-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Characterization of Cellular Immunology in LADA Patients
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Characterization of Cellular Immunology in LADA Patients
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    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Patients with latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA) have antibodies against the insulin-producing b-cells but at disease onset they are not insulin-dependent. This study presents cellular immunological differences between LADA, type 1, type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.

    Research Design and Methods: All patients and matched (by age, gender and body mass index) healthy controls were recruited from the County of Uppsala, Sweden. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from freshly collected blood to determine proportions of innate, adaptive and regulatory immune cells by using flow cytometry.

    Results: Included were 14 patients with LADA, 16 with type 1 diabetes, 16 with type 2 diabetes and 13 healthy controls. The proportion of CD11c+CD123- antigen presenting cells (APCs) was lower, whilst proportions of CD11c+CD123+ APCs and Interleukin (IL)-35+ tolerogenic APCs were higher in LADA patients compared to patients with type 1 diabetes. The proportion of CD3-CD56highCD16+ Natural Killer (NK) cells was higher in LADA patients than in both healthy controls and type 2 diabetes patients. IL-35+ Treg cell numbers were similar to those observed in both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients, but a lower frequency of IL-35+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was observed in LADA patients than in healthy controls. The proportion of regulatory B (Breg) cells in LADA patients was higher than in healthy controls, type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients and IL-35+ Breg cell numbers were higher than in type 1 diabetes patients.

    Conclusions: LADA patients present a mixed cellular immunological pattern compared to type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. Numbers of APCs, IL-35+ tolerogenic APCs and IL-35+ Breg cells in LADA patients are similar to those observed in type 2 diabetes patients, whereas the changes in NK cells are similar to those observed in type 1 diabetes patients. 

    Nyckelord
    Cellular immunology, latent autoimmun diabetes in adults, diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, interleukin 35
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Immunologi inom det medicinska området
    Forskningsämne
    Immunologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328352 (URN)
    Projekt
    Diabetes Mellitus at the Time of Diagnosis - Studies on Prognostic Factors
    Anmärkning

    De 2 första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-01Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Clustering of adult-onset diabetes into novel subgroups guides therapy and improves prediction of outcome
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Clustering of adult-onset diabetes into novel subgroups guides therapy and improves prediction of outcome
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    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Diabetes is presently classified into two main forms, type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but especially T2D is highly heterogeneous. A refined classification could provide a powerful tool to identify those at greatest risk of complications already at diagnosis, and enable individualized treatment regimes.

    Method

    We applied a data-driven cluster analysis (k-means and TwoStep hierarchical clustering) in a large cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients (N=8,980) from the Swedish ANDIS (All New Diabetics in Scania) cohorts and related to prospective data from patient records. Replication was performed in three independent cohorts: the Scania Diabetes Registry (SDR, N=1466), ANDIU (All New Diabetics in Uppsala, N=844) and DIREVA (Diabetes Registry Vaasa, N=3485). Cox regression and logistic regression was used to compare risk of diabetic complications and genetic associations.

    Results

    We identified 5 replicable clusters of diabetes patients, with significantly different patient characteristics and risk of diabetic complications. Particularly, belonging to the most insulin-resistant cluster was a strong predictor of diabetic kidney disease, while the insulin deficient cluster 2 had increased risk of retinopathy. In support of the clustering, genetic associations to the clusters differed from those seen in traditional T2D.

    Conclusions

    We could classify patients into five subgroups predicting disease progression and development of diabetic complications more precisely than the current classification. This new classification may help to tailor and target early treatment to patients who would benefit most, thereby representing a first step towards precision medicine in diabetes.

     

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Endokrinologi och diabetes
    Forskningsämne
    Endokrinologi och Diabetologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328355 (URN)
    Projekt
    Diabetes Mellitus at the Time for Diagnosis - Studies on Prognostic Factors
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden, 2009-1039Vetenskapsrådet, 521-2010-3490Vetenskapsrådet, 2010-5983Linnaeus research environment CADICS, 349-2006-237
    Anmärkning

    Tredjeförfattarskapet delas av tredje och fjärde författaren.

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-01Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Ekström, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM.
    The Illicit Information Community: Information - Practical Reflections on the Shadow Library AAARG2017Ingår i: Improving Quality of Life Through Information: Proceedings of the XXV Bobcatsss Symposium, Tampere Finland, January 2017 / [ed] Paavo Arvola, Tanja Hintsanen, Serafia Kari, Soile Kolehma, Shan Luolin, Jasmiina Sillanpää, Tampere, 2017, 121-125 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a netnographic analysis of information needs and practices related to the shadow library AAARG. AAARG is regarded as a portal and community for the sharing and distribution of academic and artistic texts, books and articles. The portal in question is defined as an actor within the guerrilla open access movement, a radical node within the larger open access movement, which is analysed as a cultural field using the theoretical framework of Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. AAARG is thereafter discussed in an information-practical sense with re- gards to social interaction between individual users’ needs as well as discursive and constructional origins of such needs. These needs and the practices they create are then examined with regards to the order that the platform itself creates, tied to the cultural field which it is a part of. The conclusion is that alternative knowledge organizational platforms such as AAARG have had and will continue to have a big influence on the discussion of today’s open access models, since they clearly fill a certain demand. The discrepancy between such initiatives and institutional open access activities will therefore need further analysis in a library and information scientific context.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-12 13:15 Auditorium Minus, Uppsala
    Carlsson, Tommy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    To Grasp the Unexpected: Information Following a Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect in the Fetus2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore experiences and needs of information following a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect, and to assess the quality of publicly available information websites about congenital heart defects. Study I was a qualitative interview study that explored experiences among 11 parents to prenatally diagnosed children. Respondents tried to grasp the facts today while reflecting on the future, and personal contact with medical specialists was valued. The analysis showed that the Web contained an overwhelming amount of information. Study II was a qualitative interview study that explored experiences among 26 females and males 5-15 weeks after a prenatal diagnosis. Respondents hunted for information in a confusing reality, with a need for information about various topics and methods for information delivery. Although high satisfaction with the specialist information was described, the information was considered overwhelming and complex. Supplemental information was sought via the Web. Insufficient information about induced abortions was described. Study III was a quantitative study that explored content and quality of 67 English websites about congenital heart defects. Few websites included information about prenatal aspects, such as pregnancy termination. The overall quality was poor, especially reliability and information about treatment choices. Study IV was a mixed methods study that explored the quality of 10 Swedish websites about congenital heart defects, from the perspectives of 9 assessors with personal experience of a prenatal diagnosis. Quantitative Likert scale assessments were followed by written open-ended questions and focus group discussions. Quantitative assessments represented unfulfilled quality criterion for treatment choices, and partially fulfilled quality criteria for appearance, details, relevance, suitability and overall quality. Websites had significantly different scores for all investigated quality criteria. Various issues were highlighted in the responses to the open-ended questions and during the discussions, including inappropriate advertisements, biased information, poor illustrations, complex language and poor trustworthiness. In conclusion, expectant parents faced with a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect in the fetus try to grasp the unexpected, an attempt that involves difficulties in relation to information. These are present during the consultation with health professionals and when searching for web-based information. 

    Delarbeten
    1. Information following a Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect: Experiences among Parents to Prenatally Diagnosed Children
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Information following a Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect: Experiences among Parents to Prenatally Diagnosed Children
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    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 2, e0117995Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal screening of pregnant women in Sweden has improved the detection of major congenital heart defects (CHD). The aim was to explore parental experiences and need for information following a prenatal diagnosis of CHD.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews conducted with six fathers and five mothers to seven prenatally diagnosed children. Data were analyzed through content analysis.

    RESULTS: Three themes and 9 categories emerged. Theme 1, Grasping the facts today while reflecting on the future, containing five categories: Difficulties sorting out information when in emotional chaos; Respectful information regarding termination of pregnancy; Early information is crucial; Understanding the facts regarding the anomaly; Preparing for the future. Theme 2, Personal contact with medical specialists who give honest and trustworthy information is valued, containing two categories: Trust in information received from medical specialists and Truth and honesty is valued. Theme 3, An overwhelming amount of information on the Internet, containing two categories: Difficulties in finding relevant information and Easy to focus on cases with a poor outcome when searching the Internet.

    CONCLUSION: Early and honest information in line with individual preferences is crucial to support the decisional process regarding whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy. The use of illustrations is recommended, as a complement to oral information, as it increases comprehension and satisfaction with obtained information. Furthermore, the overwhelming amount of information on the Internet calls for compilation of easily accessible and reliable information sources via the Internet.

    Nyckelord
    Congenital heart defects, Interview as topic, Parents, Pregnancy, Prenatal diagnosis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad Språkstudier
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-244704 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0117995 (DOI)000350061500089 ()25692879 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-02-20 Skapad: 2015-02-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Experiences of Informational Needs and Received Information Following a Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Experiences of Informational Needs and Received Information Following a Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defect
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Prenatal Diagnosis, ISSN 0197-3851, E-ISSN 1097-0223, Vol. 36, nr 6, 515-522 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the need for information and what information was actually received following a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect, in a country where termination of pregnancy beyond 22 weeks of gestation is not clinically performed.

    METHODS: Twenty-six Swedish-speaking pregnant women (n = 14) and partners (n = 12) were consecutively recruited for semi-structured telephone interviews following the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect. Data was analyzed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: Although high satisfaction with the specialist information was described, the information was considered overwhelming and complex. Objective, honest and detailed information about multiple subjects were needed, delivered repeatedly and supplemented by written information/illustrations. Eighteen respondents had used the Internet to search for information and found issues involving searching difficulties, low quality, and that it was too complex, insufficient or unspecific. Those who terminated the pregnancy criticized that there was a lack of information about termination of pregnancy, both from health professionals and online sources, resulting in unanswered questions and unpreparedness.

    CONCLUSION: Individuals faced with a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect need individualized and repeated information. These needs are not all adequately met, as individuals are satisfied with the specialist consultation but left with unanswered questions regarding pregnancy termination.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281384 (URN)10.1002/pd.4815 (DOI)000378541100003 ()26991536 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-23 Skapad: 2016-03-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Content and quality of information websites about congenital heart defects following a prenatal diagnosis
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Content and quality of information websites about congenital heart defects following a prenatal diagnosis
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Interactive Journal of Medical Research, E-ISSN 1929-073X, Vol. 4, nr 1, 66-76 s., e4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and their partners use the Internet to search for information following a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore central subjects of content and to assess the accessibility, reliability, usability, and quality of written information on publicly available information websites about congenital heart defects following a prenatal diagnosis.

    METHODS: Following searches on Bing and Google, we included websites containing patient information in English. Hits ranged from 340,000-67,500,000 and the first 50 hits from each search were screened for inclusion (N=600). Of these hits, 39.3% (236/600) were irrelevant. A total of 67 websites were included, of which 37% (25/67) were affiliated with independent information websites, 25% (17/67) with charity/private organizations, 25% (17/67) with hospitals/clinics, and 13% (8/67) had other affiliations. The majority of the websites (76%, 51/67) could not be attributed to an author. A manifest content analysis was performed to explore central subjects of content. The DISCERN instrument was used to assess the quality of information, and the LIDA tool was used to assess accessibility, usability, and reliability of the included websites.

    RESULTS: The content on the majority of the websites included care and treatment of children with congenital heart defects (88%, 59/67), causes of congenital heart defects (88%, 59/67), symptoms of congenital heart defects (85%, 57/67), prevalence of congenital heart defects (81%, 54/67), potential complications of congenital heart defects (75%, 50/67), prenatal diagnostics/screening methods (72%, 48/67), and specific congenital heart defects (72%, 48/67), whereas less than 10% included information about termination of pregnancy (6%, 4/67), care during pregnancy (5%, 3/67), and information specifically directed to partners (1%, 1/67). The mean of the total DISCERN score was 27.9 (SD 9.7, range 16-53). According to the instrument, a majority of the websites were categorized as very poor regarding information about effects of no treatment (88%, 59/67), support for shared decision making (85%, 57/67), achievement of its aims (84%, 56/67), explicit aims (82%, 55/67), risks of each treatment (82%, 55/67), how treatment choices affect overall quality of life (76%, 51/67), and areas of uncertainty (76%, 51/67). The mean of the total LIDA score was 92.3 (SD 13.1, range 61-127). According to the tool, a majority of the websites were categorized as good with regard to registration (97%, 65/67) and browser test (75%, 50/67), whereas a majority were categorized as poor with regard to currency (87%, 58/67), content production (84%, 56/67), and engagability (75%, 50/67).

    CONCLUSIONS: Difficulties in finding relevant information sources using Web search engines and quality deficits on websites are an incentive for health professionals to take an active part in providing adequate and reliable information online about congenital heart defects.

    Nyckelord
    Consumer health information, Congenital heart defects, Internet, Prenatal diagnosis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad Språkstudier
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-242304 (URN)10.2196/ijmr.3819 (DOI)000359673600006 ()25608457 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-01-23 Skapad: 2015-01-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Quality of Patient Information Websites About Congenital Heart Defects: Mixed-Methods Study of Perspectives Among Individuals With Experience of a Prenatal Diagnosis
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Quality of Patient Information Websites About Congenital Heart Defects: Mixed-Methods Study of Perspectives Among Individuals With Experience of a Prenatal Diagnosis
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Interactive Journal of Medical Research, E-ISSN 1929-073X, Vol. 6, nr 2, e15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) In press
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When a heart defect is prenatally diagnosed in the fetus, expectant parents experience a great need for information about various topics. After the diagnosis, the Web is used for supplemental information, and the scarcity of research calls attention to the need to explore patient information websites from the perspectives of the intended consumers.

    Objective: The overarching aim of this study was to explore the quality of Swedish patient information websites about congenital heart defects, from the perspectives of individuals with experience of a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect in the fetus.

    Methods: This was a mixed-methods study of websites identified through systematic searches in the two most used Web-based search engines. Of the total 80 screened hits, 10 hits led to patient information websites about congenital heart defects. A quality assessment tool inspired by a previous study was used to evaluate each website’s appearance, details, relevance, suitability, information about treatment choices, and overall quality. Answers were given on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1, representing the lowest score, to 5, representing the highest score. Each website was assessed individually by persons with experience of continued (n=4) and terminated (n=5) pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis. Assessments were analyzed with Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W, Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman’s test, and a Wilcoxon-Nemenyi-McDonald-Thompson test. In addition, each assessor submitted written responses to open-ended questions in the quality assessment tool, and two joint focus group discussions were conducted with each group of assessors. The qualitative data were analyzed with inductive manifest content analysis.

    Results: Assessments represented a low score (median=2.0) for treatment choices and moderate scores (median=3.0) for appearance, details, relevance, suitability, and overall quality. No website had a median of the highest achievable score for any of the questions in the quality assessment tool. Medians of the lowest achievable score were found in questions about treatment choices (n=4 websites), details (n=2 websites), suitability (n=1 website), and overall quality (n=1 website). Websites had significantly different scores for appearance (P=.01), details (P<.001), relevance (P<.001), suitability (P<.001), treatment choices (P=.04), and overall quality (P<.001). The content analysis of the qualitative data generated six categories: (1) advertisements, (2) comprehensiveness, (3) design, (4) illustrations and pictures, (5) language, and (6) trustworthiness. Various issues with the included websites were highlighted, including the use of inappropriate advertisements, biased information, poor illustrations, complex language, and poor trustworthiness.

    Conclusions: From the perspectives of the intended consumers, patient information websites about congenital heart defects are, to a large extent, inadequate tools for supplemental information following a prenatal diagnosis. Health professionals should initiate discussions with patients about their intentions to use the Web, inform them about the varied quality in the Web-based landscape, and offer recommendations for appropriate Web-based sources.

    Nyckelord
    congenital heart defects, consumer health information, information literacy, Internet, popular works, pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328480 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-23 Skapad: 2017-08-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-30
  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 09:00 A7:107a, Uppsala
    Emilson, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Long-term perspectives on musculoskeletal pain: Health care utilization and integration of behavioral medicine treatment into physical therapy2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently no effective methods for treating and preventing chronic pain. The aim of this thesis was to study prognostic factors for health care utilization, and the long-term outcomes of tailored behavioral medicine treatment for patients with musculoskeletal pain. Another aim was to increase knowledge about physical therapists’ assessment and analysis of patients’ pain conditions and to investigate the potential of subgrouping patients based on prognostic factors.

    Methods: In Study I, a prospective population-based cohort was followed over 21 years. Data from three measure points were analyzed: 1995 (n=2425), 2007 (n=1582) and 2016 (n=1184). Study II was a 10-year follow-up of randomized controlled trial (n=97), comparing tailored behavioral medicine treatment and exercise-based physical therapy. In Study III, a descriptive and explorative design was applied, using data from video-recordings of 12 physical therapists. In study IV, assignment to three subgroups based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire was validated against reference instruments, and the stability between two points of measurement was investigated in patients (n=40) who were seeking primary health care due to musculoskeletal pain.

    Results: Chronic pain, female gender and high age predict high health care utilization over 21 years, and a trajectory of stable high health care utilization over the entire period. The differences between groups in favor for tailored behavioral medicine treatment reported at post-treatment and after two years, were not maintained at the 10-year follow-up. A majority of the physical therapists assessed factors for poor prognosis. The analyses were mainly based on biomedical assessments and none of the physical therapists included behavioral factors. Subgroup assignment according to the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire appears to be valid and stable over time.

    Conclusion: Prognostic factors such as chronic pain and female gender need to be considered when allocating health care resources and planning treatment to improve long-term outcomes. The treatment should also be tailored based on individual functional behavioral analyses of key behaviors and on patient´s biomedical and psychosocial condition, including strategies for maintenance of behavioral changes. Evidence-based methods for integrating behavioral medicine treatment into physical therapy need to be further evaluated and improved. 

    Delarbeten
    1. Association between health care utilization and musculoskeletal pain. A 21-year follow-up of a population cohort
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Association between health care utilization and musculoskeletal pain. A 21-year follow-up of a population cohort
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have reported the long-term impact of pain on health care utilization. The aim of this study was to describe and predict health care utilization associated with chronic pain in a 21-year follow-up of a population cohort and to identify and describe different trajectories over time.                                                                              Methods: A prospective cohort design was used that included five measurement time points. A representative sample of 3928 subjects (age 20-74) from the south of Sweden was selected. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires, and the response rate was n=2425 (62%). Three time points of 1995, 2007 and 2016 were included in the study. The associations between baseline variables and health care utilization in 2016 were calculated based on logistic regression analysis. Different trajectories for health care utilization were compared and described.                                                             Results: The response rate in 2016 was n=1184 (63%) of the eligible participants. Predictors for high health care utilization at the 21-year follow-up was chronic widespread pain (OR: 3.2, CI: 1.9-5.1), chronic regional pain (OR:1.8, CI: 1.2-2.6), female gender and high age. Trajectory for high health care utilization over the entire period was characterized by high prevalence of chronic pain at baseline and female gender.                                                                                                                     Conclusions: Chronic pain, which may reflect poorer general health, had implications in health care utilization over a 21-year period. A stable high health care utilization trajectory was identified among a small group of the general population characterized by chronic widespread pain and female gender, indicating that treatment of this group has not been successful.

    Nyckelord
    Musculoskeletal pain, health care utilization, chronic pain, pain prevalence
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328402 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23
    2. A 10-year follow-up of tailored behavioural medicine treatment and exercise-based physiotherapy in persistent musculoskeletal pain
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A 10-year follow-up of tailored behavioural medicine treatment and exercise-based physiotherapy in persistent musculoskeletal pain
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 31, nr 2, 186-196 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the long-term outcomes of two interventions targeting patients with sub-acute and persistent pain in a primary care physiotherapy setting.

    Design: A 10-year follow-up of a two-armed randomised controlled trial, initially including 97 participants.

    Interventions: Tailored behavioural medicine treatment, applied in a physiotherapy context (experimental condition), and exercise-based physiotherapy (control condition). Main measures: Pain-related disability was the primary outcome. The maximum pain intensity, pain control, fear of movement, sickness-related absence (register data) and perceived benefit and confidence in coping with future pain problems were the secondary outcomes.

    Results: Forty-three (44%) participants responded to the follow-up survey, 20 in the tailored behavioural medicine treatment group and 23 in the exercise-based physiotherapy group. The groups did not differ in terms of the change in the scores for the primary outcome (p=0.17) of pain-related disability between the experimental group (median: 2.5, Q1-Q3: -2.5-14.25), and the control group (median: 0, Q1-Q3: -5-6). Further, there were also no significant differences found for the secondary outcomes except for sickness-related absence, where the exercise-based physiotherapy group had more days of sickness-related absence three months before treatment (p= 0.02), and at the 10-year follow-up (p=0.03).

    Discussion: The beneficial effects favouring tailored behavioural medicine treatment that observed post-treatment and at the two-year follow-up were not maintained 10 years after treatment.

    Nyckelord
    Chronic pain, behavioural medicine, primary care, physical exercise, long-term compliance
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Sjukgymnastik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281461 (URN)10.1177/0269215516639356 (DOI)000394758500005 ()27009057 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Reumatikerförbundet
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-24 Skapad: 2016-03-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Physical Therapists' Assessments, Analyses And Use Of Behavioral Change Techniques In Initial Consultations On Musculoskeletal Pain: Direct Observations In Primary Health Care
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Physical Therapists' Assessments, Analyses And Use Of Behavioral Change Techniques In Initial Consultations On Musculoskeletal Pain: Direct Observations In Primary Health Care
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    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, S187-S187 s.Artikel i tidskrift, Meeting abstract (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Sjukgymnastik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313852 (URN)000388943400587 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-26 Skapad: 2017-01-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Concurrent validity and stability of subgroup assignment based on three levels of pain condition severity in patients with musculoskeletal pain
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Concurrent validity and stability of subgroup assignment based on three levels of pain condition severity in patients with musculoskeletal pain
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    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Pain screening instruments have been used to identify risk factors for poor prognosis and are recommended for the stratification of treatment for musculoskeletal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of subgroup assignment based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire compared with reference instruments: The Pain Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. A secondary aim was to investigate the stability of the subgroup assignment over a defined period of time. Participants (n=40) aged 18-65 years were recruited from five primary health care centers in Sweden. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. The subgroups based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire were predefined to low, moderate or high pain condition severity. The reference instrument data were dichotomized into low or high level based on previously used cut-off scores. Concurrent validity was analyzed with Fisher´s exact test. Stability was calculated using quadraticweighted kappa analysis. The results indicated acceptable psychometric properties of the subgroup assignment based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire regarding concurrent validity, and the stability over two to three weeks. To further increase validity, it is suggested that subgroup assignment is complemented with other measures assessing e.g. pain catastrophizing. In conclusion, assignment to subgroups with low, moderate and high pain condition severities based on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire, could be used as a valid base for stratified treatment for patients with musculoskeletal pain.   

    Nyckelord
    Musculoskeletal pain, psychological factors, stratified care, screening instruments, primary care
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328403 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-23Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Envall, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    Reproduktionen som mål: En studie om framställningen av det kvinnliga könsorganet och sex i biologiböcker avsedda för högstadiet2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka hur det kvinnliga könsorganet porträtteras i biologiböcker för högstadieelever och vilka diskurser om kön och sexualitet som går att skönja genom dessa. Studien är baserad på text och illustrationer ur fem olika biologiböcker som används av högstadieelever idag. För att analysera materialet har Faircloughs kritiska diskursanalys använts och teorier kring hur kön konstrueras genom sociala diskurser har applicerats. Författarnas beskrivningar av klitoris är bristfälliga vilket bidrar till aktivt reproducerande av okunskap. I samtliga böcker jämförs klitoris med penis vilket visar på en diskurs om mannen som norm och kvinnan som avvikande. En del av materialet framställer slidan som passivt kärl för penis, en heteronormativ diskurs som återkommer i vilka sexuella praktiker som porträtteras som ”riktigt” sex. Tvåkönsmodellen som hegemonisk diskurs cementeras genom böckernas binära könsuppdelning och genom de skilda egenskaper som appliceras på respektive kön vid sexuell upphetsning. Studien genomsyras av synen på människan som reproduktiv varelse snarare än social. 

  • Disputation: 2017-10-20 13:00 Häggsalen Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Sun, Fengzhen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Mechanical Properties and Deformation Behaviour of Polymer Materials during Nanosectioning: Characterisation and Modelling2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in local fracture processes and micro-machining of polymers and polymer-based composites has attracted increasing attention, in development of composite materials and miniaturisation of polymer components. In this thesis, sectioning (machining) of a glassy polymer and a carbon nanotube based composite at the nanoscale was performed by an instrumented ultramicrotome. The yield stresses and fracture toughness of these materials were determined by analysing the sectioning forces. Fractographic analysis by atomic force microscopy was conducted to characterise the topographies and elastic properties of the sectioned surfaces to explore the deformation and fracture behaviour of the polymer during nanosectioning. The study reveals that a transition from homogenous to shear localised deformation occurred as the uncut chip thickness (depth of cut) or sectioning speed increased to a critical value. Analytical and finite element methods were used to model the nanosectioning process. The shear localised deformation was caused by thermal softening due to plastic dissipation. Although not considering sectioning, the tensile properties of a polymer nanocomposite were additionally investigated, where the degree of nanofibrillation and polyethylene glycol (PEG) content had significant effects.

    Delarbeten
    1. Polymer fracture and deformation during nanosectioning in an ultramicrotome
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Polymer fracture and deformation during nanosectioning in an ultramicrotome
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 182, 595-606 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture and deformation behaviour of a thermoplastic in the nanosectioning process is investigated by using an ultramicrotome instrumented with force transducers. For sections with thickness values in the order of 10–100 nm, the specific work of surface formation of polymethyl methacrylate is found to be 6.3 J m−2, which is considerably smaller to macroscopic fracture toughness, but relatively close to the theoretical specific surface energy of 1.5 J m−2 of breaking the covalent bonds. Periodic transverse features, spaced a few hundred nanometres on the sectioned surfaces, are observed by atomic force microscopy for sections above a critical thickness. It reveals that a transition of the deformation mode occurs at a certain thickness, which is in concert with sectioning experiments for other materials showing adiabatic shear bands.

    Nyckelord
    NanosectioningFractureLocalized deformationPeriodic featuresAdiabatic shearing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328893 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2017.05.044 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-04 Skapad: 2017-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-04
    2. Rate effects on localized shear deformation during nanosectioning of an amorphous thermoplastic polymer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Rate effects on localized shear deformation during nanosectioning of an amorphous thermoplastic polymer
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the effects of loading rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic polymer, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sections with a thickness below 100 nm were made at different sectioning speeds by an instrumented ultramicrotome and the sectioning forces were measured. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the topographical features of the sectioned surfaces. Periodic structures of shear localizations were observed to form when the sectioning speed exceeded a critical value. With the measured sectioning parameters and other parameters determined based on previous studies, the effects of sectioning speed on the thermomechanical response of this polymer were analyzed using an existing adiabatic shearing model and a suitable constitutive law. A sectioning speed for the onset of shear localization was predicted, agreeing with the experimental results. The method presented in this work provides an approach to analyze the formation of shear localizations in polymers at the nanometer scale deformation. 

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328887 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-04 Skapad: 2017-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-04
    3. Effect of nanosectioning on surface features and stiffness of an amorphous glassy polymer
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of nanosectioning on surface features and stiffness of an amorphous glassy polymer
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Sectioning of a glassy polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate), at the nanoscale was carried out by means of an ultramicrotome. The effects of sectioning thickness and speed on the topography and stiffness over the surface were then investigated by atomic force microscopy. A critical section thickness and speed were identified, below which a flat and smooth cut surfaces were created, with homogeneous elasticity. Above the critical thickness or speed, localized periodic bands were formed on the sectioned surfaces oriented perpendicular to the cutting direction with a nonhomogeneous distribution of the mapped elasticity. Finite-element simulations based on a constitutive model of the polymer reproduced the periodic shear bands observed in the experiments. The influence of sectioning speed on the elastic modulus was predicted by a damage mechanics model and was found to correlate with results obtained by atomic force microscopy. The results lend confidence that critical machining conditions, such as sectioning thickness and speed, can be predicted to avoid undesirable shear localizations and damage formation in manufacture of e.g. small scale optical and photonic applications. 

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328888 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-04 Skapad: 2017-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-04
    4. Finite element modeling of nanosectioning of a glassy polymer based on an elastic-viscoplastic model
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Finite element modeling of nanosectioning of a glassy polymer based on an elastic-viscoplastic model
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element modelling of nanosectioning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is conducted in this work. The modified Mulliken-Boyce model including adiabatic heating was used to depict the elastic-viscoplastic behavior of PMMA during nanosectioning. The simulated results were compared with the experimental results obtained by ultramicrotome nanosectioning. The simulation can capture the basic features of the shear bands formed during nanosectioning, which indicates that the adiabatic heating play a important role in controlling the chip formation. 

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328889 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-04 Skapad: 2017-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-04
    5. Assessing local yield stress and fracture toughness of carbon nanotube poly(methyl methacrylate) composite by nanosectioning
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assessing local yield stress and fracture toughness of carbon nanotube poly(methyl methacrylate) composite by nanosectioning
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    A nanosectioning (cutting) method was used to test the local shear yield stress and fracture toughness of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites, and the effect of MWCNT content on the stress and toughness were investigated. The composites were prepared by a solution casting method, with MWCNT content varying from 0.05-1.0 wt%. A critical MWCNT content was found at 0.1 wt%; below such a critical content the shear yield stress increases by the incorporation of MWCNTs, while above this content the yield stress reduces. The fracture toughness of the composite was effectively enhanced by the addition of MWCNTs, from 17 J/m2 for the neat PMMA to 25 J/m2 for the 1.0 wt% composite. The shear yield stresses obtained by nanosectioning were correlated to nanoindentation measurement, and possible contributions from the MWCNTs to the fracture toughness of the composite were analysed.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328890 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-04 Skapad: 2017-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-04
    6. Mechanical characteristics of nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposite wound dressings in wet conditions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mechanical characteristics of nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposite wound dressings in wet conditions
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 69, 377-384 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Wood nanocellulose has been proposed for wound dressing applications partly based on its capability to form translucent films with good liquid absorption capabilities. Such properties are adequate for non-healing and chronic wounds where adequate management of exudates is a requirement. In addition, the translucency will allow to follow the wound development without the necessity to remove the dressing from the wound. Understanding the mechanical properties of nanocellulose films and dressings are also most important for tailoring optimizing wound dressing structures with adequate strength, conformability, porosity and exudate management. Mechanical properties are usually assessed in standard conditions (50% relative humidity, RH), which is not relevant in a wound management situation. In this study we have assessed the mechanical properties of three nanocellulose grades varying in the degree of nanofibrillation. The effect of nanofibrillation and of polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition, on the tensile strength, elongation and elastic modulus were assessed after 24 h in water and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the behavior of the nanocellulose dressings after wetting and shed light into the development of mechanical properties in environments, which are relevant from a wound management point of view.

    Nyckelord
    CNF, Nanocellulose, Bionanocomposites, Plasticizer, Mechanical properties
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323443 (URN)10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.01.049 (DOI)000400199600041 ()28171794 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-07-06 Skapad: 2017-07-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-04Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Muscalu, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Woxberg, Matilda
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Lärares uppfattning om "Kompis med kroppen": Ett hälsofrämjande projekt med fokus på frukt och grönsaker hos barn i skolåldern2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Intaget av frukt och grönsaker hos barn i grundskolan är lägre än rekommenderat. Matvanor grundläggs i tidig ålder och flera försök har gjorts att främja goda matvanor. "Kompis med kroppen", ett ICA-baserat hälsofrämjande projekt, syftar till att inspirera skolbarn till bättre matvanor.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur "Kompis med kroppen" uppfattats av lärare i grundskolan. I examensarbetet tillfrågades lärarna om vad de ansåg om olika delar av projektet samt om de upplevde att det finns ett intresse för hälsofrämjande projekt i grundskolan.

    Metod: Tvärsnittsdesign med webbenkät som undersökningsmetod. Examensarbetet baserades på svar från 263 deltagare, samtliga lärare. Databearbetningen gjordes i SPSS och tester som utfördes var Spearmans rangkorrelation och chi-två test.

    Resultat: Deltagarna var positivt inställda till projektet och upplevde även mottagandet hos eleverna som positivt. En statistisk analys visade att det fanns ett signifikant samband (p<0.001) mellan deltagarnas inställning och elevernas upplevda mottagande. Deltagarnas upplevda effekt på eleverna var att eleverna pratade mer om frukt och grönsaker (42 %), samt att de uppskattade att arbeta med materialet (41 %). De allra flesta lärare genomförde ett butiksbesök (95 %) och gav positiva kommentarer angående besöket, en majoritet använde sig även av arbetsboken (72 %).

    Slutsats: "Kompis med kroppen" tycks genomgående ha upplevts positivt av majoriteten av lärarna som deltog i examensarbetets undersökning. ICA som aktör kan hjälpa till att främja goda matvanor hos barn, men det är möjligt att det behövs en utökad satsning i samhället med större engagemang från samtliga individer för att få en bestående förändring.

  • Saxén, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Laurentia’s Oldest Brachiopods:Lower Cambrian Brachiopods ofthe Montezuma Range, Nevada2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den geologiska tidsåldern Kambrium (542-488 miljoner år sedan) uppträder de första fossilerna av djurgruppen brachiopoder, eller armfotingar som de också kallas, tillsammans med många andra djurgrupper. Få platser i Laurentia (paleo-kontinent bestående av nutidens Nordamerika och Grönland) finns kvar som har bevarat de tidigaste förekommande brachiopod fossilerna. Esmeralda län i Nevada är en sådan plats och det här har det även spekulerats att Laurentias absolut äldsta brachiopod fossil skulle kunna hittas där. Denna avhandling fokuserar på att studera dessa brachiopod fossil från Nevada. När åldern för de äldsta studerade brachiopoderna (Begadean I ålder) i denna avhandling jämfördes med tidigare dokumenterade åldrar för äldre lägre Kambrium brachiopod fossiler stod det klart att dessa är de äldsta brachiopod fossilerna som hittats hittills.Många nya fossil prover har samlats in av J.S. Hollingsworth under en längre tid från Nevada och beskrivs häri. De nya fossilen innefattar både sällsynta släkten, så som Swantonia samt Spinulothele, och släkten som inte har hittats i Esmeralda län tidigare. Tyvärr erhölls lite ny information beträffande de sällsynta släktenas morfologiska egenskaper. Upptäkterna om de nya släkterna i området skulle kunna hjälpa oss att bättre kunna rekonstruera brachiopod faunan från Nevada samt att förstå spridningen av olika brachiopod grupper i framtiden.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 09:15 4001, Uppsala
    Mattera, Andrea
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Studying neutron-induced fission at IGISOL-4: From neutron source to yield measurements and model comparisons2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fission yields represent the probability of producing a certain nuclide in a fission event, and are important observables for fission research. For applications, accurate knowledge of the yields is fundamental at all stages of the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors, e.g., for reactivity calculations, or to estimate (spent) fuel inventory. Fission yields also help in the basic understanding of the fission process, for nucleosynthesis models, and for radioactive ion beam production.

    This thesis was developed in the framework of the AlFONS project, the objective of which was to measure neutron-induced fission yields of relevance for partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. The work is performed at the IGISOL-4 facility in JYFL (University of Jyväskylä).

    The first part of this thesis work is dedicated to the development and characterisation of a suitable 9Be(p(30MeV),nx) neutron source for IGISOL-4. The neutron energy spectrum and the neutron yield from a 5mm thick converter were studied with Monte Carlo simulations. Two characterisation campaigns that validated the MCNPX code were also performed. At the maximum current available from the cyclotron at JYFL, a total neutron yield between 2 and 5×1012 neutrons/(sr s) can be obtained. This satisfies the design goal for studies of fission yields.

    The neutron source was used in the measurement of fission yields from high-energy neutron-induced fission of natU at IGISOL-4, discussed in the second part of this thesis. The fission products were online-separated with a dipole magnet. The isobars, with masses in the range A = 128-133, were identified using γ-spectroscopy. Data for the relative yields of tin and antimony, as well as isomeric yield ratios for five nuclides will be reported. The yields show trends not observed in the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, and only in part confirmed by the GEF model.

    The final part of this thesis concerns a study of the performance of different nuclear model codes, that aim at describing the states of the fission fragments right after scission. Reproduction of experimental data serves to benchmark the models and it indicates, to some extent, how reliably the results can be extrapolated to regions where no data exist.

    A methodology to compare and test these models has been developed, which was implemented in the DEℓFIN code. DEℓFIN takes the excited fission fragments, defined by the model under test, and de-excites them in a standardised way using the nuclear model code TALYS. Eliminating any variability in the way the final observables are extracted helps focusing on each model's assumptions. DEℓFIN was tested on five models, and interesting features in the prompt neutron multiplicity were found for some of them. This study will promote a better understanding of the ideas used in the development of fission models.

    Delarbeten
    1. A neutron source for IGISOL-JYFLTRAP: Design and characterisation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A neutron source for IGISOL-JYFLTRAP: Design and characterisation
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601X, Vol. 53, nr 8, 173-180 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A white neutron source based on the Be(p,nx) reaction for fission studies at the IGISOLJYFLTRAP facility has been designed and tested. 30 MeV protons impinge on a 5mm thick water-cooled beryllium disc. The source was designed to produce at least 1012 fast neutrons/s on a secondary fission target, in order to reach competitive production rates of fission products far from the valley of stability.

    The Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA were used in the design phase to simulate the neutron energy spectra. Two experiments to characterise the neutron field were performed: the first was carried out at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala (SE), using an Extended-Range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer and a liquid scintillator which used the time-of-flight (TOF) method to determine the energy of the neutrons; the second employed Thin-Film Breakdown Counters for the measurement of the TOF, and activation foils, at the IGISOL facility in Jyväskylä (FI). Design considerations and the results of the two characterisation measurements are presented, providing benchmarks for the simulations.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Subatomär fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328569 (URN)10.1140/epja/i2017-12362-x (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-26 Skapad: 2017-08-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-29
    2. A methodology for the intercomparison of nuclear fission codes using TALYS
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A methodology for the intercomparison of nuclear fission codes using TALYS
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, E-ISSN 2100-014X, Vol. 146, 04047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Codes for the calculation of fission observables are frequently used to describe experimentally observed phenomena as well as provide predictions in cases where measurements are missing. Assumptions in the models, and tuning of parameters within the codes, often result in a good reproduction of experimental data. In this work we propose a methodology, coded in the newly developed program DELFIN (De-Excitation of FIssion fragmeNts), that can be used to compare some of the assumptions of the various models. Our code makes use of the fission fragments information after scission and processes them in an independent and consistent fashion to obtain measurable fission observables (such as ν(A) distributions and Isomeric Fission Yield ratios). All the available information from the models, such as fragments' excitation energies, spin distributions and yields are provided as input to DELFIN that uses the nuclear reaction code TALYS to handle the de-excitation of the fission fragments. In this way we decouple the fragments relaxation from the actual fission models. We report here the first results of a comparison carried out on the GEF, Point-by-Point and FREYA models for thermal fission of 235U and 239Pu and spontaneous fission of 252Cf.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Subatomär fysik
    Forskningsämne
    Fysik med inriktning mot tillämpad kärnfysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317442 (URN)10.1051/epjconf/201714604047 (DOI)
    Konferens
    International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, Bruge (BE), September 11-16, 2016.
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-14 Skapad: 2017-03-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-14Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Comparison of Fission Models with the DElFIN code
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Comparison of Fission Models with the DElFIN code
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear model codes are used to describe aspects of the fission process. The general aim is a better understanding of the states of the fragments right after scission. A successful description of the available experimental data serves as benchmark for the models and determines the reliability of extrapolations to other fissioning systems and energy domains, where no experimental data exist.

    The DElFIN code has been developed as a tool to compare and test nuclear fission codes. This can be done using the quantities defined right after scission by the fission models and introducing a transparent and consistent way of handling the fragments' de-excitation. Eliminating any variability in the way the final observables are extracted can help focus on the models' assumptions.

    In this work, we present the comparison of the (A) extracted from DElFIN to using excitation energies from GEF, PbP, FREYA, FIFRELIN and CGMF codes.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Subatomär fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328570 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-26 Skapad: 2017-08-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-28
    4. Production of Sn and Sb isotopes in high-energy neutron induced fission of natU
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Production of Sn and Sb isotopes in high-energy neutron induced fission of natU
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Ingår i: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The first systematic measurement of neutron-induced fission yields has been performed at the upgraded IGISOL-4 facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

    The fission products from high-energy neutron-induced fission of natU stopped in a gas cell filled with helium buffer gas, and were online-separated with a dipole magnet. The isobars, with masses in the range A = 128-133, were transported to a tape-implantation station and identified using γ-spectroscopy.

    We report here the relative cumulative isotopic yields of tin (Z = 50) and the relative independent isotopic yields of antimony (Z = 51). Isomeric yield ratios were also obtained for five nuclides.

    The yields of tin show a staggered behaviour around A = 131, not observed in the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation.The yields of antimony also contradict the trend from the evaluation, but are in agreement with a calculation performed using the GEF model, that shows the yield increasing with mass in the range A = 128-133.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Subatomär fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328572 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-26 Skapad: 2017-08-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-28
  • Disputation: 2017-10-12 13:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Adamaki, Angeliki
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Seismicity Analyses Using Dense Network Data: Catalogue Statistics and Possible Foreshocks Investigated Using Empirical and Synthetic Data2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Precursors related to seismicity patterns are probably the most promising phenomena for short-term earthquake forecasting, although it remains unclear if such forecasting is possible. Foreshock activity has often been recorded but its possible use as indicator of coming larger events is still debated due to the limited number of unambiguously observed foreshocks. Seismicity data which is inadequate in volume or character might be one of the reasons foreshocks cannot easily be identified. One method used to investigate the possible presence of generic seismicity behavior preceding larger events is the aggregation of seismicity series. Sequences preceding mainshocks chosen from empirical data are superimposed, revealing an increasing average seismicity rate prior to the mainshocks. Such an increase could result from the tendency of seismicity to cluster in space and time, thus the observed patterns could be of limited predictive value. Randomized tests using the empirical catalogues imply that the observed increasing rate is statistically significant compared to an increase due to simple clustering, indicating the existence of genuine foreshocks, somehow mechanically related to their mainshocks. If network sensitivity increases, the identification of foreshocks as such may improve. The possibility of improved identification of foreshock sequences is tested using synthetic data, produced with specific assumptions about the earthquake process. Complications related to background activity and aftershock production are investigated numerically, in generalized cases and in data-based scenarios. Catalogues including smaller, and thereby more, earthquakes can probably contribute to better understanding the earthquake processes and to the future of earthquake forecasting. An important aspect in such seismicity studies is the correct estimation of the empirical catalogue properties, including the magnitude of completeness (Mc) and the b-value. The potential influence of errors in the reported magnitudes in an earthquake catalogue on the estimation of Mc and b-value is investigated using synthetic magnitude catalogues, contaminated with Gaussian error. The effectiveness of different algorithms for Mc and b-value estimation are discussed. The sample size and the error level seem to affect the estimation of b-value, with implications for the reliability of the assessment of the future rate of large events and thus of seismic hazard.

    Delarbeten
    1. EVIDENCE OF PRECURSORY PATTERNS IN AGGREGATED TIME SERIES
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>EVIDENCE OF PRECURSORY PATTERNS IN AGGREGATED TIME SERIES
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, vol. L, 2016, Proceedings of the 14th Intern. Congress, Thessaloniki, May 2016, 2016, Vol. 50Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate temporal changes in seismic activity observed in the West Corinth Gulfand North-West Peloponnese during 2008 to 2010. Two major earthquake sequencestook place in the area at that time (in 2008 and 2010). Our aim is to analyse Greekseismicity to attempt to confirm the existence or non-existence of seismic precursorsprior to the strongest earthquakes. Perhaps because the area is geologically andtectonically complex, we found that it was not possible to fit the data well using aconsistent Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. Nor could weunambiguously identify foreshocks to individual mainshocks. Therefore we soughtpatterns in aggregated foreshock catalogues. We set a magnitude threshold (M3.5)above which all the earthquakes detected in the study area are considered as“mainshocks”, and we combined all data preceding these into a single foreshockcatalogue. This reveals an increase in seismicity rate not robustly observable forindividual cases. The observed effect is significantly greater than that consistent withstochastic models, including ETAS, thus indicating genuine foreshock activity withpotential useful precursory power, if sufficient data is available, i.e. if the magnitudeof completeness is sufficiently low.

    Abstract [el]

    Μελετάμε χρονικές μεταβολές της σεισμικής δραστηριότητας στο Δυτικό ΚορινθιακόΚόλπο και τη Βορειοδυτική Πελοπόννησο κατά τα έτη 2008-2010. Δύο σημαντικέςσεισμικές ακολουθίες σημειώθηκαν στην περιοχή σε αυτή την περίοδο (2008 και 2010).Στόχος είναι να αναλύσουμε τη σεισμικότητα ώστε να επιβεβαιώσουμε την ύπαρξη ή μηπροσεισμικής δραστηριότητας πριν από τους μεγαλύτερους σεισμούς. Λόγω τηςγεωλογικής και τεκτονικής πολυπλοκότητας της περιοχής, δεν ήταν εφικτή η εφαρμογήενός ενιαίου μοντέλου Επιδημικού Τύπου Μετασεισμικών Ακολουθιών (ETAS), ούτε ηαναγνώριση προσεισμών μεμονωμένων κυρίων σεισμών. Επομένως, αναζητήσαμεανάλογα μοτίβα σε ενιαίους καταλόγους προσεισμών. Θέσαμε ένα μέγεθος (Μ3.5)πάνω από το οποίο όλοι οι σεισμοί θεωρούνται “κύριοι”, και συνδυάσαμε τα δεδομέναπου προηγούνται αυτών, σε ένα κοινό κατάλογο. Αναδεικνύεται έτσι μια αύξηση τουρυθμού σεισμικότητας που δεν είναι εμφανής σε μεμονωμένες περιπτώσεις και είναι πιοσημαντική από εκείνη που προβλέπεται από στοχαστικά μοντέλα, όπως το ETAS,υποδηλώνοντας την ύπαρξη προσεισμών που μπορούν να δώσουν τη δυνατότηταπρόγνωσης αν υπάρχει ικανοποιητικό πλήθος δεδομένων, δηλ. αν το μέγεθοςπληρότητας είναι αρκετά χαμηλό.

    Nyckelord
    Corinth Gulf, Seismicity, Aggregated Foreshock Catalogues, Κορινθιακός Κόλπος, Σεισμικότητα, Ενιαίοι Κατάλογοι Προσεισμών
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap Geofysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295440 (URN)
    Konferens
    14th International Congress, Geological Society of Greece, Thessaloniki, May 2016
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-07 Skapad: 2016-06-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Precursory Activity Before Larger Events in Greece Revealed by Aggregated Seismicity Data
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Precursory Activity Before Larger Events in Greece Revealed by Aggregated Seismicity Data
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136, Vol. 174, nr 3, 1331-1343 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the seismicity rate behaviour in and around Greece during 2009, seeking significant changes in rate preceding larger events. For individual larger events it is difficult to clearly distinguish precursory rate changes from other, possibly unrelated, variations in seismicity. However, when we aggregate seismicity data occurring within a radius of 10 km and in a 50-day window prior to earthquakes with, e. g. magnitude C3.5, the resulting aggregated time series show a clearly increasing trend starting 2-3 weeks prior to the "mainshock'' time. We apply statistical tests to investigate if the observed behaviour may be simply consistent with random (poissonian) variations, or, as some earlier studies suggest, with clustering in the sense that high activity rates at some time may imply increased rates later, and thus (randomly) greater probability of larger coming events than for periods of lower seismicity. In this case, rate increases have little useful predictive power. Using data from the entire catalogue, the aggregated rate changes before larger events are clearly and strongly statistically significant and cannot be explained by such clustering. To test this we choose events at random from the catalogue as potential "mainshocks''. The events preceding the randomly chosen earthquakes show less pronounced rate increases compared to the observed rate changes prior to larger events. Similar behaviour is observed in data sub-sets. However, statistical confidence decreases for geographical subsets containing few "mainshocks'' as it does when data are weighted such that "mainshocks'' with many preceding events are strongly downweighted relative to those with fewer. The analyses suggest that genuine changes in aggregated rate do occur prior to larger events and that this behaviour is not due to a small number of mainshocks with many preceding events dominating the analysis. It does not automatically follow that it will be possible to routinely observe precursory changes prior to individual larger events, but there is a possibility that this may be feasible, e. g. with better data from more sensitive networks.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    SPRINGER BASEL AG, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Temporal seismicity patterns, aggregated data, precursory activity, Greece
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geofysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320921 (URN)10.1007/s00024-017-1465-6 (DOI)000396834700039 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-27 Skapad: 2017-04-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Advantages and Limitations of Foreshock Activity as a Useful Tool for Earthquake Forecasting
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Advantages and Limitations of Foreshock Activity as a Useful Tool for Earthquake Forecasting
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Accelerating Seismicity, Earthquake Predictability
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geofysik
    Forskningsämne
    Geofysik med inriktning mot seismologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328055 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-16 Skapad: 2017-08-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21
    4. Impact of Magnitude Uncertainties on Seismic Catalogue Properties
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Impact of Magnitude Uncertainties on Seismic Catalogue Properties
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    (Engelska)Ingår i: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nyckelord
    Statistical Seismology, Earthquake Catalogue Properties, Completeness Magnitude, b-value
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Statistik; Geofysik med inriktning mot seismologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328053 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-16 Skapad: 2017-08-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21
  • Beckman, Jockum
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen, Avdelningen för retorik.
    Var är visionerna?: En analys av visionär retorik i två tal av Stefan Löfven2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats analyserar två tal av Sveriges statsminister Stefan Löfven; det ena från Socialdemokraternas partikongress 2015 och det andra från Almedalen samma år. Syftet är att ge en inblick i hur visioner för framtiden uttrycks av en samtida högt uppsatt politiker och att undersöka om det finns några skillnader i hur dessa visioner uttrycks beroende på om talaren i första hand vänder sig till sitt eget parti eller till en bredare opinion.

    Uppsatsen lyfter fram tre olika aspekter av politiska visioner (praktiska, utopiska och imaginära) och analyserar talen med fokus på dessa. Detta kombineras med en retorisk situationsanalys som syftar till att belysa och förklara skillnader i hur visionerna uttrycks i de två talen.

    Resultatet visar att de visioner som Löfven uttrycker i båda talen lägger ett större fokus på att lösa omedelbara praktiska problem än att bygga ett framtida samhälle. Det framkommer även att talet från partikongressen mer tydligt kopplar visionerna till socialdemokratin som ideologi än vad talet i Almedalen gör.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 10:00 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Esfandiarfard, Keyhan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik. Uppsala University.
    Novel Organophosphorus Compounds for Materials and Organic Synthesis2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to the development of new organophosphorus compounds for potential uses in material science and as reagents in Organic Chemistry. Organophosphorus compounds in a single molecule or organic electronics context are appealing as the phosphorous centers perturb the electronic properties of the π-conjugated systems while at the same time provide synthetic handles for subsequent synthetic modifications. As such, new synthetic methodology to such compounds and the exploration of new building blocks is of considerable interest. In a different study, novel organophosphorus compounds are synthesized and shown to promote a reaction in Organic Chemistry that has previously not been possible, i.e. the stereoselective reductive coupling of aldehydes to alkenes. Such developments enlarge the toolkit of reactions that are available to Organic Chemists, and may impact the synthetic routes to pharmaceuticals and other important commodity chemicals.

    A general introduction of the key structural unit of this thesis, phosphaalkenes, is given in the first chapter. The synthesis, reactivity, properties and applications of these P=C double bond containing compounds are highlighted. The Wittig reaction and its variations as well as the phosphorus analogues that produce phosphaalkenes are outlined in detail.

    The second chapter is dedicated to the synthesis of a precursor that is used for the preparation of novel π-conjugated, organophosphorus compounds. C,C-Dibromophosphaalkenes are prepared and the halide substituents are used for the selective introduction of acetylene units. Besides the phosphaalkenes, the successful syntheses of two new diphosphenes is presented, indicating a broad applicability of the precursors.

    The third chapter is dedicated to the isolation of a metal-free phosphanylphosphonate that transforms aldehydes quantitatively to their corresponding E-phosphaalkenes in a transition metal-free phospha-HWE (Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons) reaction. The reaction benefits from mild conditions, high E-stereoselectivity, and a broad substrate scope.

    In the last chapter, a novel method for the reductive coupling of aldehydes to olefins is introduced. The reaction, which is a vast improvement over the McMurry coupling, allows for the selective synthesis of symmetrical and most importantly unsymmetrical E-alkenes. The phosphanylphosphonate mentioned above is the reagent that facilitates the coupling of the aldehydes via a phosphaalkene intermediate. This one-pot reaction benefits from mild conditions, good conversions, and high E-stereoselectivity.

    In summary, the thesis presents novel aspects of organophosphorus chemistry. These include the preparations and exploration of interesting precursors for the construction of π-conjugated organophosphorus compounds, and the use of organophosphorus reagents for unprecedented transformations in Organic Chemistry.

    Delarbeten
    1. Synthesis of 2,6-Dimesitylphenyl-C,C-dibromophosphaalkene
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Synthesis of 2,6-Dimesitylphenyl-C,C-dibromophosphaalkene
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Phosphorus Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements, ISSN 1042-6507, E-ISSN 1563-5325, Vol. 190, nr 5-6, 816-820 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A facile one-pot transformation of Dmp-I to Dmp-P=CBr2 (Dmp = 2,6-dimesitylphenyl), a valuable precursor for other unsaturated phosphorus compounds, is described. VT-1H-NMR experiments reveal a hindered rotation of the m-terphenyl structure with a rotational barrier of approx. 14 kcal/mol. Bromination of Dmp-I gives selective substitution of all aromatic protons of the mesityl substituents.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2015
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oorganisk kemi Organisk kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-257682 (URN)10.1080/10426507.2014.984030 (DOI)000357323000038 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, 2013-4763
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-07-07 Skapad: 2015-07-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21
    2. Synthesis of Novel Precursors for the Development of Low-valent Phosphorus Compounds
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Synthesis of Novel Precursors for the Development of Low-valent Phosphorus Compounds
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Organisk kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328291 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-21 Skapad: 2017-08-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21
    3. Direct, Sequential, and Stereoselective Alkynylation of C,C-Dibromophosphaalkenes
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Direct, Sequential, and Stereoselective Alkynylation of C,C-Dibromophosphaalkenes
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    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, nr 30, 10614-10619 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The first direct alkynylation of C,C-dibromophosphaalkenes by a reaction with sulfonylacetylenes is reported. Alkynylation proceeds selectively in the trans position relative to the P substituent to afford bromoethynylphosphaalkenes. Owing to the absence of transition metals in the procedure, the previously observed conversion of dibromophosphaalkenes into phosphaalkynes through the phosphorus analog of the Fritsch-Buttenberg-Wiechell rearrangement is thus suppressed. The bromoethynylphosphaalkenes can subsequently be converted to C,C-diacetylenic, cross-conjugated phosphaalkenes by following a Sonogashira coupling protocol in good overall yields. By using the newly described method, full control over the stereochemistry at the P=C double bond is achieved. The substrate scope of this reaction is demonstrated for different dibromophosphaalkenes as well as different sulfonylacetylenes.

    Nyckelord
    alkynylation, cross-conjugation, phosphaalkenes, Sonogashira coupling, sulfonyl coupling
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oorganisk kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302705 (URN)10.1002/chem.201601955 (DOI)000380273300043 ()27310813 (PubMedID)
    Externt samarbete:
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VetenskapsrådetCarl Tryggers stiftelse för vetenskaplig forskning
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-08 Skapad: 2016-09-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Synthesis of the first metal-free phosphanylphosphonate and its use in the "phospha-Wittig-Horner" reaction
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Synthesis of the first metal-free phosphanylphosphonate and its use in the "phospha-Wittig-Horner" reaction
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 45, nr 5, 2201-2207 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of the first phophanylphosphonate, Mes*PH-PO(OEt)(2) (2-H), in which the P(III) centre is not coordinated by a M(CO)(5) (M = W, Mo, Cr) fragment is reported. The title compound reacts with LDA under the formation of 2-Li which is best described as the enolate form with a high double bond character between the two phosphorus centres. 2-Li is shown to engage in the phospha-Wittig-Horner reaction and converts aldehydes into phosphaalkenes that are metal-free and thus available for future manipulations at the phophorus lone pair. Using a selection of aldehydes with aliphatic, aromatic or vinylic substituents as substrates, phosphaalkene formation proceeds in high yields and high E-selectivity. The selectivity is however compromised during purification on standard silica which was found to promote E/Z isomerization.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280913 (URN)10.1039/c5dt03686k (DOI)000369413700046 ()26574885 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-16 Skapad: 2016-03-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Unsymmetrical E-Alkenes from the Stereoselective Reductive Coupling of Two Aldehydes
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Unsymmetrical E-Alkenes from the Stereoselective Reductive Coupling of Two Aldehydes
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, nr 8, 2940-2943 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented formation of unsymmetrical alkenes from the intermolecular reductive coupling of two different aldehydes is described. In contrast to the McMurry reaction which affords statistical product mixtures, selectivity in the reported procedure is achieved by a sequential ionic mechanism in which a first aldehyde is reacted with a phosphanylphosphonate to afford a phosphaalkene intermediate which, upon activation by hydroxide, reacts with a second aldehyde to the unsymmetrical E-alkenes. The described reaction is free of transition metals and proceeds under ambient temperature within minutes in good to excellent overall yields. It is a new methodology to use feedstock aldehydes for the direct production of C=C double bond-containing products and may impact how chemists think of multistep synthetic sequences in the future.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320411 (URN)10.1021/jacs.7b00428 (DOI)000395493400021 ()28186736 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-19 Skapad: 2017-04-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Wibroe, Morten
    et al.
    Rigshosp, Dept Neurosurg, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Rigshosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cappelen, Johan
    St Olavs Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Trondheim, Norway..
    Castor, Charlotte
    Lund Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Lund, Sweden..
    Clausen, Niels
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Grillner, Pernilla
    Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gudrunardottir, Thora
    Posterior Fossa Soc Https Www Posteriorfossa Org, Stockholm, Sweden.;North Zealand Hosp, Dept Oncol & Palliat, Hillerod, Denmark..
    Gupta, Ramneek
    Tech Univ Denmark, Ctr Biol Sequence Anal, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Heyman, Mats
    Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holm, Stefan
    Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karppinen, Atte
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Helsinki, Finland..
    Klausen, Camilla