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  • Sepahvand, Mohammad H
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University.
    Intergenerational Transmission of Risk Attitudes:The Role of Gender, Parents and Grandparents in Burkina Faso2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the intergenerational transmission of risk attitudes for three risk domains in Burkina Faso. First, our results shows a strong transmission of attitudes from parents to children. Although, estimates from intergenerational transmission of risk attitudes in developing countries should not be compared directly with those from developed countries, our results goes in the same direction as previous literature from Germany. That is risk attitudes are transmitted from; parents to children, local enviorment to children and positive assortative mating of parents strengthens the parents’ transmission of attitudes to her child. Second we analyze three generations of risk attitude transmission. Our results indicates that it exist a transmission of risk attitudes from grandparents to their grandchildren. The strength and significance of this socialization decreases when we control for parents risk attitudes. Third, since there are strong gender roles in Burkina Faso, we test if mothers and fathers transmission of risk attitudes on their daughter is the same as on their son. We find that mother’s transmission of risk attitudes is stronger on their daughters than sons. For fathers the pattern is reverse. However, our findings show that it exist a heterogenity in the transmission of risk attitudes in male and female dominated risk domains. This gives support for the gender-specific role model hypothesis in terms of risk attitudes.

  • Buzzi, Michele
    et al.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Makita, Mikako
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Howald, Ludovic
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Kleibert, Armin
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Vodungbo, Boris
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7639, Lab Opt Appl,ENSTA ParisTech, Chemin Huniere, F-91761 Palaiseau, France.;UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, LCPMR, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Maldonado, Pablo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Raabe, Jörg
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Jaouen, Nicolas
    Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Redlin, Harald
    DESY, HASYLAB, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tiedtke, Kai
    DESY, HASYLAB, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    David, Christian
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Nolting, Frithjof
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Luning, Jan
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, LCPMR, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Single-shot Monitoring of Ultrafast Processes via X-ray Streaking at a Free Electron Laser2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 7253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of x-ray free electron lasers has extended the unique capabilities of resonant x-ray spectroscopy techniques to ultrafast time scales. Here, we report on a novel experimental method that allows retrieving with a single x-ray pulse the time evolution of an ultrafast process, not only at a few discrete time delays, but continuously over an extended time window. We used a single x-ray pulse to resolve the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetisation dynamics in a thin cobalt film over a time window of about 1.6 ps with an excellent signal to noise ratio. From one representative single shot measurement we extract a spin relaxation time of (130 +/- 30) fs with an average value, based on 193 single shot events of (113 +/- 20) fs. These results are limited by the achieved experimental time resolution of 120 fs, and both values are in excellent agreement with previous results and theoretical modelling. More generally, this new experimental approach to ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy paves the way to the study of non-repetitive processes that cannot be investigated using traditional repetitive pump-probe schemes.

  • Bergström, Joakim J. E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi.
    Mice Immunized With IgG Anti-Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) Together With SRBC Have a Suppressed Anti-SRBC Antibody Response but Generate Germinal Centers and Anti-IgG Antibodies in Response to the Passively Administered IgG2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, 911Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antigen-specific IgG antibodies, passively administered together with large particulate antigens such as erythrocytes, can completely suppress the antigen-specific antibody response. The mechanism behind has been elusive. Herein, we made the surprising observation that mice immunized with IgG anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and SRBC, in spite of a severely suppressed anti-SRBC response, have a strong germinal center (GC) response. This occurred regardless of whether the passively administered IgG was of the same allotype as that of the recipient or not. Six days after immunization, the GC size and the number of GC B cells were higher in mice immunized with SRBC alone than in mice immunized with IgG and SRBC, but at the other time points these parameters were similar. GCs in the IgG-groups had a slight shift toward dark zone B cells 6 days after immunization and toward light zone B cells 10 days after immunization. The proportions of T follicular helper cells (TFH) and T follicular regulatory cells (TFR) were similar in the two groups. Interestingly, mice immunized with allogeneic IgG anti-SRBC together with SRBC mounted a vigorous antibody response against the passively administered suppressive IgG. Thus, although their anti-SRBC response was almost completely suppressed, an antibody response against allogeneic, and probably also syngeneic, IgG developed. This most likely explains the development of GCs in the absence of an anti-SRBC antibody response.

  • Ahlberg, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Visual literacy i klassrummet: En studie av elevers visuella praktiker i bild, svenska och NO2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utifrån elevernas perspektiv undersöka vilken visual literacy som förväntas i ämnena bild, svenska och NO i grundskolans årskurs 4-6. Frågeställningarna fokuserar vilka visuella praktiker eleverna deltar i och vilken literacy som kommer till uttryck i dessa praktiker, hur eleverna förhåller sig och vilket stöd de erbjuds när de hanterar visuellt material.

    Teoretiskt utgår studien från områdena Visuell kultur och New literacy studies, men den vilar också på socialsemiotisk forskning och teorier om multimodalitet. Inom New literacy studies undersöks textpraktiker, i detta arbete är det elevernas visuella praktiker som studeras, dvs. när eleverna läser och skapar bilder i undervisningen.

    Metodologiskt bygger studien på visuell etnografi, där forskningsmaterialet producerats genom deltagande observation i fyra klasser på mellanstadiet. Fotografier, observationsanteckningar och utskrifter av intervjuer med fyra elevgrupper utgör underlaget för analysen.

    Analysen visar att eleverna deltar i flera olika visuella praktiker inom ramen för de studerade ämnena. Det handlar om att skapa bilder eller digitala presentationer, men också om att läsa texter med visuellt material eller att se streamade filmer. Dessa praktiker uppvisar både likheter och skillnader. Sammanfattningsvis får eleverna möjligheter att lära om material och tekniker, använda och kommunicera med bilder, men undervisas i mindre mån i att analysera visuella uttryck. Undersökningen görs mot bakgrund av det ökade bildflödet i samhället. Om eleverna ska bli visuellt litterata krävs att alla ämnen tar ansvar för att behandla de visuella material som används i undervisningen. För bildämnets del betyder det också att lärarna måste ta den kommunikativa inriktningen på allvar och öva eleverna inte bara i att skapa bilder, utan också i att analysera och kritiskt granska de bilduttryck de möter.  

  • Herdenberg, Nils David
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    IDPs, Durable Solutions and Citizenship: Perspectives from Ukraine2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how Donbass IDPs in Kyiv view the role of the state in relation to ‘durable solutions’ to their displacement. Specifically, it examines the expectations on the state as a provider of rights and entitlements vis-à- vis IDPs. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with Donbas IDPs, experiences of displacement and perceptions of durable solutions and citizen-state relations are exemplified. The data collection and analysis methodologies applied allow for the elicitation of the views and opinions of IDPs, in an attempt to mitigate vertical policy-making. The concepts of citizenship, state and sovereignty are applied to analyze the relationship between IDPs and the state. Further, the IASC framework for durable solutions to internal displacement is used to as a structure to outline the views of the IDPs. The results show a large discrepancy between the expectations of the respondents on the states’ role in durable solutions to displacement, and the experience of this in reality. Furthermore, the results reveal high levels of discontent, resignation and apathy towards the state as a provider of durable solutions, especially in terms of returning to Donbass. 

  • Disputation: 2017-12-11 13:00 Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Johari, Dalina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Features of the Electric Fields Generated by Lightning with Special Attention to Positive Ground Flashes2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the main processes in positive ground flashes and the distant lightning environment for both positive and negative ground flashes. It presents the characteristics of the preliminary breakdown pulses (PBPs), the characteristics of the electric field pulses observed during leader propagation, and the characteristics of the electric fields produced by the first and the subsequent return strokes. It also features the observations of distant positive and negative ground flashes at distances up to 1000 km. The results were based on electric field measurements conducted remotely during summer thunderstorms in Sweden in 2014.

    We found that the majority of the positive ground flashes were preceded by PBPs. Some were preceded by more than one PBP train, and the parameter values for the subsequent PBP trains were found to be smaller than the values for the first PBP train. Three types of PBPs were also identified. The results suggest that the PBPs in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden are weak, and the inverted dipole charge cloud configuration is consistent with our observation.

    A small percentage of these positive ground flashes were observed to be preceded by pronounced leader pulses. The presence of these pulses suggests that the leaders propagate in a stepped manner. We inferred that these pulses were due to the upward-connecting negative leader since their characteristics were similar to those of a negative stepped leader. On the basis of the leader pulses’ time of initiation and the average speed of the leader, we estimated the distance travelled by the leader. One case of positive return stroke preceded by negative leader pulses was also observed, and the occurrence of these pulses was the first in positive ground flashes to be reported.

    The majority of these positive ground flashes were found to be single-stroke. Comparison between the first and the subsequent return strokes showed that the average durations of the subsequent stroke parameters were smaller than that of the first strokes. The distances reported by the lightning location system suggest that the subsequent strokes probably created new terminations to ground. Two possible reasons were given to explain the reason for the shorter duration of the subsequent return strokes parameters compared to the first strokes.

    Finally, observations of distant positive and negative ground flashes showed that the electric field waveforms have a typical shape, like a distorted ‘W’ (or distorted ‘M’ for negative ground flashes) followed by small oscillations. These small oscillations were more pronounced in negative ground flashes, especially at a greater distance. The heights of the ionospheric reflections estimated for both ground flashes were found to likely correspond to a D-layer of the ionosphere. Two possible reasons were suggested for the small oscillations observed in the waveforms.

    Delarbeten
    1. Characteristics of preliminary breakdown pulses in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Characteristics of preliminary breakdown pulses in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 7, nr 3, 39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characteristics of the preliminary breakdown pulses (PBP) in 51 positive ground flashes recorded during 2014 summer thunderstorms in Sweden. Electric field measurements were conducted remotely using a broadband antenna system (up to 100 MHz) for a recording length of 1 s with 200 ms trigger time. In the analysis, PBP trains were observed in 86% of the cases. Based on the number of trains preceding the first return stroke, the PBP were classified into single and multiple train PBP. Characteristics of the first PBP train were determined and based on the initial polarity of the pulses, three types of PBP were identified. Characteristics of the subsequent PBP trains in the multiple train PBP were also analyzed and they were compared with the first PBP train. Based on the conceptual charge cloud configuration, we found that the inverted dipole is consistent with our observation. We also found that PBP in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden are weak since the average ratios of the PBP peak to the first return stroke peak lie only between 0.21 and 0.26. Possible reasons for no detection of PBP and the different types of PBP observed were also discussed.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning Teknik och teknologier
    Forskningsämne
    Teknisk fysik med inriktning mot atmosfäriska urladdningar
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280866 (URN)10.3390/atmos7030039 (DOI)000373529700002 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-15 Skapad: 2016-03-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-20Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Characteristics of leader pulses in positive ground flashes in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Characteristics of leader pulses in positive ground flashes in Sweden
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 153, 3-9 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning Teknik och teknologier
    Forskningsämne
    Teknisk fysik med inriktning mot atmosfäriska urladdningar
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293059 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-05-11 Skapad: 2016-05-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-20
    3. Features of the First and Subsequent Return Strokes in Positive Ground Flashes based on Electric Field Measurements
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Features of the First and Subsequent Return Strokes in Positive Ground Flashes based on Electric Field Measurements
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 150, 55-62 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characteristics of the electric fields produced by the first and the subsequent return strokes observed in positive ground flashes in Sweden. Fifty one positive ground flashes containing 60 return strokes recorded during 2014 summer thunderstorms were analyzed. In our analysis, only 12% of the cases were multiple-stroke while 88% were single-stroke. On average, the number of strokes per flash was 1.20 and the highest number of strokes per flash recorded was four. The geometric mean (GM) value of the interstroke interval was 60 ms while the distance between the first and the subsequent strokes ranged between 4.9 and 46.4km. We found that the average duration of the subsequent strokes parameters were smaller than that of the first strokes. For the first strokes, the GM values of the slow front duration, the fast transition 10-to-90% risetime, the zero crossing time, the zero-to-peak risetime and the 10-to-90% risetime were 8.7 mu s, 1.4 mu s, 29 mu s, 11 mu s and 5.7 mu s, respectively while for the subsequent strokes, the values were 4.0 mu s 0.91 mu s, 11 mu s 5.8 mu s and 3.2 mu s, respectively. Possible reasons for the shorter duration of the subsequent return strokes parameters were discussed.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning Teknik och teknologier
    Forskningsämne
    Teknisk fysik med inriktning mot atmosfäriska urladdningar
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317450 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2017.04.031 (DOI)000403744100006 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-14 Skapad: 2017-03-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-20Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Oscillations Observed in Bipolar Electric Fields from Distant Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flashes
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Oscillations Observed in Bipolar Electric Fields from Distant Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flashes
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the observations of distant positive and negative ground flashes at distances up to 1000 km recorded during 2014 summer thunderstorms in Sweden. We observed that the electric field waveforms have a typical shape, like a distorted 'W' (or a distorted ‘M’ for negative ground flashes) followed by small oscillations. Compared to positive ground flashes, the small oscillations were more pronounced in negative ground flashes. All of the positive ground flashes were single-stroke while 74% of the negative ground flashes had subsequent return strokes (SRS). The SRS in negative ground flashes showed wave shapes similar to those of the first return strokes. For both the positive and negative ground flashes, preliminary breakdown pulse (PBP) trains were observed in 71% of the cases. The average time separation between the largest PBP and the ground wave were much larger for positive ground flashes compared to that of the negative ground flashes. Based on the difference in time intervals between the ground wave and the first sky wave, the ionospheric reflections heights were estimated to be 71 and 67 km for positive and negative ground flashes, respectively, corresponding probably to a D-layer of the ionosphere. We have also determined the amplitudes of the small oscillations relative to the return stroke peak, the period of the oscillations and their corresponding frequencies. We suggest that the small oscillations observed in the waveforms either come from the low frequency component of the return stroke current that oscillates in the lightning channel or due to the filtering of the frequencies by the propagation through the Earth-ionosphere waveguide.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning Teknik och teknologier
    Forskningsämne
    Teknisk fysik med inriktning mot atmosfäriska urladdningar
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331837 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-18 Skapad: 2017-10-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-20
  • Persson, Philip
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Fredin, Emil
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Basel III: En studie om hur banker och dess kunder påverkas avdet nya regelverket2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett försök att förhindra framtida bankkriser och göra banker stabilare mot svängningar

    i ekonomin upprättade Baselkommittén 1993 ett regelverk som kom att

    benämnas Basel-1. Bankerna skulle bli stabilare genom att stärka kapitaltäckningsreglerna.

    Dessa regler lyckades inte uppnå sitt syfte och regelverket ansågs otillräckligt.

    Nya regler utformades och Baselkommittén arbetade fram ett åtstramat regelverk,

    Basel-2. Den finansiella krisen 2008 visade dock att även Basel-2 regelverket

    var otillräckligt. Med anledning av detta så har nu Baselkommittén arbetat fram, nya,

    mer åtstramade regler med högre kapitalkrav för banker som kommer att införas med

    start 2013 och som kallas Basel-3.

    För att få en förståelse för hur Basel-3 kan komma att påverka bankerna och några av

    dess intressenter har två problemformuleringar tagits fram.

    Hur tror bankkontorschefer att banker kommer att påverkas av det nya regelverket

    Basel-3?

    Hur tror bankkontorschefer att deras kunder kommer att påverkas av det nya regelverket

    Basel-3?

    Studien har avgränsat sig till banker på Gotland och intervjuer är gjorda med kontorschefer

    på Handelsbanken, Nordea och Swedbank. Detta för att få svar på hur de

    tror att regelverket kan komma att påverka bankerna och deras kunder. Vi har använt

    oss av noggrant utvalda frågor och skapat ett frågeformulär som besvarats av respondenterna.

    I teoridelen presenteras intressentmodellen för att få en ökad förståelse för vilka intressenter

    som kan beröras av en organisations förändringar. Den intressent vi tittar

    närmare på är framförallt bankens kunder. Teori om Baselregelverken baseras i huvudsak

    på rapporter och artiklar från Sveriges Riksbank, Finansinspektionen och

    Basels respektive hemsidor.

    Undersökningen visar att regelverket Basel-3 kommer påverka bankerna och deras

    kunder på flera sätt. De högre kapitalkraven samt de nya likviditetsreglerna innebär

    att bankerna måste skaffa mer kvalitativt kapital för att kunna stå emot negativa förändringar

    i ekonomin. Detta kräver att bankerna måste förändra sina risksystem vilket

    leder till höga kostnader. Respondenterna tror att dessa kostnader framförallt

    kommer att läggas på kunderna genom högre räntor. De tror även att regelverket Basel-

    3 kommer att påverka de mindre bra kunderna genom att det blir svårare för dessa

    att få lån.

  • Disputation: 2017-12-12 09:30 Polhemssalen, Uppsala
    Lindgren, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Observationell astrofysik.
    Metallicity determination of M dwarfs2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    M dwarfs constitute around 70% of all stars in the local Galaxy. Their multitude together with their long main-sequence lifetimes make them important for studies of global properties of the Galaxy such as the initial mass function or the structure and kinematics of stellar populations. In addition, the exoplanet community is showing an increasing interest for those small, cold stars. However, very few M dwarfs are well characterized, and in the case of exoplanetary systems the stellar parameters have a direct influence on the derived planet properties.

    Stellar parameters of M dwarfs are difficult to determine because of their low surface temperatures that result in an optical spectrum dominated by molecular lines. Most previous works have therefore relied on empirical calibrations. High-resolution spectrographs operating in the infrared, a wavelength region less affected by molecular lines, have recently opened up a new window for the investigation of M dwarfs. In the two first papers of this thesis we have shown that we can determine the metallicity, and in some cases the effective temperature, using synthetic spectral fitting with improved accuracy.

    This method is time consuming and therefore not practical or even feasible for studies of large samples of M dwarfs. When comparing our results from the high-resolution studies with available photometric calibrations we find systematic differences. In the third paper we therefore used our sample to determine a new photometric metallicity calibration. Compared to previous calibrations our new photometric calibration shows improved statistical characteristics, and our calibration gives similar results as spectroscopic calibrations. In a comparison with theoretical calculations we find a good agreement of the shapes and slopes of iso-metallicity lines with our empirical relation. Applying the photometric calibration to a sample of M dwarfs with confirmed exoplanets we find a possible giant planet-metallicity correlation for M dwarfs.

    Delarbeten
    1. Metallicity determination of M dwarfs: High-resolution infrared spectroscopy
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Metallicity determination of M dwarfs: High-resolution infrared spectroscopy
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 586, A100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Several new techniques to determine the metallicity of M dwarfs with better precision have been developed over the last decades. However, most of these studies were based on empirical methods. In order to enable detailed abundance analysis, standard methods established for warmer solar-like stars, i.e. model-dependent methods using fitting of synthetic spectra, still need to be used.

    Aims. In this work we continue the reliability confirmation and development of metallicity determinations of M dwarfs using high-resolution infrared spectra. The reliability was confirmed through analysis of M dwarfs in four binary systems with FGK dwarf companions and by comparison with previous optical studies of the FGK dwarfs.

    Methods. The metallicity determination was based on spectra taken in the J band (1.1-1.4 mu m) with the CRIRES spectrograph. In this part of the infrared, the density of stellar molecular lines is limited, reducing the amount of blends with atomic lines enabling an accurate continuum placement. Lines of several atomic species were used to determine the stellar metallicity.

    Results. All binaries show excellent agreement between the derived metallicity of the M dwarf and its binary companion. Our results are also in good agreement with values found in the literature. Furthermore, we propose an alternative way to determine the effective temperature of M dwarfs of spectral types later than M2 through synthetic spectral fitting of the FeH lines in our observed spectra.

    Conclusions. We have confirmed that a reliable metallicity determination of M dwarfs can be achieved using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. We also note that metallicites obtained with photometric metallicity calibrations available for M dwarfs only partly agree with the results we obtain from high-resolution spectroscopy.

    Nyckelord
    stars: abundances, stars: low-mass, techniques: spectroscopic
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281831 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201526602 (DOI)000369715900111 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Rymdstyrelsen
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-30 Skapad: 2016-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-24
    2. Metallicity determination of M dwarfs: Expanded parameter range in metallicity and effective temperature
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Metallicity determination of M dwarfs: Expanded parameter range in metallicity and effective temperature
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 604, A97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Reliable metallicity values for late K and M dwarfs are important for studies of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and advancement of planet formation theory in low-mass environments. Historically it has been challenging to determine the stellar parameters of low-mass stars because of their low surface temperature, which causes several molecules to form in the photospheric layers. In our work we use the fact that infrared high-resolution spectrographs have opened up a new window for investigating M dwarfs. This enables us to use similar methods as for warmer solar-like stars.

    Aims. Metallicity determination with high-resolution spectra is more accurate than with low-resolution spectra, but it is rather time consuming. In this paper we expand our sample analyzed with this precise method both in metallicity and effective temperature to build a calibration sample for a future revised empirical calibration. Methods. Because of the relatively few molecular lines in the J band, continuum rectification is possible for high-resolution spectra, allowing the stellar parameters to be determined with greater accuracy than with optical spectra. We obtained high-resolution spectra with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The metallicity was determined using synthetic spectral fitting of several atomic species. For M dwarfs that are cooler than 3575 K, the line strengths of FeH lines were used to determine the effective temperatures, while for warmer stars a photometric calibration was used.

    Results. We analyzed 16 targets with a range of effective temperature from 3350-4550 K. The resulting metallicities lie between -0.5 < [M/H] < +0.4. A few targets have previously been analyzed using low-resolution spectra and we find a rather good agreement with our values. A comparison with available photometric calibrations shows varying agreement and the spread within all empirical calibrations is large.

    Conclusions. Including the targets from our previous paper, we analyzed 28 M dwarfs with high-resolution infrared spectra. The targets spread approximately one dex in metallicity and 1400 K in effective temperature. For individual M dwarfs we achieve uncer- tainties of 0.05 dex and 100 K on average. 

    Nyckelord
    stars:low-mass–stars:abundances–techniques:spectroscopic
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi
    Forskningsämne
    Astronomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332015 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201730715 (DOI)000408480100099 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Rymdstyrelsen
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-22 Skapad: 2017-10-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-24Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. A photometric calibration for M dwarfs based on high-resolution infrared spectrscopy
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A photometric calibration for M dwarfs based on high-resolution infrared spectrscopy
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. M dwarfs are, by number, the dominant stellar population in the local Galaxy. We have previously shown that the stellar parameters of individual M dwarfs can be determined with good accuracy using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. Since this method is time-consuming the use of empirical calibrations based on photometry or low-resolution spectra is preferable for studies of large samples. In earlier work we showed that available photometric calibrations for M dwarfs have offsets compared to our high- resolution metallicity results.

    Aims. We use a sample of 33 late K and M dwarfs with accurately determined metallicities to derive a new photometric calibration for M dwarfs. The aim is to achieve a calibration with lower uncertainty and better agreement with spectroscopic results.Methods. We explored the B, V, J, H, K, g, r, i magnitudes to find combinations that show a correlation between the metallicity and the position in a color-magnitude diagram. We used 5-fold cross-validation and the corrected Akaike information criterion to find a polynomial model that minimizes the information lost, exploring different polynomial degrees, with and without cross-terms. The coefficients were determined through a weighted least-squares solution against our calibration sample.

    Results. We present a new photometric metallicity calibration for M dwarfs, where the metallicity is given by a linear relation and onecross-termoftheMKSmagnitudeandtheV−(JHK) or B−(JHK) colors. The new calibration relations have root-mean-square deviation values with respect to the calibration sample of 0.11-0.12 dex, which is about 0.1 dex lower than for previous photometric calibrations, and we also achieve a substantial improvement of the value of the adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficient. We furthermore show that our calibration compares well with two spectroscopic calibrations. Comparing synthetic calculated iso- metallicity lines with our empirical calibration, we find a good agreement of the shapes and slopes.

    Conclusions. Compared to previous calibrations our new photometric calibration shows improvement in all statistical tests performed. Through our testing of several polynomials we conclude that the inclusion of a cross-term between absolute magnitude and color is important for the performance of the photometric calibration. Applying our photometric calibration to a sample of M dwarfs known to host planets points towards a possible giant planet-metallicity correlation for M dwarfs.

    Nyckelord
    Stars: low-mass - Techniques: photometric - Planets and satellites: formation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332624 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Rymdstyrelsen
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-31 Skapad: 2017-10-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-01
  • Puettner, R.
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Fachbereich Phys, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Jankala, K.
    Univ Oulu, Nano & Mol Syst Res Unit, POB 3000, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Kushawaha, R. K.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Marchenko, T.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Goldsztejn, G.
    Max Born Inst, Max Born Str 2A, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Travnikova, O.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Guillemin, R.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Journel, L.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Ismail, I.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    de Miranda, B. Cunha
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Lago, A. F.
    Univ Fed ABC UFABC, Ctr Ciencias Nat & Humanas, Ave Estados 5001, BR-09210580 Santo Andre, SP, Brazil..
    Ceolin, D.
    Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piancastelli, Maria Novella
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik. UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Simon, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Detailed assignment of normal and resonant Auger spectra of Xe near the L edges2017Ingår i: Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information, ISSN 2469-9926, E-ISSN 2469-9934, Vol. 96, nr 2, 022501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigation on the LMM, LMN, and LNN normal Auger spectra of xenon, which reveal excellent agreement with theory when core-hole lifetimes of the two-hole final states are taken into account. Generally, the spectra turned out to be highly complex due to a strong overlap of the Auger transitions subsequent to 2s(1/2)(-1), 2p(1/2)(-1), and 2p(3/2)(-1) ionization. This overlap is due to the splitting of the three initial L core holes and the different final M and N core holes being on the same order of magnitude of several hundred eV. The Auger transitions are assigned in detail based on the theoretical results. Most of the MM, MN, and NN final states are described well based on jj coupling. In addition, we present a detailed assignment of the resonant LM45M45 Auger transition subsequent to the 2s -> 6p, 7p and 2p -> 5d, 6d excitations.

  • Ljungvall, Karl
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Korvela, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Norrby, Mattias
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Div Reprod, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Persson, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Heavy metal concentrations in female wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden: Sources of variation and associations with internal organ weights2017Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, nr 8, 2030-2035 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden, and it is legally hunted all year. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the present study female mink (n = 91) from 6 different areas in Sweden were analyzed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 +/- 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 +/- 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 +/- 537 ng/g formercury, and 196 +/- 401 ng/g for lead (expressed as mean + standard deviation). There were associations between the sample area and the concentrations of silver, lead, and mercury. The concentrations of lead and cadmium varied with season of capture and lead, cadmium, and mercury were positively associated with increasing age. Relative liver weight was positively associated with concentrations of mercury and negatively associated with lead and cadmium. Relative kidney weight was negatively associated with lead concentrations. In summary, it is of importance to take age and season of capture into account when assessing levels of heavy metals in wild mink. Also, liver and kidneys seem to be potential targets for heavy metal toxicity in wild female mink in Sweden.

  • Thorander, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    "Om inte rektor är engagerad och driver så blir det inget": En intervjustudie om rektorers ledarskap i en statligt styrd skolutvecklingsinsats2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Disputation: 2017-12-14 09:00 Skoogsalen, Uppsala
    Cederblad, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Aspects on Head and neck Cancer with special reference to Salivary Gland Tumours and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A thesis on Head and neck cancer focusing on dose planning, salivary gland carcinoma and Single nucleotide polymorphism.

    For dose planning PET/CT (Positron emissions tomography/computed tomography) with tracer gave more precise information in comparison dose planning with CT. More primary tumours and metastases were found with the acetate tracer than with glucose tracer. Acetate PET/CT also showed larger volume of tumours attributed to lipid metabolism.

    In a retrospective study salivary gland cancer 5-year overall survival (OS) was 53 %. Salivary gland carcinoma consists of many histopathological groups, the two largest groups being mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ASCC). For ACC, having the best 5-year OS, it was 70 percent. Facial palsy, advanced stage disease, lymph node metastases worsened prognosis. ACC and polymorphous low grade carcinoma (PLGA) expressed c-myc and cyclin D1 to a larger extent than MEC.

    In squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck we examined the occurrence of Single Nucleotide polymorphism, SNP. We found that the SNPs in male and female patients differed from each other. In male patients the SNPs were associated with immune response while in female patients the association was to SNPs concerning inflammation. This means that different pathways were engaged in cancer development for men and women. We also found that the SNPs in patients were different from those expressed in the healthy controls.

    Delarbeten
    1. Cancer of the parotid gland; long-term follow-up: A single centre experience on recurrence and survival
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cancer of the parotid gland; long-term follow-up: A single centre experience on recurrence and survival
    Visa övriga...
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 48, nr 4, 549-555 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The aim of the study was to investigate the results of treatment of malignant parotid gland tumours at a single centre during a 56 year period, focusing on tumour control and survival.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS:

    At Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, 144 patients (73 male and 71 female) with parotid cancer were treated between 1948 and 2004. The mean and median ages were 62 and 65 years, respectively (range 16-89 years). Surgery was the primary treatment in 113 (78%) patients followed by radiotherapy in 81. Postoperative radiotherapy in doses of 64-66 Gy, where the intention was curative and delivered with either split course or not, was administered to a majority of patients after 1970. The split-course mode was practised between 1970 and 1989. The median follow-up time was 8.3 years for patients still alive. There were 57 (40%) relapses, of which 40 were local recurrences with 26 inside the treatment volume.

    RESULTS:

    The overall 5-year survival was 53%. The majority of tumour-related deaths appeared in the first 3-5 years after diagnosis. Age, co-morbidity, the presence of lymph node metastases, adenoid cystic carcinoma and extent of disease were important for outcome; gender, however, was not. We found no difference in the survival between patients following split course therapy versus continuous fractionation. No difference could be seen in the survival of patients treated in the 1970s versus the 1990s.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Age, nodal engagement, a higher T-stage, adenoid cystic carcinoma histopathology, facial palsy and intercurrent disease worsen the outcome of patients, whereas gender does not. Treatment principles at our hospital have been surgery followed by radiotherapy since the early 1970s even though a split course technique was practised during a part of this period. Survival has not improved markedly. Thus, there is scope for improvement for this group of patients.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-105426 (URN)10.1080/02841860802680419 (DOI)000265272900009 ()19140053 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-06-03 Skapad: 2009-06-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-25Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. The Combined Effects of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Tobacco Products, and Ethanol on Normal Resting Blood Mononuclear Cells
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Combined Effects of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Tobacco Products, and Ethanol on Normal Resting Blood Mononuclear Cells
    Visa övriga...
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, nr 5, 890-895 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Tobacco and ethanol consumption are crucial factors in the development of various diseases including cancer. In this investigation, we evaluated the combined effects of a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with ethanol and tobacco products on healthy individuals. Methods: Pure nicotine, cigarette smoke extract, and Swedish snuff (snus) extract were used. The effects were examined by means of in vitro cell cycle progression and cell death of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors. Results: After 3 days, in vitro, resting PBMCs entered the S and G2 stage in the presence of 100 mu M nicotine. The PBMCs only proceeded to S stage, in the presence of 0.2% ethanol. The nicotine- and ethanol-induced normal cell cycle progression correlated to a number of SNPs in the IL12RB2, Rad 52, XRCC2, P53, CCND3, and ABCA1 genes. Certain SNPs in Caspases 8, IL12RB2, Rad 52, MMP2, and MDM2 genes appeared to significantly influence the effects of EtOH-, snus-, and snus + EtOH-induced cell death. Importantly, the highest degree of cell death was observed in the presence of smoke + EtOH. The amount of cell death under this treatment condition also correlated to specific SNPs, located in the MDM2, ABCA1, or GASC1 genes. Conclusions: Cigarette smoke in combination with ethanol strongly induced massive cell death. Long-term exposure to smoke and ethanol could provoke chronic inflammation, and this could be the initiation of disease including the development of cancer at various sites.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-200343 (URN)10.1093/ntr/nts207 (DOI)000317796500004 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-28 Skapad: 2013-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-25Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Expression of Cyclin D1 and c-myc in adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and polymorphous low grade carcinoma
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Expression of Cyclin D1 and c-myc in adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and polymorphous low grade carcinoma
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332191 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-25 Skapad: 2017-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-25
    4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Cancer Risk, Tumour Recurrence or Survival of Head & Neck Cancer Patients
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Cancer Risk, Tumour Recurrence or Survival of Head & Neck Cancer Patients
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: OncologyArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at studying the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on cancer risk, tumor recurrence, and survival in head and neck (H&amp;N) cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 45 SNPs in 41 genes were investigated. A total of 174 Caucasian H&amp;N cancer patients and 245 healthy blood donors were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: Ten SNPs were associated with H&amp;N cancer risk, but the identified SNPs differed among males and females. Some of the SNPs were related to immune response genes. The immune response gene SNPs were also related to survival. In particular, we noted that the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) rs1800629 could have an influence on cancer risk, tumor recurrence as well as survival. CONCLUSION: Genetic variation of the TNFalpha rs1800629 might be useful as a biomarker in clinical decision-making since it was found to be related to cancer risk, tumor recurrence, and survival of H&amp;N cancer patients.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    karger, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Tumor recurrenceSurvival timeSingle-nucleotide polymorphismsHead and neck cancer
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Onkologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331352 (URN)10.1159/000452278 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-13 Skapad: 2017-10-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-25
    5. 1-[C-11]-acetate PET imaging in head and neck cancer - a comparison with F-18-FDG-PET: implications for staging and radiotherapy planning
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>1-[C-11]-acetate PET imaging in head and neck cancer - a comparison with F-18-FDG-PET: implications for staging and radiotherapy planning
    Visa övriga...
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 34, nr 5, 651-657 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 1-[11C]-acetate positron emission tomography (ACE-PET) to detect and delineate the gross tumour volume of head and neck cancer before radiotherapy, and to compare the results with those obtained using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET. Methods  Ten patients with histologically verified squamous cell carcinoma were investigated by FDG-PET and dynamic ACE-PET prior to radiotherapy. The two scans were performed on the same day or on consecutive days, except in one patient in whom they were done 5 days apart. Diagnostic CT or MRI was performed in all patients. The image data sets were analysed both visually and semi-quantitatively. All primary tumours and metastases were delineated automatically by using the 50% threshold of maximum radioactivity corrected for background. The mean standardised uptake value (SUV) and the tumour volumes were evaluated and compared. Results  All ten primary tumours were detected by ACE-PET, while nine primaries were detected by FDG-PET and CT and/or MRI. The ACE SUV tended to be lower than the FDG SUV (5.3±2.7 vs 9.6±7.0, p=0.07). The tumour volumes delineated with ACE were on average 51% larger than the FDG volumes (p<0.05). ACE-PET identified 20/21 lymph node metastases, while only 13/21 lesions were detected by FDG-PET and 16/21 lesions by CT or MRI. Conclusion  ACE-PET appears promising for the staging of head and neck cancer. The biological information provided by both FDG and ACE must be carefully validated before it can be used in clinical routine for radiation treatment planning. More studies are needed to evaluate the differences in volumes and to confirm the clinical potential of both FDG and ACE-PET, especially in radiotherapy.

     

    Nyckelord
    11C-acetate, 18F-FDG, PET, Head and neck cancer, SUV
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14998 (URN)10.1007/s00259-006-0298-9 (DOI)000246095900005 ()17146654 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-02-01 Skapad: 2008-02-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-25Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Westerberg, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för systemteknik.
    A deep learning approach for action classification in American football video sequences2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The artificial intelligence is a constant topic of conversation with a field of research that is pushed forward by some of the world's largest companies and universities. Deep learning is a branch of machine learning within artificial intelligence based on learning representation of data such as images and texts by processing the data through deep neural networks. Sports are competitive businesses that over the years have become more data driven. Statistics play a big role in the development of the practitioners and the tactics in order to win. Sport organizations have big statistic teams since statistics are manually obtained by these teams. To learn a machine to recognize patterns and actions with deep learning would save a lot of time. In this thesis a deep learning approach is used to examine how well it can perform to classify the actions pass and run in American footbal lgames. A deep learning architecture is first trained and developed on a public video dataset and then trained to classify run and pass plays on a new American football dataset called the All-22 dataset. Results and earlier research show that deep learning has potential to automatize sport statistic but is not yet ready to overtake the role statistic teams have. Further research, bigger and more task specific datasets and more complex architectures are required to enhance the performance of this specific type of deep learning based video recognition.

  • Voilley, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Rogne, Ida
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Socialt kapitals påverkan på internationalisering: En fallstudie av små och medelstora företags internationalisering2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid uppstart kan små och medelstora företag ha begränsade resurser, vilket i sin tur kan påverka företagens möjlighet att internationalisera. Resurser och kunskap är två förutsättningar för att kunna internationalisera, och erhålls bland annat genom socialt kapital. Om det sociala kapitalet spelar en viktig roll vid en internationalisering, är frågan hur det påverkar små och medelstora företag. Intervjuer genomfördes med VD:ar, grundare samt en exportchef på fem olika företag för att undersöka hur företagen har internationaliserat, samt vilken roll det sociala kapitalet har spelat. Resultatet visar att inte alla företag behöver ha en initial vilja eller socialt kapital för att genomföra en internationalisering. En god relation med samarbetspartners är dock nödvändig för att fortsätta expandera och öka omfattningen av den internationella verksamheten. Resultatet visar också att det kan finnas olika faser vid en internationalisering, och att dessa kan vara bra att känna till för företag för att underlätta en fortsatt internationalisering och skapa en stabilare verksamhet på de utländska marknaderna. 

  • Flink, Mathias Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Beling, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Food for thought: A study on the digitalization of restaurant interactions2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is grounded in the evolving perspective of Service Marketing, Service-Dominant-Logic and ServiceLogic and aims to provide a holistic view of how the digitalization of interactions affects the service provided by the restaurant and in turn the customers’ value creation processes. More exactly, the study examines a digital system for information exchange, order placements and payments in a restaurant on the Swedish market. The study adopts a qualitative approach and data has been collected through the use of unstructured observations and semi-structured interviews. The findings are that the system for digital interactions has both positive and negative effects on valuecreation. It also changes other aspects of the service not directly linked to the system. If this ultimately creates more or less value for the customers is believed to depend on the customers’ individual differences, but if the system is used as a complement to the already existing service rather than as a substitute of the human interaction there are opportunities for a successful implementation. 

  • Lund, Allan A.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Lidt om arkæologi og racisme1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 28, 357-360 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Edberg, Rune
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Tesch, Sten
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Nyfunna skeppsbilder från 1100-talet i Sigtuna1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 28, 305-312 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Juma, Abdurahman
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Muslim Burial Customs on the East African coast.1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 28, 249-356 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi.
    Vetenskap och religion i negativ dialog1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 28, 313-348 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    A Note on Late Iron Age Kingship Mythology1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, 283-304 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Brink, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Political and Social Structures in Early Scandinavia: A Settlement-historical Pre-study of the Central Place1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 28, 235-282 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Hedeager, Lotte
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Myter og materiel kultur: Den nordiske oprindelsesmyte i det tidlige kristne Europa1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 28, 217-234 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Verses for Lupus, Duke of Champagne. Four Poems by Venantius Fortunatus1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, 209-2016 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Flemberg, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Four Poems by Venantius Fortunatus concerning Duke Lupus. Translated into Swedish and English1996Ingår i: Tor: meddelanden från Uppsala universitets museum för nordiska fornsaker, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 28, 189-208 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Disputation: 2017-12-15 18:25
    Amvrosiadi, Nino
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    The value of experimental data and modelling for exploration of hydrological functioning: The case of a till hillslope2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Successfully modeling one system response (e.g. hydrograph or solute transport) sometimes gives the false sense of well-characterizing the modeled system. This is partly because of the well-known equifinality issue; during the calibration process multiple parameter combinations can produce similarly good results. One step forward towards a better-defined system is using measured (at relevant scale) values for the model parameters, as well as using multiple conditions to constrain the model.

    But when not enough, or relevant, field measurements are available, virtual experiments (VE’s) can be used as a supplementary method to model calibration. The advantage of VE’s over model calibration is that they can also be used to explore assumptions both on the system hydrological processes, and on the model structure.

    One goal of this study was to utilize both field measurements and models for better characterization of the S-transect hillslope, located in Västrabäcken catchment, Northern Sweden. This included (a) characteristics in space: system vertical boundaries, hydraulic parameters, pore water velocity distribution, spatial correlation of flowpaths, soil water retention properties; (b) characteristic of system’s dynamic behavior: storage – discharge relationship, transit time distribution, turnover time; and (c) outputs’ sensitivity to external forcing, and to small scale structure assumptions. The second goal was to comment on the value of field measurements and virtual experiments for extracting information about the studied system.

    An intensely monitored study hillslope was chosen for this work. Although the hillslope has already been the subject of multiple field and modelling studies, there are still open questions regarding the characteristics listed above. The models used were the Vertical Equilibrium Model (VEM), and the Multiple Interacting Pathways (MIPs) model.

    It was found that the hillslope was well connected; from the near-stream areas up to the water divide the storage – discharge relationship could be described as an exponential function. Also, the dynamic storage (which controls the hydrograph dynamics) was much smaller comparing to the total hillslope storage. The unsaturated soil storage was found to be more sensitive to water table positions than vertical flux magnitude. The dynamic condition of external forcing (precipitation and evapotranspiration) affected the transit time distribution (TTD) shape. And, opposite to expectations, TTD was not sensitive to micro-scale structural assumptions tested here.

    Delarbeten
    1. Water storage dynamics in a till hillslope: the foundation for modeling flows and turnover times
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Water storage dynamics in a till hillslope: the foundation for modeling flows and turnover times
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 31, nr 1, 4-14 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    flow pathways, storage, storage dynamics, turnover time
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331679 (URN)10.1002/hyp.11046 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-16 Skapad: 2017-10-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-14
    2. Soil moisture storage estimation based on steady vertical fluxes under equilibrium
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Soil moisture storage estimation based on steady vertical fluxes under equilibrium
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 553, 798-804 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    Volumetric soil water content, Vertical flux, VEM, Catchment water storage
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331688 (URN)10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.08.042 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-16 Skapad: 2017-10-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-14
    3. Value of virtual experiments for a hillslope scale system understanding
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Value of virtual experiments for a hillslope scale system understanding
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331730 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-17 Skapad: 2017-10-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-14
    4. Water age dependence on vertical flux assumptions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Water age dependence on vertical flux assumptions
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331731 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-17 Skapad: 2017-10-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-14
    5. Following tracer through the unsaturated zone using a Multiple Interacting Pathways model: implications from laboratory experiments
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Following tracer through the unsaturated zone using a Multiple Interacting Pathways model: implications from laboratory experiments
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331732 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-17 Skapad: 2017-10-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-14
  • Kättström, Maria
    Grounding of distrubution grids: High impedancegrounding compared to solid grounding with Fault Current Limiter2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Today cables replace overhead lines in distribution systems and

    cause higher system capacitance and higher capacative fault

    currents. This fault current, in the fault location, is limited by a

    Petersén coil and a resistance in parallel when a fault occurs in so

    called “high impedance grounded systems” which are commonly used in

    Europe. The high impedance however has the disadvantage that it

    needs to be adjusted to the capacitance in the system in order to

    optimize the limitation of the fault current.

    Another option is to use a solidly grounded system with a so called

    “Fault Current Limiter” (FCL) instead, on the outgoing terminals of

    the transformer feeding the system. The FCL interrupts the outgoing

    current on the load side of the transformer that feeds the system,

    in case of a fault, by forcing the current to a zero with a counter

    voltage. The FCL in this master thesis triggers on 1.5 times higher

    current than nominal current. After fault clearing the FCL is

    reclosed. The FCL has the advantage that it does not have to be

    adapted to the capacitance in the system. It should be noted that

    the current in all of the phases (even the healthy phases) are

    interrupted downstream the FCL. It also has the ability to interrupt

    the single line-to-ground fault before it develops into a three

    phase fault.

    This thesis presents a comparison between the high impedance

    grounding and the FCL. The characteristics of the two grounding

    principles are investigated in a distribution system from

    Vattenfall. The assessment is done via simulations in the program

    PSCAD with three types of grounding of the transformer; high

    impedance grounding, solid grounding (without FCL) and solid

    grounding with FCL. The system is simulated with the faults “single

    line-to-ground” and “three phase short circuit” respectively, even

    if a line-to-line can occur. The results from the simulations show

    that the FCL gives a short fault duration time and a possibility to

    limit both single line-to-ground faults and three phase faults. The

    high impedance grounding on the other hand is able to limit single

    line-to-ground faults whereas it is generally known that not able to

    limit three phase short circuits.

  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3MarseilleFrance.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Isaksson, Charlie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Pelikan, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 12017Ingår i: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 77, nr 7, 490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Event-shape observables measured using charged particles in inclusive Z-boson events are presented, using the electron and muon decay modes of the Z bosons. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy root s = 7 TeV. Charged-particle distributions, excluding the lepton-antilepton pair from the Z-boson decay, are measured in different ranges of transverse momentum of the Z boson. Distributions include multiplicity, scalar sum of transverse momenta, beam thrust, transverse thrust, spherocity, and F-parameter, which are in particular sensitive to properties of the underlying event at small values of the Z-boson transverse momentum. The measured observables are compared with predictions from PYTHIA 8, Sherpa, and HERWIG 7. Typically, all three Monte Carlo generators provide predictions that are in better agreement with the data at high Z-boson transverse momenta than at low Z-boson transverse momenta, and for the observables that are less sensitive to the number of charged particles in the event.

  • Loeb, Stacy
    et al.
    NYU, Dept Urol, New York, NY USA.;NYU, New York, NY USA.;Manhattan VA, New York, NY USA..
    Ventimiglia, Eugenio
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Div Expt Oncol, Unit Urol, URI, Milan, Italy.;Univ Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.;Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Urol & Androl, Umea, Sweden..
    Salonia, Andrea
    IRCCS Osped San Raffaele, Div Expt Oncol, Unit Urol, URI, Milan, Italy.;Univ Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy..
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Urologkirurgi. Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Urol & Androl, Umea, Sweden..
    Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (PDE5Is) and Risk of Melanoma2017Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 109, nr 8, djx086Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently announced the need to evaluate the association between PDE5is and melanoma. We performed a meta-analysis on the association between PDE5i and melanoma using random effects models and examined whether it met Hill's criteria for causality. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 to 2016 identified three case-control studies and two cohort studies, including a total of 866 049 men, of whom 41 874 were diagnosed with melanoma. We found a summary estimate indicating an increased risk of melanoma in PDE5i users (relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.23). However, there was no difference in risk between men with low and high exposure to PDE5i, and risk was higher for in situ melanoma than localized and high-risk melanoma, suggesting a lack of dose response and biological gradient. PDE5i use was also associated with basal cell cancer, suggesting a lack of specificity and likely confounding by ultraviolet exposure. Thus, although this meta-analysis found a statistically significant association between PDE5i and melanoma, it did not satisfy Hill's criteria for causality.

  • Disputation: 2017-12-08 10:15 Brusewitz-salen, Uppsala
    Karlén, Niklas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Sponsors of War: State Support for Rebel Groups in Civil Conflicts2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many civil wars are illustrative of wider international tensions and connections that transcend state borders. States often intervene to influence the trajectory and outcome of civil conflicts by providing external support to warring parties. This assistance ranges from direct military intervention to the provision of weapons, training, funds, safe havens, intelligence, logistics and other critical resources. This dissertation contains four individual essays that each seeks to advance our knowledge of state support to rebel movements. The first essays (I and II) add to our understanding of how external state support influences conflict dynamics while the latter (III and IV) begin to unpack the political decision-making process behind decisions that alter the original support commitment. Essay I evaluates whether state support to rebels increases the probability of civil war negotiations being initiated. The findings question a widespread belief among policymakers that support can foster negotiations. Essay II explores if external support influences the risk of conflict recurrence. It finds that state support to rebels can increase the risk of conflict recurrence in the short-term while there is no equivalent effect of support provided to governments. Essay III is the first global analysis of support termination and it thereby opens up an entirely new research field. The results suggest that the causes related to the initiation of support and its termination are largely distinct while the transition from the Cold War and the absence of ethnic kinship ties offer some insights into when states are more likely to terminate support. Essay IV unpacks the political decision-making process of the United States’ support to the armed opposition in Nicaragua in the 1980s and in Syria in the 2010s. The results indicate that adverse feedback functions as a trigger for increasing previous commitments as long as policy failure can be attributed to external actors, while reduced support is often a result of attributing failure to the state sponsor’s own actions. Taken together, the essays make significant contributions to advance our understanding of biased third-party interventions, conflict recurrence, civil war negotiations, foreign policy decision-making and state sponsorship of terrorism.

    Delarbeten
    1. Escalate to De-Escalate? External State Support and Governments’ Willingness to Negotiate
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Escalate to De-Escalate? External State Support and Governments’ Willingness to Negotiate
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Policymakers frequently claim that military assistance to rebels can force governments into negotiations. Many seem convinced that providing material assistance to rebels involved in a civil war can create a ‘ripe moment’ that is favorable for negotiations and thus offer an attractive path towards a negotiated settlement. However, this widespread belief has never been systematically assessed. This article evaluates this claim using global data on negotiations in all intrastate armed conflicts from 1975 to 2009. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the article demonstrates that external state support to rebel groups does not increase the prospect of negotiations. Neither sustained pressure, support provided by great powers, nor direct military intervention increases the probability of negotiations being initiated. Instead, the results suggest that external support is likely to reduce the likelihood of negotiations between the warring parties, especially if the state sponsor is a great power. The study contributes to our understanding of civil war processes by demonstrating that military assistance hinders rather than promotes the onset of negotiations.

    Nyckelord
    Interventions, external support, negotiations, civil war, military pressure
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
    Forskningsämne
    Freds- och konfliktforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331866 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-19 Skapad: 2017-10-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19
    2. The legacy of foreign patrons: External state support and conflict recurrence
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The legacy of foreign patrons: External state support and conflict recurrence
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 54, nr 4, 499-512 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some armed conflicts that have ended experience renewed fighting while others do not? Previous research onconflict recurrence has approached this question by looking at domestic factors such as how the war was fought, howit ended or factors associated with its aftermath. With the exception of the literature on third-party securityguarantees, the influence of outside actors has often been overlooked. This article explores the role of external statesand suggests when and how their involvement is likely to affect the probability of renewed warfare. The mainargument is that the legacy of outside support creates an external support structure that affects the previouscombatants’ willingness as well as their opportunities to remobilize. This means that armed conflicts with externalstate support will experience a greater likelihood of recurrence compared to other conflicts which did not see externalsupport. The theory is tested using Cox proportional hazards models on global data of intrastate armed conflicts1975–2009. The findings suggest that external support to rebels increases the risk of conflict recurrence in the shortterm as groups receive or anticipate renewed assistance. The results also indicate that it is more important for rebelgroups to have had enduring support over the years in the previous conflict rather than access to multiple statesponsors. External support provided to governments is not associated with conflict recurrence.

    Nyckelord
    civil war, conflict recurrence, external support, third party interventions, state sponsorship, external state support
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323527 (URN)10.1177/0022343317700465 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-07 Skapad: 2017-06-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Turning off the Taps: The Termination of State Sponsorship
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Turning off the Taps: The Termination of State Sponsorship
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Terrorism and Political Violence, ISSN 0954-6553, E-ISSN 1556-1836Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some states terminate their sponsorship of rebel movements while others are persistent in their provision of support? In the past, most research on external support to insurgents has focused on why states choose to sponsor rebel groups and particularly how this affects conflict duration. However, we know little about the termination of such support. This is surprising given that support has been shown to make armed conflicts more intractable and tremendous efforts are made in condemning and sanctioning such behavior. This study constitutes the first large-N analysis of support termination, employing survival analysis on global data of state support to rebel movements between 1975–2009. Surprisingly, the findings indicate that only some of the factors that explain support provision can offer insights into its termination. In particular, support is more likely to be terminated when no ethnic kinship bonds exist between the rebel movement and the government of the supporting state. Many decisions to withdraw support also seem to coincide with the transition from the Cold War. Threats and sanctions from other states appear largely ineffective. The study contributes to our understanding of the international dimensions of civil war and the role and motives of third parties.

    Nyckelord
    external support termination, state sponsorship, rebel patronage, third party interventions, international dimensions of civil war
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
    Forskningsämne
    Freds- och konfliktforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317046 (URN)10.1080/09546553.2017.1282861 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-09 Skapad: 2017-03-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19
    4. Changing Commitments: US Support to Rebels in Syria and Nicaragua
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Changing Commitments: US Support to Rebels in Syria and Nicaragua
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of external state support to non-state actors in civil wars is a dynamic process. The calculus of state sponsors varies over time, which means that assistance provided to the armed opposition fluctuates. This is rarely recognized in existing research, which has focused more on the initiation of support and its subsequent effects on conflict dynamics. While we know many of the motives behind decisions to provide support, we know less about why state sponsorship of rebels changes over time. To address this, I propose a theoretical argument that is able to account for policy adjustments over time. The theory builds on the notion that leaders change their support commitment when there is adverse feedback and that support increases as long as the causes of policy failure can be attributed to external actors, while cutbacks occur when failure is attributed to the state sponsor’s own actions. The latter prompts domestic audiences to act in order to force leaders to back down. Process tracing is used to explore the value of this framework in within-case analyses of the United States’ support commitments to insurgent groups in Nicaragua during the 1980s and in Syria during the 2010s. The study demonstrates the utility of focusing on shifts in leaders’ perceptions rather than structural features of the international system or rebel behavior to understand temporal variation in external support.

    Nyckelord
    external support, state sponsorship, civil war, US foreign policy, Syria, Nicaragua
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
    Forskningsämne
    Freds- och konfliktforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331867 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-19 Skapad: 2017-10-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19
  • Rensing, Merlin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Enzymatic cleavage of HMGB12017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Alarmins and damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) are endogenous proteins with distinct and various intracellular roles that when released extracellularly act as startingsignals for inflammatory immune responses. The endogenous protein High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) acts as a DAMP and has been shown to drive progression of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. During homeostasis HMGB1 is localized in the nucleus of almost any cell, where its main function is organization of the DNA and regulation of transcription. Upon cell death or immune cell activation HMGB1 can be translocated into the cytoplasm for subsequent release into the extracellular space. Extracellular HMGB1 can act as a DAMP by activating several receptors of the immune system. Recent studies focus on HMGB1 release and functional regulation due to prost-translational modifications (PTMs) on cysteine residues. However, little is known about enzymatic regulation of HMGB1. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of proteolytic processing of HMGB1 by enzymes, which play a crucial role in inflammatory diseases and their progression. We utilized an in vitro model that mimics natural conditions of the autoimmune disease arthritis. Enzymatic digestion of HMGB1 was performed in kinetics studies using the neutrophilic enzymes cathepsin G, neutrophil Elastase as well as matrix metalloproteinase-3, which is released from tissues at the site of inflammation. We defined that HMGB1 is a novel substrate of all of the tested enzymes. All enzymes induced different cleavage pattern. In conclusion, my findings open up the possibility for future studies involving the observed fragments of HMGB1 and their functional features. It also demonstrated that HMGB1 is affected by protease modifications in a disease relevant environment.

  • Stångberg, Josefine
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history traits2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many dioecious organisms exhibit some level of sexual dimorphism; the sexes can differ in phenotype, and can have different fitness optima for certain traits and have different reproductive strategies. Sex-specific selection, thus, can be highly diverging in both magnitude and direction. When selection for a trait differs in direction we have antagonistic selection; this often leads to sexual conflicts since the two sexes share most of their genetic architecture. Sexual dimorphism is often seen as a resolution to sexual conflict, a way to decouple the genetic basis of traits under conflict and allow sex-specific expression. One way to better understand the evolution of sexual dimorphism is using a life history theory framework; where traits linked to growth, reproduction and survival are studied and quantified. These quantitative traits, their genetic architecture and how they covary within and between the two sexes, can be further studied using a quantitative genetics approach – G and B matrices. These are essentially genetic variance-covariance matrices of all traits measured, pairwise comparisons that give a picture of how these traits coevolve within an individual (G), but also how different traits covary between the sexes (B). These tools allow us to understand the underlying genetic architecture of life history traits, and also how these traits change under different and sex-specific selection pressures. This, in turn, will aid our understanding of how sexual dimorphism evolves. I end this review by focusing on a particular model species for studying these questions; the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. 

  • Disputation: 2017-12-14 13:00 Konferensrummet Arbets- och miljömedicin, Uppsala
    Palm, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Methods to assess physical load at work: With a focus on the neck and upper extremities2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), useful, reliable and valid methods for assessing physical workload and risks for MSDs are needed. Ergonomists often assess work by short visual observations without a specific tool. A branch-specific tool was developed for assessing working technique during cash register work (BAsiK observation protocol).

    Inclinometers are an alternative for assessing upper arm postures - over several days. Ergonomists need guidelines explaining how to analyze and interpret such data.

    The aim was to examine and investigate methods for assessing physical load at work, with focus on the neck and upper extremities.

    In Paper:

    I, the reliability and criterion validity of the BAsIK observation protocol were assessed.

    II, the reliability of risk assessments of repetitive work, based on visual observations performed by 21 ergonomists without a specific tool, was assessed.

    III, whole-day inclinometer measurements of upper arm elevation were compared between work and leisure, across 13 different occupations – before and after arm elevations during sitting time was excluded.

    IV, the association between inclinometer-based upper arm elevation and neck/shoulder pain was assessed among 654 blue-collar workers.

     

    The intra-observer reliability of the BAsIK protocol was deemed acceptable, but only 3 of 10 questions in the protocol showed acceptable inter-observer reliability, and 3 showed acceptable criterion validity.

    Neither the inter- or intra-observer reliability of risk assessment without any specific method was acceptable for any upper body regions.

    None of the occupation groups, in paper III, had higher proportion of time with arm elevation during work than leisure. However, when arm elevation during sitting was excluded, 8 occupation groups had higher proportion of time with elevated arms during work than leisure.

    Whole-workday inclinometer-based upper arm elevation was not associated with neck/shoulder pain within the assessed population.

       The results indicate that, in most cases, a single visual observation of a work sequence is not a reliable means of assessing repetitive work. A large proportion of arm elevation may derive from sitting time. At low exposure levels, arm elevation per se may not be a risk factor for neck/shoulder pain.

    This must be taken into account when evaluating the risk for MSDs.

    Delarbeten
    1. Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, nr 6, 829-839 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa >0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect, 'Quality of movements'. Thus, major elements of the cashiers' working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners. Practitioner Summary: We examined an observation protocol for assessing working technique in cash register work. It was feasible in use, but inter-observer reliability and criterion validity were generally not acceptable when working technique aspects were assessed from short periods of work. We recommend the protocol to be used for educational purposes only.

    Nyckelord
    Repetitivt arbete, muskeloskeletala besvär
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Övrig annan medicin och hälsovetenskap Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-276838 (URN)10.1080/00140139.2015.1098734 (DOI)000380150600010 ()26538287 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Handelns utvecklingsråd, 2008:2
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-16 Skapad: 2016-02-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19
    2. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of risk assessment of repetitive work without an explicit method
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Inter- and intra-observer reliability of risk assessment of repetitive work without an explicit method
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 62, 1-8 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A common way to conduct practical risk assessments is to observe a job and report the observed long term risks for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of ergonomists' risk assessments without the support of an explicit risk assessment method. Twenty-one experienced ergonomists assessed the risk level (low, moderate, high risk) of eight upper body regions, as well as the global risk of 10 video recorded work tasks. Intra-observer reliability was assessed by having nine of the ergonomists repeat the procedure at least three weeks after the first assessment. The ergonomists made their risk assessment based on his/her experience and knowledge. The statistical parameters of reliability included agreement in %, kappa, linearly weighted kappa, intraclass correlation and Kendall's coefficient of concordance. The average inter-observer agreement of the global risk was 53% and the corresponding weighted kappa (K-w) was 0.32, indicating fair reliability. The intra-observer agreement was 61% and 0.41 (K-w). This study indicates that risk assessments of the upper body, without the use of an explicit observational method, have non-acceptable reliability. It is therefore recommended to use systematic risk assessment methods to a higher degree.

    Nyckelord
    Inter-observer reliability, Intra-observer reliability, Risk assessment, Observational methods
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-276859 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2017.02.004 (DOI)000401206600001 ()28411720 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Forte, Forskningsrådet för hälsa, arbetsliv och välfärd, 1212-1202
    Anmärkning

    Title in thesis list of papers: Inter- and intra-observer reliability of risk assessment of repetitive work without any specific method

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-16 Skapad: 2016-02-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Exposure to upper arm elevation during work compared to leisure among 13 different occupations measured with tri-axial accelerometers
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Exposure to upper arm elevation during work compared to leisure among 13 different occupations measured with tri-axial accelerometers
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    (Engelska)Ingår i: Annals of work exposures and health, ISSN 2398-7308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oxford University Press
    Nyckelord
    ergonomics, leisure, occupation, arm elevation, inclinometer, measurement strategy, neck and shoulder load, risk assessment
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin
    Forskningsämne
    Arbets- och miljömedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329790 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-21 Skapad: 2017-09-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19
    4. Whole workday measurements of arm elevation and associations with neck shoulder pain among blue-collar workers in the DPHACTO cohort
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Whole workday measurements of arm elevation and associations with neck shoulder pain among blue-collar workers in the DPHACTO cohort
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    (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BioMed Central
    Nyckelord
    Neck and shoulder pain, arm elevation, inclinometer, occupational, work load, musculoskeletal disorders, cleaners, manufacturing workers, transportation workers
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin
    Forskningsämne
    Arbets- och miljömedicin
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329797 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    AFA Försäkring, 150035
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-21 Skapad: 2017-09-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-19
  • Disputation: 2017-12-08 10:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Klonowska, Iwona
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Deep subduction of the Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to improve our understanding of the processes involved in continental collision zones, with a particular focus on subduction-exhumation. The main objective of this work has been to define the tectonometamorphic evolution of the deeply subducted Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in the Scandinavian Caledonides. I utilize mineralogy, petrology and geochronology to constrain the P-T-t paths of the SNC rocks in Sweden.

    The research has focused on the high grade rocks of the SNC and resulted in the discovery of metamorphic diamonds within the gneisses in west-central Jämtland and southern Västerbotten. Microdiamonds provided evidence for the ultra-high pressure metamorphism (UHPM) and subduction of continental rocks to mantle depths. The UHPM in these rocks was confirmed by calculations of the P-T conditions. The UHPM is further recorded by eclogites and garnet pyroxenites from northern Jämtland and eclogites from Norrbotten. All these findings provide compelling evidence for regional UHPM of vast parts of the SNC (at least 400 km along the strike of this allochthonous unit). The SNC rocks followed nearly isothermal decompression paths and paragneisses have locally experienced partial melting during exhumation. Formation of the peculiar Ba- and Ti-enriched dark mica in the Tväråklumparna metasediments is related to the latter stage.

    In-situ monazite dating of the diamond-bearing gneisses from west-central Jämtland supports previous geochronological data inferring that the peak of metamorphism is probably Middle Ordovician and was followed by Early Silurian partial melting. The exact timing of the UHPM here still remains to be resolved. The Lu-Hf garnet and U-Pb zircon dating of eclogite and gneiss from northern Jämtland confirms the Middle Ordovician age of the UHP-HP metamorphism of the SNC rocks. The chemical dating of monazite from the Marsfjället gneiss suggests an earlier UHP history of the Seve rocks in southern Västerbotten as a post-UHP uplift is dated to ca. 470 Ma.

    Based on the P-T-t data obtained in this thesis, particularly on the evidence for Middle Ordovician UHPM and subsequent Silurian exhumation, a new tectonic model for the Scandinavian Caledonides has been proposed. The outcomes of this thesis therefore improve our understanding of the tectonometamorphic history of the Caledonides.

    Delarbeten
    1. Microdiamond discovered in the Seve Nappe (Scandinavian Caledonides) and its exhumation by the "vacuum-cleaner" mechanism
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Microdiamond discovered in the Seve Nappe (Scandinavian Caledonides) and its exhumation by the "vacuum-cleaner" mechanism
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    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 42, nr 12, 1107-1110 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When a continent collides with an island arc or other continent, continental crust of the subducted continent may be buried to depths exceeding 100 km, and exposed to pressures that can cause formation of coesite and diamond. This process leads to substantial density increase in SiO2-rich rocks and, in turn, to a reduction of the buoyancy of the subducted material, which should inhibit exhumation. Nevertheless, coesite- and diamond-bearing continental crustal rocks are known from several occurrences worldwide. We report on the discovery of microdiamond in kyanite-garnet gneiss from allochthonous metasediments of the Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Our discovery calls for general reconsideration of existing exhumation models of deeply subducted continental crust. We propose that the diamond-bearing rocks were subducted in an arc-continent collision setting, and their exhumation was facilitated by local pressure reduction resulting from extraction of the forearc lithospheric block.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geologi Multidisciplinär geovetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Geovetenskap med inriktning mot mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240073 (URN)10.1130/G36108.1 (DOI)000345440600021 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-01-05 Skapad: 2015-01-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Eclogite and garnet pyroxenite from Stor Jougdan, Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden: implications for UHP metamorphism of allochthons in the Scandinavian Caledonides
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Eclogite and garnet pyroxenite from Stor Jougdan, Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden: implications for UHP metamorphism of allochthons in the Scandinavian Caledonides
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    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Methamorphic Geology, Vol. 34, nr 2, 103-119 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) has recently been discovered in far-travelled allochthons of the Scandinavian Caledonides, including finding of diamond in the Seve Nappe Complex. This UHPM of Late Ordovician age is older and less recognized than that in the Western Gneiss Region of southwestern Norway, which was related to terminal collision between Baltica and Laurentia. Here we report new evidence of UHPM in the Lower Seve Nappe, recorded by eclogite and garnet pyroxenite from the area of Stor Jougdan in northern Jämtland, central Sweden. Peak-metamorphic assemblage of eclogite, garnet + omphacite + phengite + rutile + coesite? yields P–Tconditions of 2.8–4.0 GPa and 750–900 °C, constrained by conventional geothermobarometry and thermodynamic modelling in the NCKFMTASH system. The prograde metamorphic evolution of the eclogite is inferred from inclusions of zoisite and amphibole in garnet, which are stable at lower pressure, whereas the retrograde evolution is recorded by formation of diopsidic clinopyroxene + plagioclase symplectites after omphacite, growth of amphibole replacing these symplectites, and of titanite around rutile. In garnet pyroxenite the peak-metamorphic assemblage consists of garnet + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + olivine. P–T conditions of 2.3–3.8 GPa and 810–960 °C have been derived based on the conventional geothermobarometry and thermodynamic modelling in the CFMASH and CFMAS systems. Retrograde evolution has been recognized from replacement of pyroxene and garnet by amphibole. The results show that eclogite was metamorphosed during deep subduction of continental crust, most probably derived from the continental margin of Baltica, whereas the origin and tectonic setting of the garnet pyroxenite is ambiguous. The studied pyroxenite/peridotite of Baltican subcontinental affinity could have been metamorphosed as a part of the subducting plate and exhumed due to the downward extraction of a forearc lithospheric block.

    Nyckelord
    eclogite–garnet pyroxenite;subduction–exhumation;Swedish Caledonides;ultrahigh-pressure allochthons
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geologi Annan geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Geovetenskap med inriktning mot mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271063 (URN)10.1111/jmg.12173 (DOI)000369864800001 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Crafoordska stiftelsenKungliga Vetenskapsakademien, 007Vetenskapsrådet, 2012-4441
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-05 Skapad: 2016-01-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Microdiamond on Åreskutan confirms regional UHP metamorphism in the Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Microdiamond on Åreskutan confirms regional UHP metamorphism in the Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides
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    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, ISSN 0263-4929, E-ISSN 1525-1314, Vol. 35, 541-564 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Metamorphic diamond in crustal rocks provides important information on the deep subduction of continental crust. Here, we present a new occurrence of diamond within the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the Scandinavian Caledonides, on angstrom reskutan in Jamtland County, Sweden. Microdiamond is found insitu as single and composite (diamond+carbonate) inclusions within garnet, in kyanite-bearing paragneisses. The rocks preserve the primary peak pressure assemblage of Ca,Mg-rich garnet+phengite+kyanite+rutile, with polycrystalline quartz surrounded by radial cracks indicating breakdown of coesite. Calculated P-T conditions for this stage are 830-840 degrees C and 4.1-4.2GPa, in the diamond stability field. The ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) assemblage has been variably overprinted under granulite facies conditions of 850-860 degrees C and 1.0-1.1GPa, leading to formation of Ca,Mg-poor garnet+biotite+plagioclase+K-feldspar+sillimanite+ilmenite+quartz. This overprint was the result of nearly isothermal decompression, which is corroborated by Ti-in-quartz thermometry. Chemical Th-U-Pb dating of monazite yields ages between 445 and 435Ma, which are interpreted to record post-UHP exhumation of the diamond-bearing rocks. The new discovery of microdiamond on angstrom reskutan, together with other evidence of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) within gneisses, eclogites and peridotites elsewhere in the SNC, provide compelling arguments for regional (at least 200km along strike of the unit) UHPM of substantial parts of this far-travelled allochthon. The occurrence of UHPM in both rheologically weak (gneisses) and strong lithologies (eclogites, peridotites) speaks against the presence of large tectonic overpressure during metamorphism.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332532 (URN)10.1111/jmg.12244 (DOI)000402647600004 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, GS2015-0006
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-30 Skapad: 2017-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-07Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Middle Ordovician subduction of continental crust in the Scandinavian Caledonides - an example from Tjeliken, Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Middle Ordovician subduction of continental crust in the Scandinavian Caledonides - an example from Tjeliken, Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden
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    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332528 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-30 Skapad: 2017-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-30
    5. UHP metamorphism recorded by phengite eclogite from the Caledonides of northern Sweden: P-T path and tectonic implications
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>UHP metamorphism recorded by phengite eclogite from the Caledonides of northern Sweden: P-T path and tectonic implications
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    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332529 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-30 Skapad: 2017-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-30
    6. Ba- and Ti-enriched dark mica from the UHP metasediments of the Seve Nappe Complex, Swedish Caledonides.
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ba- and Ti-enriched dark mica from the UHP metasediments of the Seve Nappe Complex, Swedish Caledonides.
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Mineralogia, ISSN 1899-8291, E-ISSN 1899-8526, Vol. 46, 41-50 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332530 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-30 Skapad: 2017-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-30
    7. Lower Ordovician UHP metamorphism of the Baltoscandian margin recorded by the Seve Nappe Complex in southern Västerbotten, Scandinavian Caledonides
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lower Ordovician UHP metamorphism of the Baltoscandian margin recorded by the Seve Nappe Complex in southern Västerbotten, Scandinavian Caledonides
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    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332531 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-30 Skapad: 2017-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-30
  • Moldeus, Karolina
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp & Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Visby Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Visby, Sweden..
    Cheng, Yvonne W.
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Surg, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Calif Pacific Med Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, San Francisco, CA USA..
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk forskning. Karolinska Univ Hosp & Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stephansson, Olof
    Karolinska Univ Hosp & Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Induction of labor versus expectant management of large-for-gestational-age infants in nulliparous women2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, e0180748Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is no apparent consensus on obstetric management, i.e., induction of labor or expectant management of women with suspected large-for-gestational-age (LGA)-fetuses. Methods and findings To further examine the subject, a nationwide population-based cohort study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in nulliparous non-diabetic women with singleton, vertex LGA (> 90 th centile) births, 1992-2013, was performed. Delivery of a live-born LGA infant induced at 38 completed weeks of gestation in non-preeclamptic pregnancies, was compared to those of expectant management, with delivery at 39, 40, 41, or 42 completed weeks of gestation and beyond, either by labor induction or via spontaneous labor. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included obstetric anal sphincter injury, 5-minute Apgar< 7 and birth injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to control for potential confounding. We found that among the 722 women induced at week 38, there was a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery (aOR = 1.44 95% CI: 1.20-1.72), compared to those with expectant management (n = 44 081). There was no significant difference between the groups in regards to risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.85-1.30), obstetric anal sphincter injury (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.55-1.19), nor 5minute Apgar<7 (aOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.58-1.94) or birth injury (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.49- 1.38). Similar comparisons for induction of labor at 39, 40 or 41 weeks compared to expectant management with delivery at a later gestational age, showed increased rates of cesarean delivery for induced women. Conclusions In women with LGA infants, induction of labor at 38 weeks gestation is associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery compared to expectant management, with no difference in neonatal morbidity.

  • Disputation: 2017-12-08 13:15 Geijersalen (6-1023), Uppsala
    Berglund, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen, Avdelningen för litteratursociologi.
    Mordens marknad: Litteratursociologiska studier i det tidiga 2000-talets svenska kriminallitteratur2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with Swedish crime fiction and its successes on the Swedish book market in the early 2000s. The genre’s expansion, marketing and literary content is mapped and analysed in three studies that together paint a thorough picture of this literary phenomena in Swedish book trade.

    In study no 1 the development of the genre in Sweden in the last 40 years is discussed from a quantitative perspective. With the base in bibliographies of Swedish crime fiction publication trends are analysed in several ways and concerning topics such as genre growth, gender balance, publishing houses, successful authorships, bestsellers and library lending. The results include: a significant genre expansion in the 2000s; a great dominance for the genre on the bestseller charts in the 2000s; and a shift in the author group, from male dominance to even gender balance.

    In study no 2 the marketing of the genre is examined through an analysis of book covers, titles and other elements in the concrete packaging of just over 150 Swedish crime fiction paperbacks. With book history as an important theoretical influence book covers and other peritextual elements are understood as a significant part of the marketing of the genre, but also – and wider – as of crucial importance for how genres themselves are established, withheld and re-negotiated in the interplay between different actors in the society of literature – publishers, authors, booksellers, readers.

    In study no 3 a quantitative content analysis of 116 Swedish crime novels published 1998–2015 is used to chart and discuss recurring themes and tropes within the genre. Focus is primarily directed towards what is understood as the most central parts of crime fiction: murderers and their motives; methods used in committing murder; victims of murder; and detectives and other protagonists. The results include: a distinct dominance of female protagonists; a partial realism, where depictions of everyday life in general is realistic while the murder plots are spectacular and sensational; and a dominance of normality, where main characters and innocent victims confirms normality, while killers and unsympathetic victims are depicted as deviants in stark contrast with normality.

    Delarbeten
    1. Deckarboomen under lupp: Statistiska perspektiv på svensk kriminallitteratur 1977–2010
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Deckarboomen under lupp: Statistiska perspektiv på svensk kriminallitteratur 1977–2010
    2012 (Svenska)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Alternativ titel[en]
    The Crime Boom Investigated : Statistical Perspectives on Swedish Crime Fiction, 1977–2010
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the boom in Swedish crime fiction from a statistical perspective. Theoretical input and methods are derived from the fields of sociology of literature, book history, and bibliometrics. With a quantitative approach, all Swedish crime fiction published in 1977–2010 (just over 1,700 titles) are compiled to identify patterns over time. The main source for bibliographical information and delimitations is “Deckarkatalogen” (an annual bibliography published by the Swedish crime fiction magazine Jury).

    Main results: Nearly 2.5 times as many first editions of crime fiction were issued in Sweden in the first decade of the 2000s, compared to the 1980s. The increase was particularly vast in the years following the turn of the millennium. All kinds of publishers have contributed to this expansion, but two types stand out: major publishers and self-publishers. The share of crime fiction written by women increased in the same period of time from between 10 and 20 percent to just over 30 percent. Furthermore, the gender balance among the bestsellers of crime fiction in the 2000s is nearly even. Crime fiction has been extremely dominant on the bestseller charts in Sweden during the 2000s, and the genre outnumbers all other fiction taken together. A few major publishing groups are publishing a growing share of the crime fiction bestsellers. Mostly newer authors are bestsellers in the 2000s, and the time from debut to commercial success is shrinking.

    In the conclusion it is argued that crime fiction can be seen as the normal literature – a term coined by Franco Moretti – among bestsellers of fiction in Sweden during the first decade of the 2000s. The study gives insight into the interplay between authors, publishers, and the reading public, and helps us understand how genre, from a sociological point of view, operates on the literary market.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Uppsala: Avdelningen för litteratursociologi, Uppsala universitet, 2012. 224 s. Upplaga: 1
    Serie
    Skrifter utgivna av Avdelningen för litteratursociologi vid Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen i Uppsala, ISSN 0349-1145 ; 64
    Nyckelord
    Swedish crime fiction, statistics, book market, publishing, sociology of literature, book history, bibliometrics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Litteraturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Litteraturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-184976 (URN)978-91-88300-56-0 (ISBN)
    Projekt
    Deckare som mål eller medel?
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-11-15 Skapad: 2012-11-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-15Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Mordförpackningar: Omslag, titlar och kringmaterial till svenska pocketdeckare 1998–2011
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mordförpackningar: Omslag, titlar och kringmaterial till svenska pocketdeckare 1998–2011
    2016 (Svenska)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how Swedish crime fiction has been packaged in the book trade in the early 2000s. The main material consists of 153 Swedish crime fiction paperbacks published in Sweden 1998–2011 and written by the most successful authors of crime fiction of that period. The term peritext, coined by Gérard Genette, is used to cover all aspects of books that affect the reader apart from the literary work itself. Five empirical chapters focus on five different aspects: 1) cover design; 2) titles and subtitles; 3) citations and blurbs; 4) acknowledgements; and 5) author presentations, extra material and advertising. It is shown that the packaging of crime fiction is crucial when it comes to genre formation and author branding. Among the results are how these “murder packages” have become increasingly elaborated over time, that male and female writers of crime fiction have been presented in distinctly different ways, and how the reliability and realism of a story often is emphasized in the peritext.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2016. 283 s.
    Serie
    Skrifter utgivna av Avdelningen för litteratursociologi vid Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen i Uppsala, ISSN 0349-1145 ; 70
    Nyckelord
    Swedish crime fiction, book history, sociology of literature, publishing studies, book covers, book trade, pretext, Svenska deckare, bokhistoria, litteratursociologi, förlagsstudier, bokomslag, bokmarknad, paratext
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Litteraturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Litteraturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-289285 (URN)978-91-982819-1-0 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-29 Skapad: 2016-04-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-15
    3. Död och dagishämtningar: En kvantitativ analys av det tidiga 2000-talets svenska kriminallitteratur
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Död och dagishämtningar: En kvantitativ analys av det tidiga 2000-talets svenska kriminallitteratur
    2017 (Svenska)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates contemporary Swedish crime fiction through a quantitative content analysis of 116 Swedish crime fiction novels published 1998–2015 and written by the most successful authors in the genre. The study discusses killers, murder motives, victims, murder methods, and detectives and other protagonists, with the aim of identifying social patterns and recurring themes.

    In general, these novels are dominated by female protagonists and put much emphasis on portrayals of the main characters in their struggle to combine work and family life. This simultaneous shift to a female perspective and a focus on everyday life stands out in comparisons to earlier Swedish crime fiction. The novels are furthermore permeated by a partial realism, where depictions of everyday life, settings and contemporary details are realistic and concrete, while depictions of killers, murder motives, murder methods and victims most often are imaginative, spectacular and sensational, and thus in most cases show few similarities with actual crimes in contemporary Sweden. Also, the selection is characterised by a dominance of normality, where main characters and innocent victims affirm “normality” (they are most often middle class, white, heterosexual Swedes without immigrant background), whereas killers and unsympathetic victims are depicted as deviants in stark contrast to normality.

    The content often seems to be chosen by how well it works in relation to plot lines and genre requirements. Therefore, it is argued that both contextualising and functionalistic perspectives need to be taken into account when analysing depictions of society in contemporary crime fiction. With such a dual-vision approach, the ostensible realistic social criticism in the genre to a high extent appears to be a story about the genre.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Uppsala: Avd. för litteratursociologi, Uppsala universitet, 2017. 199 s. Upplaga: 1
    Serie
    Skrifter utgivna av Avdelningen för litteratursociologi vid Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen i Uppsala, ISSN 0349-1145 ; 73
    Nyckelord
    Swedish crime fiction, quantitative content analysis, sociology of literature, popular fiction, genre functions, social criticism in literature.
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Litteraturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Litteraturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331569 (URN)978-91-982819-3-4 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-15 Skapad: 2017-10-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-15
  • Disputation: 2017-12-08 09:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Baskaran, Sathishkumar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Neuroonkologi. Department of IGP, Uppsala University.
    New Molecular Approaches to Glioblastoma Therapy2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common high-grade brain tumor diagnosed in patients who are more than 50 years of age. The standard of care treatment is surgery, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The median life expectancy of patients is only between 12 to 15 months after receiving current treatment regimes. Hence, identification of new therapeutic compounds and gene targets are highly warranted. This thesis describes four interlinked studies to attain this goal. In study 1, we explored drug combination effects in a material of 41 patient-derived GBM cell (GC) cultures. Synergies between three compounds, pterostilbene, gefitinib, and sertraline, resulted in effective killing of GC and can be predicted by biomarkers. In study 2, we performed a large-scale screening of FDA approved compounds (n=1544) in a larger panel of GCs (n=106). By combining the large-scale drug response data with GCs genomics data, we built a novel computational model to predict the sensitivity of each compound for a given GC. A notable finding was that GCs respond very differently to proteasome inhibitors in both in-vitro and in-vivo. In study 3, we explored new gene targets by RNAi (n=1112) in a panel of GC cells. We found that loss of transcription factor ZBTB16/PLZF inhibits GC cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion. These effects were due to downregulation of c-MYC and Cyclin B1 after the treatment. In study 4, we tested the genomic stability of three GCs upon multiple passaging. Using molecular and mathematical analyses, we showed that the GCs undergo both systematic adaptations and sequential clonal takeovers. Such changes tend to affect a broad spectrum of pathways. Therefore, a systematic analysis of cell culture stability will be essential to make use of primary cells for translational oncology.

    Taken together, these studies deepen our knowledge of the weak points of GBM and provide several targets and biomarkers for further investigation. The work in this thesis can potentially facilitate the development of targeted therapies and result in more accurate tools for patient diagnostics and stratification. 

    Delarbeten
    1. Case-specific potentiation of glioblastoma drugs by pterostilbene
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Case-specific potentiation of glioblastoma drugs by pterostilbene
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 7, nr 45, 73200-73215 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Cancer och onkologi Medicinsk genetik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309806 (URN)10.18632/oncotarget.12298 (DOI)000387452100060 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VetenskapsrådetCancerfondenBarncancerfonden
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-28 Skapad: 2016-12-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Targeting tumor heterogeneity: multi-omic modeling of glioblastoma drug response using an open-access library of patient-derived cells
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Targeting tumor heterogeneity: multi-omic modeling of glioblastoma drug response using an open-access library of patient-derived cells
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    GBM, Proteasome inhibitors, Precision medicine, Bortezomib, drug predictions
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Cancer och onkologi Cell- och molekylärbiologi Medicinsk bioteknologi (med inriktning mot cellbiologi (inklusive stamcellsbiologi), molekylärbiologi, mikrobiologi, biokemi eller biofarmaci)
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot molekylärbiologi; Onkologi; Bioinformatik; Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329756 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-20 Skapad: 2017-09-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-30
    3. Loss of transcription factor ZBTB16 induces cell death in patient-derived GBM cell lines
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Loss of transcription factor ZBTB16 induces cell death in patient-derived GBM cell lines
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    PLZF, ZBTB16, GBM, Glioblastoma
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Cancer och onkologi Cell- och molekylärbiologi
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot molekylär cellbiologi; Onkologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329752 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-20 Skapad: 2017-09-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-22
    4. Primary glioblastoma cells for precision medicine: a quantitative portrait of genomic (in)stability during the first 30 passages: glioblastoma cells for precision medicine
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Primary glioblastoma cells for precision medicine: a quantitative portrait of genomic (in)stability during the first 30 passages: glioblastoma cells for precision medicine
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Patient derived GBM cell cultures, Systems biology, Subclones, Glioma stem cell cultures, GBM subtype
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Cancer och onkologi
    Forskningsämne
    Onkologi; Biologi; Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329742 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-20 Skapad: 2017-09-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-22
  • Lundberg, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Analyzing tax reforms using the SwedishLabour Income Microsimulation Model2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour income taxation is a central policy topic because labour income makes up the majority of national income and most taxes are in the end taxes on labour. In order to quantify how behavioural responses of labour income earners affect tax revenue, the Swedish Labour Income Microsimulation Model (SLIMM) is constructed and used to evaluate tax reforms. The model simulates taxable income responses, participation responses and income effects. Elasticities are calibrated to match midpoints of estimates found in the quasiexperimental literature. SLIMM is solidly microfounded and uses administrative register data. The model is used to analyze changes to the earned income tax credit (EITC), municipal income taxes and the central government income tax paid by high-income earners. The simulations indicate that the EITC has increased employment by 128,000 and has a degree of self-financing of 21 percent. Almost half of the revenue increase from higher municipal tax rates would disappear due to behavioural responses. Tax cuts for the richest fifth of working Swedes are completely self-financing.

  • Sepahvand, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University,.
    Individual’s Risk Attitudes in sub-Saharan Africa:Determinants and Reliability of Self-reported Risk in Burkina Faso2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    IgG3-antigen complexes are deposited on follicular dendritic cells in the presence of C1q and C32017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IgG3, passively administered together with small proteins, induces enhanced primary humoral responses against these proteins. We previously found that, within 2 h of immunization, marginal zone (MZ) B cells capture IgG3-antigen complexes and transport them into splenic follicles and that this requires the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2. We have here investigated the localization of IgG3 anti-2, 4, 6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)/biotin-ovalbumin-TNP immune complexes in the follicles and the involvement of classical versus total complement activation in this process. The majority (50-90%) of antigen inside the follicles of mice immunized with IgG3-antigen complexes co-localized with the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network. Capture of antigen by MZ B cells as well as antigen deposition on FDC was severely impaired in mice lacking C1q or C3, and lack of either C1q or C3 also impaired the ability of IgG3 to enhance antibody responses. Finally, IgG3 efficiently primed for a memory response against small proteins as well as against the large protein keyhole limpet hemocyanine.

  • Fritzson, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Effect of Environmental Factors on Pore Water Pressure in River Bank Sediments, Sollefteå, Sweden2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under  2009-2016  mättes  porvattentrycket  i  en  siltslänt  i  Sollefteå.  Resultaten  från  2009-2012presenterades och utvärderades i en publikation av Westerberg et al. (2014) och detta examensarbete är en förlängning av det projektet.I en siltslänt är porvattentrycket vanligtvis negativt vilket bidrar till stabiliteten i slänten. I den härrapporten är variationerna av porvattentrycket analyserade med hjälp av enkel statistik och en koppling mellan variationerna och geologin samt parametrar så som temperatur, nederbörd och fukthalt i marken diskuteras.Jordarterna i slänten vid Nipuddsvägen består av sandig silt, silt, lerig silt och siltig lera. Slutsatsen var att på 2, 4 och 6 m djup ökade och minskade porvattentrycket med årstiderna, till exempel ökade porvattentrycket signifikant vid tjällossningen. När årstiderna skiftar ändras även temperaturen och mängden, och typen, av nederbörd. Andra faktorer som varierar över året är netto-instrålningen, vindhastigheten och den relativa fuktigheten och dessa faktorer påverkar i sin tur evapotranspirationen. På större djup beror antagligen portrycksvariationerna på någon eller några faktorer som skiljer sig åt från år till år, möjligtvis den totala mängden nederbörd. Därmed skulle den ökade nederbörd som förväntas i Skandinavien på grund av klimatförändringarna kunna påverka släntstabiliteten.Vad nederbörd, temeperatur och evapotranspiration har gemensamt är att de påverkar mängden vatten som infiltrerar marken, det vill säga de påverkar markens fukthalt. Hur vattnet är födelat i marken beror på de olika jordarterna och deras inbördes ordning i slänten, men också av faktorer som påverkar markens struktur så som aggregation och uppluckring av jorden på grund av marklevande djurs aktivitet. Även formationen av tjäle på vintern har troligtvis en viss inverkan på hur vattnet i marken omfördelas.På 14 m djup finns ett vattenmättat lager med positiva porvattentryck vilket skulle kunna vara ett av flera sådana lager. I en siltslänt är grundvattensituationen mycket komplex, flera magasin av vatten kan bildas. För att få en bra bild av grundvattensituationen (och där med också porvattentrycksvariationerna)behöver noggranna hydrologiska undersökningar genomföras.

  • Zhang, Yi
    et al.
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Gan-Lin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Xu
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Cao, Ke-Xin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Shang, Ya-Wen
    Capital Med Univ, Sch Tradit Chinese Med, Beijing 100069, Peoples R China..
    Gong, Mu-Xin
    Capital Med Univ, Sch Tradit Chinese Med, Beijing 100069, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Cong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Nan, Nan
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jin-Ping
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Ming-Wei
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Guo-Wang
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xiao-Min
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Gubenyiliu II Inhibits Breast Tumor Growth and Metastasis Associated with Decreased Heparanase Expression and Phosphorylation of ERK and AKT Pathways2017Ingår i: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 22, nr 5, 787Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gubenyiliu II (GYII), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula used in our hospital, has shown beneficial effects in cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of GYII on murine breast cancer models. GYII showed significant inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis in the murine breast cancer model. Additionally, GYII suppressed the proliferation of 4T1 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A better inhibitory effect on 4T1 cell proliferation and migration was found in the decomposed recipes (DR) of GYII. Moreover, heparanase expression and the degree of angiogenesis were reduced in tumor tissues. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of heparanase and growth factors in the cells treated with GYII and its decomposed recipes (DR2 and DR3), and thereby a reduction in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and serine-threonine kinase (AKT). These results suggest that GYII exerts anti-tumor growth and anti-metastatic effects in the murine breast cancer model. The anti-tumor activity of GYII and its decomposed recipes is, at least partly, associated with decreased heparanase and growth factor expression, which subsequently suppressed the activation of the ERK and AKT pathways.

  • Cao, Sha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Huseby, Douglas L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Brandis, Gerrit
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Alternative Evolutionary Pathways for Drug-Resistant Small Colony Variant Mutants in Staphylococcus aureus2017Ingår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, nr 3, e00358-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants. Compensation occurs by two distinct bypass mechanisms: (i) translational suppression of the initial SCV mutation by mutant tRNAs, ribosomal protein S5, or release factor 2 and (ii) mutations that cause the constitutive activation of the SrrAB global transcriptional regulation system. Although compensation by translational suppression increases growth rate, it also reduces antibiotic susceptibility, thus restoring a pseudo-wild-type phenotype. In contrast, an evolutionary pathway that compensates for the SCV phenotype by activation of SrrAB increases growth rate without loss of antibiotic resistance. RNA sequence analysis revealed that mutations activating the SrrAB pathway cause upregulation of genes involved in peptide transport and in the fermentation pathways of pyruvate to generate ATP and NAD(+), thus explaining the increased growth. By increasing the growth rate of SCVs without the loss of aminoglycoside resistance, compensatory evolution via the SrrAB activation pathway represents a threat to effective antibiotic therapy of staphylococcal infections. IMPORTANCE Small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are a significant clinical problem, causing persistent and antibiotic-resistant infections. However, SCVs are unstable and can rapidly evolve growth-compensated mutants. Previous data suggested that growth compensation only occurred with the loss of antibiotic resistance. We have used selection with serial passaging to uncover four distinct pathways of growth compensation accessible to SCVs. Three of these paths (reversion, intragenic suppression, and translational suppression) increase growth at the expense of losing antibiotic resistance. The fourth path activates an alternative transcriptional program and allows the bacteria to produce the extra ATP required to support faster growth, without losing antibiotic resistance. The importance of this work is that it shows that drug-resistant SCVs can evolve faster growth without losing antibiotic resistance.

  • Avetisova, Anastasia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Brexit, Donald Trump and the Populist Upsurge: A comparative analysis of Brexit Leave Campaign & Trump’s Presidential Campaign based on Mudde’s Minimal Definition of Populism.2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent upsurge of electoral success from the Brexit Leave campaign and Donald Trump’s presidential campaign 2016, confirm that populist politics has taken a greater role in Europe and in the U.S. The purpose of this research is to see to what extent each of the two campaigns are populist, and whether their statements are similar to each other. This will increase further knowledge about the populist phenomenon and its complexity. Hence, comparative analyses of six speeches from Brexit’s Leave campaign and Trump’s presidential campaign have been conducted through the framework of Mudde’s minimal definition of populism. The results show that both campaigns have populist features and that they have some commonalities, but still vary in the details, due to the countries’ historical, social and economic backgrounds. The two campaigns’ representatives are using similar populist strategies in order to reach their audiences. It is further recommended to expand this research and examine Trump’s presidency and its impacts with the UK’s process of leaving and its outcomes, which will provide a further understanding of the populist upsurge as well as its consequences.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Res Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Brandén, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umea Univ, Heart Ctr, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Misclassification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: validation of diagnostic codes2017Ingår i: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 9, 403-410 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate diagnostic codes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), analyze misclassfications, and estimate the prevalence of HCM in an unselected Swedish regional cohort. Patients and methods: Using the hospitals' electronic medical records (used for the Swedish National Patient Register), we identified 136 patients from 2006 to 2016 with the HCM-related codes 142.1 and 142.2 (International Classification of Diseases). Results: Of a total of 129 residents in the catchment area, 88 patients were correctly classified as HCM (positive predictive value 68.2%) and 41 patients (31.8%) were misclassified as HCM. Among the 88 HCM patients (52.2% males), 74 were alive and 14 were dead (15.9%). This yields an HCM prevalence of 74/ 183,337, that is, 4.0 diagnosed cases per 10,000 in the adult population aged =18 years. The underlying diagnoses of misclassified cases were mainly hypertension (31.7%) and aortic stenosis (22.0%). Other types of cardiomyopathies accounted for several cases of misclassification: dilated (nonischemic or ischemic), left ventricular noncompaction, and Takotsubo. Miscellaneous diagnoses were amyloidosis, pulmonary stenosis combined with ventricular septal defect, aortic insufficiency, athelete's heart, and atrioventricular conduction abnormality. The mean age was not significantly different between HCM and misclassified patients (65.8 +/- 15.8 vs 70.1 +/- 13.4 years; P=0.177). There were 47.8% females among HCM and 60.8% females among misclassified (P=0.118). Conclusion: One-third of patients diagnosed as HCM are misclassified, so registry data should be interpreted with caution. A correct diagnosis is important for decision-making and implementation of optimal HCM care; efforts should be made to increase awareness of HCM and diagnostic competence throughout the health care system.

  • Aung, Su Htike
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, POB 523, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Mandalay, Dept Phys, Mat Sci Res Lab, Mahaaungmyay Township 100103, Mandalay, Myanmar..
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    Oo, Than Zaw
    Univ Mandalay, Dept Phys, Mat Sci Res Lab, Mahaaungmyay Township 100103, Mandalay, Myanmar..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    2-(4-Butoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyacetamide: An Efficient Preadsorber for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2017Ingår i: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 2, nr 5, 1820-1825 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chemical modification of mesoporous TiO2 electrodes by 2-(4-butoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyacetamide (BPHA) before dye adsorption is investigated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Two organic dyes, LEG4 and Dyenamo blue, were used in combination with the cobalt (II/III) tris(bipyridine) redox couple. The photovoltaic performance of the DSCs is clearly enhanced by BPHA. Preadsorption of mesoporous TiO2 electrodes with BPHA lowered the amount of adsorbed dye but improved the shortcircuit current densities and the power conversion efficiencies by 10-20%, while keeping the open-circuit potential essentially unaffected. Notably, BPHA improved the LEG4 performance, whereas it has been reported for this dye that chenodeoxycholic acid as a coadsorbent lowers solar cell efficiency. Faster dye regeneration was found to be one reason for improved performance, but improved electron injection efficiency may also contribute to the favorable effect of BPHA.

  • Mohapatra, Sonisilpa
    et al.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Choi, Heejun
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Howard Hughes Med Inst, Janelia Res Campus, Ashburn, VA USA..
    Ge, Xueliang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Sanyal, Suparna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Weisshaar, James C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Spatial Distribution and Ribosome-Binding Dynamics of EF-P in Live Escherichia coli2017Ingår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, nr 3, e00300-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro assays find that ribosomes form peptide bonds to proline (Pro) residues more slowly than to other residues. Ribosome profiling shows that stalling at Pro-Pro-X triplets is especially severe but is largely alleviated in Escherichia coli by the action of elongation factor EF-P. EF-P and its eukaryotic/archaeal homolog IF5A enhance the peptidyl transfer step of elongation. Here, a superresolution fluorescence localization and tracking study of EF-P-mEos2 in live E. coli provides the first in vivo information about the spatial distribution and on-off binding kinetics of EF-P. Fast imaging at 2 ms/frame helps to distinguish ribosome-bound (slowly diffusing) EF-P from free (rapidly diffusing) EF-P. Wild-type EF-P exhibits a three-peaked axial spatial distribution similar to that of ribosomes, indicating substantial binding. The mutant EF-P-K34A exhibits a homogeneous distribution, indicating little or no binding. Some 30% of EF-P copies are bound to ribosomes at a given time. Two-state modeling and copy number estimates indicate that EF-P binds to 70S ribosomes during 25 to 100% of translation cycles. The timescale of the typical diffusive search by free EF-P for a ribosome-binding site is tau(free) approximate to 16 ms. The typical residence time of an EF-P on the ribosome is very short, tau(bound) approximate to 7 ms. Evidently, EF-P binds to ribosomes during many or most elongation cycles, much more often than the frequency of Pro-Pro motifs. Emptying of the E site during part of the cycle is consistent with recent in vitro experiments indicating dissociation of the deacylated tRNA upon translocation. IMPORTANCE Ribosomes translate the codon sequence within mRNA into the corresponding sequence of amino acids within the nascent polypeptide chain, which in turn ultimately folds into functional protein. At each codon, bacterial ribosomes are assisted by two well-known elongation factors: EF-Tu, which aids binding of the correct aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome, and EF-G, which promotes tRNA translocation after formation of the new peptide bond. A third factor, EF-P, has been shown to alleviate ribosomal pausing at rare Pro-Pro motifs, which are translated very slowly without EF-P. Here, we use superresolution fluorescence imaging to study the spatial distribution and ribosome-binding dynamics of EF-P in live E. coli cells. We were surprised to learn that EF-P binds to and unbinds from translating ribosomes during at least 25% of all elongation events; it may bind during every elongation cycle.

  • Disputation: 2017-12-08 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Biopharmaceutical investigations of doxorubicin formulations used in liver cancer treatment: Studies in healthy pigs and liver cancer patients, combined with pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical modelling2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently two types of drug formulation in clinical use in the locoregional treatment of intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the emulsion LIPDOX, the cytostatic agent doxorubicin (DOX) is dissolved in the aqueous phase, which is emulsified with the oily contrast agent Lipiodol® (LIP). In the microparticular system DEBDOX, DOX is loaded into the drug-eluting entity DC Bead™.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to improve pharmaceutical understanding of the LIPDOX and DEBDOX formulations, in order to facilitate the future development of novel drug delivery systems. In vivo release of DOX from the formulations and the disposition of DOX and its active metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) were assessed in an advanced multisampling-site acute healthy pig model and in patients with HCC. The release of DOX and disposition of DOX and DOXol where further analysed using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and biopharmaceutical (PBBP) modelling. The combination of in vivo investigations and in silico modelling could provide unique insight into the mechanisms behind drug release and disposition.

    The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX is not extended and controlled, as it is from DEBDOX. With both formulations, DOX is released as a burst during the early phase of administration. The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX was faster than from DEBDOX in both pigs and patients. The release from DEBDOX was slow and possibly incomplete. The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX and DEBDOX could be described by using the PBBP model in combination with in vitro release profiles.

    The disposition of DOX and DOXol was modelled using a semi-PBPK model containing intracellular binding sites. The contrast agent Lipiodol® did not affect the hepatobiliary disposition of DOX in the pig model. The control substance used in this study, cyclosporine A, inhibited the biliary excretion of DOX and DOXol but did not alter metabolism in healthy pigs. The disposition of DOX is similar in healthy pigs and humans, which was shown by the ease of translation of the semi-PBPK pig model to the human PBBP model.

    Delarbeten
    1. The Effects of Lipiodol and Cyclosporin A on the Hepatobiliary Disposition of Doxorubicin in Pigs
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Effects of Lipiodol and Cyclosporin A on the Hepatobiliary Disposition of Doxorubicin in Pigs
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, Vol. 11, nr 4, 1301-1313 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin (DOX) emulsified in Lipiodol (LIP) is used as local palliative treatment for unresectable intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to examine the poorly understood effects of the main excipient in the drug delivery system, LIP, alone or together with cyclosporin A (CsA), on the in vivo liver disposition of DOX. The advanced, multi-sampling-site, acute pig model was used; samples were collected from three blood vessels (v. portae, v. hepatica and v. femoralis), bile and urine. The four treatment groups (TI-TIV) all received two intravenous 5 min infusions of DOX into an ear vein: at 0 and 200 min. Before the second dose, the pigs received a portal vein infusion of saline (TI), LIP (TII), CsA (TIII) or LIP and CsA (TIV). Concentrations of DOX and its active metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. A multi-compartment model was developed to describe the distribution of DOX and DOXol in plasma, bile and urine. LIP did not affect the pharmacokinetics of DOX or DOXol. CsA (TIII and TIV) had no effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of DOX, but a 2-fold increase in exposure to DOXol and a significant decrease in hepatobiliary clearance of DOX and DOXol was observed. Model simulations supported that CsA inhibits 99% of canalicular biliary secretion of both DOX and DOXol, but does not affect the metabolism of DOX to DOXol. In conclusion, LIP did not interact with transporters, enzymes and/or biological membranes important for the hepatobiliary disposition of DOX.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Farmaceutisk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-222282 (URN)10.1021/mp4007612 (DOI)000334092700022 ()24558959 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-04-09 Skapad: 2014-04-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. In vivo Drug Delivery Performance of Lipiodol-based Emulsion or Drug-eluting Beads in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>In vivo Drug Delivery Performance of Lipiodol-based Emulsion or Drug-eluting Beads in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, nr 2, 448-458 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin (DOX) delivered in a lipiodol-based emulsion (LIPDOX) or in drug-eluting beads (DEBDOX) is used as palliative treatment in patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo delivery performance of DOX from LIPDOX or DEBDOX in HCC patients using the local and systemic pharmacokinetics of DOX and its main metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol). Urinary excretion of DOX and DOXol, and their short-term safety and anti-tumor effects were also evaluated. In this open, prospective, non-randomized multi-center study, LIPDOX (n=13) or DEBDOX (n=12) were injected into the feeding arteries of the tumor. Local (vena cava/hepatic vein orifice) and systemic (peripheral vein) plasma concentrations of DOX and DOXol were determined in samples obtained up to 6 h and 7 days after treatment. Tumor response was assessed using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The Cmax and AUC0-24 h for DOX were 5.6-fold and 2.4-fold higher in LIPDOX vs DEBDOX recipients, respectively (p <0.001). After 6 h, the respective mean proportions of the dose remaining in the liver or drug-delivery system (DDS) were 49% for LIPDOX and 88% for DEBDOX. LIPDOX releases DOX faster than DEBDOX in HCC patients and provides more extensive local and systemic exposure (AUC) to DOX and DOXol initially (0-7 days). DEBDOX formulation has a release and distribution of DOX that is more restricted and rate controlled than LIPDOX.

    Nyckelord
    doxorubicin, doxorubicinol, drug eluting beads, local delivery, local therapy, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cancer, lipiodol, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial infusion chemotherapy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsfarmaci och klinisk farmaci
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311314 (URN)10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.6b00886 (DOI)000393630100012 ()27997198 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, S21-2011-373
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-22 Skapad: 2016-12-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. A Model -Based Approach To Assessing the Importance of Intracellular Binding Sites in Doxorubicin Disposition
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Model -Based Approach To Assessing the Importance of Intracellular Binding Sites in Doxorubicin Disposition
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, nr 3, 686-698 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin is an anticancer agent, which binds reversibly to topoisomerase I and II, intercalates to DNA base pairs, and generates free radicals. Doxorubicin has a high tissue:plasma partition coefficient and high intracellular binding to the nucleus and other subcellular compartments. The metabolite doxorubicinol has an extensive tissue distribution. This porcine study investigated whether the traditional implementation of tissue binding, described by the tissue:plasma partition coefficient (K-p,K-t),could be used to appropriately analyze and/or simulate tissue doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations in healthy pigs, when applying a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model approach, or whether intracellular binding is required in the semi-PBPK model. Two semi-PBPK models were developed and evaluated using doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations in healthy pig blood, bile, and urine and kidney and liver tissues. In the generic semi-PBPK model, tissue binding was described using the conventional K-p,K-t approach. In the binding-specific semi-PBPK model, tissue binding was described using intracellular binding sites. The best semi-PBPK model was validated against a second data set of healthy pig blood and bile concentrations. Both models could be used for analysis and simulations of biliary and urinary excretion of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol and plasma doxorubicinol concentrations in pigs, but the binding-specific model was better at describing plasma doxorubicin concentrations. Porcine tissue concentrations were 400- to 1250-fold better captured by the binding-specific model. This model adequately predicted plasma doxorubicin concentration time and biliary doxorubicin excretion profiles against the validation data set. The semi-PBPK models applied were similarly effective for analysis of plasma concentrations and biliary and urinary excretion of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in healthy pigs. Inclusion of intracellular binding in the doxorubicin semi-PBPK models was important to accurately describe tissue concentrations during in vivo conditions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017
    Nyckelord
    doxorubicin, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, PBPK, pig
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Farmaceutisk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320394 (URN)10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.6b00974 (DOI)000395847000012 ()28182434 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-20 Skapad: 2017-04-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Porcine and human in vivo predictions for doxorubicin containing formulations used in locoregional HCC treatment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Porcine and human in vivo predictions for doxorubicin containing formulations used in locoregional HCC treatment
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Farmaceutisk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331567 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-15 Skapad: 2017-10-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-21
  • Svensson, Robin J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Gillespie, Stephen H.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Med, St Andrews KY16 9TF, Fife, Scotland..
    Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Improved power for TB Phase IIa trials using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach compared with commonly used analysis methods2017Ingår i: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 72, nr 8, 2311-2319 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The demand for new anti-TB drugs is high, but development programmes are long and costly. Consequently there is a need for new strategies capable of accelerating this process.

    Objectives: To explore the power to find statistically significant drug effects using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach in comparison with the methods commonly used for analysing TB Phase IIa trials.

    Methods: Phase IIa studies of four hypothetical anti-TB drugs (labelled A, B, C and D), each with a different mechanism of action, were simulated using the multistate TB pharmacometric (MTP) model. cfu data were simulated over 14 days for patients taking once-dailymonotherapy at four different doses per drug and a reference (10mg/kg rifampicin). The simulated data were analysed using t-test, ANOVA, mono-and bi-exponential models and a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model approach (MTP model) to establish their respective power to find a drug effect at the 5% significance level.

    Results: For the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model approach, t-test, ANOVA, mono-exponential model and bi-exponential model, the sample sizes needed to achieve 90% power were: 10, 30, 75, 20 and 30 (drug A); 30, 75, 245, 75 and 105 (drug B); 70, > 1250, 315, > 1250 and >1250 (drug C); and 30, 110, 710, 170 and 185 (drug D), respectively.

    Conclusions: A model-based design and analysis using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach can reduce the number of patients required to determine a drug effect at least 2-fold compared with current methodologies. This could significantly accelerate early-phase TB drug development.

  • von Friedrichs Grängsjö, Lovisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    Kallt krig följt av europeisk värmebölja?: Doktrin och försvarsekonomi i Sverige och Finland 1989 - 20092017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks förändringarna i Sveriges och Finlands försvarsekonomi i relationtill respektive lands säkerhetspolitiska doktrin under perioden 1989–2009, i syfte att analyserahur dessa samvarierar. Uppsatsen bidrar till ekonomisk-historisk forskning med en empirisktgrundad diskussion om hur försvar, hotbild och tillförda ekonomiska resurser relaterar tillvarandra. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att Sveriges försvarsdoktrin inte följs av enkoherent försvarsekonomi. Sverige kombinerar en realistisk försvarsdoktrin med en liberalförsvarsekonomi, och Finland gör tvärtom. Relationen mellan försvarsvarsekonomi ochförsvarsdoktrin är ett resultat av många komplexa processer.

  • Disputation: 2017-12-07 13:00 Gunnesalen, Uppsala
    Makris, Georgios
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Suicide Seasonality: Theoretical and Clinical Implications2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although suicide seasonality has been well-documented, surprisingly little is known about its underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: In this thesis, data from three Swedish registers (Cause of Death Register, National Patient Register, Prescribed Drugs Register) and data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute were used.

    In Study I, the amplitude of suicide seasonality was estimated in completed suicides in 1992-2003 in individuals with different antidepressant medications or without antidepressants.

    In Study II, monthly suicide and sunshine data from 1992-2003 were used to examine the association between suicide and sunshine in groups with and without antidepressants.

    In Study III, the relationship between season of initiation of antidepressant treatment and the risk of suicidal behavior was explored in patients with a new treatment episode with antidepressant medication.

    In Study IV, the complex association between sunshine, temperature and suicidal behavior was investigated in patients with a new treatment episode with an antidepressant in two exposure windows (1-4 and 5-8 weeks) before the event.

    Findings: Study I: Higher suicide seasonality was found in individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) compared with those given a different antidepressant treatment or those without any antidepressant treatment.

    Study II: In individuals treated with SSRIs, there was a positive association between sunshine and suicide, with the association stronger in men treated with SSRIs compared with men treated with other antidepressants. An effect modification by age was observed.

    Study III: The elderly (65+) had a higher risk of suicide when initiating antidepressant treatment in summer and a higher risk of suicide attempt when starting antidepressant therapy in spring and summer. Younger patients (0-24) demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempt when treatment was initiated in autumn.

    Study IV: In the elderly (65+), a harmful association was observed between the risk of suicide attempt and the average daily temperature during the four weeks before the suicide attempt, as well as with average daily sunshine during both exposure windows (1-4 and 5-8 weeks) before the suicide attempt.

    Significance: Our results provide epidemiological support for the role of the serotonergic system in seasonality of suicide in which both medication and climate may be involved.

    Delarbeten
    1. Suicide seasonality and antidepressants: a register-based study in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Suicide seasonality and antidepressants: a register-based study in Sweden
    Visa övriga...
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 127, nr 2, 117-125 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Seasonality of completed suicides with a peak in spring and early summer is a well-documented finding. The circannual serotonergic functioning is hypothesized to be central in this phenomenon. Antidepressant medications exert their pharmacological action mainly by regulating serotonin. Our aim is to study the amplitude of the seasonal effect among suicide victims positive for different classes of antidepressants or without any antidepressants at the time of death.

    Method

    By using Swedish Registers, 12 448 suicides with forensic data for antidepressive medication and information on in-patient-treated mental disorder were identified during 1992-2003. Seasonality was estimated with a Poisson regression variant of the circular normal distribution of completed suicides.

    Results

    Higher suicide seasonality was found for individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) compared to those with other antidepressant treatment or without any antidepressant treatment. The finding is more evident for men and violent suicide methods and those without history of in-patient treatment.

    Conclusion

    Our results provide preliminary support for the serotonergic hypothesis of suicide seasonality and raise the question of a possible accentuation of the natural suicide seasonality in patients treated with SSRIs, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykiatri
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189178 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0447.2012.01891.x (DOI)000313492300004 ()22676408 (PubMedID)