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  • Schüttler, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ung vuxen med cancer - behov och upplevelser under och efter behandling: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, approximately 800 young adults between 16-30 years of age are affected by a cancer disease. Studies has shown that this is not only the medical treatment that affects how patients live with their cancer, but also how their psychological health are affected. When a young adult gets a cancer diagnosis can thoughts about the disease, death, changed body image, loss of fertility etcetera be particularly disturbing and anxiety evoking. To achieve good health and quality of life, care and good relations between patient and nurses are important.

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to: 1) Examine young adults experiences of a cancer disease, 2) Experienced need of support from healthcare professionals and 3) Experiences of psychosocial support from nurses during and after treatment.

    Method: A literature study where qualitative articles were searched through the database Pubmed. 10 original articles out of a total of 27 articles were included because they met the inclusion criteria and were either medium or high quality.

    Results: The analysis revealed nine themes based on the three questions; attitudes and emotional reactions related to the disease, changed perception of identity, positive aspects of the disease, post-treatment reactions, support from family and friends, support and adaptation within health care, informative support, personal and emotional support and participation and trust. The need for information from healthcare professionals was particularly prominent, especially on the topics of sexuality and fertility. The importance of obtaining information in a manner that is easy to understand was highlighted. The majority of young adults experienced positive support from nurses which made them gain confidence, trust and joy.

    Conclusion: Young adults have an increased need for continuous information and guidance during and after treatment. Nurses need to be better at communicating, which would contribute to increased understanding and provide security for the patient in order to feel better mentally. Nurses have an important role in providing advice and information in areas which the patient lack knowledge in.

  • Bogolepova, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
    Donovan, Stephen K.
    Harper, David A. T.
    Suyarkova, Anna A.
    Yakupov, Rustem
    Gubanov, Alexander P.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    New records of brachiopods and crinoids from the Silurian (Wenlock) of the southern Urals, Russia2018In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crinoids and brachiopods are described from the Silurian Uzyan Formation of the Zilair Zone in the southern Urals. The occurrence of the graptolites Coronograptus praedeubeli suggests a late Homerian (Wenlock) age for the strata. A new disparid crinoid, Cicerocrinus gracilis Donovan sp. nov., is the oldest known member of this genus. It has a long, flexible and homeomorphic column, and a tall bryozoan palaeontology terminology (IBr2) (second primibrachial) axillary. All species of Cicerocrinus described previously have been limited to the Ludlow of the British Isles, Sweden and Estonia, and the Pridoli of Estonia. The poorly preserved brachiopod fauna is represented by small atrypid (Atrypa? sp.) and dalmanellid brachiopods (Levenea? sp.). The reported assemblage generally inhabited deep-water environments.

  • Mertiri, Savo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Digital Transformation in the IT Solutions sector.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital Transformation is the integration of digital technology into all business areas, fundamentally changing how you operate and deliver value to customers. The purpose of this research is to explore to what degree has IT solution sector companies have digitally transformed during the past few years. Qualitative analysis was used to analyze the literature and the empirical data and make the assumptions required. The results indicate that DT is a procedure that involves integrating technology in all business areas and companies in the IT Sector choose to start the procedure to become more efficient and able to make frequent changes in order to satisfy their market and keep up with competition. The main barriers found are, in company communication, Hierarchy Financial requirements and unclear digital transformation strategy. The impact of failing to digitally transform is losing market share due to inability to keep up with the competition.

  • Lindbäck, Katrin
    et al.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Framsentret, Postboks 6606, N-9296 Tromso, Norway.
    Kohler, Jack
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Framsentret, Postboks 6606, N-9296 Tromso, Norway.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Nuth, Christopher
    Univ Oslo, Postboks 1047 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Langley, Kirsty
    Asiaq Greenland Survey, Postboks 1003, Nuuk 3900, Greenland.
    Messerli, Alexandra
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Framsentret, Postboks 6606, N-9296 Tromso, Norway.
    Vallot, Dorothée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Matsuoka, Kenichi
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Framsentret, Postboks 6606, N-9296 Tromso, Norway.
    Brandt, Ola
    Norwegian Coastal Adm, Kystveien 30, N-4841 Arendal, Norway.
    Subglacial topography, ice thickness, and bathymetry of Kongsfjorden, northwestern Svalbard2018In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1769-1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Svalbard tidewater glaciers are retreating, which will affect fjord circulation and ecosystems when glacier fronts become land-terminating. Knowledge of the subglacial topography and bathymetry under retreating glaciers is important to modelling future scenarios of fjord circulation and glacier dynamics. We present high-resolution (150m gridded) digital elevation models of subglacial topography, ice thickness, and ice surface elevation of five tidewater glaciers in Kongsfjorden (1100 km(2)), northwestern Spitsbergen, based on similar to 1700 km airborne and ground-based ice-penetrating radar profiles. The digital elevation models (DEMs) cover the tidewater glaciers Blomstrandbreen, Conwaybreen, Kongsbreen, Kronebreen, and Kongsvegen and are merged with bathymetric and land DEMs for the non-glaciated areas. The large-scale subglacial topography of the study area is characterized by a series of troughs and highs. The minimum subglacial elevation is 180m above sea level (a.s.l.), the maximum subglacial elevation is 1400m a.s.l., and the maximum ice thickness is 740m. Three of the glaciers, Kongsbreen, Kronebreen, and Kongsvegen, have the potential to retreat by similar to 10 km before they become land-terminating. The compiled data set covers one of the most studied regions in Svalbard and is valuable for future studies of glacier dynamics, geology, hydrology, and fjord circulation.

  • Alphonse, Melanie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Det fredsbyggande arbetet i Demokratiska Republiken Kongo2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An analyse of the local actors involvement of the international peacebuilding in the Republic of the Congo. How international actors as the United Nations cooperate with local peacebuilders.

  • Dvorak, Jaroslav
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    The Lithuanian Government's Policy of Regulatory Impact Assessment2015In: Journal of Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, ISSN 2450-7814, E-ISSN 2450-8829, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 129-146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Sieverding, Monika
    et al.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neubauer, Andreas B
    Stahl, Thomas
    Can lifestyle preferences help explain the persistent gender gap in academia? The "mothers work less" hypothesis supported for German but not for U.S. early career researchers2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0202728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do lifestyle preferences contribute to the remaining gender gap in higher positions in academia with highly qualified women-especially those with children-deliberately working fewer hours than men do? We tested the "mothers work less" hypothesis in two samples of early career researchers employed at universities in Germany (N = 202) and in the US (N = 197). Early career researchers in the US worked on average 6.3 hours more per week than researchers in Germany. In Germany, female early career researchers with children had drastically reduced work hours (around 8 hours per week) compared to male researchers with children and compared to female researchers without children, whereas we found no such effect for U.S. researchers. In addition, we asked how long respondents would ideally want to work (ideal work hours), and results revealed similar effects for ideal work hours. Results support the "mothers work less" hypothesis for German but not for U.S. early career researchers.

  • Engstrand, Dennis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Emissionsgarantier - garanti eller avsiktsförklaring?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Morozov, A.
    et al.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia;Inst Informat Transmiss Problems, Moscow 127994, Russia.
    Popolitov, Aleksandr
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics. ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia;Inst Informat Transmiss Problems, Moscow 127994, Russia.
    Shakirov, Sh.
    Inst Informat Transmiss Problems, Moscow 127994, Russia;Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Math Sci Res Inst, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    On (q, t)-deformation of Gaussian matrix model2018In: Physics Letters B, ISSN 0370-2693, E-ISSN 1873-2445, Vol. 784, p. 342-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently discovered general formulas for perturbative correlators in basic matrix models can be interpreted as the Schur-preservation property of Gaussian measures. Then substitution of Schur by, say, Macdonald polynomials, definesa q, t-deformation of the matrix model. Eigenvalue integral representations and Virasoro-like constraints are immediate consequences.

  • Wang, Xuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Elksnis, Andris
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Wikström, Per
    Glucox Biotech AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Walum, Erik
    Glucox Biotech AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Welsh, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    The novel NADPH oxidase 4 selective inhibitor GLX7013114 counteracts human islet cell death in vitro2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0204271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is promoted by oxidative stress caused by NADPH oxidase (Nox) over-activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of novel Nox inhibitors as protective agents against cytokine- or high glucose + palmitate-induced human beta-cell death. The Nox2 protein was present mainly in the cytoplasm and was induced by cytokines. Nox4 protein immunoreactivity, with some nuclear accumulation, was observed in human islet cells, and was not affected by islet culture in the presence of cytokines or high glucose + palmitate. Nox inhibitors with partial or no isoform selectivity (DPI, dapsone, GLX351322, and GLX481372) all reduced ROS production of human islet cells exposed to high glucose + palmitate. This was paralleled by improved viability and reduced caspase 3 activation. The Nox1 selective inhibitor ML171 failed to reduce human islet cell death in response to both cytokines and high glucose + palmitate. The selective Nox2 inhibitor Phox-12 also failed to protect against cytokines, but protected partially against high glucose + palmitate-induced cellular death. The highly selective Nox4 inhibitor GLX7013114 protected islet cells against both cytokines and high glucose + palmitate. However, as no osmotic control for high glucose was used, we cannot exclude the possibility that the high glucose effect was due to osmosis. It is concluded that Nox4 may participate in stress-induced islet cell death in human islets in vitro. We propose that Nox4 mediates pro-apoptotic effects in intact islets under stressful conditions and that selective Nox4-inhibition may be a therapeutic strategy in type 2 diabetes.

  • Murad, Hassan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Membranbioreaktorer och deras förmåga att avlägsna prioriterade mikroföroreningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Release of pharmaceutical residues and other emerging substances in the environment has been highlighted and raised a great concern regarding the issue. Among observations that scientists have noted as a result of antibiotics, hormones and pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment are bacterial resistance, sex change and sterility in fish and batrachians.

    Persistent pollutants such as perfluorinated-alkylated substances (PFAS) are also not degraded in nature, and microscopic debris particles can be enriched in aquatic systems and cause adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The common aspect with these substances is that they usually occur in small quantities and can derive from different human activities.

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are not primarily designed to separate emerging substances of concern (ESOC), but primarily to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and particulate organic matter. Upstream work is also not sufficiently effective to relieve the purification process, which means that the amount of pollutants increases in aquatic environments and puts additional pressure on the WWTP. The challenges facing WWTP today with ESOC and their presence in the environment has raised issues both nationally and internationally. Stockholm Vatten och Avfall (SVOA) decision to implement a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with poresize of 0,04 μm at Henriksdal WWTP is a step to prepare for future hydraulic volumes, but also potentially stricter treatments requirements regarding ESOC. The advantage of the MBR process is that it prevents contaminants that appear to be particulate to pass the membranes and end up in the receiving waters.

    Today, WWTP are not required to treat wastewater in order to remove pharmaceutical residues, antibiotics, hormones, PFAS or microscopic debris particles. However, it is expected that future legislations will include pharmaceuticals and other organic pollutants. In this project, ESOC such as pharmaceutical residues, antibiotics, hormones, PFAS and microscopic debris in the MBR-process are studied as well as the presence of adsorbable and extractable organic halogens (AOX, EOX) that are possibly formed during the cleaning or maintains of the membranes.

    Results from this study showed a higher general reduction of the studied ESOCs in wastewater with the MBR-process than previous studies in conventional WWTP, except of some substances that showed a poor reduction. Pharmaceuticals such as diclofenac, oxazepam and citalopram showed a weak reduction as well as the antibiotics clindamycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin where they showed a higher outcome levels than the incoming to the treatment process. Estrogenic hormones were reduced in the purification process as well as microplastics where only 60 particles/m3 of pore size higher than 300 μm passed the membranes. Microplastics of the pore size smaller than 300 and larger than 50 μm were detected to 140 particle/m3 in the effluent water.

    For AOX and EOX, the level of MBR process showed typical values and were in line with previous studies on conventional ARV. However, since the membranes cannot treat contaminants at molecular level, it was also shown that some ESOC that were studied bypassed the treatment process.

    A conclusion from this project is that only a few numbers of substances were fully reduced while the majority of ESOCs were partially reduced in wastewater. In order to reduce further ESOCs and in case of stricter treatment were to be applied, additional post-treatment is also needed for the MBR process.

  • Gunnarsson, Rebeqa
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden.
    DiLorenzo, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lundin-Ström, Kristina B.
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Linda
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden;Dept Clin Genet & Pathol, Div Lab Med, Lund, Sweden.
    Biloglav, Andrea
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden.
    Lilljebjörn, Henrik
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden.
    Rissler, Marianne
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden.
    Wahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lundmark, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Castor, Anders
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Lund, Sweden.
    Behrendtz, Mikael
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fioretos, Thoas
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden;Dept Clin Genet & Pathol, Div Lab Med, Lund, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Kajsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Bertil
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, Lund, Sweden;Dept Clin Genet & Pathol, Div Lab Med, Lund, Sweden.
    Mutation, methylation, and gene expression profiles in dup(1q)-positive pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia2018In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 2117-2125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput sequencing was applied to investigate the mutation/methylation patterns on 1q and gene expression profiles in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) with/without (w/wo) dup(1q). Sequencing of the breakpoint regions and all exons on 1q in seven dup(1q)-positive cases revealed non-synonymous somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in BLZF1, FMN2, KCNT2, LCE1C, NES, and PARP1. Deep sequencing of these in a validation cohort w (n = 17)/wo (n = 94) dup(1q) revealed similar SNV frequencies in the two groups (47% vs. 35%; P = 0.42). Only 0.6% of the 36,259 CpGs on 1q were differentially methylated between cases w (n = 14)/wo (n = 13) dup(1q). RNA sequencing of high hyperdiploid (HeH) and t(1;19)(q23;p13)-positive cases w (n = 14)/wo (n = 52) dup(1q) identified 252 and 424 differentially expressed genes, respectively; only seven overlapped. Of the overexpressed genes in the HeH and t(1;19) groups, 23 and 31%, respectively, mapped to 1q; 60-80% of these encode nucleic acid/protein binding factors or proteins with catalytic activity. We conclude that the pathogenetically important consequence of dup(1q) in BCP ALL is a gene-dosage effect, with the deregulated genes differing between genetic subtypes, but involving similar molecular functions, biological processes, and protein classes.

  • André, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Raw Material Consumption - Ett mått på Sveriges materialanvändning i ett mer resurseffektivt samhälle2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to measure the amount of materials used in society, is central in the transition to a resource-efficient and circular economy. Within the EU, Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) is currently used as indicator for material use. It is calculated by adding the materials that a country extracts, plus the materials imported, minus the materials being exported. There is criticism of DMC, as a measure, since it only considers the weight of imported and exported goods when they cross the country border. It does not consider the upstream materials needed to produce a product, which are not represented in the final product (the so-called material backpack). Globalisation has led to a geographical disconnection in production and consumption, and to consider net-importing countries’ total material consumption, it is necessary to include traded product’s material backpack. Raw Material Consumption (RMC) considers the material backpack, but is currently without a standardised calculation method. Both RMC and DMC are used in Agenda 2030 to follow up the UN Sustainability Development Goal 12 "Sustainable Consumption and Production", as well as Goal 8 "Decent Work Conditions and Economic Growth". Only DMC is used today in the EU.

     

    The aim of this project was to calculate Sweden’s material consumption, using the indicator Raw Material Consumption (RMC), as well as identifying strengths and weaknesses of RMC. For calculating RMC, Eurostat’s RME-tool has been used. According to RMC, Sweden's total material usage increased from 2008 when it amounted to 198 million tonnes of raw material equivalents (RME), to 221 million tonnes RME in 2015. There has also been an increase per capita: 21,4 RME per capita in 2008 to 22,6 RME per capita in 2015. These results have been compared with the results for Sweden's DMC, calculated by SCB. RMC and DMC gave similar results for Sweden's total material consumption. This is believed to be due to the similar size of the material backpack of imports and exports. Another reason is believed to be due to Sweden’s largest material category, non-metallic minerals, is a small part of our trade balance, and therefore is not affected when the material backpack is included. At the material category level, however, the differences between RMC and DMC are greater.

     

    Results from Eurostat's RME tool, calculated in this study, have been compared with results presented by the OECD and UNEP. They have used a different calculation method for Sweden’s RMC than the RME tool applies. The difference in total RMC for different calculation methods is between 11 % and 22 %. At material category level, the differences are greater, more than 50 % for fossil fuels, for example. Similar results have been presented in a study over Austria's RMC for the year 2007, using different calculation methods.

     

    Both DMC and RMC can be used as policy-support for resource efficiency, but RMC is theoretically a more suitable indicator for comparison of countries. This is since many countries today have moved a significant share of their production abroad, and DMC therefore risks displaying a false perception of resource efficiency and decoupling, when the material backpack is not included.

  • Pittelli, Antonio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Yangian symmetry of string theory on AdS(3) x S-3 x S-3 x S-1 with mixed 3-form flux2018In: Nuclear Physics B, ISSN 0550-3213, E-ISSN 1873-1562, Vol. 935, p. 271-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We find the Yangian symmetry underlying the integrability of type IIB superstrings on AdS(3) x S-3 x S-3 x S-1 with mixed Ramond-Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz-Neveu-Schwarz flux. The abstract commutation relations of the Yangian are formulated via RTT realisation, while its matrix realisation is in an evaluation representation depending on the quantised coefficient of the Wess-Zumino term. The construction naturally encodes a secret symmetry of the worldsheet scattering matrix whose generators map different Yangian levels to each other. We show that in the large effective string tension limit the Yangian becomes a deformation of a unitary loop algebra and we derive its universal classical r-matrix.

  • Hogvall, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Budd, Graham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Janssen, Ralf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Gene expression analysis of potential morphogen signalling modifying factors in Panarthropoda2018In: EvoDevo, ISSN 2041-9139, E-ISSN 2041-9139, Vol. 9, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Morphogen signalling represents a key mechanism of developmental processes during animal development. Previously, several evolutionary conserved morphogen signalling pathways have been identified, and their players such as the morphogen receptors, morphogen modulating factors (MMFs) and the morphogens themselves have been studied. MMFs are factors that regulate morphogen distribution and activity. The interactions of MMFs with different morphogen signalling pathways such as Wnt signalling, Hedgehog (Hh) signalling and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signalling are complex because some of the MMFs have been shown to interact with more than one signalling pathway, and depending on genetic context, to have different, biphasic or even opposing function. This complicates the interpretation of expression data and functional data of MMFs and may be one reason why data on MMFs in other arthropods than Drosophila are scarce or totally lacking.

    Results: As a first step to a better understanding of the potential roles of MMFs in arthropod development, we investigate here the embryonic expression patterns of division abnormally delayed (dally), dally-like protein (dlp), shifted (shf) and secreted frizzled-related protein 125 (sFRP125) and sFRP34 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum, the millipede Glomeris marginata and the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis. This pioneer study represents the first comprehensive comparative data set of these genes in panarthropods.

    Conclusions: Expression profiles reveal a high degree of diversity, suggesting that MMFs may represent highly evolvable nodes in otherwise conserved gene regulatory networks. Conserved aspects of MMF expression, however, appear to concern function in segmentation and limb development, two of the key topics of evolutionary developmental research.

  • Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Diagnost & Intervent Neuroradiol, Univ Hosp, Aachen, Germany;Fraunhofer Inst Proc Engn & Packaging IW, Sensory Analyt, Freising Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Brünner, Yvonne F.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Diagnost & Intervent Neuroradiol, Univ Hosp, Aachen, Germany.
    Kofoet, Anja
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Diagnost & Intervent Neuroradiol, Univ Hosp, Aachen, Germany.
    Mutic, Smiljana
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Diagnost & Intervent Neuroradiol, Univ Hosp, Aachen, Germany.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Freiherr, Jessica
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Diagnost & Intervent Neuroradiol, Univ Hosp, Aachen, Germany;Fraunhofer Inst Proc Engn & Packaging IW, Sensory Analyt, Freising Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Odor Sensitivity After Intranasal Insulin Application Is Modulated by Gender2018In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, ISSN 1664-2392, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 9, article id 580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity constitutes a global health care problem, and often eating habits are to blame. For intervention, a thorough understanding of energy intake and expenditure is needed. In recent years, the pivotal role of insulin in connection to energy intake was established. Olfactory sensitivity may be a target of cerebral insulin action to maintain body weight. With this experiment, we aimed to explore the influence of intranasal insulin on olfactory sensitivity for the odors n-butanol and peanut in a placebo-controlled, double-blind setting in a within-subject design. All subjects participated in two experimental sessions on separate days and received either intranasal insulin or placebo in a pseudorandomized order. Application was followed by two olfactory threshold tests for n-butanol and peanut in a pseudorandomized order. After a single dose of intranasal insulin (40 IU) or placebo (0.4 ml), olfactory sensitivity for the odorants n-butanol and peanut were examined in 30 healthy normosmic participants (14 females). Measured blood parameters revealed no decrease in plasma glucose, however, insulin, leptin and cortisol levels were affected following intranasal application. Females' but not males' olfactory sensitivity for n-butanol was lower after intranasal insulin administration vs. placebo. In contrast, olfactory sensitivity for peanut was not influenced by intranasal insulin application. Our results indicate that the effects of cortical insulin levels on processing of specific odors is likely modulated by gender, as central increase of insulin concentration led to a reduced olfactory sensitivity for n-butanol in women only, which might be due to differentially regulated insulin and leptin signaling in men and women.

  • Haftor, Darek
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Keller, Christina
    Jönköpings internationella handelshögskola.
    Rapp, Briger
    Linköpings universitetet.
    Stenberg, Göran
    EPIROC AB.
    Sundberg, Klas
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Organisation för lyckad innovationsprocess: Samspel och integration mellan innovation och produktion2018In: MGMT of Innovation and Technology, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Danelius, Emma
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Kemivagen 10, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Peintner, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Alcaraz, Lilian
    Johnson & Johnson Innovat, Med Chem, One Chapel Pl, London W1G 0BG, England.
    Caron, Giulia
    Univ Torino, Dept Mol Biotechnol & Hlth Sci, Quarello 15, I-10135 Turin, Italy.
    Cummings, Maxwell D.
    Janssen Res & Dev, 1400 McKean Rd, Spring House, PA 19477 USA.
    Wlodek, Stanislaw
    OpenEye Sci Software, 9 Bisbee Court, Santa Fe, NM 87508 USA.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry. Swedish NMR Ctr, Medicinaregatan 5, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hawkins, Paul C. D.
    OpenEye Sci Software, 9 Bisbee Court, Santa Fe, NM 87508 USA.
    Ermondi, Giuseppe
    Univ Torino, Dept Mol Biotechnol & Hlth Sci, Quarello 15, I-10135 Turin, Italy.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Conformational Sampling of Macrocyclic Drugs in Different Environments: Can We Find the Relevant Conformations?2018In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 11742-11757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformational flexibility is a major determinant of the properties of macrocycles and other drugs in beyond rule of 5 (bRo5) space. Prediction of conforrriations is essential for design of drugs in this space, and we have evaluated three tools for conformational sampling of la set of 10 bRo5 drugs and clinical candidates in polar and apolar environments. The distance-geometry based OMEGA was found to yield ensembles spanning larger structure and property spaces than the ensembles obtained by MOE LowModeMD (MOE) and MacroModel (MC). Both MC and OMEGA but not MOE generated different ensembles for polar and apolar environments. All three conforinational search methods generated conformers similar to the crystal structure conformers for 9 of the 10 compounds, with OMEGA performing somewhat better than MOE and MC. MOE and OMEGA found all six conformers of roxithromycin that were identified by NMR in aqueous solutions, whereas only OMEGA sampled the three conformers observed in chloroform. We suggest that characterization of conformers using molecular descriptors, e.g., the radius of gyration and polar surface area, is preferred to energy- or root-mean-square deviation-based methods for selection of biologically relevant conformers in drug discovery in bRo5 space.

  • Angelhoff, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Div Nursing Sci, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Norrkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Paediat, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Ylva Thernström
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Helmer, Charlotte Sahlen
    Linkoping Univ, Div Nursing Sci, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Norrkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Paediat, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Emma
    Orebro Univ, Dept Pediat, Orebro, Sweden;Orebro Univ, Ctr Hlth Care Sci, Orebro, Sweden.
    Shorey, Shefaly
    Natl Univ Singapore, Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Alice Lee Ctr Nursing Studies, Singapore, Singapore.
    Frostell, Anneli
    Linkoping Univ, Div Psychol, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    Linkoping Univ, Div Nursing Sci, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Norrkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Effect of skin-to-skin contact on parents' sleep quality, mood, parent-infant interaction and cortisol concentrations in neonatal care units: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 7, article id e021606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Separation after preterm birth is a major stressor for infants and parents. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is a method of care suitable to use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to minimise separation between parents and infants. Less separation leads to increased possibilities for parent-infant interaction, provided that the parents' sleep quality is satisfactory. We aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous SSC on sleep quality and mood in parents of preterm infants born <33 weeks of gestation as well as the quality of parent-infant interaction and salivary cortisol concentrations at the time of discharge.

    Methods and analysis: A randomised intervention study with two arms-intervention versus standard care. Data will be collected from 50 families. Eligible families will be randomly allocated to intervention or standard care when transferred from the intensive care room to the family-room in the NICU. The intervention consists of continuous SSC for four consecutive days and nights in the family-room. Data will be collected every day during the intervention and again at the time of discharge from the hospital. Outcome measures comprise activity tracker (Actigraph); validated self-rated questionnaires concerning sleep, mood and bonding; observed scorings of parental sensitivity and emotional availability and salivary cortisol. Data will be analysed with pairwise, repeated measures, Mann Whitney U-test will be used to compare groups and analysis of variance will be used to adjust for different hospitals and parents' gender.

    Ethics and dissemination: The study is approved by the Regional Research Ethics Board at an appropriate university (2016/89-31). The results will be published in scientific journals. We will also use conferences and social media to disseminate our findings.

  • Casmo, Veronica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. Inst Nacl Saude, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Lebbad, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Maungate, Salomao
    Inst Nacl Saude, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Lindh, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora belli among adult patients with diarrhoea in Maputo, Mozambique2018In: HELIYON, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 9, article id e00769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora belli are important causes of diarrhoea in HIV patients. Nevertheless, information concerning these two parasites is scarce in many African countries, including Mozambique. In this study occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and C. belli was investigated by microscopy of stool specimens from 108 adult diarrhoeal patients, most with a confirmed HIV diagnosis. The Cryptosporidium isolates were further characterized by molecular methods. Cryptosporidium and C. belli oocysts were found in 8.3% (9/108), and 25.0% (27/108) of the study participants, respectively. Species identification was possible for all Cryptosporidium isolates with available DNA. The following Cryptosporidium species were detected (number of cases within parentheses): C. parvum (3), C. hominis (3), C. felis (1), and C. hominis/C. parvum (1). Subtyping targeting the gp60 gene revealed two C. hominis isolates with subtype IaA23R3, one C. parvum isolate with IIcA5G3d, and one with IIeAl2G1. In summary the occurrence of C. hominis and anthroponotic subtypes of C. parvum indicates that the main route of Cryptosporidium transmission in the present study population was human to human (direct or via food and water). The high prevalence of C. belli highlights the need for early diagnosis of this parasite, for which a treatment exists.

  • Norberg, Amanda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Rask, Elliot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    3D visualisation of breast reconstruction using Microsoft HoloLens2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project is to create a Mixed Reality (MR) application for the 3D visualisation of the result of a breast reconstruction surgery. The application is to be used before surgery to facilitate communication between patient an surgeon about the expected result. To this purpose Microsoft HoloLens is used, which is a pair of Mixed Reality (MR) glasses developed and manufactured by Microsoft that has a self-contained, holographic rendering computer. For the development of the MR application on the Hololens, MixedRealityToolkit-Unity is used which is a Unity-based toolkit available. The goal of the application is that the user can scan a torso of a patient, render a hologram of the torso and attach to it a prefabricated breast which possibly follows the patient's specification.

    To prepare a prefabricated breast, a 3D model of the breast is first created in the 3D modelling software Blender. It then gets its texture from a picture taken with the HoloLens camera. The picture is cropped to better fit the model and uploaded as a 2D texture which is then attached to the prefabricated breast, which is imported into Unity.

    To scan objects, the HoloLens’s operating system feature Surface Observer is used. The resulting mesh from the observer is cropped using a virtual cube, scaled, moved and rotated by the user. The cropped mesh is then smoothed using the Humphrey's Classes smoothing algorithm. To fuse the smoothed mesh with the prefabricated breast model, the Unity components: Colliders and Transforms are used. On a collision the breast's transform parent is set to the mesh’s transform, making the objects transforms behave depending on each other.

    The MR application has been developed and evaluated. The evaluation results show that the goal has been achieved successfully. The project demonstrates that the Microsoft HoloLens is well suited for developing such medical applications as breast reconstructive surgery visualisations. It can possibly be extended to other surgeries such as showing on a patient’s body how the scar will look after a heart surgery, or a cesarean section.

  • Sjömark, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychotherapy Educ & Res, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm Cty Council, Liljeholmstorget 7B, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Liljeholmstorget 7B, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    A longitudinal, multi-centre, superiority, randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) for negative experiences and posttraumatic stress following childbirth: the JUNO study protocol2018In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 18, article id 387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About one-third of women report their childbirth as traumatic and up to 10% have severe traumatic stress responses to birth. The prevalence of Posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth (PTSD FC) is estimated to 3%. Women with PTSD FC report the same symptoms as other patients with PTSD following other types of trauma. The effect of psychological treatment for women with PTSD FC has only been studied in a few trials. Similarly, studies on treatment needs for women not diagnosed as having PTSD FC but who nevertheless face psychological problems are lacking. Methods/design: Women who rate their overall birth experience as negative on a Likert scale, and/or had an immediate caesarean section and/or a major postpartum haemorrhage are randomized to either internet delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU. The iCBT is to be delivered in two steps. The first step consists of six weekly modules for both the woman and her partner (if they wish to participate) with minimal therapeutic support. Step 2 consists of eight weekly modules with extended therapeutic support and will be offered to participants whom after step 1 report PTSD FC. Assessments will be made at baseline, 6 weeks, 14 weeks, and at follow-ups at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after baseline. The primary outcome measures are symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, parent-child bonding, marital satisfaction, coping strategies, experience regarding the quality of care received, health-related quality of life, number of re-visits to the clinic and number of appointments for counselling during the 4 years' period after the negative childbirth experience, time until the woman gets pregnant again, and the type of birth in the subsequent pregnancy. A health economic evaluation in the form of a cost utility analysis will be conducted. Discussion: This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial that will provide information about the effectiveness of iCBT in women with negative experiences, posttraumatic stress, and PTSD FC.

  • Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå Univ, Norrland Univ Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Drca, Nikola
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björck, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Bäck, Magnus
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Valvular & Coronary Dis, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Ctr Mol Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 104, no 19, p. 1615-1620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Nut consumption has been found to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, but the association between nut consumption and incidence of specific cardiovascular diseases is unclear. We examined the association between nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases. Methods This prospective study included 61 364 Swedish adults who had completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire and were followed up for 17 years through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Death Registers. Results Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and abdominal aortic aneurysm in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analysis. However, adjustment for multiple risk factors attenuated these associations and only a linear, dose-response, association with atrial fibrillation (p(trend)=0.004) and a non-linear association (p(non-linearity)=0.003) with heart failure remained. Compared with no consumption of nuts, the multivariable HRs (95% CI) of atrial fibrillation across categories of nut consumption were 0.97 (0.93 to 1.02) for 1-3 times/month, 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99) for 1-2 times/week and 0.82 (0.68 to 0.99) for 3times/week. For heart failure, the corresponding HRs (95% CI) were 0.87 (0.80 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.67 to 0.97) and 0.98 (0.76 to 1.27). Nut consumption was not associated with risk of aortic valve stenosis, ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. Conclusions These findings suggest that nut consumption or factors associated with this nutritional behaviour may play a role in reducing the risk of atrial fibrillation and possibly heart failure. Trial registration number NCT01127711 and NCT01127698; Results.

  • Johlander, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Gingell, Imogen
    Schwartz, Steven J
    Giles, Barbara L
    Torbert, Roy B
    Russell, Christopher T
    Shock ripples observed by the MMS spacecraft: ion reflection and dispersive properties2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, article id 125006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shock ripples are ion-inertial-scale waves propagating within the front region of magnetized quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks. The ripples are thought to influence particle dynamics and acceleration at shocks. With the four magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, it is for the first time possible to fully resolve the small scale ripples in space. We use observations of one slow crossing of the Earth’s non-stationary bow shock by MMS. From multi-spacecraft measurements we show that the non-stationarity is due to ripples propagating along the shock surface. We find that the ripples are near linearly polarized waves propagating in the coplanarity plane with a phase speed equal to the local Alfvén speed and have a wavelength close to 5 times the upstream ion inertial length. The dispersive properties of the ripples resemble those of Alfvén ion cyclotron waves in linear theory. Taking advantage of the slow crossing by the four MMS spacecraft, we map the shock-reflected ions as a function of ripple phase and distance from the shock. We find that ions are preferentially reflected in regions of the wave with magnetic field stronger than the average overshoot field, while in the regions of lower magnetic field, ions penetrate the shock to the downstream region.

  • Narrowe, Adrienne B.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Integrat Biol, Denver, CO USA.
    Spang, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Utrecht, Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, NIOZ, Dept Marine Microbiol & Biogeochem, Ab Den Burg, Netherlands.
    Stairs, Courtney W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Caceres, Eva F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Baker, Brett J.
    Univ Texas Austin, Marine Sci Inst, Dept Marine Sci, Port Aransas, TX USA.
    Miller, Christopher S.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Integrat Biol, Denver, CO USA.
    Ettema, Thijs J. G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Complex Evolutionary History of Translation Elongation Factor 2 and Diphthamide Biosynthesis in Archaea and Parabasalids2018In: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 2380-2393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diphthamide is a modified histidine residue which is uniquely present in archaeal and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF-2), an essential GTPase responsible for catalyzing the coordinated translocation of tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome. In part due to the role of diphthamide in maintaining translational fidelity, it was previously assumed that diphthamide biosynthesis genes (dph) are conserved across all eukaryotes and archaea. Here, comparative analysis of new and existing genomes reveals that some archaea (i.e., members of the Asgard superphylum, Geoarchaea, and Korarchaeota) and eukaryotes (i.e., parabasalids) lack dph. In addition, while EF-2 was thought to exist as a single copy in archaea, many of these dph-lacking archaeal genomes encode a second EF-2 paralog missing key residues required for diphthamide modification and for normal translocase function, perhaps suggesting functional divergence linked to loss of diphthamide biosynthesis. Interestingly, some Heimdallarchaeota previously suggested to be most closely related to the eukaryotic ancestor maintain dph genes and a single gene encoding canonical EF-2. Our findings reveal that the ability to produce diphthamide, once thought to be a universal feature in archaea and eukaryotes, has been lost multiple times during evolution, and suggest that anticipated compensatory mechanisms evolved independently.

  • Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical quantum confinement and photocatalytic properties in two-, one- and zero-dimensional nanostructures2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 9, article id 180387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-dimensional nanomaterials have been explored extensively in the last decades, partly fuelled by the new possibilities for tuning and controlling their electronic properties. In a broader perspective within catalysis, two-, one- and zero-dimensional (2D, 1D and 0D) inorganic nanomaterials represent a bridge between the selectivity of molecular catalysts and the high performance and stability of inorganic catalysts. As a consequence of the low dimensions, higher surface areas are obtained but also introduce new physics and increased tuneability of the electronic states in the nanostructured system. Herein, we derive the commonly used equations for optical transitions and carrier confinement in semiconductors and discuss their effect on the optical and photocatalytic properties of direct band and indirect band gap materials. In particular, the physical properties of the optical and photocatalytic properties of Fe2O3 and ZnO will be used to exemplify the effects of the low dimensionality. Carrier confinement effects with changes in the density of states, band gap/shift of band edges will be outlined together with their effects on the tuneability of the material and their wider application as photocatalytic materials.

  • Bowles, John F. W.
    et al.
    Univ Manchester, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Cook, Nigel J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem Engn, Adelaide, Australia.
    Sundblad, Krister
    Univ Turku, Dept Geog & Geol, Turku, Finland; St Petersburg State Univ, Inst Earth Sci, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Geol Survey Sweden, Dept Mineral Resources, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deady, Eimear
    Lyell Ctr, British Geol Survey, Res Ave South, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland; Univ Exeter, Camborne Sch Mines, Penryn Campus, Penryn, England.
    Hughes, Hannah S. R.
    Univ Exeter, Camborne Sch Mines, Penryn Campus, Penryn, England.
    Critical-metal mineralogy and ore genesis: contributions from the European Mineralogical Conference held in Rimini, September 20162018In: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 82, p. S1-S4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Testing a Maturity Grid for Assessing Sustainability Reports2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability reporting could be seen as output of sustainability performance management. This paper tests a maturity grid assessing the reporting structure quality of 39 sustainability reports - Are the right sustainability impacts reported and is the performance reported in the right way for easy interpretation? Students and one of the authors carry out the assessment. Results indicate a low level of maturity and that it is difficult to make sense of sustainability reports. Results from carbon emission reporting indicate that only some 10% of the reports provide usable results. A new version of the maturity grid has been proposed.

  • Holgersen, Ståle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stoppa projektism! En essä om klass, stad och politik.2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Segregation, fattigdom, och arbetslöshet är reella problem i svenska städer som inte verkar vilja försvinna av sig självt. Därför kommer politikerna med ständigt nya förslag till hur detta ska förändras; gärna i form av ett innovativt och nytänkande projekt som backas upp av ”ny forskning” eller sista trenden inom offentlig förvaltning. När det ena projektet är slut, börjar nästa. 

    Det finns en tydlig distinktion i dagens stadspolitik: medan rika människor, företag och kapital attraheras genom en kontinuerlig politik, ska fattiga människor och utsatta områden hjälpas genom olika ”projekt”. Denna essä vill diskutera detta i relation till stadspolitikens klasskaraktär.

  • van Dijk, Nico P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Wu, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Digital Volume Correlation using Quartic FEM Interpolation and Global Optimization2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating deformation fields at the microscale of trabecular bone remains challenging because of 1) the complex porous structure, and 2) the large subdomains necessary for reasonable accuracy.

    In this contribution we present a novel Digital Volume Correlation method (DVC) based on a displacements-field interpolation with quartic finite elements, also called 27-node bricks, and a global optimization procedure. This particular choice of interpolation provides for increased freedom of the displacement field in each subvolume and is convenient for overlapping subvolumes for robust solutions.

    The global optimization maximizes the normalized correlation for all subvolumes using the nodal degrees of freedom of the displacement interpolation as design variables and a spline interpolation of the grayscale values. A good starting point for the global optimization procedure is obtained using an initial FFT-based DVC step. This procedure can be executed without any regularization yielding decent results. The results can be improved by adding curvature penalization, similar to the work of Barber and Hose [1].

    The approach has been tested on a number of different benchmark problems using bone samples. For duplicate scans, the accuracy and precision of the proposed DVC technique is comparable to ShIRT-FE as reported by Palanca et al. [2]. Tests on scans of human trabecular bone, taken at the Paul Scherrer Institut, including imposed and actual deformation are ongoing. In Figure 1, the results of such a test is shown using an imposed Gaussian displacement field.

  • Hugosson, Alma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Österberg, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vaccination av barn: Informationens betydelse för föräldrarnas beslut att avstå eller inte från barnvaccinationsprogrammet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Backgrund

    Since the introduction of a national childhood vaccination programme, the vaccine's role in limiting and eliminating virus-based diseases have been scientifically proven and its impact on society has been undeniable. With the success of the vaccination programme, the fear of how dangerous childhood diseases have been diminished. This could lead to the fear no longer acting as a strong enough reason to vaccinate. 

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to investigate how significant information is to parents when deciding whether to refrain or receive vaccination for their child.

    Method

    The literature review is based on eleven scientific original articles published between the years 2004-2018. The article search took place in the CINAHL, PubMed and SveMed+ databases. Original articles were reviewed using quality review templates. The theoretical framework for this study was based on the Health Belief Model and Family Centred Nursing.

    Result

    Information is of utmost importance when deciding to vaccinate. Caregivers are important in the provision of information. It appeared that parents want neutral information with both pros and cons. Parents stated that they gather information from the internet, scientific studies or friends and family. Information may be given in oral or written form. Oral information may be given through both the presentation of facts or discussion. 

    Conclusion

    Information has a significant role in the decision-making process of parents to vaccinate their child. Parents receive information from healthcare, but they also seek information on their own to supplement the information. The information from healthcare needs to be adapted to the persons in question. Given that fair and direct information is provided, that relates to the subject in a credible way, the nurse can demonstrate the central role of the vaccination program in minimizing the risks and maximizing benefits to the child.

  • Schoeps, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Björk, Polina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet på recept och dess effekt på depression: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Depression is a serious health condition which leads to impaired quality of life and elevated suicide risk. Among the courses of treatments today, physical activity is one used against depression. Opinions differs about how effective physical activity is against depression. This motivates a course of action to analyse how well physical activity works as a treatment against depression.Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine which kind of effect, physical exercise has on mental health, when used as a treatment towards adults (18-65) and elderly (65+) with depressionMethod. A literature study on already published studies in the given area. 15 articles were chosen. Seven about adults aged 18-64 and eight about elderly aged 65. 14 of the articles were RCT studies and one was an observation study.Results. For the elderly population (65+) with depression, four out of eight articles showed a positive outcome on mental health, when physical activity was implemented. In the case of adults (18-64) six out of seven articles showed a positive outcome on mental health when physical activity was applied. No significant effect on depression was observed in the articles for adults (18-64).Conclusions. Physical activity is shown to produce a positive effect on mental health on elderly (65+) with depression, when used together with another form of treatment. For example, pharmaceuticals or meditation. When physical activity is used as the only form of treatment on depression in elderly, the evidence is shown to be lacking a positive effect on mental health. Among the adult population (18-64), evidence of moderate standard shows that physical activity, has a positive effect on mental health on people with depression. When used together with another treatment the effect was even greater. Even if physical activity doesn’t get the desired effect on mental health in people with depression, it should still be used as a treatment in order to get the other several healthy benefits.

  • Rondahl, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hagberg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    När hjärtat stannar, en andra chans: Patienter och närståendes upplevelse av ett hjärtstopp2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of patients suffering from a cardiac arrest and survives increases every year. With this, relatives are also an increasing group. There is a need to investigate how patients and their relatives experience a cardiac arrest.

    Aim: The purpose was to investigate how patients and relatives experienced a cardiac arrest and whether there was something in the aftercare that the patients lacked.

    Method: A literature study has been made with 12 qualitative original articles, seven of which were from a patient perspective, four from a relative’s perspective and one from a perspective of both. Quality assurance and a performance analysis were made using a qualitative method.

    Result: The result was presented in four categories and eight subcategories. The results showed that patients and relatives experienced worry and anxiety, but also gratefulness and joy after the cardiac arrest. Patients and relatives experienced the importance of information and support from healthcare as well as receiving support from relatives and friends. Both experienced that life changed but that they had a desire to return to the life before the cardiac arrest. Patients felt guilty of what they put their relatives through and relatives felt they set aside themselves. The patients experienced bodily changes, both physical and mental.

    Conclusion: Patients and close relatives experienced worry and anxiety as well as joy and hope after the cardiac arrest. Both patient and related experienced similar emotions, so it is important to follow up on both parties in aftercare. More research in the area of ​​how patients and relatives are experiencing a cardiac arrest is needed.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-21 13:15 Humanistiska teatern, Uppsala
    Schumann, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Vilken mening!?: En blandad metodstudie i religionspsykologi av meningsskapandets betydelse för skolungdomar2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the role of religion in the development of a meaning system among Swedish adolescents by examining the interactions of their: sense of coherence (SOC), identity process (U-MICS), moral development (SRM-SF), and views on existential and religious questions.

    The study used a Mixed Methods Design, with a Sequential Explanatory Strategy consisting of quantitative and qualitative parts. In the quantitative part of the study, 90 students in 8th grade, 50 girls and 40 boys, participated. The qualitative part of the study consisted of 24 semi-structured interviews drawn from the original group.

    According to the results, there was a relation between SOC and the following variables in the identity process (U-MICS): commitment to school and reconsideration of commitment to friends, and commitment to school and perception of the importance of religion. The SOC value among girls was significantly lower than among boys. The results did not indicate a significant relationship between moral development, SOC values, and the religious variables.

    In the qualitative interview results, the participants in the commitment phase relating to school expressed more satisfaction with their school situations and relationships than those who were predominantly in the reconsideration of commitment phase. Those with a higher level of commitment to school were also more likely to express the view that religion was important in life. Interview material showed that those young people who expressed the belief that religion was important in life today or believed that religion constituted a potential future source of strength dominated the group with higher SOC. The results served to reinforce theoretical perspectives on the meaning-making function of religion. The study results suggest that safe and trustful relationships with peers and adults related closely to SOC values among these adolescents and were singled out as their most important sources of strength and support in life.

  • Markström, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nordin, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och diabetes typ 2: En litteraturöversikt om forskningsläget kring motivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Background

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing all over the world and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common one. The main reason for this expansion are increasing body weight and the lack of exercise. Exercise is a main part in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite awareness of the importance of physical activity among diabetic patients, the desired amount is not achieved.

    Aim

    This study examined which methods that have been studied with the aim to promote physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the effect of these.

    Method

    A literature review with a systematic approach based on 16 scientific original articles from the database Cinahl and Pubmed.

    Results

    The interventions aiming to increase physical activity are presented in six categories; group interventions, motivation based on Transtheoretical model (TTM), motivational support discussion, technical aids, rewards and goals. There is some evidence that the support from other individuals in a group or individually, with an adapting period to self-management, is most effective in maintaining a lifestyle change. Use of technical aids like web-based interventions also seem effective, whether they are effective on a long term is still unknown.

    Conclusion

    The results shows that there are several methods to motivate people with type 2 diabetes to increase their levels of exercise. The difficulty lies in determining the long term effect of the methods, and thereby the methods that leads to continued training after the end of the intervention, which calls for further research in this area.

  • Ronström, Owe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Revival in retrospect: The folk music and folk dance revival1998In: ECTC Bulletin, ISSN 1219-8315, no 4, p. 39-42Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-12-21 13:15 Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Blomqvist, Björn Rune Helmer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Gaussian process models of social change2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social systems produce complex and nonlinear relationships in the indicator variables that describe them. Traditional statistical regression techniques are commonly used in the social sciences to study such systems. These techniques, such as standard linear regression, can prevent the discovery of the complex underlying mechanisms and rely too much on the expertise and prior beliefs of the data analyst. In this thesis, we present two methodologies that are designed to allow the data to inform us about these complex relations and provide us with interpretable models of the dynamics.

    The first methodology is a Bayesian approach to analysing the relationship between indicator variables by finding the parametric functions that best describe their interactions. The parametric functions with the highest model evidence are found by fitting a large number of potential models to the data using Bayesian linear regression and comparing their respective model evidence. The methodology is computationally fast due to the use of conjugate priors, and this allows for inference on large sets of models. The second methodology is based on a Gaussian processes framework and is designed to overcome the limitations of the first modelling approach. This approach balances the interpretability of more traditional parametric statistical methods with the predictability and flexibility of non-parametric Gaussian processes.

    This thesis contains four papers where we apply the methodologies to both real-life problems in the social sciences as well as on synthetic data sets. In paper I, the first methodology (Bayesian linear regression) is applied to the classic problem of how democracy and economic development interact. In paper II and IV, we apply the second methodology (Gaussian processes) to study changes in the political landscape and demographic shifts in Sweden in the last decades. In paper III, we apply the second methodology on a synthetic data set to perform parameter estimation on complex dynamical systems.

    List of papers
    1. Using Bayesian dynamical systems, model averaging and neural networks to determine interactions between socio-economic indicators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Bayesian dynamical systems, model averaging and neural networks to determine interactions between socio-economic indicators
    2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, article id e0196355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Social and economic systems produce complex and nonlinear relationships in the indicator variables that describe them. We present a Bayesian methodology to analyze the dynamical relationships between indicator variables by identifying the nonlinear functions that best describe their interactions. We search for the 'best' explicit functions by fitting data using Bayesian linear regression on a vast number of models and then comparing their Bayes factors. The model with the highest Bayes factor, having the best trade-off between explanatory power and interpretability, is chosen as the 'best' model. To be able to compare a vast number of models, we use conjugate priors, resulting in fast computation times. We check the robustness of our approach by comparison with more prediction oriented approaches such as model averaging and neural networks. Our modelling approach is illustrated using the classical example of how democracy and economic growth relate to each other. We find that the best dynamical model for democracy suggests that long term democratic increase is only possible if the economic situation gets better. No robust model explaining economic development using these two variables was found.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-359665 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0196355 (DOI)000431757400027 ()29742126 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Explaining and predicting the rise of a radical right-wing party using Gaussian processes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining and predicting the rise of a radical right-wing party using Gaussian processes
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364653 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-10-30
    3. Model selection and parameter estimation of complex dynamical systems using semi-parametric Gaussian processes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model selection and parameter estimation of complex dynamical systems using semi-parametric Gaussian processes
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Mathematics
    Research subject
    Mathematics with specialization in Applied Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364652 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-10-30
    4. Last night in Sweden? Using Gaussian processes to study changing demographics at the level of municipalities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Last night in Sweden? Using Gaussian processes to study changing demographics at the level of municipalities
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364654 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-10-30
  • López, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Filho, Luimar Correa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Cogrel, Mathilde
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Morphology and adhesion of silicon nitride coatings upon soaking in fetal bovine serum2018In: 15th International Symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering and 3rd Conference on Imaging and Visualization, Lisbon, March 26-29, 2018 / [ed] P. R. Fernandes and J. M. Tavares, 2018, article id 116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total hip joint replacements are considered successful in providing patients with close- to-normal lives; however, revision surgeries still represent an individual and socioeconomic burden due to wear and failure of the implants, which occurs at a rate of 3-10% at 10 years. Therefore, eorts are being made to increase the lifespan of articial prostheses. Because of the impossibility to avoid wear debris, functional silicon nitride coatings are being developed due their low wearing, particle solubility and good biological response. However, a compromise needs to be found between coating reactivity and durability.

    A HIPIMS process was used to sputter a CrN interlayer followed by a SiNx top layer using 1- and 3-fold rotation in an industrial deposition system (CemeCon AG, Würselen, Germany). In order to measure the adhesion of the coatings to the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum substrates a scratch test was used, consisting of generating a scratch with a Rockwell C diamond stylus, at an increasing load from 0 to 100 N, at a displacement rate of 6mm/min. The samples were immersed in 25% fetal bovine serum solution to mimic synovial joint uid and scratched aer 0, 1, 3, 6 weeks periods in this solution. The cross-section of the coatings was assessed through Focused Ion Beam at 30kV for milling and 5kV for secondary electron imaging of the surface.

    The coatings demonstrated a high nitrogen content, previously shown to be benecial in terms of low dissolution rates. The deposition conditions and coating morphology were found to have an eect on the dissolution rate and thereby also the spallation failure of the coatings. These results are informative for the further development of these coatings into parts of functional 3D implants. 

  • Nyman, Josefina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindström, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vem ska ha vad?: - en enkätstudie med skolsköterskor omderas inställningar kring arbetet med HPV2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Brengdahl, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Axiokrati och dess kriterier: En begreppsanalys av Meritokrati2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meritocracy is a much-debated concept in both academia and society in general. Previous

    studies mostly defined meritocracy in terms of talent and effort. However, even if there exists

    an academic acceptance of the complexity and the multitude of dimensions of meritocracy in

    general, little has been said about the cultural prerequisites of meritocracy. This shows a need

    to be explicit about exactly what is meant by the term ‘meritocracy’. This paper aims to share

    new light on prerequisites of meritocracy with the help of Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological

    studies of symbolic capital, with the backdrop understanding of Adam Smith’s theory on

    necessities. Furthermore, the study aims by adopting a reflexive approach of Bourdieu’s

    theories, to construct a new theoretical framework, set out to define the phenomena of

    meritocracy and its cultural prerequisites.

  • Cubas, Miriam
    et al.
    University of York, York, UK; Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Donostia, San Sebastian, Spain.
    Peyroteo Stjerna, Rita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Fontanals-Coll, Maria
    University of York, York, UK.
    Llorente-Rodríguez, Laura
    Universiteit Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Lucquin, Alexandre
    University of York, York, UK.
    Craig, Oliver Edward
    University of York, York, UK.
    Colonese, André Carlo
    University of York, York, UK.
    Long-term dietary change in Atlantic and Mediterranean Iberia with the introduction of agriculture: a stable isotope perspective2018In: Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, ISSN 1866-9557, E-ISSN 1866-9565, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neolithic expansion in the Iberian Peninsula is marked by the introduction of livestock and domesticated crops which modified subsistence strategies in an unprecedented manner. Bulk collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis has been essential to track these changes, which have largely been discussed in relation to particular geographic areas or single case studies. This paper reviews the available isotope literature to provide a regional, long-term synthesis of dietary changes associated with the expansion of the Neolithic and the establishment of farming economy in the Iberian Peninsula. Bulk collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of 763 human individuals and 283 faunal remains from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic period in Iberia (ca. 8000–3000 cal BC) were collated and analysed using a Bayesian mixing model. The results show that Mesolithic diets were isotopically diverse in both the Atlantic and Mediterranean regions of the Iberian Peninsula, and that a significant decrease in variability happened with the Neolithisation, culminating with the establishment of farming economies and reliance on terrestrial resources in the Late Neolithic.

  • Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Shrestha, Amendra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Berggren, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Obaidi, Milan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cohen, Katie
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Assessment of risk in written communication: Introducing the Profile Risk Assessment Tool (PRAT)2018Report (Other academic)
  • Klingberg, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Önskemuseer: En undersökning av två kompletteringprojekt drivna av Moderna museet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the processes behind two of Moderna museets complementary projects: The Museum of Wishes and The Second Museum of Wishes. The purpose of this study is to, by using these projects, examine the connection between collections and collectors, and to examine the relationship between museums, complements of the collection and representation. The aim is to compare the projects and find out if there were different reasons, methods or other significant factors that might have affected the processes. I intend to explain how these projects can be understood as a practice of complementary collecting by relating them both to collection theory and representation.

    My theoretical framework primarily consist of Susan Pearce’s research. I have chosen to incorporate her concepts of the poetics of collecting, the politics of collecting and the importance of earlier collected experience in my comparative study of the projects. In addition, I have also incorporated research about categories with the intention of relating it to Pearce. By studying literature that discusses the historical aspect of the projects, as well as articles, catalogues and documents that were contemporary with the projects, I have been able to compare the backgrounds as well as ideologies that might have influenced the projects.

    The result of this study shows that although there were many differences between the methods and processes, the art works that were collected during the projects can both be interpreted as a physical changing of the collection, a changing of the structure of the collection and a changing of the identity of the museum. What the museum gathered during the projects didn’t just represent what the organizer thought the museum needed, but can also be understood as a way of changing the standard of the collection in order to be able to compete with other museums or gathering more knowledge.

    This study is a two years master’s thesis in Museums and Cultural and Heritage Studies.

  • Grazioli, Davide
    et al.
    Zadin, Vahur
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Simone, Angelo
    Electrochemical-mechanical modeling of solid polymer electrolytes: Stress development and non-uniform electric current density in trench geometry microbatteries2018In: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of mechanical stresses arising in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion (Li-ion) solid-state batteries. Time-dependent finite element analyses of interdigitated plate cells during a discharge process are performed with a constitutive model that couples ionic conduction within the SPE with its deformation field. Due to the coupled nature of the processes taking place in the SPE, the non-uniform ionic concentration profiles that develop during the discharge process induce stresses and deformations within the SPE; at the same time the mechanical loads applied to the cell affect the charge conduction path. Results of a parametric study show that stresses induced by ionic redistribution favor ionic transport and enhance cell conductivity—up to a 15% increase compared to the solution obtained with a purely electrochemical model. We observe that, when the contribution of the mechanical stresses is included in the simulations, the localization of the electric current density at the top of the electrode plates is more pronounced compared to the purely electrochemical model. This suggests that electrode utilization, a limiting factor for the design of three-dimensional battery architectures, depends on the stress field that develops in the SPE. The stress level is indeed significant, and mechanical failure of the polymer might occur during service.

  • Grazioli, Davide
    et al.
    Verners, Osvalds
    Zadin, Vahur
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Simone, Angelo
    Electrochemical-mechanical modeling of solid polymer electrolytes: Impact of mechanical stresses on Li-ion battery performance2018In: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the effects of mechanical stresses arising in a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) on the electrochemical performance of the electrolyte component of a lithium ion battery. The SPE is modeled with a coupled ionic conduction-deformation model that allows to investigate the effect of mechanical stresses induced by the redistribution of ions. The analytical solution is determined for a uniform planar cell operating under galvanostatic conditions with and without externally induced deformations. The roles of the polymer stiffness, internally-induced stresses, and thickness of the SPE layer are investigated. The results show that the predictions of the coupled model can strongly deviate from those obtained with an electrochemical model—up to +38% in terms of electrostatic potentialdifference across the electrolyte layer—depending on the combination of material properties and geometrical features. The predicted stress level in the SPE is considerable as it exceeds the threshold experimentally detected for irreversible deformation or fracture to occur in cells not subjected to external loading. We show that stresses induced by external solicitations can reduce the concentration gradient of ions across the electrolyte thickness and prevent salt depletion at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  • Liao, Qinghua
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Kulkarni, Yashraj
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Sengupta, Ushnish
    Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.
    Petrovic, Dusan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Mulholland, Adrian J.
    University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    van der Kamp, Marc W.
    University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Strodel, Birgit
    Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.
    Kamerlin, Shina C. Lynn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Loop Motion in Triosephosphate Isomerase Is Not a Simple Open and Shut Case2018In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, p. 15889-15903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformational changes are crucial for the catalytic action of many enzymes. A prototypical and well-studied example is loop opening and closure in triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), which is thought to determine the rate of catalytic turnover in many circumstances. Specifically, TIM loop 6 “grips” the phosphodianion of the substrate and, together with a change in loop 7, sets up the TIM active site for efficient catalysis. Crystal structures of TIM typically show an open or a closed conformation of loop 6, with the tip of the loop moving ∼7 Å between conformations. Many studies have interpreted this motion as a two-state, rigid-body transition. Here, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations, with both conventional and enhanced sampling techniques, to analyze loop motion in apo and substrate-bound TIM in detail, using five crystal structures of the dimeric TIM from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that loop 6 is highly flexible and samples multiple conformational states. Empirical valence bond simulations of the first reaction step show that slight displacements away from the fully closed-loop conformation can be sufficient to abolish most of the catalytic activity; full closure is required for efficient reaction. The conformational change of the loops in TIM is thus not a simple “open and shut” case and is crucial for its catalytic action. Our detailed analysis of loop motion in a highly efficient enzyme highlights the complexity of loop conformational changes and their role in biological catalysis.

  • Megyesi, Beáta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Granstedt, Lena
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Prentice, Julia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosen, Dan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schenström, Carl-Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Gunlög
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wiren, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Volodina, Elena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Learner Corpus Anonymization in the Age of GDPR: Insights from the Creation of a Learner Corpus of Swedish2018In: Proceedings of the 7th NLP4CALL, Stockholm, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the status of learner corpus anonymization for the ongoing research infrastructure project SweLL. The main project aim is to deliver and make available for research a well-annotated corpus of essays written by second language (L2) learners of Swedish. As the practice shows, annotation of learner texts is a sensitive process demanding a lot of compromises between ethical and legal demands on the one hand, and research and technical demands, on the other. Below, is a concise description of the current status of pseudonymization of language learner data to ensure anonymity of the learners, with numerous examples of the above-mentioned compromises.

  • Moberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Evaluation of an equine-optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of serum insulin in canine and feline samples2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insulin is an important hormone for glucose homeostasis. It is released from β-cells in the endocrine pancreas as a response to increased concentrations of plasma glucose. The major effect of insulin is the facilitation of cellular uptake and storage of glucose as glycogen. Insulinomas are tumours that produce excessive amounts of insulin resulting in hypoglycaemia. The condition has been observed in dogs and cats and is often malignant. One part of establishing the diagnosis is confirmation of elevated concentrations of insulin in a hypoglycaemic sample.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate if an equine-optimized insulin ELISA (Mercodia AB, Uppsala, Sweden) is useful for analysis of insulin in canine and feline serum samples when insulinoma is suspected.

    Material and methods: All samples were analysed with Equine insulin ELISA. Precision, linearity and effects of haemolysis were studied. The stability of insulin was evaluated after storage in 4°C, room temperature and after repeated freezing and thawing. A reference interval was constructed for both canine and feline samples.

    Results: Total precision expressed as CV was 4.4 – 18.9 %. The method was linear up to at least 100 mU/L for dogs and 15 mU/L for cats. Reference interval for cats was <11.6 mU/L, due to few healthy animals no reference interval for dogs could be established. Stability was acceptable for up to four days. No effects of haemolysis were detected.

    Conclusion: Mercodia Equine insulin ELISA is suitable for analysis of insulin in serum from dogs and cats when suspecting insulinoma.

  • Obaid, Marina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    The Expression, Purification and Characterization of Ebola Virion Protein 24 and Karyopherin Alpha 52018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ebolavirus (EBOV) is a single stranded RNA virus that causes haemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals. The EBOV encodes 7 proteins, NP, L, VP30, VP35, VP40, GP and VP24. VP24 is believed to be one of the EBOV proteins that causes the extreme virulence of the pathogen. The protein blocks the interaction between PY-STAT1 and KPNA, a protein that is involved in the import of PY-STAT1 into the nucleus. The nuclear import of PYSTAT1 is therefore blocked. This leads to the inhibition of IFN signalling. The purpose of this study was to express and purify VP24 and KPNA5. The proteins recombinantly expressed as a fusion tag in E. coli in lysogeny broth. Purification of VP24 was done using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, size exclusion chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the protein was analysed using circular dichroism. The results obtained from this study showed that VP24 could be purified in pH 10 buffers with little loss of protein due to aggregation and the protein was folded with an alphahelical structure. The expression and purification of KPNA5 was more complicated and further evaluation is left for future studies. The established protocol for expression and purification of VP24 and the initial work on KPNA5 will go a long way to aiding future studies on the system, thus the answer to the question regarding the extreme virulence of EBOV will be closer.