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  • Veldman, Sarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 2, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands.;Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Otieno, Joseph N.
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Inst Tradit Med, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Lammers, Youri
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 2, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands..
    Duijm, Elza
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 2, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands..
    Nieman, Aline
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 2, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands..
    Bytebier, Benny
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Life Sci, Pr Bag X01, ZA-3209 Scottsville, South Africa..
    Ngugi, Grace
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Life Sci, Pr Bag X01, ZA-3209 Scottsville, South Africa..
    Martos, Florent
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Life Sci, Pr Bag X01, ZA-3209 Scottsville, South Africa..
    van Andel, Tinde R.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 2, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ & Res, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 2, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands.;Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, POB 1172, N-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    High-throughput sequencing of African chikanda cake highlights conservation challenges in orchids2017In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 26, no 9, 2029-2046 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chikanda is a traditional dish made with wild-harvested ground orchid tubers belonging to three orchidioid genera, Disa, Satyrium and Habenaria, all of which are CITES appendix II-listed. Identification of collected orchid tubers is very difficult and documentation of constituent species in prepared chikanda has hitherto been impossible. Here amplicon metabarcoding was used in samples of six prepared chikanda cakes to study genetic sequence diversity and species diversity in this product. Molecular operational taxonomic unit identification using similarity-matching reveals that species of all three genera were present in the chikanda samples studied. Disa was present in all of the samples, Satyrium in five out of six and Habenaria in one of the samples, as well as a number of other plants. The fact that each sample contained orchids and the presence of a wide variety of species from all genera in this traditional dish raise serious concerns about the sustainability of this trade and the future of wild orchid populations in the main harvest areas. This proof-of-concept study shows that Ion-Torrent PGM is a cost-effective scalable platform for metabarcoding using the relatively long nrITS1 and nrITS2 regions. Furthermore, nrITS metabarcoding can be successfully used for the detection of specific ingredients in a highly-processed food product at genus level, and this makes it a useful tool in the detection of possible conservation issues arising from commercialized trade or processed plant products.

  • Radic, Vesna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Development of cell culture assays for identification of potential Zika virus inhibitors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2017-11-24 09:15 ITC 1211, Uppsala
    Liu, Chenjuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Exploration of Non-Aqueous Metal-O2 Batteries via In Operando X-ray Diffraction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-aqueous metal-air (Li-O2 and Na-O2) batteries have been emerging as one of the most promising high-energy storage systems to meet the requirements for demanding applications due to their high theoretical specific energy. In the present thesis work, advanced characterization techniques are demonstrated for the exploration of metal-O2 batteries. Prominently, the electrochemical reactions occurring within the Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries upon cycling are studied by in operando powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

    In the first part, a new in operando cell with a combined form of coin cell and pouch cell is designed. In operando synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) is applied to investigate the evolution of Li2O2 inside the Li-O2 cells with carbon and Ru-TiC cathodes. By quantitatively tracking the Li2O2 evolution, a two-step process during growth and oxidation is observed.

    This newly developed analysis technique is further applied to the Na-O2 battery system. The formation of NaO2 and the influence of the electrolyte salt are followed quantitatively by in operando SR-PXD. The results indicate that the discharge capacity of Na-O2 cells containing a weak solvating ether solvent depends heavily on the choice of the conducting salt anion, which also has impact on the growth of NaO2 particles.

    In addition, the stability of the discharge product in Na-O2 cells is studied. Using both ex situ and in operando XRD, the influence of sodium anode, solvent, salt and oxygen on the stability of NaO2 are quantitatively identified. These findings bring new insights into the understanding of conflicting observations of different discharge products in previous studies.

    In the last part, a binder-free graphene based cathode concept is developed for Li-O2 cells. The formation of discharge products and their decomposition upon charge, as well as different morphologies of the discharge products on the electrode, are demonstrated. Moreover, considering the instability of carbon based cathode materials, a new type of titanium carbide on carbon cloth cathode is designed and fabricated. With a surface modification by loading Ru nanoparticles, the titanium carbide shows enhanced oxygen reduction/evolution activity and stability. Compared with the carbon based cathode materials, titanium carbide demonstrated a higher discharge and charge efficiency.

    List of papers
    1. Towards an Understanding of Li2O2 Evolution in Li–O2Batteries: An In Operando Synchrotron X-ray DiffractionStudy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards an Understanding of Li2O2 Evolution in Li–O2Batteries: An In Operando Synchrotron X-ray DiffractionStudy
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    2017 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, 1592-1599 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330768 (URN)10.1002/cssc.201601718 (DOI)
    Projects
    Li-air batteries
    Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-06
    2. Free Standing Ru-TiC Nanowire Array/Carbon Textile Cathode with Enhanced Stability for Li-O2 Batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free Standing Ru-TiC Nanowire Array/Carbon Textile Cathode with Enhanced Stability for Li-O2 Batteries
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330773 (URN)
    Projects
    Li-air batteries
    Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-06
    3. Growth of NaO2 in Highly Efficient Na–O2 Batteries Revealed by Synchrotron In Operando X-ray Diffraction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth of NaO2 in Highly Efficient Na–O2 Batteries Revealed by Synchrotron In Operando X-ray Diffraction
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    2017 (English)In: ACS Energy Letters, E-ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 2, 2440-2444 p.Article in journal, News item (Other academic) Published
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330766 (URN)10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00768 (DOI)
    Projects
    Na-air batteries
    Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Insights into the Stability of Discharge Products in Na-O2 Batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into the Stability of Discharge Products in Na-O2 Batteries
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330776 (URN)
    Projects
    Na-air batteries
    Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-11
    5. 3-D binder-free graphene foam as cathode for high capacity Li-O2 batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>3-D binder-free graphene foam as cathode for high capacity Li-O2 batteries
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 25, 9767-9773 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To provide energy densities higher than those of conventional Li-ion batteries, a Li–O2 battery requires a cathode with high surface area to host large amounts of discharge product Li2O2. Therefore, reversible formation of discharge products needs to be investigated in Li–O2 cells containing high surface area cathodes. In this study, a binder-free oxygen electrode consisting of a 3-D graphene structure on aluminum foam, with a high defect level (ID/IG = 1.38), was directly used as the oxygen electrode in Li– O2 batteries, delivering a high capacity of about 9 *104 mA h g-1 (based on the weight of graphene) at the first full discharge using a current density of 100 mA ggraphene-1 . This performance is attributed to the 3-D porous structure of graphene foam providing both an abundance of available space for the deposition of discharge products and a high density of reactive sites for Li–O2 reactions. Furthermore, the formation of discharge products with different morphologies and their decomposition upon charge were observed by SEM. Some nanoscaled LiOH particles embedded in the toroidal Li2O2 were detected by XRD and visualized by TEM. The amount of Li2O2 formed at the end of discharge was revealed by a titration method combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis. 

    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-291383 (URN)10.1039/C5TA10690G (DOI)000378716900008 ()
    Conference
    Inorganic Days, Visby, June 15 - 17, 2015
    Projects
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyÅngpanneföreningen’s Foundation for Research and DevelopmentJ. Gust. Richert FoundationState Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals (KF1413)China Scholarship Council
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-4681; 2011-6512Swedish Energy AgencyÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)
    Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2017-10-06Bibliographically approved
    6. Ink-jet printed highly conductive pristine graphene patterns achieved with water-based ink and aqueous doping processing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ink-jet printed highly conductive pristine graphene patterns achieved with water-based ink and aqueous doping processing
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    2017 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 114, 77-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report an efficient inkjet printing of water-based pristine GNPs graphene ink and a facile aqueous halogen doping process that provides significant and thermally stable conductivity enhancement of printed patterns. Highly concentrated aqueous graphene ink populated by few-layer pristine graphene flakes is obtained by means of scalable shear exfoliation process with the aid of bromine intercalation. The as-printed GNP films which has been merely treated by drying at 100 degrees C exhibits DC conductivity (sigma(DC)) of similar to 1400 S/m likely due to bromine doping effect. This value is significantly increased to similar to 3 x 10(4) S/m when an additional treatment by means of dipping in aqueous iodine solution is applied prior to the drying. As contrast, sigma(DC) is increased to similar to 2.4 x 10(4) S/m when a mere annealing at elevated temperature in air is employed. When the aqueous iodine doping process and annealing at elevated temperature is combined, an unprecedented value of sigma(DC) similar to 10(5) S/m is achieved. The availability of water-based GNPs inks and low-temperature doping scheme for efficient and reliable conductivity enhancement has offered a pathway for the application of GNPs in different printed electronics devices.

    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317574 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2016.12.003 (DOI)000393249600010 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , Dnr SE13-0061
    Available from: 2017-03-22 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2017-10-06Bibliographically approved
    7. Constraining Si Particles within Graphene Foam Monolith: Interfacial Modification for High-Performance Li+ Storage and Flexible Integrated Configuration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constraining Si Particles within Graphene Foam Monolith: Interfacial Modification for High-Performance Li+ Storage and Flexible Integrated Configuration
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    2016 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 37, 6797-6806 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Pulverization of electrode materials and loss of electrical contact have been identified as the major causes for the performance deterioration of alloy anodes in Li-ion batteries. This study presents the hierarchical arrangement of spatially confining silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) within graphene foam (GF) for alleviating these issues. Through a freeze-drying method, the highly oriented GF monolith is engineered to fully encapsulate the Si NPs, serving not only as a robust framework with the well-accessible thoroughfares for electrolyte percolation but also a physical blocking layer to restrain Si from direct exposure to the electrolyte. In return, the pillar effect of Si NPs prevents the graphene sheets from restacking while preserving the highly efficient electron/Li+ transport channels. When evaluated as a binder-free anode, impressive cycle performance is realized in both half-cell and full-cell configurations. Operando X-ray diffraction and in-house X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the pivotal protection of GF to sheathe the most volume-expanded lithiated phase (Li15Si4) at room temperature. Furthermore, a free-standing composite film is developed through readjusting the pore size in GF/Si monolith and directly integrated with nanocellulose membrane (NCM) separator. Because of the good electrical conductivity and structural integrity of the GF monolith as well as the flexibility of the NCM separator, the as-developed GF/Si-NCM electrode showcases the potential use in the flexible electronic devices.

    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306736 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201602324 (DOI)000384810300011 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council, 2012-4681StandUpSwedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2017-10-06Bibliographically approved
    8. Encasing Si particles within a versatile TiO2−xFx layer as an extremely reversible anode for high energy-density lithium-ion battery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Encasing Si particles within a versatile TiO2−xFx layer as an extremely reversible anode for high energy-density lithium-ion battery
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    2016 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 30, 745-755 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical phenomena occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces profoundly determine the cycle behavior of a lithium ion battery. In this work, we report that silicon-based anodes can attain enhanced levels of capacity retention, rate performance and lifespan when a versatile protective layer of, F-doped anatase (TiO2−xFx), is applied towards taming the interfacial chemistry of the silicon particles. With careful choice of titanium fluoride as a precursor, internal voids can be generated upon in-situ fluoride etching of the native oxide layer and are used to alleviate the mechanical stress caused by volume expansion of silicon during cycling. In the course of F-doping, part of the Ti4+(d0) ions in anatase are reduced to Ti3+(d1), thereby increasing charge carriers in the crystal structure. Hence, the multifunctional F-doped TiO2−x coating, not only minimizes the direct exposure of the Si surface to the electrolyte, but also improves the electronic conductivity via inter-valence electron hopping. The best-performing composite electrode, Si@TiO2−xFx-3, delivered a satisfactory performance in both half-cell and full-cell configurations. Furthermore, we present a study of 1) the Si valence change at the buried interface using synchrotron based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and 2) the phase transformation of the electrode monitored in operando using X-ray diffraction. Based on these characterizations, we observe that the Li+ conducting intermediate phase (LixTiO2−xFx) formed inside the surface coating enables deep lithiation and delithiation of the silicon during battery operation, and thus increase the capacity that can be accessed from the electrodes.

    Keyword
    Si anode, Versatile interfacial layer, Operando X-ray Diffraction, Kinetic activation, High energy-density
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311358 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.09.026 (DOI)000390636100085 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council, 2012-4681StandUpSwedish Energy AgencyKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Note

    The second and third author contributed equally to this work

    Available from: 2016-12-24 Created: 2016-12-24 Last updated: 2017-10-06Bibliographically approved
  • Hashi, Hassina Abdullahi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Effectiveness of mass drug administration for reducing seasonal malaria transmission towards its elimination in hotspot areas in Zanzibar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Following the increase of international funding for implementation of the combined effective malaria control strategies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment in the past decades, a significant reduction with 30% of malaria attributed morbidity and mortality has been achieved. At present, declining transmission intensities, in areas of successful malaria control, have resulted in a relative increase of asymptomatic low parasite density infections that fall below the detection level of rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy.

    Mass drug administration (MDA) is a treatment of the entire population in a geographic area with antimalarial drugs irrespective of the presence of symptoms and without diagnostic testing, with the purpose of targeting asymptomatic malarial infections.

     

    Aim: The overall purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of two rounds of MDA for reducing malaria transmission on Unguja island in Zanzibar.

     

    Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled study with two arms was performed: an arm with two rounds of MDA, and a control arm without MDA. A total of 7941 field samples from the first MDA round and 9853 samples four months after the second round of MDA were screened. Two different sets of qPCRs, 18Sq-PCR and cytb-qPCR were used to detect the positivity of Plasmodium infection. The species were further identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

     

    Results: Cytb-qPCR detected more positive samples compared to 18S-qPCR. The qPCR determined malaria prevalence six months after the second MDA round was 1.7%. P. falciparum was the predominant species accounting for 64.6% and 63.3% from first MDA round and four month after second round of MDA respectively. From the first MDA round, the prevalence of P. malariae and P. vivax was 15.4% with 0.6% respectively. The parasite prevalence in the second round of MDA was: 10.8 % in P. malariae, 7.2 % in P. ovale and 0.6 % in P. vivax.

     

    Conclusion: There is still a presence of asymptomatic low-density parasite carriers and the parasite prevalence remains relatively low in Zanzibar. MDA can be effective in low endemic settings when the goal is elimination.

  • Cheng Herelius, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Skorstenprojektets lokalitet och globalitet: Jan Svenungssons skulpturer i en postindustriell tid2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ädling, Terese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Uppsala växer: Plan- och byggnadsnämndens påverkan på innerstadens estetik under 2010-talet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has two purposes. The first purpose is to investigate how politicians, in the Planning- and Buildingcommitee, affect the aesthetics of buildings in Uppsala city center. The second purpose is to document the thoughts of politicians and officials about how politicians acted during the process.

     

    The overall method of work is a case study based on qualitative interviews. The interviewees are members of the current Planning and Buildingcommitee and officals who are or have been employed by the City Planning Administration. The case is; the impact of the Planning and Building Board on the aesthetics of buildings in Uppsala city center.

     

    The result shows that politicians have had an influence on the facades and volumes of buildings, and a number of examples of buildings that have been affected are provided. Due to the nature of the influence and the method's risk of subjectivity, it has not been possible to identify the impact in detail.

  • Ekstrand, Emelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Mecillinam Resistance in E. coli: fitness, compensation, and resistance in different environments 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria threatens the modern health care and challenges the therapeutic effects of available antibiotics. The b-lactam mecillinam (Mec) is an exception to this due to a stable clinical resistance prevalence resistance of approximately 3%. It is only used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), mainly caused by E. coli.

    Mecillinam resistance (MecR) is easily selected for in laboratory settings and linked to >40 genes, including the mrdA gene encoding the Mec target penicillin-binding protein 2. A majority of the known MecR mutations confer a severe fitness cost. Fitness is important for bacteria to survive in the bladder and clinical isolates have been shown to have high fitness. These isolates contain loss-of-function mutations in the cysB gene, which encode a positive regulator of cysteine biosynthesis. In a previous evolution experiment, fitness cost of cysB and mrdA MecR mutations was compensated and the compensatory mutations were identified. Here the compensatory mutations were reconstructed into wildtype (WT) E. coli strain MG1655, and cysB and mrdA backgrounds to study the impact of the mutations on resistance and fitness, using MIC tests and Bioscreen C assays.

    Our results show that the mrdA mutants only had partial fitness compensation (significantly lower fitness than WT) for all strains and all strains also increased their MecR. The low fitness is possibly an explanation for the lack of mrdA mutants outside laboratories. Of the clinically relevant cysB mutants the majority lost their resistance when increasing growth rate, some even to levels significantly higher than WT, indicating that DcysB mutations are easier to compensate for. One strain (ydjNmx2) however, had a significantly higher growth rate while remaining clinically MecR

  • Public defence: 2017-11-24 13:00 Polhemsalen, 752 37 Uppsala
    Kamf, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Automated Production Technologies and Measurement Systems for Ferrite Magnetized Linear Generators2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in breaking the historical dependence on fossil energy and begin moving towards more renewable energy sources is rising worldwide. This is largely due to uncertainties in the future supply of fossil fuels and the rising concerns about humanity’s role in the currently ongoing climate changes. One renewable energy source is ocean waves and Uppsala University has since the early 2000s been performing active research in this area. The Uppsala wave energy concept is centered on developing linear generators coupled to point absorbing buoys, with the generator situated on the seabed and connected to the buoy on the sea surface via a steel wire. The motion of the buoy then transfers energy to the generator, where it is converted into electricity and sent to shore for delivery into the electrical grid.

    This thesis will mainly focus on the development and evaluation of technologies used to automate the manufacturing of the translator, a central part of the linear generator, using industrial robotics. The translator is a 3 m high and 0.8 m wide three sided structure with an aluminum pipe at its center. The structure consists of alternating layers of steel plates (pole-shoes) and ferrite magnets, with a total of 72 layers per side. To perform experiments on translator assembly and production, a robot cell (centered on an IRB6650S industrial robot) complimented with relevant tools, equipment and security measures, has been designed and constructed. The mounting of the pole-shoes on the central pipe, using the industrial robot, proved to be the most challenging task to solve. However, by implementing a precise work-piece orientation calibration system, combined with selective compliance robot tools, the task could be performed with mounting speeds of up to 50 mm/s. Although progress has been made, much work still remains before fully automated translator assembly is a reality.

    A secondary topic of this thesis is the development of stand-alone measurement systems to be used in the linear generator, once it has been deployed on the seabed. The main requirements of such a measurement system is robustness, resistance to electrical noise, and power efficiency. If possible the system should also be portable and easy to use. This was solved by developing a custom measurement circuit, based on industry standard 4–20 mA current signals, combined with a portable submersible logging unit. The latest iteration of the system is small enough to be deployed and retrieved by one person, and can collect data for 10 weeks before running out of batteries. Future work in this area should focus on increasing the usability of the system.

    The third and final topic of this thesis is a short discussion of an engineering approach to kinetic energy storage, in the form of high-speed composite flywheels, and the design of two different prototypes of such flywheels. Both designs gave important insights to the research group, but a few crucial design faults unfortunately made it impossible to evaluate the full potential of the two designs.

    List of papers
    1. Self-Sensing Electromagnets for Robotic Tooling Systems: Combining Sensor and Actuator
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Sensing Electromagnets for Robotic Tooling Systems: Combining Sensor and Actuator
    2016 (English)In: Machines, ISSN 2075-1702, Vol. 4, no 3, 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A low-cost method, which integrates distance sensing functionality into a switched electromagnet by using a hybrid switching mode and current ripple measurements, is proposed. The electromagnet is controlled by a micro-controller via a MOSFET H bridge, utilizing a comparator-based current control. Additionally, a method for calculating the inductance of the electromagnet and approximating the magnetic contact between the electromagnet and its target is also presented. The resulting tool is attached to an industrial robot, and the system performance using this setup is evaluated. Distance sensing in the range of 0 mm to 5.2 mm is demonstrated. It is also shown that the relation between magnetic contact, coil current and calculated inductance can be reduced to a predictive look-up table, enabling the quality of the magnetic contact to be estimated using minimal computational effort.

    Keyword
    electromagnet, distance measurement, self-sensing, robotic-tool, current control, current ripple, H bridge, micro-controller
    National Category
    Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305436 (URN)10.3390/machines4030016 (DOI)000401524100003 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2017-10-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Automated Mounting of Pole-Shoe Wedges in Linear Wave Power Generators-Using Industrial Robotics and Proximity Sensors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Mounting of Pole-Shoe Wedges in Linear Wave Power Generators-Using Industrial Robotics and Proximity Sensors
    2017 (English)In: MACHINES, ISSN 2075-1702, Vol. 5, no 1, 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A system for automatic mounting of high tolerance wedges inside a wave power linear generator is proposed. As for any renewable energy concept utilising numerous smaller generation units, minimising the production cost per unit is vital for commercialization. The linear generator in question uses self-locking wedges, which are challenging to mount using industrial robots due to the high tolerances used, and because of the fact that any angular error remaining after calibration risks damaging the equipment. Using two types of probes, mechanical touch probes and inductive proximity sensors, combined with a flexible robot tool and iterative calibration routines, an automatic mounting system that overcomes the challenges of high tolerance wedge mounting is presented. The system is experimentally verified to work at mounting speeds of up to 50mms(-1), and calibration accuracies of 0.25mm and 0.1 degrees are achieved. The use of a flexible robot tool, able to move freely in one Cartesian plane, was found to be essential for making the system work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI AG, 2017
    Keyword
    automated production, wave power, robotics, calibration, sensors, wedges, linear-generator, touch probe
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324353 (URN)10.3390/machines5010010 (DOI)000401524900009 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2017-06-14 Created: 2017-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Preparing the Uppsala University wave energy converter generator for large-scale production
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparing the Uppsala University wave energy converter generator for large-scale production
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    2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Halifax, Canada: , 2014
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237554 (URN)
    Conference
    5th International Conference on Ocean Energy
    Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2017-10-08
    4. Offshore Measurement System for WavePower: Using Current Loop Feedback
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offshore Measurement System for WavePower: Using Current Loop Feedback
    2016 (English)In: Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 5, no 4, 86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and testing of a measurement system for wave powergenerators. The work is part of a project to build a robust and cheap measurement system for offshoremonitoring of wave power farms. Due to the harsh offshore environment, low accessibility andhigh cost for installation and maintenance, it is of key importance to minimize power consumption,complexity and cost of each measurement unit. For the first prototype, the objective was to measurevoltage, current and translator position inside the linear wave power generator. For this, twoprinted circuit boards (PCBs) were developed, using a two wire current loop transmitter setup.They were tested separately and in a three phase setup inside a wave power generator duringonshore tests. To ensure stability, speed and accuracy in the signal transfer, the PCBs were tested forlinearity, frequency response and step response. In addition, power consumption was measured,for operational time evaluation. Results show good agreement between expected and measuredperformance, with an input range of ±1560 V and ±420 A for alternating current measurements anda bandwidth of 10 kHz and 7 kHz, for voltage and current measurements, respectively. The powerconsumption was measured to 0.5 W for each measurement unit, at 24 V feed.

    Keyword
    wave power; conditional monitoring; PCB; current loop; measurement system
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313258 (URN)10.3390/electronics5040086 (DOI)000392387600008 ()
    Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2017-10-08Bibliographically approved
    5. Portable Data Acquisition Systemfor Offshore Applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Portable Data Acquisition Systemfor Offshore Applications
    (English)In: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, ISSN 0364-9059, E-ISSN 1558-1691Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of ocean energy technologies, full scale sea trials has proven expensive and challenging. Asa contribution to the development of flexible, reliable and affordable measurement systems for such sea trials, thispaper presents and evaluates a portable data acquisition system. The system is battery powered and consists of asensor system and a logger unit, where the logger and battery is placed in a retrievable pressure vessel. Sensor outputis carried with 4-20 mA current signals between sensor system and logger. The custom logger is programmable andoffers many options to apply different logging schedules and to limit the sensor system power supply accordingly.Evaluation show that the system implemented offers 5-22 weeks of 1 kHz, 16 bit monitoring of 16 signals, dependingon chosen logging schedule. Suggestions are also given for how to raise the operation time to up to 50 weeks.Although lacking the sophistication of a full signal infrastructure, the system offers a cheap and flexible option forwhen and where such infrastructure is no available.

    Keyword
    Data Acquisition, Ocean Energy, Wave Power, Logger, Offshore Measurments
    National Category
    Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329827 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-10-08
    6. Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters
    2015 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 4, 3272-3291 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The power production of the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University is affected by variations of mean sea level. The reason is that these variations change the distance between the point absorber located on the surface and the linear generator located on the seabed. This shifts the average position of the translator with respect to the center of the stator, thereby reducing the generator output power. A device mounted on the point absorber that compensates for tides of small range by regulating the length of the connection line between the buoy at the surface and the linear generator has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the electro-mechanical, measurement, communication and control systems installed on the buoy and shows the results obtained before its connection to the generator. The adjustment of the line was achieved through a linear actuator, which shortens the line during low tides and vice versa. The motor that drives the mechanical device was activated remotely via SMS. The measurement system that was mounted on the buoy consisted of current and voltage sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges and inductive and laser sensors. The data collected were transferred via Internet to a Dropbox server. As described within the paper, after the calibration of the sensors, the buoy was assembled and tested in the waters of Lysekil harbor, a few kilometers from the Uppsala University research site. Moreover, the performance of the sensors, the motion of the mechanical device, the power consumption, the current control strategy and the communication system are discussed.

    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255300 (URN)10.3390/en8043272 (DOI)000353963400045 ()
    Available from: 2015-06-18 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-08Bibliographically approved
    7. Control System for Compensator of Mean Sea Level Variations at the Lysekil Research Site
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control System for Compensator of Mean Sea Level Variations at the Lysekil Research Site
    2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Japan, Tokyo: , 2014
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237524 (URN)
    Conference
    2nd Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference
    Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2017-10-08
    8. Reluctance Machine for a Hollow Cylinder Flywheel
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reluctance Machine for a Hollow Cylinder Flywheel
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 3, 316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A hollow cylinder flywheel rotor with a novel outer rotor switched reluctance machine (SRM) mounted on the interior rim is presented, with measurements, numerical analysis and analytical models. Practical experiences from the construction process are also discussed. The flywheel rotor does not have a shaft and spokes and is predicted to store 181 Wh/kg at ultimate tensile strength (UTS) according to simulations. The novel SRM is an axial flux machine, chosen due to its robustness and tolerance for high strain. The computed maximum tip speed of the motor at UTS is 1050 m/s . A small-scale proof-of-concept electric machine prototype has been constructed, and the machine inductance has been estimated from measurements of voltage and current and compared against results from analytical models and finite element analysis (FEA). The prototype measurements were used to simulate operation during maximal speed for a comparison towards other high-speed electric machines, in terms of tip speed and power. The mechanical design of the flywheel was performed with an analytical formulation assuming planar stress in concentric shells of orthotropic (unidirectionally circumferentially wound) carbon composites. The analytical approach was verified with 3D FEA in terms of stress and strain.

    Keyword
    flywheel energy storage, hollow cylinder flywheel, reluctance machine, high-speed machines
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317875 (URN)10.3390/en10030316 (DOI)000398736700056 ()
    Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2017-03-21 Last updated: 2017-10-08Bibliographically approved
    9. High-Speed Kinetic Energy Buffer: Optimization of Composite Shell and Magnetic Bearings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Speed Kinetic Energy Buffer: Optimization of Composite Shell and Magnetic Bearings
    2014 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, Vol. 61, no 6, 3012-3021 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and optimization of a high-speed (30 000 r/min) kinetic energy storage system. The purpose of the device is to function as an energy buffer storing up to 867 Wh, primarily for utility vehicles in urban traffic. The rotor comprises a solid composite shell of carbon and glass fibers in an epoxy matrix, constructed in one curing. The shell is optimized using a combined analytical and numerical approach. The radial stress in the shell is kept compressive by integrating the electric machine, thereby avoiding delamination. Radial centering is achieved through eight active electromagnetic actuators. The actuator geometry is optimized using a direct coupling between SolidWorks, Comsol, and Matlab for maximum force over resistive loss for a given current density. The optimization results in a system with 300% higher current stiffness than the reference geometry with constant flux area, at the expense of 33% higher power loss. The actuators are driven by semipassive H bridges and controlled by an FPGA. Current control at 20 kHz with a noise of less than 5 mA (95% CI) is achieved, allowing position control at 4 kHz to be implemented.

    National Category
    Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212101 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2013.2259782 (DOI)000329055300039 ()
    Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-10-08Bibliographically approved
    10. Spin-down Losses and Vibration Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spin-down Losses and Vibration Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System
    (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated flywheel prototype designed to store 868 W h at 30 000 rpm with a novel radial flux core-less electric machine was constructed. The rotor was suspended contactlessly on active radial magnetic bearings and passive axial magnetic bearings. This paper describes the system in detail. The rotor was found to be weakly damped (even at standstill) and the magnetic bearings were used to specifically compensate particular eigenfrequencies. The levitation system was then used to experimentally evaluate the vibrations of the rotor, and compared to FEM studies. Spin-down tests were conducted to evaluate levitation system performance. 

    Keyword
    flywheel energy storage, spin-down losses, vibrations
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319522 (URN)
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2017-10-08
    11. High Speed Flywheels for Vehicular Applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Speed Flywheels for Vehicular Applications
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: 14th International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings, Linz, Austria, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linz, Austria: , 2014
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237547 (URN)
    Conference
    14th International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings
    Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2017-10-08
    12. A Method for Calibrating Work-Piece Orientation: Using a Dual-Axis MEMS Inclinometer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method for Calibrating Work-Piece Orientation: Using a Dual-Axis MEMS Inclinometer
    (English)In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    An accelerometer based alignment system designed to align robotic tools and work-pieces in a Cartesian coordinate system is presented, with potential applications within the automated production industry. An overview of the underlying theory, used hardware, micro-controller implementation and performed experiments is presented. The developed theoretical model and prototype hardware is veried against both simulations and experiments, evaluating their performance and practical limitations. For a set of 2000 random initial misalignments with an amplitude in the range of 0° to 10°, the system achieved an alignment accuracy with a 3-sigma bound of 0.023° in the XY plane and 0.14° along the Z-axis. On average the used robot needed 20.86 s to align the used tool to stated accuracy.

    National Category
    Robotics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330869 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-05 Created: 2017-10-05 Last updated: 2017-10-15
  • Björktomta, Siv-Britt
    University of Gothenburg.
    Patriarchy, resistance and breaking up: young girls movement in social spaces2012In: ABSTRACTS - IMMIGRANTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY 16th Nordic Migration Research Conference & 9th ETMU Days 13-15 August 2012 University of Turku, Finland, Åbo: University of Turku , 2012, 24- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Francisco, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Carpman, Nicole
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Dolguntseva, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Use of Multibeam and Dual-Beam Sonar Systems to Observe Cavitating Flow Produced by Ferryboats: In a Marine Renewable Energy Perspective2017In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 5, no 3, 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the prospect to deploy hydrokinetic energy converters in areas with heavy boat traffic, a study was conducted to observe and assess the depth range of cavitating flow produced by ferryboats in narrow channels. This study was conducted in the vicinity of Finnhamn Island in Stockholm Archipelago. The objectives of the survey were to assess whether the sonar systems were able to observe and measure the depth of what can be cavitating flow (in a form of convected cloud cavitation) produced by one specific type of ferryboats frequently operating in that route, as well as investigate if the cavitating flow within the wake would propagate deep enough to disturb the water column underneath the surface. A multibeam and a dual-beam sonar systems were used as measurement instruments. The hypothesis was that strong and deep wake can disturb the optimal operation of a hydrokinetic energy converter, therefore causing damages to its rotors and hydrofoils. The results showed that both sonar system could detect cavitating flows including its strength, part of the geometrical shape and propagation depth. Moreover, the boat with a propeller thruster produced cavitating flow with an intense core reaching 4 m of depth while lasting approximately 90 s. The ferry with waterjet thruster produced a less intense cavitating flow; the core reached depths of approximately 6 m, and lasted about 90 s. From this study, it was concluded that multibeam and dual-beam sonar systems with operating frequencies higher than 200 kHz were able to detect cavitating flows in real conditions, as long as they are properly deployed and the data properly analyzed.

  • Björktomta, Siv-Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Honour related violence in a Swedish context: an intersectional perspective2013In: 3rf ENSACT Joint European Conference Social Action in Europe 16-19 April 2013 Istanbul: Abstract Book / [ed] Peter Hendriks, Istanbul, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2017-11-24 13:15 Fåhraeussalen, Uppsala
    Barazeghi, Elham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Studies of epigenetic deregulation in parathyroid tumors and small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deregulation of the epigenome is associated with the initiation and progression of various types of human cancers. Here we investigated the level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), expression and function of TET1 and TET2, and DNA methylation in parathyroid tumors and small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs).

    In Paper I, an undetectable/very low level of 5hmC in parathyroid carcinomas (PCs) compared to parathyroid adenomas with positive staining, suggested that 5hmC may represent a novel biomarker for parathyroid malignancy. Immunohistochemistry revealed that increased tumor weight in adenomas was associated with a more aberrant staining pattern of 5hmC and TET1. A growth regulatory role of TET1 was demonstrated in parathyroid tumor cells.

    Paper II revealed that the expression of TET2 was also deregulated in PCs, and promoter hypermethylation was detected in PCs when compared to normal parathyroid tissues. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment of a primary PC cell culture induced TET2 expression and further supported involvement of promoter hypermethylation in TET2 gene repression. TET2 knockout demonstrated a role for TET2 in cell growth and migration, and as a candidate tumor suppressor gene.

    In Paper III, variable levels of 5hmC, and aberrant expression of TET1 and TET2 were observed in SI-NETs. We demonstrated a growth regulatory role for TET1, and cytoplasmic expression with absent nuclear localization for TET2 in SI-NETs. In vitro experiments supported the involvement of exportin-1 in TET2 mislocalization, and suggested that KPT-330/selinexor, an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of exportin-1 and nuclear export, with anti-cancer effects, could be further investigated as a therapeutic option in patients with SI-NETs.

    In Paper IV, DNA methylation was compared between SI-NET primary tumors and metastases by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. Three differentially methylated regions (DMR) on chromosome 18 were detected and chosen for further analyses. The PTPRM gene, at 18p11, displayed low expression in SI-NETs with high levels of methylation in the presumed CpG island shores, and in the DMR rather than the promoter region or exon 1/intron 1 boundary. PTPRM overexpression resulted in inhibition of cell growth, proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in SI-NET cells, suggesting a role for PTPRM as an epigenetically deregulated candidate tumor suppressor gene in SI-NETs.  

    List of papers
    1. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine discriminates between parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>5-Hydroxymethylcytosine discriminates between parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Clinical Epigenetics, E-ISSN 1868-7083, Vol. 8, 31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by enlarged parathyroid glands due to an adenoma (80-85 %) or multiglandular disease (similar to 15 %) causing hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and generally hypercalcemia. Parathyroid cancer is rare (<1-5 %). The epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is reduced in various cancers, and this may involve reduced expression of the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) enzyme. Here, we have performed novel experiments to determine the 5hmC level and TET1 protein expression in 43 parathyroid adenomas (PAs) and 17 parathyroid carcinomas (PCs) from patients who had local invasion or metastases and to address a potential growth regulatory role of TET1. Results: The global 5hmC level was determined by a semi-quantitative DNA immune-dot blot assay in a smaller number of tumors. The global 5hmC level was reduced in nine PCs and 15 PAs compared to four normal tissue samples (p < 0.05), and it was most severely reduced in the PCs. By immunohistochemistry, all 17 PCs stained negatively for 5hmC and TET1 showed negative or variably heterogeneous staining for the majority. All 43 PAs displayed positive 5hmC staining, and a similar aberrant staining pattern of 5hmC and TET1 was seen in about half of the PAs. Western blotting analysis of two PCs and nine PAs showed variable TET1 protein expression levels. A significantly higher tumor weight was associated to PAs displaying a more severe aberrant staining pattern of 5hmC and TET1. Overexpression of TET1 in a colony forming assay inhibited parathyroid tumor cell growth. Conclusions: 5hmC can discriminate between PAs and PCs. Whether 5hmC represents a novel marker for malignancy warrants further analysis in additional parathyroid tumor cohorts. The results support a growth regulatory role of TET1 in parathyroid tissue.

    Keyword
    5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5hmC, Parathyroid cancer, Primary hyperparathyroidism, TET1
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282795 (URN)10.1186/s13148-016-0197-2 (DOI)000371782000002 ()26973719 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer Society
    Available from: 2016-04-14 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
    2. A role for TET2 in parathyroid carcinoma
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A role for TET2 in parathyroid carcinoma
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Endocrine-Related Cancer, ISSN 1351-0088, E-ISSN 1479-6821, Vol. 24, no 7, 329-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is rarely caused by parathyroid carcinoma (PC, <1-5% of pHPT cases). The TET proteins oxidize the epigenetic mark 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and inactivation by mutation or epigenetic deregulation of TET1 and TET2 play important roles in various cancers. Recently, we found that 5hmC was severely reduced in all of the analyzed PCs and with deranged expression of TET1 for the majority of PCs. Here, we have examined the expression of the TET2 protein in 15 5hmC-negative PCs from patients who had local invasion or metastases. Cell growth and cell migratory roles for TET2 as well as epigenetic deregulated expression were addressed. Immunohistochemistry revealed very low/undetectable expression of TET2 in all PCs and verified for two PCs that were available for western blotting analysis. Knockdown of TET2 in the parathyroid cell line sHPT-1 resulted in increased cell growth and increased cell migration. DNA sequencing of TET2 in PCs revealed two common variants and no obvious inactivating mutations. Quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing analysis of the TET2 promoter CpG island revealed higher CpG methylation level in the PCs compared to that in normal tissues and treatment of a PC primary cell culture with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine caused increased expression of the methylated TET2 gene. Hence, the data suggest that deregulated expression of TET2 by DNA hypermethylation may contribute to the aberrantly low level of 5hmC in PCs and further that TET2 plays a cell growth and cell migratory regulatory role and may constitute a parathyroid tumor suppressor gene.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330515 (URN)10.1530/ERC-17-0009 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-04
    3. Decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and TET1 with nuclear exclusion of TET2 in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and TET1 with nuclear exclusion of TET2 in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
    Show others...
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330575 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-10-04
    4. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors identifies PTPRM as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors identifies PTPRM as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene
    Show others...
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330794 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-10-04
  • Afshar, Reza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Alavyoon, Navid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Ahlgren, Anders
    Swedish National Maritime Museums, the Vasa Museum.
    van Dijk, Nico P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Vorobyev, Alexey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Gamstedt, Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    A full-scale finite-element model of the Vasa ship2017In: Proceedings of ECCOMAS Thematic Conference CompWood 2017: Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A full-scale model of the 17th century Vasa shipwreck has been developed to assess its current and future structural stability as well as design an improved support structure. A wireframe model, consisting of only lines, points and curves to describe the geometry of the ship, has been provided by the Vasa museum. It has been developed based on geodetic measurements using a total station. From this wireframe model, a three-dimensional (3D) model comprising solid bodies for solid-like parts (i.e. hull and keel), surfaces for the shell-like components (deck planks) and lines for beam-like constituents (deck beams) has been developed in Creo Parametric 3D software. This geometric model has been imported in finite-element software, Ansys, for further development of the stiffeners (knees, riders, stanchions, masts, etc.), adjustment of the correct location of deck beams and, finally, structural analyses of the entire ship (Figure 1). The procedure for selection of the different types of elements in the finite-element (FE) model, the definition of orthotropic material properties for the timber structure and preliminary results are discussed in this paper. Experiences drawn from this engineering project may also be useful in development of finite element models for structural assessment of other complex wooden structures in cultural heritage.

  • Ström, Per
    Uppsala University, University Administration.
    Nya professorer 2017: Inbjudan till de offentliga högtidligheter vid vilka professorer kommer att installeras2017Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Óskarsson, Veturliði
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Two Loanwords Meet: When fuck met fokk in Icelandic2017In: RASK: Internationalt tidsskrift for sprog og kommunikation, ISSN 0909-8976, Vol. 46, 121-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Icelandic phonotactics and phonology require the short vowels /ʌ/ and /ə/ in English loanwords be represented by the phoneme /oe/. The words fuck and fucking, which began appearing in Icelandic around 1970, are however nearly always pronounced and spelt differently from what is expected, i.e. with the vowel [ɔ] and spelt ‘fokk’, ‘fokking’. The reason is that there already existed in Icelandic a couple of older loanwords, probably from Danish, which to some extent both in terms of semantics and pronunciation already occupied the position that the new loanwords were expected to take in the language. This article discusses the meaning of the older loanwords, their use and semantic development, and compares them to the newer words, with examples taken to show what happens when the new loanwords met the old ones.

  • Bradby, Hannah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Liabo, Kristin
    Ingold, Anne
    Roberts, Helen
    Visibility, resilience, vulnerability in young migrants2017In: Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine, ISSN 1363-4593, 1-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young unaccompanied asylum seekers have been portrayed as vulnerable, resilient or both. Those granted residency in Europe are offered support by health and social care systems, but once they leave the care system to make independent lives, what part can these services play? Our review of research with migrants who have been in care in Sweden and the United Kingdom found evidence of unmet need, but little research describing their own views of services. The limited published evidence, supplemented by interviews with care leavers in a UK inner city, suggests that in defining health needs, young people emphasise housing, education, employment and friendship over clinical or preventative services. Some felt well supported while others described feeling vulnerable, anxious, angry or sad. These experiences, if linked with the insensitivity of even one professional, could lower young people’s expectations of healthcare to the extent that they avoided contact with service providers. In supporting young migrants’ resilience to meet everyday challenges, friendly support from peers, carers and professionals was important. They needed determined advocacy at key moments. The different challenges for the Swedish and UK health and welfare systems along with the resilience/vulnerability trajectory are described.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-24 09:15 Sal IV, Uppsala
    Thunander Sundbom, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    The influence of gender and depression on drug utilization: Pharmacoepidemiological research in Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Drug use has increased over recent decades, and is especially great among women and among people with mental health problems. To take advantage of the full potential of drugs and to avoid drug-related problems, drug prescription needs to be correct and the drugs need to be taken according to the prescribed regimens. Research on drug utilization is thus important to the public health.

    Aim To study the influence of gender and depression on drug utilization, prescription of drugs and self-reported use of drugs, i.e. adherence.

    Methods The thesis included two population-based questionnaires and data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) covering Swedish citizens 18-84 years. The questionnaire in Study I and II included items on prescription drug use and adherence to treatment regimens; Study II also included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for self-estimation of anxiety/depression. The questionnaire in Study III included the HADS and data from the SPDR on prescribed antidepressants. Study IV included data from the SPDR on all types of prescribed drugs.

    Results Men and women differed in non-adherent behaviours and reasons for non-adherence, for example, men were more likely to report forgetting to take the drug, while women were more likely to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as a reason for non-adherence. Further, both anxiety and depression were associated with non-adherence and with ADRs as a reason for non-adherence. In addition, men reported depression to a greater extent than women did but used antidepressants to a lesser extent, while women used antidepressants without reporting depression more often than men did, which may be a sign of under-treatment among men and over-treatment among women. Moreover, the associations between antidepressants and other types of drugs differed by gender; they were often specific, or stronger, in women than in men, which may be a sign of a gender difference in comorbidity between depression and other conditions.

    Conclusions Although the cross-sectional study design prevented confirmation of causality, the thesis found that gender and depression influence both prescription of drugs and adherence, and are thus important to pay attention to in clinical practice as well as research.

    List of papers
    1. Women and men report different behaviours in, and reasons for medication non-adherence: a nationwide Swedish survey
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women and men report different behaviours in, and reasons for medication non-adherence: a nationwide Swedish survey
    2012 (English)In: Pharmacy Practice, ISSN 1885-642X, E-ISSN 1886-3655, Vol. 10, no 4, 207-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to analyse gender differences in self-reported non-adherence (NA) to prescribed medication in the Swedish general population. We aimed to study unintentional and intentional NA as well as the reasons given for NA.

    Methods

    A questionnaire was mailed to a cross-sectional, random, national sample of people aged 18-84 years in Sweden (n=7985). The response rate was 61.1% (n=4875). The questionnaire covered use of prescription drugs, NA behaviourand reasons for NA.

    Results

    Use of prescription drugs was reported by 59.5% (n=2802) of the participants, and 66.4% (n=1860) of these participants did not adhere to the prescribed regimen. No overall gender differences in reporting NA were found. However, when analysing the various types of NA behaviour and the reasons for NA, different gender patterns emerged. Men were more likely to report forgetting [OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.65:0.92)], changing the dosage [OR 0.64 (95% CI 0.52:0.79)] and that they had recovered [14.3%, (OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.56:0.90)] as a reason. In contrast, more women than men reported filling the prescription but not taking the drug [OR 1.25 (95% CI 1.02:1.54)] and reported the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) [OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.37:2.59)] as a reason more commonly. The gender differences remained, in most cases, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic factors, medical problems and attitudes toward drugs.

    Conclusions

    Women and men have different patterns of NA behaviour and different reasons for NA. Therefore, if adherence is to be improved, a wide knowledge of all the reasons for NA is required, along with an understanding of the impact of gender on the outcomes.

     

    Keyword
    Medication Adherence, Health knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Health care surveys, Sweden
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Research subject
    Pharmacoepidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-193611 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-02-05 Created: 2013-02-05 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
    2. The influence of symptoms of anxiety and depression on medication nonadherence and its causes: a population based survey of prescription drug users in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of symptoms of anxiety and depression on medication nonadherence and its causes: a population based survey of prescription drug users in Sweden
    2013 (English)In: Patient Preference and Adherence, ISSN 1177-889X, Vol. 7, 805-811 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between self-reported symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, nonadherent (NA) behaviors, and reasons for NA to medication regimens.

    Methods: A population based cross-sectional study with questionnaire was performed in the general Swedish population. The participants were 2802 prescription drug users aged 18-84 years. The questionnaire covered use of prescription drugs, symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), various NA behavior types, intentional and unintentional, and various reasons for NA.

    Results: Symptoms of anxiety and depression, independently and in combination, were associated with unintentional and intentional NA, with a stronger association with intentional NA. Regarding the reasons given for NA, for example anxiety, independently or in combination with depression, was associated with a fear of developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Depression, independently or in combination with anxiety, on the other hand, was associated with the actual development of ADRs.

    Conclusion: A cross-sectional design such as this does not allow assessment of causality derived from the results. However, the results indicate that patients experiencing symptoms of psychological distress are at increased risk of NA, especially intentional NA, and could therefore benefit from extra attention from the health care professional. Patients with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression should be identified and monitored for the development and/or fear of ADRs, in order to improve adherence to medication regimens.

    Keyword
    Medication Adherence, Anxiety symptoms, Depression symptoms, Reasons
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Pharmacoepidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205574 (URN)10.2147/PPA.S50055 (DOI)000323147600001 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-20 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Are men under-treated and women over-treated with antidepressants?: Findings from a cross-sectional survey in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are men under-treated and women over-treated with antidepressants?: Findings from a cross-sectional survey in Sweden
    2017 (English)In: BJPsych bulletin, ISSN 2056-4694, E-ISSN 2056-4708, Vol. 41, no 3, 145-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and method To examine gender differences in self-reported depression and prescribed antidepressants (ADs). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess depression, and information on prescribed ADs was obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.

    Results Depression was reported by 11.7% of the participants (12.3% men and 11.2% women). ADs were prescribed for 7.6% of the participants (5.3% men, 9.8% women). Among men, 1.8% reported depression and used ADs, 10.5% reported depression but did not use ADs, and 3.6% used ADs but did not report depression. The corresponding figures for women were 2.6%, 8.6% and 7.2%.

    Clinical implications Men report depression to a greater extent than women but are prescribed ADs to a lesser extent, possibly a sign of under-treatment. Women are prescribed ADs without reporting depression more often than men, possibly a sign of over-treatment. Although the causes remain unclear, diagnostic and treatment guidelines should benefit from considering gender differences in these respects.

    Keyword
    Self-reported depression, Antidepressants, Gender differences, Over-treatment, Under-treatment
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Research subject
    Pharmacoepidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310328 (URN)10.1192/pb.bp.116.054270 (DOI)000407961600004 ()28584650 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Gender differences in the association between prescribed antidepressants and other prescribed drugs: a nationwide register-based study in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences in the association between prescribed antidepressants and other prescribed drugs: a nationwide register-based study in Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with depression are prescribed more drugs than people in general, partly due to comorbidity with other conditions. However, little research has been done on depression-related drug use from a gender perspective.

    Aim: Examine gender differences in the association between antidepressants, other drugs, and polypharmacy.

    Methods: Data on drugs dispensed October to December 2016 to all Swedish citizens aged 18-84 years were collected from the Swedish prescribed drug register. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine gender differences in the associations between antidepressants and other drugs.

    Results: For both men and women, associations were found between antidepressants and drugs for alimentary tract problems, respiratory problems, drugs for the blood, and drugs for the nervous system, analgesics, and polypharmacy. For many of the drugs, for example those for respiratory problems and analgesics, the association was stronger in women than in men. However, concerning drugs for the nervous system and polypharmacy, the association was stronger in men than in women. Furthermore, for women, but not men, associations were found for drugs for diabetes, musculoskeletal problems, dermatological problems, and systemic hormones.

    Conclusions: Many of the associations between antidepressants and other drugs were found to be specific, or stronger, among women than among men. In some cases, however, the associations were stronger in men. Whether this indicates that men and women differ in comorbidity between depression and other conditions cannot be concluded based on this cross-sectional study. However, physicians should be aware that possible gender differences in comorbidity exist, and because comorbidity between depression and other conditions impairs the possibility of recovery, and decreases adherence, screening for depression could be valuable.

    Keyword
    Gender, Antidepressants, Prescribed drugs, Polypharmacy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Pharmacoepidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328064 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
  • Edvardsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vänskapsrelationer hos barn med hörselnedsättning: -En studie ur barns perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att öka kunskapen om barn med hörselnedsättning och deras vänskapsrelationer. Utifrån tre frågeställningar undersöktes hur barn med hörselnedsättning beskriver vänskap och hur denna påverkas av deras hörselnedsättning. Vidare undersöktes om relationerna mellan barnen var jämlik eller hierarkisk. Metod för datainsamling var samtalsintervju med öppna frågor och följdfrågor för att få fatt i barnens uppfattningar. Sju intervjuer av barn med hörselnedsättning som gick i hörande eller hörselklass analyserades. Intervjusvaren granskades inom ramen för Janson (2002) och Frønes (1995) teorier om hur människors relationer till varandra som antingen hierarkiska eller jämlika.

     Studiens resultat visar att barn med hörselnedsättning har olika uppfattningar om hur hörselnedsättningen påverkar en vänskapsrelation. En god vän beskrev barnen som någon att ha kul med, att prata med och någon att umgås med. Barnen lekte främst med hörande vänner, endast två av barnen hade döva eller barn med hörselnedsättning som vänner. Barnen beskrev att de hittade vänner antingen via skolan eller via vårdnadshavarnas kontakter. De hittade också vänner i närområdet, genom olika fritidsaktiviteter eller sociala medier. En del barn ansåg att det var lätt att hitta vänner på fritiden, medan andra ansåg att det var svårt. Barnen i studien beskrev att det tillsammans med sina vänner leker, spelar spel online, rider och går på stan. En del barn ansåg att hörselnedsättningen kunde försvåra deltagande i vissa aktiviteter. Barnen beskrev att det kunde vara svårt att deltaga i lek på grund av att vännerna måste anpassa ljudvolymen, men också att avståndet till kompisarna kunde orsaka problem. En del barn ansåg inte att hörselnedsättningen gav dem problem att deltaga och påverka utan alla får lov att ge förslag på aktivitet.

    Barnens beskrivningar kunde analyseras som att de i huvudsak skapar jämlika relationer med sina vänner. Barnen i studien har också vänskapsrelationer som kunde analyseras som hierarkiska relationer då barnen beskriver att de inte kunde påverka samspelet på grund av hörselnedsättningen.

  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem secundam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Fredricus Fryxell stip. reg. Vermel. In audit. Gustav. die XV Maji. MDCCCXXX. h. p. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    De bello devolutionis et foedere trium civitatum contra Ludovicum XIV Galliæ regem annis MDCLXVII-MDCLXVIII. Dissertatio, cujus partem primam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. auctor Vilhelmus Ericus Svedelius Vestm.-Dalec. stip. Molin. In aud. Gustav. die VIII Junii MDCCCXXXIX H. a. m. s.1839Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Fabula Theoderici Veronensis Svecica. E codice vetusto bibl. reg. Holm. nunc primum edita. Cujus particulam secundam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Joh. Napol. Pagander Gestr. Helsingus. stip. Oscarian. In aud. Gustav. die XII Junii MDCCCXXXIII H. p. m. s.1833Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Fabula Theoderici Veronensis Svecica. E codice vetusto bibl. reg. Holm. nunc primum edita. Cujus particulam primam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Agathon Hammarsköld nob. Ostrogothus stip. ord. equestris. In aud. Gustav. die XII Junii MDCCCXXXIII H. a. m. s.1833Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Privilegia urbis Stockholmensis tempore Stenonis Sture senioris confirmata. Quæ venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Tönnes Hellmuth Wrangel comes, stip. Helmfeld. Smolandus. In aud. Gustav. die XI Junii MDCCCXXXIII H. a. m. s.1833Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Per Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    V. Egger, La parole intérieure, essai de psychologie descriptive. :: 320 p. 8:o. Paris, Germer Baillère 1881, anmäld1886Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    De origine, numero et conciliis senatus Svecani antiquis temporibus observationes. Quas venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. auctor. Petrus Ericus Ludov. Thyselius Sudermanno - Nericius. In audit. Gustav. die XXVII Mart. MDCCCXXXIII. H. a. m. s., Sect. 11833Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    De regno veteri Burgundiorum dissertatio, quam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. auctor Adolphus Leonh. Hwasser Westm. Dalec. In audit. Gustav. die XXVI Maji. MDCCCXXX. H. p. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem nonam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Johannes Olavus Forssén Gestr. Hels. In auditorio Gustaviano die XV Jun. MDCCCXXX. h. a. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem octavam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Jonas Selggren Gestricio-Helsingus. In auditorio Gustaviano die XIV Jun. MDCCCXXX. h. p. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem septimam quam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Matthias Leonardus Wikland adjunct. past. ad eccl. St. Jacobi et Johannis Holm. Vermelandus. In auditorio Gustaviano die XIV Jun. MDCCCXXX. h. a. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem sextam quam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Carolus Augustus Hagberg Uplandus. In auditorio Gustaviano die XII Jun. MDCCCXXX. h. p. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem quintam quam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Samuel Nolin a sacris Vermel. In auditorio Gustaviano die XI Jun. MDCCCXXX. h. p. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem quartam quam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Nicol. Gust. Åström a sacris stipend. med. theol. Westm. Dal. In auditorio Gustaviano die X Jun. MDCCCXXX. h. p. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem tertiam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Carolus Nicolai Ostrogothus. In audit. Gustav. die XXVI Maji. MDCCCXXX. h. a. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Mores heroicæ ætatis apud veteres Græcos et Scandinavos comparati. Dissertatio, cujus partem primam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Jöns Söderberg stip. Jungbl. Vermel. In audit. Gustav. die XV Maji. MDCCCXXX. h. a. m. s.1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    De colonia Suecorum in Helvetiam deducta dissertatio quam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... p. p. Axelius Emil. Wirsén Comes. Smolandus. In audit. Gustav. die XIII Jun. MDCCCXXVIII.1828Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Geijer, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    De templo Solna dissertatio historico-topographica. Quam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Erico Gust. Geijer ... pro gradu philosophico p.p. auctor Thuro Gustavus Een stip. Flod. Ostrogothus in audit. Gustav. die XIII Junii MDCCCXXVII.1827Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-11-24 14:15 University Main Building, Hall IX, Uppsala
    Sundqvist, Josephine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Uppsala Religion and Society Research Centre.
    Beyond an instrumental approach to religion and development: Challenges for church-based healthcare in Tanzania2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation serves as a contribution to the larger ongoing debate on the role of religion in development in an effort to move beyond an instrumental approach. The aim is to study the role of religious agents in development through the prism of contractual partnerships between church organisations and the Tanzanian state in healthcare delivery. Three Christian denominations are included in the study: the Roman Catholic Church in Tanzania (Tanzania Episcopal Conference), the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania and the Free Pentecostal Church of Tanzania.

    Three theoretical perspectives are applied to the study of religion and development: (1) an instrumental perspective; (2) a bottom-up perspective and (3) an integral perspective. In order to operationalise the three theoretical perspectives to function adequately for health sector development research, three analytical concepts are included in the framework, namely resource dependency, linking social capital and intangible religious health assets. The methodology is based on an abductive qualitative approach with the use of case studies on the three church organisations (Catholic, Protestant and Pentecostal). Three key methods have been used for collecting data: policy analysis, semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Each organisation is analysed in terms of their Public Private Partnership (PPP) agreements and collaborative models, their relation towards the state, their internal health policies and their motives for delivering health services. Moreover, by including one local hospital per organisation (Turiani, Selian and Mchukwi), it is also possible to integrate the local implementation level into the study. In order to capture the views of public authorities, interviewees from the national Ministry of Health and local Council Health Management Teams have also been included.

    By entering into PPP health agreements, church organisations have moved to centre stage and gained more influence following the latest political and economic reforms. Their attraction as service providers follows from their existing infrastructure and previous experience and capacity in the health sector. The analysis shows that faith is a key motivator and a central factor in the running of church health services. However, the fact that church organisations are becoming increasingly dependent on the state has implications in terms of their role as a critical voice in the public debate and could potentially threaten their independence as faith-driven civil society actors. Church organisations are also becoming more vulnerable financially, as they are not compensated according to the PPP contracts. The current situation where church organisations are dominating the PPPs in health has implications on both the Tanzanian model of secularism, with its emphasis on Muslim and Christians being treated equally, and the local governments’ strive towards national ownership with their favouring of public healthcare over private alternatives. It is therefore necessary to further study the role of religion beyond an instrumental approach in order to get a deeper understanding of the religious dynamics in the PPPs in health in Tanzania.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-24 09:00 A1:111a, Uppsala
    Thulin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Mechanisms and Dynamics of Mecillinam Resistance in Escherichia coli2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of antibiotics in healthcare is one of the most important medical achievements with regard to reducing human morbidity and mortality. However, bacterial pathogens have acquired antibiotic resistance at an increasing rate, and due to a high prevalence of resistance to some antibiotics they can no longer be used therapeutically. The antibiotic mecillinam, which inhibits the penicillin-binding protein PBP2, however, is an exception since mecillinam resistance (MecR) prevalence has remained low. This is particularly interesting since laboratory experiments have shown that bacteria can rapidly acquire MecR mutations by a multitude of different types of mutations.

    In this thesis, I examined mechanisms and dynamics of mecillinam resistance in clinical and laboratory isolates of Escherichia coli. Only one type of MecR mutations (cysB) was found in the clinical strains, even though laboratory experiments demonstrate that more than 100 genes can confer resistance Fitness assays showed that cysB mutants have higher fitness than most other MecR mutants, which is likely to contribute to their dominance in clinical settings.

    To determine if the mecillinam resistant strains could compensate for their fitness cost, six different MecR mutants (cysB, mrdA, spoT, ppa, aspS and ubiE) were evolved for 200-400 generations. All evolved mutants showed increased fitness, but the compensation was associated with loss of resistance in the majority of cases. This will also contribute to the rarity of clinical MecR isolates with chromosomal resistance mutations.

    How MecR is mediated by cysB mutations was previously unclear, but in this thesis I propose and test a model for the mechanism of resistance. Thus, inactivation of CysB results in cellular depletion of cysteine that triggers an oxidative stress response. The response alters the intracellular levels of 450 proteins, and MecR is achieved by the increase of two of these, the LpoB and PBP1B proteins, which rescue the cells with a mecillinam-inhibited PBP2.

    Mecillinam is used for UTI treatments and to investigate mecillinam resistance in a more host-like milieu, MecR strains were grown in urine and resistance was examined. Interestingly, this study showed that neither laboratory, nor clinical cysB mutants are resistant in urine, most likely because the cysteine present in the urine phenotypically reverts the bacteria to susceptibility. These findings suggest that mecillinam can be used to treat also those clinical strains that are identified as MecR in standard laboratory tests, and that testing of mecillinam susceptibility in the laboratory ought to be performed in media that mimics urine to obtain clinically relevant results.

    In summary, the work described in this thesis has increased ourgeneral knowledge of mecillinam resistance and its evolution. Hopefully this knowledge can be put to good use in clinical settings to reduce the negative impact of antibiotic resistance.

    List of papers
    1. Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) Resistance Mutations in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Selected Mutants of Escherichia coli
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) Resistance Mutations in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Selected Mutants of Escherichia coli
    2015 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, no 3, 1723-1732 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Amdinocillin (mecillinam) is a beta-lactam antibiotic that is used mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The objectives of this study were to identify mutations that confer amdinocillin resistance on laboratory-isolated mutants and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and to determine why amdinocillin resistance remains rare clinically even though resistance is easily selected in the laboratory. Under laboratory selection, frequencies of mutation to amdinocillin resistance varied from 8 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-5) per cell, depending on the concentration of amdinocillin used during selection. Several genes have been demonstrated to give amdinocillin resistance, but here eight novel genes previously unknown to be involved in amdinocillin resistance were identified. These genes encode functions involved in the respiratory chain, the ribosome, cysteine biosynthesis, tRNA synthesis, and pyrophosphate metabolism. The clinical isolates exhibited significantly greater fitness than the laboratory-isolated mutants and a different mutation spectrum. The cysB gene was mutated (inactivated) in all of the clinical isolates, in contrast to the laboratory-isolated mutants, where mainly other types of more costly mutations were found. Our results suggest that the frequency of mutation to amdinocillin resistance is high because of the large mutational target (at least 38 genes). However, the majority of these resistant mutants have a low growth rate, reducing the probability that they are stably maintained in the bladder. Inactivation of the cysB gene and a resulting loss of cysteine biosynthesis are the major mechanism of amdinocillin resistance in clinical isolates of E. coli.

    National Category
    Microbiology in the medical area
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252716 (URN)10.1128/AAC.04819-14 (DOI)000352550000043 ()25583718 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2017-10-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Compensatory evolution in mecillinam resistant Escherichia coli
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compensatory evolution in mecillinam resistant Escherichia coli
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance mutations typically have pleiotropic effects that reduce bacterial fitness, but secondary compensatory mutations may ameliorate these fitness costs. Mecillinam is a b-lactam antibiotic that is used for treatment of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and in a previous screen of mecillinam resistant (MecR) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli mutations in the cysB gene were shown to be the main cause of MecR.  This is unexpected since over 100 different genes are known to confer MecR in laboratory settings. Mutations in cysB are less costly than most other types of MecR, which is likely to be a contributing factor to only cysB mutations being found in clinical MecR isolates.

    To examine if the fitness costs associated with MecR can be compensated by second-site mutations, we performed a serial passage evolution experiment where six different MecR mutants (mrdA, ppa, ubiE, aspS, spoT and cysB) were grown without mecillinam for 200-400 generations. All evolved lineages showed increased fitness as compared to the parental MecR strain. Increase of fitness was associated with loss of resistance in all compensated mutants except in the mrdA mutant lineages. Our results show that compensation of the fitness cost of MecR mutations involved either a small mutational target or acquisition of several mutations. These factors are likely to contribute to the low frequency of MecR clinical isolates.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Microbiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330816 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-10-05
    3. An oxidative stress-induced bypass mechanism confers antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An oxidative stress-induced bypass mechanism confers antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mecillinam is a beta-lactam antibiotic that specifically inhibits the essential penicillin binding protein PBP2. Mutations in >100 genes can confer resistance to mecillinam but in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections, mutations in the cysB gene are the major cause of resistance. However, how cysB mutations confer resistance is unknown. We used a combination of proteomics and genetic analysis to examine the mechanism of resistance. Results show that cysB mutations cause an oxidative stress response and change expression of more than 450 genes, among them the PBP1B, LpoB and FtsZ proteins, which show increased levels. Addition of reducing agents to a cysB mutant converted it to full susceptibility, with an associated down-regulation of PBP1B, LpoB and FtsZ. Artificial over-expression of either PBP1B or LpoB in a wild type E. coli conferred mecillinam resistance, and conversely, inactivation of either the mrcB (encodes PBP1B) or lpoB gene, made cysB mutants susceptible. These results together show that expression of the proteins PBP1B and LpoB is both necessary and sufficient to confer mecillinam resistance.

    We propose a model whereby cysB mutants confer mecillinam resistance by inducing an oxidative stress response that causes an up-regulation of the PBP1B and LpoB proteins. These two proteins can then together substitute for the function of the mecillinam-sensitive PBP2 protein. Our results provide new insights into how antibiotic resistance can be conferred by a bypass mechanism that is induced by changed redox state and gene expression.

    Keyword
    Antibiotic resistance, mecillinam, Escherichia coli, penicillin binding protein, cell wall, cysB, lpoB, ftsZ, cysteine, redox state
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Microbiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330815 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-10-05
    4. Reversion of High-level Mecillinam Resistance to Susceptibility in Escherichia coli During Growth in Urine.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reversion of High-level Mecillinam Resistance to Susceptibility in Escherichia coli During Growth in Urine.
    2017 (English)In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 23, 111-118 p., S2352-3964(17)30338-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mecillinam (amdinocillin) is a β-lactam antibiotic used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). We have previously shown that inactivation of the Escherichia coli cysB gene is the major cause of mecillinam resistance (Mec(R)) in clinical isolates. In this study, we used different E. coli strains (laboratory and clinical isolates) that were Mec(R) due to cysB mutations to determine how mecillinam susceptibility was affected during growth in urine compared to growth in the commonly used growth medium Mueller Hinton (MHB). We also examined mecillinam susceptibility when bacteria were grown in urine obtained from 48 different healthy volunteers. Metabolome analysis was done on the urine samples and the association between the mecillinam susceptibility patterns of the bacteria and urine metabolite levels was studied. Two major findings with clinical significance are reported. First, Mec(R)E. coli cysB mutant strains (both laboratory and clinical isolates) were always more susceptible to mecillinam when grown in urine as compared to laboratory medium, with many strains showing complete phenotypic susceptibility in urine. Second, the degree of reversion to susceptibility varied between urine samples obtained from different individuals. This difference was correlated with osmolality such that in urine with low osmolality the Mec(R) mutants were more susceptible to mecillinam than in urine with high osmolality. This is the first example describing conditional resistance where a genetically stable antibiotic resistance can be phenotypically reverted to susceptibility by metabolites present in urine. These findings have several important clinical implications regarding the use of mecillinam to treat UTIs. First, they suggest that mecillinam can be used to treat also those clinical strains that are identified as Mec(R) in standard laboratory tests. Second, the results suggest that testing of mecillinam susceptibility in the laboratory ought to be performed in media that mimics urine to obtain clinically relevant susceptibility testing results. Third, these findings imply that changes in patient behavior, such as increased water intake or use of diuretics to reduce urine osmolality and increased intake of cysteine, might induce antibiotic susceptibility in an infecting Mec(R)E. coli strain and thereby increase treatment efficiency.

    Keyword
    Conditional resistance, Escherichia coli, Mecillinam, Metabolomics, Urinary tract infection, Urine
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330802 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.08.021 (DOI)28855073 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-10-05
  • Public defence: 2017-11-23 13:00 B42, Uppsala
    Zhao, Yani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Systemic RNAi Relies on the Endomembrane System in Caenorhabditis elegans2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The membrane system of a eukaryotic cell is a large and complex system handling the transport, exchange and degradation of many kinds of material. Recent research shows that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mediated gene silencing (RNA interference) is a membrane related process. After long dsRNA is processed to small interfering RNA (siRNA) by Dicer, the guide strand and passenger strand are separated in the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) by Argonaute. The process of loading siRNA into RISC has been suggested to occur at the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER).The components of RISC also associate with late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Furthermore, disturbing the balance between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes has been shown to affect the efficiency of silencing.

    We use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as our model organism to study two questions: how does membrane transport affect RNAi and spreading of RNAi from the recipient cells to other tissues (systemic RNAi); and how does RNA transport contribute to the multigenerational silencing induced by dsRNA (RNAi inheritance)? Using SID-5, a protein required for efficient systemic RNAi, as bait in a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen, we got 32 SID-5 interacting candidate proteins. Two of these are the SNARE protein SEC-22 and the putative RNA binding protein C12D8.1. In two additional Y2H screens, we found that SID-5 interacts with multiple syntaxin SNAREs, including SYX-6, whereas SEC-22 only interacts with SYX-6. SNAREs usually function in vesicle fusion processes. We found the two SNARE proteins SEC-22 and SYX-6 to be negative regulators of RNAi and to localize to late endosomes/MVBs. In addition, loss of sid-5 leads to an endosome maturation defect. Finally, we found that the putative RNA binding protein C12D8.1 negatively regulates RNAi inheritance and that C12D8.1 mutant animals show impaired RNAi upon targeting a new gene. Taken together, the results presented in this thesis provide us with more evidence for the connection of the membrane transport system and RNAi. The identification of a putative negative regulator of RNAi inheritance further enriches this research field.

    List of papers
    1. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans
    2017 (English)In: RNA, ISSN 1355-8382, Vol. 23, no 3, 297-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321388 (URN)10.1261/rna.058438.116 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-05-04 Last updated: 2017-10-13
    2. RNA Transport Protein SID-5 Interacts with Multiple SNAREs and Affects Membrane Trafficking in C. elegans Intestinal Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>RNA Transport Protein SID-5 Interacts with Multiple SNAREs and Affects Membrane Trafficking in C. elegans Intestinal Cells
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320894 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2017-10-13
    3. Putative RNA-Binding Protein C12D8.1 Negatively Regulates Inheritance of RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Putative RNA-Binding Protein C12D8.1 Negatively Regulates Inheritance of RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320895 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2017-10-13
  • Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lattenkamp, Ella Z.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Dept Neurogenet Vocal Commun, Box 310, NL-6500 Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Luquet, Emilien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Claude Bernard Lyon I, CNRS, UMR 5023, LEHNA, 3-6 Rue Raphael Dubois,Batiments Darwin C & Forel, F-69622 Villeurbanne 43, France..
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Drift, selection, or migration?: Processes affecting genetic differentiation and variation along a latitudinal gradient in an amphibian2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, 189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Past events like fluctuations in population size and post-glacial colonization processes may influence the relative importance of genetic drift, migration and selection when determining the present day patterns of genetic variation. We disentangle how drift, selection and migration shape neutral and adaptive genetic variation in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient. We studied genetic differentiation and variation at a MHC exon II locus and a set of 18 microsatellites. Results: Using outlier analyses, we identified the MHC II exon 2 (corresponding to the beta-2 domain) locus and one microsatellite locus (RCO8640) to be subject to diversifying selection, while five microsatellite loci showed signals of stabilizing selection among populations. STRUCTURE and DAPC analyses on the neutral microsatellites assigned populations to a northern and a southern cluster, reflecting two different post-glacial colonization routes found in previous studies. Genetic variation overall was lower in the northern cluster. The signature of selection on MHC exon II was weaker in the northern cluster, possibly as a consequence of smaller and more fragmented populations. Conclusion: Our results show that historical demographic processes combined with selection and drift have led to a complex pattern of differentiation along the gradient where some loci are more divergent among populations than predicted from drift expectations due to diversifying selection, while other loci are more uniform among populations due to stabilizing selection. Importantly, both overall and MHC genetic variation are lower at northern latitudes. Due to lower evolutionary potential, the low genetic variation in northern populations may increase the risk of extinction when confronted with emerging pathogens and climate change.

  • Röning, Nadia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Special interest communities: Design for online growth2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Special interest online communities refer to groups of people who share a concern orpassion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly,with some of the interaction being technology mediated. The Uppsala UniversityACM-W Student Chapter is an online community, run by a student group, thatpromotes gender equality in Computer Science and Information Technology atUppsala University.

    This thesis investigates what makes a website an online community by determininghow community building works and how it could be used productively. The UppsalaUniversity ACM-W Student Chapter's ambition is to be a successful onlinecommunity and attract both short-time members and long-time members to engagein their organization. It should also be easy to keep international contact with similarchapters through the website. Hence an evaluation of the chapters website(uu.acm.org) was conducted for this thesis, involving interviewing members of thechapter. The focus of the evaluation was to investigate how well the UU ACM-Wchapter's current website support community engagement, but also how the websitecan be redesigned to better support community engagement.

    Results from the evaluation showed some functionality problems with the website andthat the way the chapter support communication and collaboration could beimproved. Based on the results, concrete design proposals were introduced to thechapter's members in order to evaluate if they could be useful for improving thewebsite. Furthermore, ideas on how to establish a strong online platform that mightcontribute to online growth for special interest communities, such as the UppsalaUniversity ACM-W Student Chapter, were given.

    In conclusion, the selected approach was suitable for the stage the chapter was in, andthe method described in this thesis is one tool for helping other small-scale onlinecommunities to better understand their organization and to help them narrow downtheir organization's administrative load into design solutions that ease theiradministrative tasks.

  • Lwanira, Catherine Nassozi
    et al.
    Makerere Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Sch Biomed Sci, Kampala, Uganda..
    Kironde, Fred
    Islamic Univ Uganda IUIU, Fac Hlth Sci, Habib Med Sch, Kampala Campus, Uganda..
    Kaddumukasa, Mark
    Makerere Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Sch Med, Kampala, Uganda..
    Swedberg, Göte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Prevalence of polymorphisms in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sickle haemoglobin and nitric oxide synthase genes and their relationship with incidence of uncomplicated malaria in Iganga, Uganda2017In: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 16, 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Host genetics play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility. However, information on host genetic factors and their relationships with malaria in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected host genetic markers and their relationship to malaria incidence in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda. In a 1-year longitudinal cohort study, 423 children aged below 9 years were recruited and their malaria episodes were investigated. Host genetic polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP, haemoglobin electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Using a multivariate negative binomial regression model, estimates of the impact of human genetic polymorphisms on malaria incidence were performed. In all statistical tests, a P value of < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The prevalences of sickle cell haemoglobin trait, G6PD c. 202 G > A (rs 1050828) and NOS2 -954 G > C (rs 1800482) variants were 26.6, 22.7 and 17.3%, respectively. Inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2 -954 G>C; rs 1800482) heterozygosity was associated with lower incidence of malaria in all age groups {Adjusted incident rates ratio (aIRR) 0.59; 95% CI [0.386-0.887]; P = 0.012)}. About 4% of study subjects had co-existence of sickle cell Hb trait and G6PD deficiency. Sickle cell Hb heterozygotes (Hb AS) aged less than 1 year experienced significantly more malaria episodes annually than children with normal haemoglobin (Hb AA) {aIRR = 1.98; 95% CI [1.240-3.175]; P = 0.004}. There was no significant influence of the sickle cell trait on malaria incidence among older children of 1-9 years. Conclusions: Mutation (NOS2 -954 G > C; rs 1800482) of nitric oxide synthase 2 gene promoter was associated with a lower incidence of acute malaria. The normal haemoglobin (wild genotype; HbAA) was associated with reduced malaria incidence rates during the first year of life. More understanding of the interplay between host genetics and malaria susceptibility is required.

  • Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fabian, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjern, Anders
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure.

    RESULTS: Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families.

    CONCLUSION: Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3-5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences.

  • Llovera Bonmatí, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Market role, profitability and competitive features of thermal power plants in the Swedish future electricity market with high renewable integration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy market is currently undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, including a potential phase-out of nuclear power. The combination of a phase-out with expansion of intermittent renewable energy leads to the issue of increased fluctuations in electricity production. Energy-related organizations and institutions are projecting future Swedish energy scenarios with different possible transition pathways. In this study the market role of thermal power plants is assessed in two future scenarios. The fast start-up time of gas turbines means that they can balance out fluctuations. Given that a large share of reports already studies costs of the system, this report instead investigates the profitability, potential market roles, and competitive features of these technologies in the future market.

  • Söderström, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Bruksföremål eller statussymbol: En studie av handväskor från Chanel ur ett maktperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of women buy handbags from Chanel, even though they cost thousands of Euros, and this study aim to examine why. Are the bags to be considered investments, utility items, or status symbols? The research is primarily performed through qualitative interviews of seven women, both owners of Chanel bags and non-owners. The material has been processed and analysed with a discourse perspective focusing on communication of identity through clothing and accessories and regulation of power within and between groups.

    The study shows that the image of a person who owns a Chanel bag changes in a context where the observer is aware of the symbolic value of the bag. In a context where the observer does not recognise the Chanel bag, this change does not occur. Owning a Chanel bag gives in some groups, where expensive bags are norm, higher status within the group. Outside the group, the bag may cause discomfort and negative comments. For those who buy a Chanel bag, neither is the investment nor the need to communicate financial status a priority. Thewomen buy it primarily to reward themselves for hard work and successful thriftiness. It gives an increased sense of self-esteem and a sense of joy to own an aesthetically pleasing item of high quality and historic value. However, within the group of women interviewed, there is a prevailing view that there are women who, after all, buy them as a status symbol, but no one considers themselves to belong to that group.

  • Browning, Kathryn L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lind, T. K.
    Malmo Univ, Dept Biomed Sci & Biofilms, Malmo, Sweden..
    Maric, S.
    Malmo Univ, Dept Biomed Sci & Biofilms, Malmo, Sweden..
    Malekkhaiat Häffner, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Fredrikson, G. N.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Bengtsson, E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cardenas, M.
    Malmo Univ, Dept Biomed Sci & Biofilms, Malmo, Sweden..
    Human Lipoproteins at Model Cell Membranes: Effect of Lipoprotein Class on Lipid Exchange2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 7478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) are thought to play vital roles in the onset and development of atherosclerosis; the biggest killer in the western world. Key issues of initial lipoprotein (LP) interactions at cellular membranes need to be addressed including LP deposition and lipid exchange. Here we present a protocol for monitoring the in situ kinetics of lipoprotein deposition and lipid exchange/removal at model cellular membranes using the non-invasive, surface sensitive methods of neutron reflection and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. For neutron reflection, lipid exchange and lipid removal can be distinguished thanks to the combined use of hydrogenated and tail-deuterated lipids. Both HDL and LDL remove lipids from the bilayer and deposit hydrogenated material into the lipid bilayer, however, the extent of removal and exchange depends on LP type. These results support the notion of HDL acting as the 'good' cholesterol, removing lipid material from lipid-loaded cells, whereas LDL acts as the 'bad' cholesterol, depositing lipid material into the vascular wall.

  • Geilhufe, R. Matthias
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Ctr Quantum Mat, Nordita, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borysov, Stanislav S.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Ctr Quantum Mat, Nordita, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bouhon, Adrien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Balatsky, Alexander V.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Ctr Quantum Mat, Nordita, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Los Alamos Natl Lab, Inst Mat Sci, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA.;ETH, ETH Inst Theoret Studies, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Data Mining for Three-Dimensional Organic Dirac Materials: Focus on Space Group 192017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 7298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We combined the group theory and data mining approach within the Organic Materials Database that leads to the prediction of stable Dirac-point nodes within the electronic band structure of three-dimensional organic crystals. We find a particular space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (#19) that is conducive to the Dirac nodes formation. We prove that nodes are a consequence of the orthorhombic crystal structure. Within the electronic band structure, two different kinds of nodes can be distinguished: 8-fold degenerate Dirac nodes protected by the crystalline symmetry and 4-fold degenerate Dirac nodes protected by band topology. Mining the Organic Materials Database, we present band structure calculations and symmetry analysis for 6 previously synthesized organic materials. In all these materials, the Dirac nodes are well separated within the energy and located near the Fermi surface, which opens up a possibility for their direct experimental observation.

  • Åhlin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The perception of TrT among its implementers: Evaluating the implementation process of Teaching Recovery Techniques among implementers in an intervention targeting unaccompanied refugee minors in Uppsala, Sweden. 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis looks at how involved implementers of the Teaching Recovery Techniques-project in Uppsala, Sweden have experienced the project. Teaching Recovery Techniques is originally a group-based intervention created for use in disaster areas. This intervention has the aim to give self-help to unaccompanied refugee minors with post-traumatic stress symptoms in Uppsala and two neighbouring municipalities, by using non-psychiatric personnel to teach stress-mitigation. This is a pilot project as Teaching Recovery techniques have never been used in this type of setting before. To investigate the opinions of the involved personnel, qualitative interviews with roughly half of the group leader have been made. These have been analysed using manifest content analysis.

        The thesis found that while many are happy with the project, it has required unexpectedly high workload as well as suffered from unclear responsibility delegations and lacking communication, primarily in the start of the project. However, due to strong motivation from involved implementers and adaptability from employers, these issues have been overcome to a great degree. Lesson for further TrT-projects targeting unaccompanied minors should put extra effort in planning and defining the roles of involved actors as well as include arenas for horizontal communication between group leaders.

  • Ghawi, Birgitte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors sjukfrånvaro i en svensk tillverkningsindustri: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the rate of sick absenteeism is higher for women than for men, which can put increasing demands of employers to gain insight into this problem. The most common causes of women's sick leave are joint- and muscle pain as well as mental illness. Studies show that sick leave may be caused by factors from the work environment, but also the life situation must be taken into consideration when absenteeism in the workplace is mapped. Purpose: This study was done to identify factors that may affect / contribute to women long-term sickness in a manufacturing industry in Sweden, with the focus on the working conditions and the individual's total life situation. Method: The study was conducted as a qualitative study with abductive approach. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using directed content analysis. A total of nine female employees from a manufacturing industry were interviewed. The sample consisted of women, diagnosed with joint and muscle and / or psychiatric diagnosis who were or had been long-term sick. Results: All participants found factors such as increasing workload and a higher work rate contributing to disease. A majority reported a working environment with noise, vibration and shock and work schedules with shift work as contributing to absenteeism. Another problem was insecurity in the management and unclear directives from the organization such as vague expectations on job performance, unclear job roles, inadequate supervision and mentoring, as well as uncertainties regarding the workplace attitude to bullying. Most of the women had had a critical event in their private life, however, no one thought it caused disease. Conclusion: Female absenteeism within a manufacturing industry is affected by work organizational factors and environmental factors as well as women's life situation. The results of this study should be deepened by further research in the present manufacturing industry.

  • Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, Dept Econ, Houghton St, London WC2A 2AE, England.;CIFAR, London, England..
    Folke, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Torsten
    CIFAR, London, England.;IIES, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rickne, Johanna
    UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, SOFI, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gender Quotas and the Crisis of the Mediocre Man: Theory and Evidence from Sweden2017In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 107, no 8, 2204-2242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a model where party leaders choose the competence of politicians on the ballot to trade off electoral success against their own survival. The predicted correlation between the competence of party leaders and followers is strongly supported in Swedish data. We use a novel approach, based on register data for the earnings of the whole population, to measure the competence of all politicians in 7 parties, 290 municipalities, and 10 elections (for the period 1982-2014). We ask how competence was affected by a zipper quota, requiring local parties to alternate men and women on the ballot, implemented by the Social Democratic Party in 1993. Far from being at odds with meritocracy, this quota raised the competence of male politicians where it raised female representation the most. We argue that resignation of mediocre male leaders was a key driver of this effect. (JEL D72, J16)