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  • Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Schultzberg, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Rubin, Donald
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    On optimal re-randomization designs2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blocking is commonly used in randomized experiments to increase efficiency of estimation. A generalization of blocking is to remove allocations with imbalance in covariates between treated and control units, and thenrandomize within the set of allocations with balance in these covariates. This idea of rerandomization was formalized by [5], who suggested using the affinely invariant Mahalanobis distance between treated and control covariate means as the criterion for removing unbalanced allocations. [3] proposed reducing the set of balanced allocations to the minimum. Here we discuss the implication of such an ‘optimal’ rerandomization design for inferences to the units inthe sample and to the population from which the units in the sample were randomly drawn. We argue that, in general, it is a bad idea to seak the optimal design for an inference to the population because that inference typically only reflects uncertainty from the usually hypothetical random sampling, and not the randomization of treatment versus control.

  • Blanck, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sharing invisible resources in the age of climate change: a transboundary groundwater sharing agreement in Sahel, Africa, analysed through Ostrom’s design principles for collective action2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With climate change and increasing populations, water availability is becoming even more important in the region of Sahel, Africa, where droughts have plagued the states for centuries. In response to this growing concern, seven Sahelian states have initiated cooperation over their shared groundwater resources, an action that is still quite unique globally, given the overlooked status of groundwater. This paper analyses their agreement using Elinor Ostrom’s framework for sustainable collective management of common-pool resources. It concludes that, although the agreement reflects progressive intentions, the attention towards the local levels of governance is insufficient. This conclusion is important specifically for the future of this agreement, and generally feeds into a discussion of governance of larger-scale, transboundary CPRs.

  • Malvet Rydell, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vad motiverar parlamenten?: En studie om vad som påverkar nationella parlament att utfärda motiverade yttranden i EU:s subsidiaritetsgranskning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to empirically study the Early warning system and how national parliaments in the EU vary regarding the issuing of reasoned opinions. In recent years the subject of subsidiarity within the EU has become an increasingly debated and controversial topic. The Early warning system aims to alleviate the democratic deficiency of the EU, but the scientific community is divided on how efficient it is. Using data from the European parliament this study examines reasoned opinions and factors that influences why national parliaments issue them and why there is such a variation amongst the national parliaments issuing them. The study finds that being a member of the Eurozone and the EU15 has important implications for parliaments issuing reasoned opinions.

  • Samuelsson, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Rättsvetenskapens vetenskaplighet2019In: Vänbok till Lena Olsen / [ed] Joel Samuelsson, Laila Zackariasson, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2019, 1, p. 189-226Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Otero Johansson, Matias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Political Participation and Development: Operationalizing and testing the correlation between inclusive political institutions and economic development.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the correlation between economic development and inclusive political institutions. Research in the field of development economics highlights the importance of durable institutions for sustained economic growth. Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson propose that we should consider inclusive political institutions are key drivers of economic development, but political inclusion is challenging to measure quantitatively. We investigate novel ways ways to operationalize political inclusion and economic development by using voter turnout as the independent variable while median income acts as the dependent variable to better reflects the living standards of the broad population. Our thesis is that increased voter participation as a percentage of voting age population should correlate to a higher median income. Our bivariate regression shows a clear relationship but low explanatory power since linear regression doesn’t explain significant variations in the data. Multivariate linear regression results show a weaker correlation than expected but explains our data better by highlighting a clear tendency for high income democracies to enjoy high voter turnout whereas low income countries have varied outcomes. A high degree of data variability raises doubts about the validity of comparing voting participation between different political systems.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-03 14:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Fang, Hailiang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Structural Studies of Mn-X (X=Al, Bi): Permanent Magnetic Materials without Rare Earth Metals2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to generate and use electricity in a more efficient way is a major challenge for humankind. In this context, permanent magnets play an important role within a very broad range of electric power applications. The strongest magnets used today are mainly based on alloys that contain rare-earth metals, which are neither economical nor sustainable. The search for new alternative alloys with satisfactory magnetic properties is the major motivation for the investigations summarized in this thesis. Interesting candidates for alternative rare-earth free alloys were selected with τ-MnAl as the basis. Theoretical studies suggest that such alloys may show good magnetic properties after chemical modifications to optimize them. Another compound with promising magnetic properties is MnBi, included in this study.

    MnAl-Z (Z= C, B, Ga as doping elements) and MnBi compounds were synthesized through carefully devised high-temperature methods, followed by various milling and annealing steps. The structural phase analysis of the samples was based on X-ray and neutron diffraction. A systematic microstructural investigation was also performed for selected samples. The phase transitions of MnAl and MnBi during heating and cooling at different rates were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction from a synchrotron source. The magnetic properties were characterized by various methods.

    By strict control of experimental parameters, the metastable τ-MnAl was found to be directly obtainable using a "drop synthesis” process. A cooling rate of 10 K/min yielded an almost pure ferromagnetic τ-MnAl phase. A microstructural characterization of similarly synthesized MnAl-C samples revealed the presence of phase segregation, a Mn-rich region and an Al-rich grain boundary phase.

    A cryomilling process was employed which decreased the particle size of the MnAl-C sample. Neutron diffraction data disclosed accompanying amorphous features, related to changes in Mn and Al atom occupancies during the milling process. A flash heating procedure regenerated the structural ordering between Mn and Al in the structure, where the initial magnetic properties were recovered.

    The MnBi compound was synthesized by a self-flux method in order to isolate single crystals. As for τ-MnAl, in situ diffraction studies were applied for following phase transitions and the magnetic properties were studied.

    List of papers
    1. Directly obtained tau-phase MnAl, a high performance magnetic material for permanent magnets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Directly obtained tau-phase MnAl, a high performance magnetic material for permanent magnets
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 237, p. 300-306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The metastable tetragonal iota-phase has been directly obtained from casting Mn0.54Al0.46 and (Mn0.55Al0.45)(100)C-2 using the drop synthesis method. The as-casted samples were ball milled to decrease the particle size and relaxed at 500 degrees C for 1 h. The phase composition, crystallographic parameters, magnetic properties and microstructure were systematically studied. The results reveal that the iota-phase could be directly obtained from drop synthesis. The highest M-s of 117 emu/g was achieved in the (Mn0.55Al0.45)(100)C-2 where the iota-phase was stabilized by doping with carbon. Carbon doping increased the c/a ratio of the tau-phase as it occupies specific interstitial positions (1/2, 1/2, 0) in the structure. Furthermore, ball milling increases the coercivity (H-c) at the expense of a decrease in magnetic saturation (M-s). The increase in coercivity is explained by a decrease of grain size in conjunction with domain wall pinning due to defects introduced during the ball milling process.

    Keywords
    Permanent magnets, Rare-earth free, High temperature synthesis, Diffraction, Magnetic measurements
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294651 (URN)10.1016/j.jssc.2016.02.031 (DOI)000373661100041 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencySweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
    Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-05-26 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Insights into formation and stability of tau-MnAlZ(x) (Z = C and B)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into formation and stability of tau-MnAlZ(x) (Z = C and B)
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 692, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The tau-phase MnAl alloys are promising candidate for rare earth free permanent magnets. In this study, In order to better understand the MnAl epsilon ->tau phase transition mechanism in a continuous cooling process and metastable MnAl tau-phase high temperature stability, Mn0.54Al0.46, Mn0.55Al0.45C0.02 and Mn0.55Al0.45B0.02 alloys were systematically studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRD). The relationship between tau-phase formation tendency and different cooling rates of Mn0.55Al0.45C0.02 was investigated. Besides, the high temperature stabilities of undoped tau-MnAl and carbon/boron doped tau-MnAl were studied. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was also employed to study the phase transformation as well. The research results show that a high cooling rate of 600 degrees C/min leads to a 50/50 wt% mixture of epsilon- and tau-phase; almost pure tau-phase was obtained when cooled at a moderate cooling rate of 10 degrees C/min; while for a slow cooling rate of 2 degrees C/min, the tau-phase partially decomposed into beta and gamma(2) phases. No intermediate epsilon'-phase was observed during the epsilon ->tau phase transition during the experiments. For the boron and carbon doped tau-MnAl, the 800 degrees C high temperature stability experiments reveal that C stabilizes the tau-MnAl while doped B destabilises the tetragonal structure and it decomposes into beta- and gamma(2)-phases.

    Keywords
    Phase transition, Thermal analysis, In situ, Powder diffraction, Phase stability, Permanent magnet
    National Category
    Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308613 (URN)10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.09.047 (DOI)000386231200025 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencySweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
    Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Structural, microstructural and magnetic evolution in cryo milled carbon doped MnAl
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural, microstructural and magnetic evolution in cryo milled carbon doped MnAl
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    2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 2525Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The low cost, rare earth free τ-phase of MnAl has high potential to partially replace bonded Nd2Fe14B rare earth permanent magnets. However, the τ-phase is metastable and it is experimentally difficult to obtain powders suitable for the permanent magnet alignment process, which requires the fine powders to have an appropriate microstructure and high τ-phase purity. In this work, a new method to make high purity τ-phase fne powders is presented. A high purity τ-phase Mn0.55Al0.45C0.02 alloy was synthesized by the drop synthesis method. The drop synthesized material was subjected to cryo milling and followed by a fash heating process. The crystal structure and microstructure of the drop synthesized, cryo milled and flash heated samples were studied by X-ray in situ powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Magnetic properties and magnetic structure of the drop synthesized, cryo milled, flash heated samples were characterized by magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction, respectively. The results reveal that the 2 and 4hours cryo milled and flash heated samples both exhibit high τ-phase purity and micron-sized round particle shapes. Moreover, the fash heated samples display high saturation magnetization as well as increased coercivity.

    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341024 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-20606-8 (DOI)000424189500012 ()29410462 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencySweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy StorageSwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Measured and calculated properties of B-doped τ-phase MnAl: A rare earth free permanent magnet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measured and calculated properties of B-doped τ-phase MnAl: A rare earth free permanent magnet
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    2019 (English)In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 474, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The metastable tetragonal τ-phase MnAl has been doped interstitially with B through a drop synthesis method creating the (Mn0.55Al0.45)B0.02 compound. The as-casted samples were annealed, quenched and thereafter ball-milled and relaxed in order to decrease grain size and reduce the number of crystallographic defects. The Curie temperature of the quenched sample was estimated to 655 K. The magnetization, coercivity and anisotropy were analyzed with respect to flash-milling time, relaxation time and temperature. The results show that (Mn0.55Al0.45)B0.02 could be directly obtained from drop synthesis. The highest measured saturation magnetization of 393 kA/m (measured at ±1440kA/m) was achieved with a relaxation process after 1.5h milling, giving a theoretical maximum energy product of 48 kJ/m3. The highest value of the coercivity was 355 kA/m achieved by flash-milling for 10 h. However, the high coercivity was achieved at an expense of low saturation magnetization.

    Keywords
    Permanent magnets; Rare-Earth-free; Diffraction; Magnetometry; Computational modeling
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Research subject
    Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368265 (URN)10.1016/j.jmmm.2018.11.006 (DOI)000459494600086 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencySweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
    Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
    5. Insights into phase transitions and magnetism of MnBi crystals synthesized from self-flux
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights into phase transitions and magnetism of MnBi crystals synthesized from self-flux
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    2019 (English)In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 781, p. 308-314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively synthesize high purity ferromagnetic low temperature phase (LTP) MnBi with optimal microstructure is still a challenge that needs to be overcome for the system to reach its full potential. Here, the phase transitions and magnetic properties of MnBi crystals are reported. The phase transition between the low and high temperature structure of MnBi was systematically investigated at different heating/cooling rates using in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. The material crystallizes in a layered hexagonal structure giving a platelike microstructure. The magnetic characterization of the crystals reveal that the saturation magnetization varies from 645 kA/m at 50 K to 546 kA/m at 300 K. Magnetization measurements also show that the sample upon heating becomes non-magnetic and transforms to the high temperature phase (HTP) at similar to 640 K, and that it regains ferromagnetic properties and transforms back to the LTP at similar to 610 K upon subsequent cooling.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
    Keywords
    In situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, Phase transitions, Rare earth free permanent magnet, MnBi, Single crystals
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378612 (URN)10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.12.146 (DOI)000457845900034 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
    6. One step towards MnAl-based permanent magnets: Differences in magnetic, and microstructural properties from an intermediate annealing step during synthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>One step towards MnAl-based permanent magnets: Differences in magnetic, and microstructural properties from an intermediate annealing step during synthesis
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    2018 (English)In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726XArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of an additional annealing step during synthesis on the preparation of MnAl based permanent magnet alloys has been investigated. Bulk samples of Mn55Al45C2 alloys were synthesized using induction heating through drop synthesis from 1400 °C. Samples produced using cooling directly from 1400 °C (from the melt), and from 1400 °C to an intermediate annealing step at 1200 °C for ~ 30 min before cooling were compared with respect to differences in phase purity, microstructure and magnetic properties. We found that the phase purity was significantly enhanced using the route with an intermediate annealing step at 1200 °C. From XRD the phase purity of the tau-phase was improved from ~ 91 wt% for the sample cooled directly from 1400 °C to ~ 95.1 - 99.5 wt% for the sample exposed to an intermediate annealing step before cooling. Additionally, EBSD, and SEM with EDS indicates a clear difference in the phase composition and differences in the distribution of the magnetic tau phase and the non-magnetic epsilon-, beta-, and gamma-phases. Magnetic properties also indicate, an improvement in saturation magnetization for the sample exposed to the extra annealing step during synthesis. Our results suggest that an intermediate annealing step in the production of MnAl based alloys will provide a simple way of achieving better phase purity and magnetic properties in the bulk alloy.

    Keywords
    permanent magnet, rare earth free, microstructure
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368283 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
  • Ekstedt, Amanda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Glad, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Krange, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Kulturstyrning i en mekanistisk organisation: En fallstudie på Gröna Lund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur kulturstyrning yttrar sig i en mekanistisk organisation samt att ge en djupare förståelse kring hur det används och hur den eventuella kulturstyrningen uppfattas av anställda inom organisationen. Resultatet utgörs av data från kvalitativa intervjuer samt granskning av interna dokument som satts i förhållande till definitionen att kultur blir ett styrmedel först när det används för att kontrollera beteenden. För att utföra studien samt tolka resultatet användes en teorimodell vars huvudfokus låg vid värde-, symbol- och klanbaserad styrning. Resultatet av studien visade att trots viss bristande kommunikation från ledningen till de längst ner i organisationen så utgjorde organisationens värdegrund basen för regler och beteendemönster. Även om en del av respondenterna inte kände till värdegrunden och dess innehåll så förmedlades trots detta en tydlig bild av vad som förväntades av den anställde.

  • Nyman, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pousette, Dennis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hög- och lågpresterande elevers matematikångest i en svensk kontext: En studie av resultaten från TIMSS 20152019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur matematikångest samvarierar med olika faktorer inom matematik. Den tidigare forskning som presenterats visar hur begreppen självuppfattning och upplevd självförmåga relaterar till matematikångest. Utifrån den forskning som studerats ser vi att äldre individer samt flickor i högre grad upplever matematikångest jämfört med yngre respektive pojkar. Forskningen är dock inte enhällig gällande dessa slutsatser. Denna studies teori bygger på begreppen självuppfattning, upplevd självförmåga samt matematikångest och hur man med hjälp av de två första begreppen kan undersöka matematikångest. Med hjälp av data från TIMSS 2015 som behandlas i statistikprogrammet SPSS har vi kunnat undersöka matematikångest hos svenska elever i årskurs 4 och 8. Resultaten visar att matematikångest korrelerar negativt med elevernas prestationer inom alla de grupper som undersökts, även om denna korrelation skiljer sig i styrka. Matematikångest visar sig vara vanligare hos elever i årskurs 8 än i årskurs 4, och samma relation syns mellan könen där flickor visar större andel som upplever matematikångest gentemot pojkar.  

  • Sjödin Enström, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gross, Sondra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Förväntningar på expatriater: En kvalitativ studie om förväntningarna på utlandsplacerade dotterbolagschefer inom ett multinationellt företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Expatriering är en viktig del av ett företags internationaliseringsprocess. Denna uppsats att behandlar de förväntningarna som företagsledningar och dotterbolagschefer har på syftet med expatriaters uppdrag och vilka roller de förväntas inta. Denna studie använder sig av ett svenskt multinationellt företag för att studera detta. Genom intervjuer med detta företags ledning och ett antal av företagets dotterbolagschefer framkom det att Scania tidigare har haft oklart formulerade förväntningar och syften, men att företaget sedan några år tillbaka börjat aktivt jobba med att förbättra detta. De förlitar sig på att deras verkställande direktörer kan uppfylla följande syften; positionsfyllnad, kommunikation och kontroll, och att de intar roller där de förbättrar kommunikationen, bygger nätverk och utökar sitt sociala kapital samt övervakar dotterbolagen.

  • Källander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Barns delaktighet i sin egen välfärd: En jämförande kvalitativ studie av synen på barns delaktighet inom socialtjänsten och BUP2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Having ratified the UNCRC (United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child), the

    Swedish government and its authorities are responsible towards their young citizens to

    guarantee them care, protection and to be put first. In addition, children have a right to

    participation in processes and decisions which affect them. Especially in situations where the

    child is in need of protection. In research, children´s protection and children´s participation

    has been investigated as two separate, and often opposing rights, and the perception of

    children has in many regards been an ambivalent one. This study is focusing on the perception

    of the child and their participation in their welfare using two perspectives that splits the

    perception of the child: Children as subjects of rights and children as objects of care. The

    study investigates the perceptions of children and their participation in family therapy at Child

    and Adolescent Psychiatry (BUP) and family treatment at the municipal Social Services.

    Family therapy/treatment is a treatment aimed to gather the family to solve their common

    problems based on the system theory that perceive the family as a system. Through eight

    qualitative interviews with therapists and social workers, the study investigates the

    respondents own perceptions. The study finds that both the perception of the child as subjects

    of rights and as objects of care is found both at BUP and at the Social Service, although the

    perception of children as subjects of rights is more clear at the BUP and the perception of

    children as objects of care more clear at the Social Services. A discovery is that the Social

    services is more clearly using concepts linked to the system theory at the same time as being

    treating the parents as the main actors in the treatment with slightly less focus on the child´s

    participation. BUP, on the other hand is more clearly using concepts linked to the child as the

    patient with more individual and clear focus on the child´s participation, suggesting that

    where there is a perception of the family as a system, there is less focus on the child´s

    participation and where there is more of an individual focus, there is more focus on the child´s

    participation.

  • Hedlöf Ekvall, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Faktorer för effektiv infiltration av dagvatten hos permeabel asfalt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is important that permeable asphalt is able to infiltrate storm water in the long-term for it to be a viable alternative for handling storm water. Permeable asphalt will always, in some way, be exposed to fine particles and therefore there is a risk that clogging will occur and that the permeable asphalt will lose its ability to infiltrate storm water. As a mean of maintenance cleaning with high pressure washing and vacuum cleaning can be done to prevent clogging. In this master thesis the effect of high pressure washing and vacuum cleaning on the infiltration capacity of permeable asphalt was examined.  Also, the most suitable type of substructure for effective infiltration was examined.

    A literature study and interviews were conducted in combination with infiltration experiments on two locations with permeable asphalt in Uppsala. Literature studies and interviews state that for the substructure to be hydrologically well functioning it is important that every layer in the substructure really is permeable. The substructure should also be adapted to the conditions at the site where it is built. For example, conditions to take into consideration are soil type and highest level of groundwater. All through literature and interviews regular maintenance is said to be very important for the long-term functioning and infiltration of permeable asphalt.

    The infiltration experiments were conducted at a parking lot at a shopping center in Gnista and a small local street in Gränby backe. The infiltration capacity of the permeable asphalt was measured before and after maintenance with high pressure washing and vacuum suction. No infiltration capacity could be measured before or after maintenance at Gnista. In Gränby backe the infiltration capacity was 0,47-0,71 mm/min before maintenance and 1,24-12,23 mm/min after. According to this infiltration capacity the permeable asphalt in Gränby backe can infiltrate design rains with return periods of 7 years to over 1000 years and with a duration of 10 minutes.

    In research, high pressure washing, and vacuum suction were found to be able to maintain, and in some cases restore, infiltration capacity. In this master thesis’ infiltration experiments a positive effect on infiltration capacity by cleaning with high pressure washing and vacuum suction was partially found. According to this high pressure washing and vacuum suction can be recommended as a maintenance method on permeable pavement.

    The results from the two experiment sites stood apart from each other as Gnista had no infiltration capacity neither before nor after cleaning. In age, the two sites only differ by one year, and since they were built they have received similar maintenance and literature shows that high pressure washing and vacuums suction have an effect on infiltration capacity. This might indicate that the lack of infiltration capacity at Gnista might be due to something else than clogging.

  • Mattsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Lifestyle and rehabilitation in long term illness.
    Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Carlsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Lifestyle and rehabilitation in long term illness.
    Johansson, Birgitta Beda Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Identification of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Patients With Cancer: Comparison Between Short and Long Web-Based Questionnaires2019In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 21, no 4, article id e11387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physicians and nurses in cancer care easily fail to detect symptoms of psychological distress because of barriers such as lack of time, training on screening methods, and knowledge about how to diagnose anxiety and depression. National guidelines in several countries recommend routine screening for emotional distress in patients with cancer, but in many clinics, this is not implemented. By inventing screening methods that are time-efficient, such as digitalized and automatized screenings with short instruments, we can alleviate the burden on patients and staff.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare Web-based versions of the ultrashort electronic Visual Analogue Scale (eVAS) anxiety and eVAS depression and the short Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) with Web-based versions of the longer Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-report (MADRS-S) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory- State (STAI-S) with regard to their ability to identify symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with cancer.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from a consecutive sample of patients with newly diagnosed (<6 months) breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer or with recurrence of colorectal cancer (N=558). The patients were recruited at 4 hospitals in Sweden between April 2013 and September 2015, as part of an intervention study administered via the internet. All questionnaires were completed on the Web at the baseline assessment in the intervention study.

    RESULTS: The ultrashort and short Web-based-delivered eVAS anxiety, eVAS depression and HADS were found to have an excellent ability to discriminate between persons with and without clinical levels of symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with recommended cutoffs of the longer instruments MADRS-S and STAI-S (area under the curve: 0.88-0.94). Cutoffs of >6 on HADS anxiety and >7 hundredths (hs) on eVAS anxiety identified patients with anxiety symptoms with high accuracy. For HADS depression, at a cutoff of >5 and eVAS depression at a cutoff of >7 hs, the accuracy was very high likewise.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of the short and ultrashort tools, eVAS and HADS, may be a suitable initial method of Web-based screening in busy clinical settings. However, there are still a proportion of patients who lack access to the internet or the ability to use it. There is a need to find solutions for this group to find all the patients with psychological distress.

  • Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Olika yrkesgruppers syn på arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd inom förskola och skola2011In: Praktiknära utbildningsforskning vid Högskolan Dalarna / [ed] Bartholdsson, Åsa; Hultin, Eva, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna , 2011, p. 89-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikelns övergripande syfte är att redovisa hur pedagogisk personal och rektorer i en svensk kommun ser på arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Frågor kring inflytande, påverkan och kompetens samt styrdokumentens betydelse i samband med arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd ställdes. Personalens och rektorernas syn på orsaker till att barn hamnar i behov av särskilt stöd studerades också. Samtlig pedagogisk personal tillfrågades (N=1345) varav 73 % svarade. Bland rektorerna (N=45) var svarsfrekvensen 100 % . Den teoretiska ansatsen är socialkonstruktivistisk och verksamhetsteorin har använts för att studera och analysera kommunen och skolan som system. Resultaten visar bland annat att drygt en fjärdedel av all pedagogisk personal i kommunen anser att de har små möjligheter att påverka barns måluppfyllelse, att de flesta anger att speciallärare/specialpedagoger ska ha störst inflytande över arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd samt att orsakerna till att barn hamnar i behov av särskilt stöd oftast anses bero på barnets individuella brister.

  • Bergvall, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Multi-semiotic progression in school mathematics2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Bergvall, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Persson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Information Density of School Mathematics2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Bergvall, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Persson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Subject Language Use In Year 8 TIMSS-Test Questions : A Comparison Of Language Uses In Science And Mathematics2018In: Network Sessions as ECER 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we want to make a contribution by making a comparison between the subject languages in mathematics and science based on linguistic theories about language and language function. Through this theoretical foundation in this present study we also have the opportunity to analyze the language function and thus we can also discuss the language's role in teaching. The aim of this study is to compare and thus gain more knowledge of grammatical features in subject language in science and mathematics and how these grammatical features are used to express meaning. To fulfil this purpose, science and mathematics items from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, grade eight, have been analysed from a functional perspective on language.

    Empirical studies that compare language use in different subjects are sparsely present (Österholm & Bergqvist, 2013) but there are studies pointing out that how language are used to express meaning varies between different school subjects (e.g. Fang & Schleppegrell, 2008; Schleppegrell, 2004). These linguistic differences have been highlighted as arguments for a more differentiated language-based teaching of subjects, leaning on disciplinary literacy (Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008). In order to conduct such a language-based teaching of subjects, an awareness of the different functions in the language used in various school subject is of great importance. One example of a comparative language study is the corpus study conducted by Ribeck (2015) where the language in Swedish teaching materials in science is analyzed, and compared with teaching materials in social science and with textbooks in mathematics. However, Ribeck does not make a direct analysis of mathematical subject language, her focus is rather on the language used in natural science compared to social science. There are also studies that focuses on the language use within subjects. Here it appears that the subject language is used differently and has different functions in different content areas within school mathematics (e.g. Bergvall, 2016) as well as within the different school science subjects, e.g. biology, physics, chemistry and earth science (e.g. Persson, 2016).  

    This study draws on a social semiotic perspective and systemic functional linguistics (SFL) (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004). A point of departure is the perspective that different registers of language are used in different social contexts, which in this study is defined as the two school subjects science and mathematics. Grounded in SFL and the three meta-functions ideational, interpersonal and textual function the meaning dimension model of analysis was developed in a previous research project (Bergvall et al., 2016; Persson et al., 2016). Four central meaning dimensions, packing, precision, personification and presentation, were condensed from previous research regarding academic language and language use in the school subjects science and mathematics. The meaning dimensions can be used as measures of how grammatical features are used in various types of texts in order to express meaning. Packing and precision are regarded as aspects of the ideational meta-function. Packing is a measure of the information density in a text and precision is a measure of how and to what extent the given information in the text is specified. Personification, as an aspect of the interpersonal meta-function, is a measure of how personal relations between the reader and the text are expressed. The last meaning dimension, presentation, concerns how the information is structured in the text and is regarded as an aspect of the textual meta-function. In the present study, the four meaning dimensions are used to describe and compare the language and its function in science and mathematics items in TIMSS 2011.

    Method

    By the use of a quantitative method all items in mathematics and science from the Swedish version of TIMSS 2011, grade eight were analyzed. This material consists of 197 items in science and 217 items in mathematics. The language in these items have been analyzed for word class, word length and number of words per items by a computer based automatic parsing. For this parsing Extensible Markup Language (XML) was used. Some other linguistic features, i.e. passive forms and subordinate clauses, were identified manually. Since the meaning dimensions are used as a base for the linguistic analysis, the results will possibly be generally applicable also for other European languages, although the analysis was conducted on the Swedish version of TIMSS items. Packing was measured by calculating the number of nouns and the number of long words (>6 characters). Precision in the items were provided by words such as adjectives, adverbs, participles and counting words specifying different attributes in the items. Personification was here measured by the number of personal pronouns and proper names and presentation was measured by the presence of subordinate clauses and passive forms. In order to compensate for the varying length of different items, the number of the different linguistic features were divided by the number of words in the particular item. To enable the adding of different features, each feature is normalized by calculating its z-score. An index was then calculated for each meaning dimension based on the linguistic information on each item. From these indices a comparison between the language uses in the two subjects was possible. In the next step of the analysis each subject were separated into content domains: Algebra, Data & chance, Geometry and Numbers for mathematics items and Biology, Chemistry, Earth science and Physics for science items. This enabled variations of language use within the subjects also to be analyzed. The results were compiled in box-plots diagrams which visualized the distribution of the expressions of the four meaning dimensions in the various content domains.

    Expected Outcomes

    Preliminary results show that central traits of the academic language as measured by the four meaning dimensions are used in similar ways in both science and mathematics. The levels of packing, precision and presentation are fairly similar when looking at differences between the subjects. Personification shows the largest differences between the subjects, where mathematics as a whole makes more use of personal pronouns and proper names in the items. When separating the subjects into content domains, Statistics shows the highest level of personification. In this domain it can therefore be concluded that human participants are essential, thus emphasizing that this is a domain that this is an area of relevance for people in general or for the student him/herself. This can be interpreted as signaling the possibility to actively participate and interact in similar situations as described by the items context. On the other hand, in domains such as Algebra, Geometry and Earth science where the content is expressed with a low level of personification, the interpretation is that the content of these domains –at least as expressed in TIMSS items- are more separated from peoples’ everyday lives and thus the students’ own reality. Another result that emerges from the analysis relates to the meaning dimension presentation where we see that the written texts, especially in Algebra, but also in Geometry, Numbers and Earth science, mainly contains short sentences without subordinate clauses. In written academic language, subordinate clauses are a common tool for creating information flow and link different parts of the text (Fang, 2006; Schleppegrell, 2004; Veel, 1997). The lack of subordinate clauses in tasks in certain content areas of TIMSS indicates a subject-specific linguistic form that may require a familiarity with this specific form of language use.

    References

    Bergvall, I. (2016). Bokstavligt, bildligt och symboliskt i skolans matematik – en studie om ämnesspråk i TIMSS. [Diss.] Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Bergvall, I., Wiksten Folkeryd, J., & Liberg, C. (2016). Linguistic features and their function in different mathematical content areas in TIMSS 2011. Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, 21(2), 45-68. Fang, Z. (2006). The Language Demands of Science Reading in Middle School, International Journal of Science Education, 28(5) 491-520. Fang, Z., & Schleppegrell, M. J. (2008). Reading in secondary content areas: A language-based pedagogy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Halliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3.th ed.). London: Arnold. Persson, Tomas (2016). De naturvetenskapliga ämnesspråken. De naturvetenskapliga uppgifterna i och elevers resultat från TIMSS 2011 år 8. [Diss.] Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Persson, T., af Geijerstam, Å., & Liberg, C. (2016). Features and functions of scientific language(s) in TIMSS 2011. Nordic Studies in Science Education, 12(2), 176-196. Ribeck, Judy (2015). Steg för steg. Naturvetenskapligt ämnesspråk som räknas. [Diss.] Data linguistica. No. 28, Institutionen för svenska språket, Göteborgs universitet. Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2008). Teaching disciplinary literacy to adolescents: Rethinking content-area literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 40–59. Schleppegrell, M. J. (2004). The language of schooling; a functional linguistics perspective. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Veel, R. (1997). Learning How to Mean-Scientifically Speaking: Apprenticeship into Scientific Discourse in the Secondary School. In. Christie Frances & Jim R. Martin (Eds.), Genre and Institutions: Social Processes in the Workplace and School, s. 161-195. London: Cassell. Österholm, M. & Bergqvist, E. (2013). What is so special about mathematical texts? Analyses of common claims in research literature and of properties of textbooks. ZDM Mathematics education, 45(5) 751-763.

  • Berglund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Adherence to drug treatment and interpretation of treatment effects2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Suboptimal adherence to medical treatments is prevalent across several clinical conditions and can lead to treatment failure. Adherence is a far from fully explored phenomenon and there is little knowledge about how patients interpret treatment effects. Commonly used treatment evaluation measures are often relative measures, which may be difficult for lay people and patients to understand.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate factors with relevance to adherence, to estimate treatment effects with the time-based Delay of Event (DoE) measure in anticoagulant preventive treatments, and to explore how lay people responded to the DoE measure, as compared with established measures, regarding treatment decisions and effect interpretation.

    A quantitative population-based cross-sectional design was used for Study I. Study II used data from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) clinical trial and estimated effects as DoEs. Studies III and IV were carried out as randomised survey experiments.

    The results showed that general adherence behaviour was associated with both environmental and social factors. Estimations of DoE showed that stroke or systemic embolism was delayed 181 (95% CI 76 to 287) days through twenty-two months of apixaban use, as compared with  warfarin use. The delay of major and intracranial bleeding was 206 (95% CI 130 to 281) and 392 (95% CI 249 to 535) days, respectively, due to apixaban use for twenty-two months, as compared with  warfarin use. Presenting preventive treatment effects as DoEs to lay people was associated with high willingness to initiate treatment and positive views on treatment benefits and willingness to pay for treatment.

    Non-optimal adherence was partly associated with modifiable factors and it might be possible to increase adherence by managing these factors. Estimations of DoEs in preventive treatments gave information on effects regarding delay of different outcomes; the estimation also provides tools that might be useful for interpreting and communicating treatment effects in clinical decision-making. Lay people seemed to react rationally to variations in DoE magnitude; a higher proportion accepted treatment when the magnitude was greater.

    List of papers
    1. Living environment, social support and informal caregiving are associated with health care seeking behaviour and adherence to medication treatment: a cross-sectional population study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living environment, social support and informal caregiving are associated with health care seeking behaviour and adherence to medication treatment: a cross-sectional population study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the well-known associations between local environment and health, few studies have focused on environment and health care utiliza-tion, for instance health care seeking behaviour or adherence. This study was aimed at analysing housing type, behaviour based on perceived local outdoor safety, social support, informal caregiving, demographics, socioeconomics, and long-term illness, and associations with health-seeking and adherence behaviours at a population level. This study used data from the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2004–2014, an annually repeated, large sample, cross-sectional, population-based sur-vey study. In all, questionnaires from 100,433 individuals were returned by post, making the response rate 52.9% (100,433/190,000). Descrip-tive statistics and multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between explanatory variables and the outcomes of refrain-ing from seeking care and non-adherence behaviour. Living in rented apartment, lodger, a dorm or other was associated with reporting refrain-ing from seeking care (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.22), and non-adherence (adjusted OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.13–1.31). Refraining from go-ing out due to a perceived unsafe neighbourhood was associated with refraining from seeking care (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.51–1.67) and non-adherence (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.17–1.36). Social support and status as an informal caregiver was associated with higher odds of refraining from seeking medical care and non-adherence. This study suggests that living in rental housing, refraining from going out due to neighbourhood safety concerns, lack of social support or informal care-giver status are associated with lower health-seeking behaviour and non-adherence to prescribed medication.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379066 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11
    2. Effects of apixaban compared with warfarin as gain in event-free time – a novel assessment of the results of the ARISTOTLE trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of apixaban compared with warfarin as gain in event-free time – a novel assessment of the results of the ARISTOTLE trial
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379073 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11
    3. Treatment effect expressed as the novel Delay of Event measure is associated with high willingness to initiate preventive treatment - A randomized survey experiment comparing effect measures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment effect expressed as the novel Delay of Event measure is associated with high willingness to initiate preventive treatment - A randomized survey experiment comparing effect measures
    2016 (English)In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 99, no 12, p. 2005-2011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate patients' willingness to initiate a preventive treatment and compared two established effect measures to the newly developed Delay of Events (DoE) measure that expresses treatment effect as a gain in event-free time. Methods: In this cross-sectional, randomized survey experiment in the general Swedish population, 1079 respondents (response rate 60.9%) were asked to consider a preventive cardiovascular treatment. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of three effect descriptions: DoE, relative risk reduction (RRR), or absolute risk reduction (ARR). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed investigating willingness to initiate treatment, views on treatment benefit, motivation and importance to adhere and willingness to pay for treatment. Results: Eighty-one percent were willing to take the medication when the effect was described as DoE, 83.0% when it was described as RRR and 62.8% when it was described as ARR. DoE and RRR was further associated with positive views on treatment benefit, motivation, importance to adhere and WTP. Conclusions: Presenting treatment effect as DoE or RRR was associated with a high willingness to initiate treatment. Practice implications: An approach based on the novel time-based measure DoE may be of value in clinical communication and shared decision making.

    Keywords
    Preventive measures, Adherence, Decision-making, Treatment outcome, Randomized, Survey experiment
    National Category
    Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315088 (URN)10.1016/j.pec.2016.07.028 (DOI)000391223200012 ()27499030 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Society of Medicine
    Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Length of time periods in treatment effect descriptions and willingness to initiate preventive therapy: a randomised survey experiment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Length of time periods in treatment effect descriptions and willingness to initiate preventive therapy: a randomised survey experiment
    2018 (English)In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 18, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Common measures used to describe preventive treatment effects today are proportional, i.e. they compare the proportions of events in relative or absolute terms, however they are not easily interpreted from the patient's perspective and different magnitudes do not seem to clearly discriminate between levels of effect presented to people. Methods In this randomised cross-sectional survey experiment, performed in a Swedish population-based sample (n=1041, response rate 58.6%), the respondents, aged between 40 and 75years were given information on a hypothetical preventive cardiovascular treatment. Respondents were randomised into groups in which the treatment was described as having the effect of delaying a heart attack for different periods of time (Delay of Event,DoE): 1month, 6months or 18months. Respondents were thereafter asked about their willingness to initiate such therapy, as well as questions about how they valued the proposed therapy. ResultsLonger DoE:s were associated with comparatively greater willingness to initiate treatment. The proportions accepting treatment were 81, 71 and 46% when postponement was 18months, 6months and 1month respectively. In adjusted binary logistic regression models the odds ratio for being willing to take therapy was 4.45 (95% CI 2.72-7.30) for a DoE of 6months, and 6.08 (95% CI 3.61-10.23) for a DoE of 18months compared with a DoE of 1month. Greater belief in the necessity of medical treatment increased the odds of being willing to initiate therapy. ConclusionsLay people's willingness to initiate preventive therapy was sensitive to the magnitude of the effect presented as DoE. The results indicate that DoE is a comprehensible effect measure, of potential value in shared clinical decision-making.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMC, 2018
    Keywords
    Medical decision-making, Risk communication, Risk perception, Necessity-concern framework
    National Category
    Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371868 (URN)10.1186/s12911-018-0662-2 (DOI)000450786000002 ()30458757 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
  • Carnvik, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Jag tänker på mig själv som en nakenakt: En studie av Marianne Lindberg De Geers skulptur Jag tänker på mig själv i relation till nakenakten som motivkategori2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to describe and analyze the Swedish artist Marianne Lindberg De Geer’s public sculpture Jag tänker på mig själv in relation to the female nude as a traditional motif within the western art and aesthetic. The artwork in question depicts two naked upright standing women, one of whom is represented as emaciated and skinny and the other one as voluminous and fat. By using previous research on the subject of aberrant bodily representations as its main theoretical framework and with a methodological approach based on visual semiotics, this study has found that Jag tänker på mig själv is to be seen as a deviant representation of the female body in several ways. The way in which the female body is represented in Marianne Lindberg De Geer’s sculpture has shown to deviate not only from the traditional female nude but also from the visual norms that usually characterizes aberrant representations of the female-coded body.

  • Cserhalmi, Nora
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Konstruerad utsatthet: En bildsemiotisk analys av Nathalie Djurbergs stop motion-filmer Greed och Cave2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to analyse how the exposedness is constructed in the Swedish contemporary artist Nathalie Djurberg’s two stop motion-films Greed and Cave. Five stills from Greed and three stills from Cave will be examined from a feminist perspective with a theoretical viewpoint based on theories from both art history and film studies. The method applied is visual semiotics which focuses on how meaning is created within an artwork rather than what the meaning is. The stills from Djurberg’s films are analysed first on a denotative level and then on a connotative level. Furthermore, visual semiotics theorises that everything is made up of systems of signs which allows this essay to study how the women in Djurberg’s movies functions as signs. The essay demonstrated that the women in Djurberg’s films can be seen as passive objects under the power of the male gaze. However, the analysis also displayed that the woman in Cave can be perceived as someone who defies the patriarchal norms for how a woman should behave and look. Nonetheless, the exposedness of these women seems to be constructed firstly in their bodies and how they are represented, both in looks but also how they are posed to reinforce patriarchal conventions in the female representation, and secondly in their relation to male characters - or the implied male gaze from a spectator - in the films. The women in Djurberg’s films can thus be understood as signs for male sexual desires, as signs for the Woman posing as the Man’s opposite, as the objective for His gaze.

  • Pettersson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Ett mediestrategiskt konstverk: En diskursanalytisk studie av den mediala uppmärksamheten kring Okänd, kvinna 2009 – 3497012019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an analysis of the media attention concerning the artist Anna Odell and her artwork Okänd, kvinna 2009 – 349701. The main materials I have used come from newspapers and articles where critics discuss Odell´s artwork in the period 2009 to 2015. The theoretical and methodological framework is based on Arthur C. Danto, George Dickie and Howard Beckers understanding of the art world and how artwork and artist receive their status. Another theoretical tool I have used is a discourse theory of Mara Lee. Lee helped me to understand the language and the relations between power and institutions. My aim with this thesis has been to understand how Okänd, kvinna 2009 – 349701 achieved its value and its transformation from a bad to a good evaluation. Why did Odell, in the beginning, get blamed for using tax money, tricking people in to believing that she was mentally ill resulting to the attention of the police, but in the end became an appreciated artist for this very same action? Odell was criticized for her behavior and was accused of stepping over a line for using art in a questionable way. A discussion started about the question of what art is. And what the purpose of art in society is. A few years later, in 2015, Odell was called one of the most interesting artists in Sweden by art critics when they wrote about Okänd, kvinna 2009 – 349701. What changed in the eyes of the critics? What is artistic quality and how can we understand the transformation that Odell´s artwork underwent? My analysis shows that esthetic quality depends on the situation and in ethics and morality. At the beginning the critics compared Okänd, kvinna 2009 – 349701 and the profession of psychiatry and in that comparison the psychiatry profession is more important than art. People attributed more confidence to a doctor than to a student of art regarding the truth about what happened at the psychiatric institution of St: Göran´s on the 21th of January 2009. 

  • Kadarik, Kati
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Moving out, moving up, becoming employed: Studies in the residential segregation and social integration of immigrants in Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the complex relationship between residential segregation and social integration. The dominant discourse in Sweden and Europe sees residential segregation as hindering socioeconomic and cultural integration, creating parallel societies and even threatening the social cohesion of European societies. Residential segregation might be a sign of social exclusion and discrimination, but it might also result from informed choices to self-segregate into particular neighbourhoods. Minority ethnic clustering, some argue, might have positive attributes, such as providing access to social capital embedded in ethnic communities. This thesis analyses the relationship between segregation and integration from the perspectives of two research traditions: drivers of segregation and neighbourhood effects. The thesis employs individual annual Swedish registry data and a k-nearest neighbour approach to identify residential neighbourhood contexts.

    Paper I studies the out-mobility of three cohorts of young adults from large housing estates (LHEs) in Stockholm County against the backdrop of increasing inequality, stigmatization, and deteriorating conditions in these areas. From 1990 to 2014, income became more and ethnicity less important in explaining mobility. However, it is the combination of the two that determined sorting for all cohorts. The study also clarifies how different neighbourhood conditions within LHEs affect sorting patterns.

    Paper II analyses the residential mobility of immigrants towards native-dominated neighbourhoods. The study concludes that ethnic hierarchies strongly shape residential outcomes and increased income alone does not necessarily translate into residential mobility. However, spatial integration can be facilitated by a better housing market position at the start of the housing career in Sweden, improved socioeconomic outcomes, and residing outside metropolitan areas.

    Paper III examines the potential of ethnic economic capital in the neighbourhood (measured as share of employed co-ethnics) to bolster employment prospects. The results of the multi-scalar analysis of four immigrant groups show that an increase in ethnic economic capital can have a positive effect on immigrant males’ employment prospects, but the effect size varies between groups and neighbourhood scales.

    The main conclusion of this thesis is that the relationship between residential segregation and social integration is not straightforward, but rather is complex and nuanced. It varies between groups with different backgrounds, but also between settlement contexts within Sweden and between neighbourhood contexts within cities. It changes over time and is influenced by the spatial scale of neighbourhood context measurements. This thesis demonstrates the usefulness of employing flexible scalable individual neighbourhoods in conceptualising space when studying social processes.

    List of papers
    1. Out-mobility from Stockholm’s large housing estates: local neighbourhood context and the changing importance of income over ethnicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Out-mobility from Stockholm’s large housing estates: local neighbourhood context and the changing importance of income over ethnicity
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    In political discussions, large housing estates (LHEs) in Stockholm, like in many other European cities, have become shorthand for a range of housing and socioeconomic problems. In recent decades, many such estates have displayed increasing signs of stigmatization, social exclusion, and outflow of relatively affluent people. This selective character of residential mobility from LHEs is considered problematic because it leads to neighbourhood decline. This paper improves our knowledge of how these changes in residential composition have affected out-mobility from these areas over time and how different neighbourhood conditions within LHEs affect sorting patterns. Individual annual Swedish registry data (1990–2014) are employed to longitudinally study the out-mobility patterns of three cohorts that grew up in the estates against the backdrop of growing inequality and deteriorating conditions. This study supplements the existing literature on housing estates by clarifying how income has become more and ethnicity less important over time in explaining sorting patterns from these estates. However, despite substantial changes in the importance of income and ethnic background, it is the combination of the two that has determined sorting throughout the study period. The role of neighbourhood context is, however, less clear: neighbourhoods with the lowest socioeconomic status in the estates display greater sorting based on income, but an opposite pattern is evident for ethnic background.

    Keywords
    residential mobility, neighbourhood change, large housing estates, Stockholm
    National Category
    Human Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378588 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-10 Created: 2019-03-10 Last updated: 2019-03-10
    2. What affects immigrants’ mobility towards native-dominated neighbourhoods? The role of individual resources, ethnicity, and settlement context
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What affects immigrants’ mobility towards native-dominated neighbourhoods? The role of individual resources, ethnicity, and settlement context
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, immigrants’ integration and residential patterns are much disputed. Segregation is seen as a threat to social cohesion and policies at least rhetorically aim to create mixed neighbourhoods. Spatial assimilation theory argues that immigrants’ socioeconomic success translates into less segregation in housing for that group. In contrast, place stratification theory emphasizes the importance of ethnicity and structural mechanisms in residential mobility. This study investigates immigrants’ mobility towards native-dominated neighbourhoods by clarifying the role of ethnic hierarchies in association with immigrants’ social and work backgrounds, emphasizing the importance of settlement context. The paper presents a survival analysis based on everyone who migrated to Sweden from 1990 to 2010. The conclusion is that ethnic hierarchies strongly shape residential outcomes, and that spatial integration can be facilitated by a better housing market position at the start of the housing career in Sweden and by outcomes in other life domains, such as labour market participation and good educational attainment. Importantly, increased income alone does not necessarily translate into neighbourhood mobility and spatial integration. There are better prospects of ending up in native Swedish neighbourhoods outside metropolitan areas, whereas in metropolitan areas, the opportunity structures for spatial integration are much more constrained, especially for refugees.

    Keywords
    segregation, spatial assimilation, place stratification, residential mobility, k-nearest neighbour, survival analysis, Sweden
    National Category
    Human Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378788 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-10 Created: 2019-03-10 Last updated: 2019-03-10
    3. Ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods: impact on immigrants’ employment opportunities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods: impact on immigrants’ employment opportunities
    (English)In: Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Does living in areas characterized by high co-ethnic concentrations deprive ethnic minority groups, or does potential access to an extended ethnic network with valuable resources further their integration? This paper takes a new approach to analysing the potential of ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods to increase employment opportunities. While many studies employ aggregated administrative neighbourhood data, an important methodological advance here is that we use individualized, scalable neighbourhoods. This enables us to apply a flexible approach in studying the existence and impact of ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods. In addition, we not only focus on the concentration of co-ethnics, or on local economic factors, but also measure ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods as the rate of employed co-ethnics. We employ individual longitudinal Swedish registry data for 2000–2010 on working-age males of Iraqi, Iranian, Turkish, and Somalian backgrounds in Stockholm, Göteborg, and Malmö. We find that an increased share of employed co-ethnics positively affects males’ employment prospects. We add to existing knowledge by showing that the effect of ethnic clustering on employment outcomes is conditional on the quality of ethnic networks – i.e., ethnic economic capital – and on the scale of measurement.

    Keywords
    neighbourhood effects, ethnic economic capital, employment, scale, Sweden
    National Category
    Human Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378789 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-10 Created: 2019-03-10 Last updated: 2019-03-10
  • Pettersson, Sara
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Campus Norrkoping, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Hadziabdic, Emina
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Campus Norrkoping, Norrkoping, Sweden;Linnaeus Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Dept Hlth & Caring Sci, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Marklund, Helen
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Campus Norrkoping, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences. Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Campus Norrkoping, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Lower knowledge about diabetes among foreign-born compared to Swedish-born persons with diabetes - A descriptive study2019In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 367-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To compare foreign- and Swedish-born persons, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, to study whether there are dissimilarities in knowledge about diabetes and to study determinants of knowledge.

    Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted.

    Method: Data were collected between September 2014 and March 2016, using the standardized Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT), statistically analysed.

    Results: The results showed dissimilarities in knowledge between foreign- and Swedish-born persons, supporting the hypothesis that foreign-born persons had lower knowledge about diabetes than Swedish-born persons. There was a relationship between poor knowledge and country of birth, marital status and employment status. Country of birth was the strongest independent determinant of knowledge about diabetes. The risk of poor knowledge was ten times higher among persons born in the Middle East or in another country outside Europe compared with Swedish-born persons. Other influencing factors for poor knowledge about diabetes were being not gainfully employed and living alone.

  • Kalla, Christelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Dekomponeringsanalys av personbilstrafikens CO2-utsläpp i Sverige 1990–20152019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By year 2045 Sweden shall reach zero territorial net emissions and by year 2030 the emissions from the transport sector shall be reduced by 70% compared to year 2010. In Sweden the road traffic stands for a third of the total greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve the climate targets, the most suited policies and actions should be prioritized. A systematic investigation into the factors that affect the change in emissions can guide decision makers to distribute resources where they contribute the most. A decomposition analysis is a potential method for this purpose since the effect of different factors can be separated and measured. Five additive LMDI-I decomposition analyses were made on the change in fossil CO2 emission from passenger cars in Sweden between year 1990–2015. The factors that were investigated were: population, vehicle per capita, fuel technologies, engine sizes, distance travelled per vehicle, emissions and biofuel share. Data from the emissions model HBEFA, the Swedish Transport Administration and Statistics Sweden were used in the analyses. During the period of year 1990–2015 the CO2 emissions were reduced, and the decomposition analyses showed that all ingoing factors affected the change. Throughout the period the factors that contributed the most were in order of size: distance travelled per vehicle (35%), fuel technologies (15%), population (15%), car per capita (13%), emissions (11%), biofuel (7%) and engine size (5%). The percentage is the share of the factor’s effect of the absolute sum of all the different effects. Distance travelled per vehicle, emissions, bio fuels and engine size reduced the emissions. Fuel technologies, population and car per capita increased the emissions. The suggestions of actions are incentive for people to use more sustainable means for transportation, increase the share of cars with lower emissions in the fleet and use more biofuel.

  • Halvarsson, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    "Låt oss be och bekänna": Om vad en människa bör bekänna och ta ansvar för som sin synd och skuld2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is first and foremost to clarify which kind of different answers there are to identify within an evangelical-lutheran tradition considering what a person should confess and take responsibility for as their sin and guilt. Secondly this essay aims to suggest the most plausible one. This essay thematically present four different figures of ideas that answers to the question of what a person should confess as their sin and guilt. These figures are: 1) To confess the ontological state of guilt 2) To confess the subjective sin and guilt 3) To confess the objective sin and guilt 4) To confess participation in the structural sin and guilt. These four different views of what to confess have been tested through three different criterias: a criteria of theology - by testing the coherence with an evangelical-lutheran tradition, a criteria of pastoral psychology - by testing the correspondence with theories in pastoral psychology and a criteria of good consequences - to see if the views of what to confess have a liberating effect on an individual and collective level. After testing these different views of what to confess my conclusion is that the most valid one is “ to confess our objective sin and guilt” because it expresses the violation of the “relation”. Some of the other views may serve as a good explanation for the human “situation”, but are not appropriate to confess as guilt.

  • Klitgaard Nelsson, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Bakbunden frälsning: en kritisk analys av det politiska frälsningsbegreppets predikament i moderniteten2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the ideological underpinnings of political soteriological discourse. Through analyzing key texts in liberation theology, using critical theorists such as Theodor W. Adorno and Wendy Brown, I aim to understand to how this soteriological discourse respond to the predicaments that afflict theology in modernity – and to explore the ideological issues with these responses. I then turn to present day Swedish theological conversations concerning salvation and its political use, in order to discuss whether the issues exposed in liberation theology can be considered to continue to be a problem for the present discussion. I also discuss the ethical and theological obstacles connected to the translocation of liberation theology from the Latin America of the 60’s, 70’s and 80’s to present day Sweden, or, in other words: from an exploited continent in protest against imperialism and capitalism, to the continent guilty of so much of the suffering that Latin American liberation theology condemned. What does it mean to turn to liberation theology in this context? I find, in this discourse, a certainty and assuredness concerning the salvation of all, which I find to be at least in part ideologically grounded. Instead, I suggest another direction for political revolutionary soteriology: to unsettle and disturb the modern image of the God-like man; to reconnect with the prehistoric fear of nature through a vigilant and restless immanent critique and through the subversive act of rituals and sacrifice.

  • Bergman Blix, Stina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wettergren, Åsa
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg.
    The Emotional Interaction of Judicial Objectivity2019In: Oñati Socio-legal Series, ISSN 2079-5971, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like other Western legal systems, the Swedish legal system constructs objectivity as an unemotional state of being. We argue that the enactment of objectivity in situ relies on objectivity work including emotion management and empathy. Building on qualitative interviews and observations in Swedish district courts, we analyse courtroom interaction through a dramaturgical lens, highlighting tacit signals and interprofessional emotional communication aimed to secure objective procedures, while sustaining the ideal of unemotional objectivity. By analytically separating objectivity from impartiality, we show that judges’ objective performances balance empathic attunement and restrained expressions to uphold an impartial presentation. Prosecutors take pride in maintaining objectivity in spite of being partial, fostering the ability to switch between engagement and disengagement depending on the strength of the case. The requirement for legal professionals to be autonomous demands skillful inter-professional emotional attuning. Thereby, collaborative professional emotion management achieves the ideal of justice as being objective.

  • van Dorst, Renee M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Inst Coastal Res, Dept Aquat Resources, Oregrund, Sweden.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Oregrund, Sweden.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Beier, Ulrika
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Inst Freshwater Res, Dept Aquat Resources, Drottningholm, Sweden;Wageningen Marine Res, Ijmuiden, Netherlands.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Huss, Magnus
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Oregrund, Sweden.
    Warmer and browner waters decrease fish biomass production2019In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1395-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change studies have long focused on effects of increasing temperatures, often without considering other simultaneously occurring environmental changes, such as browning of waters. Resolving how the combination of warming and browning of aquatic ecosystems affects fish biomass production is essential for future ecosystem functioning, fisheries, and food security. In this study, we analyzed individual- and population-level fish data from 52 temperate and boreal lakes in Northern Europe, covering large gradients in water temperature and color (absorbance, 420 nm). We show that fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) biomass production decreased with both high water temperatures and brown water color, being lowest in warm and brown lakes. However, while both high temperature and brown water decreased fish biomass production, the mechanisms behind the decrease differed: temperature affected the fish biomass production mainly through a decrease in population standing stock biomass, and through shifts in size- and age-distributions toward a higher proportion of young and small individuals in warm lakes; brown water color, on the other hand, mainly influenced fish biomass production through negative effects on individual body growth and length-at-age. In addition to these findings, we observed that the effects of temperature and brown water color on individual-level processes varied over ontogeny. Body growth only responded positively to higher temperatures among young perch, and brown water color had a stronger negative effect on body growth of old than on young individuals. Thus, to better understand and predict future fish biomass production, it is necessary to integrate both individual- and population-level responses and to acknowledge within-species variation. Our results suggest that global climate change, leading to browner and warmer waters, may negatively affect fish biomass production, and this effect may be stronger than caused by increased temperature or water color alone.

  • Gummesson, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Molin, Fredrik
    Natl Hist Museums, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Arne
    Lund Univ, Dept Archeol & Ancient Hist, Lund, Sweden.
    The Spatial Organization of Bone Crafting During the Middle and Late Mesolithic at Ringsjöholm and Strandvägen in Sweden2019In: Journal of field archaeology, ISSN 0093-4690, E-ISSN 2042-4582, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 165-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the spatial distribution of bone tool production waste from two Mesolithic sites in Sweden, Ringsjoholm and Strandvagen, with well-preserved faunal remains including bone and antler artifacts. Local production on both sites has generated a variety of identifiable waste products deriving from complete chains of production, including unmodified bones, debitage and finished products. Identified categories include: blanks, removed epiphyses, bone flakes, and preforms. Identification of species shows that antler and bone from red deer were the preferred raw materials. Spatial statistical analyses confirm that different stages of bone tool production were organized within separate areas of the sites and that larger items were discarded in the water along the shorelines. Interestingly, blanks and preforms seem to have been stored under water for future use and demarcated clusters of bone flakes in association with dwellings represent "bone knapping floors" where production was more intense than in other areas.

  • Prskalo, Daniela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Fackförbundens syn på effekten av friskolereformen: En analys av Lärarförbundets och Lärarnas Riskförbunds argumentation kring betygssättning och lärarens myndighetsutövande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Kukk, Kätriin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Correlation between emotional tweets and stock prices2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter have enormous amounts of data that can be extracted and analyzed for various purposes. Stock market prediction is one of them. Previous research has shown that there is a correlation between Twitter sentiment – the proportion of positive, negative and neutral tweets – and the changes in companies’ stock prices. The present study investigates if categorizing tweets into a bigger number of categories – anger, disgust, joy, surprise, none - results in stronger correlations being found. In total, 5985 tweets in English about American Airlines, American Express, AstraZeneca and ExxonMobil were extracted and analyzed with the help of sentiment and emotion classifiers trained. Tweet sentiment showed stronger correlations with stock returns than emotion did, although the type of correlation found differed between the companies considered. It is suggested that dividing tweets into fewer categories results in semantically more distinct labels that are easier to distinguish between and that therefore show stronger correlations. Furthermore, the results indicate that the pairs of values showing the strongest correlations depend on the characteristics of each individual company.

  • Suarez, Carolina
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol Microbiol, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Architecture & Civil Engn, Water Environm Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Piculell, Maria
    Veolia Water Technol AB AnoxKaldnes, SE-22647 Lund, Sweden.
    Modin, Oskar
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Architecture & Civil Engn, Water Environm Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Persson, Frank
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Architecture & Civil Engn, Water Environm Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Malte
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol Microbiol, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thickness determines microbial community structure and function in nitrifying biofilms via deterministic assembly2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 5110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic environments where they provide important ecosystem functions. A key property believed to influence the community structure and function of biofilms is thickness. However, since biofilm thickness is inextricably linked to external factors such as water flow, temperature, development age and nutrient conditions, its importance is difficult to quantify. Here, we designed an experimental system in a wastewater treatment plant whereby nitrifying biofilms with different thicknesses (50 or 400 mu m) were grown in a single reactor, and thus subjected to identical external conditions. The 50 and 400 mu m biofilm communities were significantly different. This beta-diversity between biofilms of different thickness was primarily caused by deterministic factors. Turnover (species replacement) contributed more than nestedness (species loss) to the beta-diversity, i.e. the 50 mu m communities were not simply a subset of the 400 mu m communities. Moreover, the two communities differed in the composition of nitrogen-transforming bacteria and in nitrogen transformation rates. The study illustrates that biofilm thickness alone is a key driver for community composition and ecosystem function, which has implications for biotechnological applications and for our general understanding of biofilm ecology.

  • Ishengoma, Deus S.
    et al.
    Natl Inst Med Res, Tanga Res Ctr, Tanga, Tanzania.
    Mandara, Celine I.
    Natl Inst Med Res, Tanga Res Ctr, Tanga, Tanzania;Kilimanjaro Christian Med Univ Coll, Kilimanjaro Christian Med Ctr, Moshi, Tanzania.
    Francis, Filbert
    Natl Inst Med Res, Tanga Res Ctr, Tanga, Tanzania.
    Talundzic, Eldin
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Malaria Branch, Div Parasit Dis & Malaria, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Lucchi, Naomi W.
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Malaria Branch, Div Parasit Dis & Malaria, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Ngasala, Billy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dept Parasitol, Sch Publ Hlth, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M.
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mahende, Muhidin K.
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kamugisha, Erasmus
    Catholic Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Bugando Med Ctr, Mwanza, Tanzania.
    Kavishe, Reginald A.
    Kilimanjaro Christian Med Univ Coll, Kilimanjaro Christian Med Ctr, Moshi, Tanzania.
    Muro, Florida
    Kilimanjaro Christian Med Univ Coll, Kilimanjaro Christian Med Ctr, Moshi, Tanzania.
    Mohamed, Ally
    Natl Malaria Control Programme, Ocean Rd Luthuli Ave NIMR Complex, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mandike, Renata
    Natl Malaria Control Programme, Ocean Rd Luthuli Ave NIMR Complex, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mkude, Sigsbert
    Natl Malaria Control Programme, Ocean Rd Luthuli Ave NIMR Complex, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Chacky, Frank
    Natl Malaria Control Programme, Ocean Rd Luthuli Ave NIMR Complex, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Paxton, Lynn
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Malaria Branch, Div Parasit Dis & Malaria, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Greer, George
    US Embassy, US Presidents Malaria Initiat, US Agcy Int Dev, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kitojo, Chonge A.
    US Embassy, US Presidents Malaria Initiat, US Agcy Int Dev, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Njau, Ritha
    WHO, Country Off, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Martin, Troy
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, HIV Vaccine Trials Network, 1124 Columbia St, Seattle, WA 98104 USA.
    Venkatesan, Meera
    US Agcy Int Dev, US Presidents Malaria Initiat, Washington, DC 20523 USA.
    Warsame, Marian
    WHO, Global Malaria Programme, 20 Ave Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland;Gothenburg Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halsey, Eric S.
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Malaria Branch, Div Parasit Dis & Malaria, Atlanta, GA USA;Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, US Presidents Malaria Initiat, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Malaria Branch, Div Parasit Dis & Malaria, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria and prevalence of Pfk13 and Pfmdr1 polymorphisms after a decade of using artemisinin-based combination therapy in mainland Tanzania2019In: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 18, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends regular therapeutic efficacy studies (TES) to monitor the performance of first and second-line anti-malarials. In 2016, efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria were assessed through a TES conducted between April and October 2016 at four sentinel sites of Kibaha, Mkuzi, Mlimba, and Ujiji in Tanzania. The study also assessed molecular markers of artemisinin and lumefantrine (partner drug) resistance.

    Methods: Eligible patients were enrolled at the four sites, treated with standard doses of AL, and monitored for 28 days with clinical and laboratory assessments. The main outcomes were PCR corrected cure rates, day 3 positivity rates, safety of AL, and prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 (Pfk13) (codon positions: 440-600) and P. falciparum multi-drug resistance 1 (Pfmdr1) genes (codons: N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y), markers of artemisinin and lumefantrine resistance, respectively.

    Results: Of 344 patients enrolled, three withdrew, six were lost to follow-up; and results were analysed for 335 (97.4%) patients. Two patients had treatment failure (one early treatment failure and one recrudescent infection) after PCR correction, yielding an adequate clinical and parasitological response of > 98%. Day 3 positivity rates ranged from 0 to 5.7%. Common adverse events included cough, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Two patients had serious adverse events; one died after the first dose of AL and another required hospitalization after the second dose of AL (on day 0) but recovered completely. Of 344 samples collected at enrolment (day 0), 92.7% and 100% were successfully sequenced for Pfk13 and Pfmdr1 genes, respectively. Six (1.9%) had non-synonymous mutations in Pfk13, none of which had been previously associated with artemisinin resistance. For Pfmdr1, the NFD haplotype (codons N86, 184F and D1246) was detected in 134 (39.0%) samples; ranging from 33.0% in Mlimba to 45.5% at Mkuzi. The difference among the four sites was not significant (p = 0.578). All samples had a single copy of the Pfmdr1 gene.

    Conclusion: The study indicated high efficacy of AL and the safety profile was consistent with previous reports. There were no known artemisinin-resistance Pfk13 mutations, but there was a high prevalence of a Pfmdr1 haplotype associated with reduced sensitivity to lumefantrine (but no reduced efficacy was observed in the subjects). Continued TES and monitoring of markers of resistance to artemisinin and partner drugs is critical for early detection of resistant parasites and to inform evidence-based malaria treatment policies.

  • Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Datasets for Rilm et al., (2019) Spectral decomposition of high-frequency CO2 concentrations reveals soil-stream linkages. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.2019Data set
  • Mandal, Tanumoy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Univ Delhi, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Delhi 110007, India.
    Mitra, Subhadip
    Int Inst Informat Technol, Ctr Computat Nat Sci & Bioinformat, Hyderabad 500032, India.
    Raz, Swapnil
    Int Inst Informat Technol, Ctr Computat Nat Sci & Bioinformat, Hyderabad 500032, India.
    R-D(*) motivated S-1 leptoquark scenarios: Impact of interference on the exclusion limits from LHC data2019In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 99, no 5, article id 055028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the persistent anomalies in the semileptonic B-meson decays, we investigate the competency of LHC data to constrain the R-D(*)-favored parameter space in a charge -1/3 scalar leptoquark (S-1) model. We consider some scenarios with one large free coupling to accommodate the R-D(*) anomalies. As a result, some of them dominantly yield nonresonant tau tau and tau nu events at the LHC through the t-channel S-1 exchange. So far, no experiment has searched for leptoquarks using these signatures and the relevant resonant leptoquark searches are yet to put any strong exclusion limit on the parameter space. We recast the latest tau tau and tau nu resonance search data to obtain new exclusion limits. The nonresonant processes strongly interfere (destructively in our case) with the Standard Model background and play the determining role in setting the exclusion limits. To obtain precise limits, we include non-negligible effects coming from the subdominant (resonant) pair and inclusive single leptoquark productions systematically in our analysis. To deal with large destructive interference, we make use of the transverse mass distributions from the experiments in our statistical analysis. In addition, we also recast the relevant direct search results to obtain the most stringent collider bounds on these scenarios to date. These are independent bounds and are competitive to other known bounds. Finally, we indicate how one can adopt these bounds to a wide class of models with S-1 that are proposed to accommodate the R-D(*) anomalies.

  • Public defence: 2019-04-29 13:00 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Abramenkovs, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Induction and repair of clustered DNA damage sites after exposure to ionizing radiation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms that maintain genomic stability safeguard cells from constant DNA damage produced by endogenous and external stressors. Therefore, this thesis aimed to specifically address questions regarding the requirement and involvement of DNA repair proteins in the repair of various types of radiation-induced DNA damage.

    The first aim was to determine whether the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs, a major kinase involved in non-homologous end joining pathway, can be utilized to score the DNA double-strand break (DSB) content in cells. DNA-PKcs phosphorylated (pDNA-PKcs) at T2609 was more sensitive to the cellular DSB content than ɣH2AX, as analyzed by flow cytometry. Further, pDNA-PKcs at T2609 could discriminate between DSB repair-compromised and normal cells, confirming that the pDNA-PKcs can be used as a DSB repair marker. In paper II, the DSB repair was assessed in cells with reduced levels of DNA-PKcs. The reduction in DNA-PKcs resulted in decreased cell survival and unaffected DSB repair. These results clearly indicate that DNA-PKcs plays an additional role in promoting cell survival in addition to its function in DSB repair.

    The second part of the thesis focused on the characterization of complex DNA damage. DNA damage was investigated after exposure to α-particles originating from Ra-223. The Ra-223 treatment induced a nonrandom DSB distribution consistent with damage induced by high-linear energy transfer radiation. The exposure to Ra-223 significantly reduced cell survival in monolayers and 3D cell structures. The last paper unraveled the fate of heat-sensitive clustered DNA damage site (HSCS) repair in cells. HSCS repair was independent of DSB repair, and these lesions did not contribute to the generation of additional DSBs during repair. Prolonged heating of DNA at relatively low temperatures induced structural changes in the DNA that contributed to the production of DNA artifacts.

    In conclusion, these results demonstrate that DNA-PKcs can be used to monitor DSB repair in cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the functions of DNA-PKcs are not limited to DSB repair, as it can promote cell survival through other mechanisms. The complexity of the DNA damage produced by high-LET radiation is a major contributor to cell death. However, not all clusters produced in irradiated cells are converted into DSBs during repair.

    List of papers
    1. Measurement of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Using Flow Cytometry Provides a Reliable Estimate of DNA Repair Capacity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Using Flow Cytometry Provides a Reliable Estimate of DNA Repair Capacity
    2017 (English)In: Radiation Research, ISSN 0033-7587, E-ISSN 1938-5404, Vol. 188, no 6, p. 597-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Uncontrolled generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells is regarded as a highly toxic event that threatens cell survival. Radiation-induced DNA DSBs are commonly measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, microscopic evaluation of accumulating DNA damage response proteins (e.g., 53BP1 or gamma-H2AX) or flow cytometric analysis of gamma-H2AX. The advantage of flow cytometric analysis is that DSB formation and repair can be studied in relationship to cell cycle phase or expression of other proteins. However, gamma-H2AX is not able to monitor repair kinetics within the first 60 min postirradiation, a period when most DSBs undergo repair. A key protein in non-homologous end joining repair is the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Among several phosphorylation sites of DNA-dependent protein kinase, the threonine at position 2609 (T2609), which is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit itself, activates the end processing of DSB. Using flow cytometry, we show here that phosphorylation at T2609 is faster in response to DSBs than gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of T2609 resulted in a better representation of fast repair kinetics than analysis of gamma-H2AX. In cells with reduced ligase IV activity, and wild-type cells where DNA-dependent protein kinase activity was inhibited, the reduced DSB repair capacity was observed by T2609 evaluation using flow cytometry. In conclusion, flow cytometric evaluation of DNA-dependent protein kinase T2609 can be used as a marker for early DSB repair and gives a better representation of early repair events than analysis of gamma-H2AX.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    RADIATION RESEARCH SOC, 2017
    National Category
    Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343567 (URN)10.1667/RR14693.1 (DOI)000416744600001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Radiation Safety Authority
    Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Suppression of DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitize cells to radiation without affecting DSB repair
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suppression of DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitize cells to radiation without affecting DSB repair
    2014 (English)In: Mutation research, ISSN 0027-5107, E-ISSN 1873-135X, Vol. 769, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient and correct repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) is critical for cell survival. Defects in the DNA repair may lead to cell death, genomic instability and development of cancer. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an essential component of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) which is the major DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells. In the present study, by using siRNA against DNA-PKcs in four human cell lines, we examined how low levels of DNA-PKcs affected cellular response to ionizing radiation. Decrease of DNA-PKcs levels by 80-95%, induced by siRNA treatment, lead to extreme radiosensitivity, similar to that seen in cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and low levels of DNA-PKcs promoted cell accumulation in G2/M phase after irradiation and blocked progression of mitosis. Surprisingly, low levels of DNA-PKcs did not affect the repair capacity and the removal of 53BP1 or gamma-H2AX foci and rejoining of DSB appeared normal. This was in strong contrast to cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and cells treated with the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441, in which DSB repair were severely compromised. This suggests that there are different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs functions can sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. Further, foci of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (T2609 and S2056) co-localized with DSB and this was independent of the amount of DNA-PKcs but foci of DNA-PKcs was only seen in siRNA-treated cells. Our study emphasizes on the critical role of DNA-PKcs for maintaining survival after radiation exposure which is uncoupled from its essential function in DSB repair. This could have implications for the development of therapeutic strategies aiming to radiosensitize tumors by affecting the DNA-PKcs function.

    Keywords
    DNA repair, DNA-PKcs, Ionizing radiation, DNA-PK deficiency, NU7441
    National Category
    Medical Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237292 (URN)10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2014.06.004 (DOI)000343625700001 ()
    Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-01 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
    3. The α-emitter Ra-223 induces clustered DNA damage and significantly reduces cell survival
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The α-emitter Ra-223 induces clustered DNA damage and significantly reduces cell survival
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical Xofigo (Radium-223 dichloride) has demonstrated both extended survival and palliative effects in treatment of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The alpha-particle emitter Ra-223, administered as Ra-223 dichloride, targets regions undergoing active bone remodeling and strongly binds hydroxyapatite found in bone. However, the mechanisms mediating toxicity and properties of Ra-223 binding to hydroxyapatite are not fully understood. In the current study, we show that the alpha-particles originating from the Ra-223 decay chain produce a track-like distribution of the DNA damage response proteins 53BP1 and ɣH2AX and induce high amounts of clustered DNA double-strand breaks in prostate cancer cell nuclei. The Ra-223 treatment inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells, grown in 2D- and 3D- models in vitro, independent of prostate cancer cell type and androgen receptor variant 7 (ARv7) expression. The rapid binding with a high affinity of Ra-223 to bone structures was verified in an in silico assay (KD= 19.2 ± 6.5 e-18) and almost no dissociation was detected within 24 hours. Importantly, there was no significant uptake of Ra-223 in cells. Further, we demonstrate the importance of the local dose-distribution of this treatment; there was more than 100-fold increase in cell killing when Ra-223 was attached to the bone-like hydroxyapatite structure, compared to when the radioactivity was distributed in the cell growth media. However, independent of the exposure condition, the high cell killing efficacy of the Ra-223 was attributed to the clustered DNA damaged sites induced by the released α-particles.

    Keywords
    Prostate cancer, ARv7, DNA damage, Ra-223, high-LET
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Research subject
    Medical Cell Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378720 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-03-08
    4. Removal of heat-sensitive clustered damaged DNA sites is independent of double-strand break repair
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of heat-sensitive clustered damaged DNA sites is independent of double-strand break repair
    2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious lesions that can arise in cells after ionizing radiation or radiometric drug treatment. In addition to prompt DSBs, DSBs may also be produced during repair, evolving from a clustered DNA damaged site, which is composed of two or more distinct lesions that are located within two helical turns. A specific type of cluster damage is the heat-sensitive clustered site (HSCS), which transforms into DSBs upon treatment at elevated temperatures. The actual lesions or mechanisms that mediate the HSCS transformation into DSBs are unknown. However, there are two possibilities; either these lesions are transformed into DSBs due to DNA lesion instability, e.g., transfer of HSCS into single-strand breaks (SSBs), or they are formed due to local DNA structure instability, e.g., DNA melting, where two SSBs on opposite strands meet and transform into a DSB. The importance of these processes in living cells is not understood, but they significantly affect estimates of DSB repair capacity. In this study, we show that HSCS removal in human cells is not affected by defects in DSB repair or inhibition of DSB repair. Under conditions where rejoining of prompt DSBs was almost completely inhibited, heat-sensitive DSBs were successfully rejoined, without resulting in increased DSB levels, indicating that HSCS do not transfer into DSB in cells under physiological conditions. Furthermore, analysis by atomic force microscopy suggests that prolonged heating of chromosomal DNA can induce structural changes that facilitate transformation of HSCS into DSB. In conclusion, the HSCS do not generate additional DSBs at physiological temperatures in human cells, and the repair of HSCS is independent of DSB repair.

    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-374120 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0209594 (DOI)000454621900032 ()30592737 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Cancer Society, CAN2014/661Swedish Cancer Society, CAN2016/649Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM2017-2374Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM2018-2181
    Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
  • Faranda, Davide
    et al.
    Univ Paris Saclay, UVSQ, CNRS, LSCE,IPSL,CEA,CEA Saclay Orme Merisiers,UMR 8212, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France;London Math Lab, 8 Margravine Gardens, London W68RH, England.
    Alvarez-Castro, M. Carmen
    Univ Paris Saclay, UVSQ, CNRS, LSCE,IPSL,CEA,CEA Saclay Orme Merisiers,UMR 8212, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France;Ctr Euromediterraneo Cambiamenti Climat, Climate Simulat & Predict Div, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
    Messori, Gabriele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Paris Saclay, UVSQ, CNRS, LSCE,IPSL,CEA,CEA Saclay Orme Merisiers,UMR 8212, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France;Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rodrigues, David
    Univ Paris Saclay, UVSQ, CNRS, LSCE,IPSL,CEA,CEA Saclay Orme Merisiers,UMR 8212, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Yiou, Pascal
    Univ Paris Saclay, UVSQ, CNRS, LSCE,IPSL,CEA,CEA Saclay Orme Merisiers,UMR 8212, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    The hammam effect or how a warm ocean enhances large scale atmospheric predictability2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmosphere's chaotic nature limits its short-term predictability. Furthermore, there is little knowledge on how the difficulty of forecasting weather may be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Here, we address this question by employing metrics issued from dynamical systems theory to describe the atmospheric circulation and infer the dynamical properties of the climate system. Specifically, we evaluate the changes in the sub-seasonal predictability of the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic for the historical period and under anthropogenic forcing, using centennial reanalyses and CMIP5 simulations. For the future period, most datasets point to an increase in the atmosphere's predictability. AMIP simulations with 4K warmer oceans and 4 x atmospheric CO2 concentrations highlight the prominent role of a warmer ocean in driving this increase. We term this the hammam effect. Such effect is linked to enhanced zonal atmospheric patterns, which are more predictable than meridional configurations.

  • Lindstål, Tim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Marklund, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Application of LabVIEW and myRIO to voice controlled home automation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to use NI myRIO and LabVIEW for voice controlled home automation. The NI myRIO is an embedded device which has a Xilinx FPGA and a dual-core ARM Cortex-A9processor as well as analog input/output and digital input/output, and is programmed with theLabVIEW, a graphical programming language. The voice control is implemented in two differentsystems. The first system is based on an Amazon Echo Dot for voice recognition, which is acommercial smart speaker developed by Amazon Lab126. The Echo Dot devices are connectedvia the Internet to the voice-controlled intelligent personal assistant service known as Alexa(developed by Amazon), which is capable of voice interaction, music playback, and controllingsmart devices for home automation. This system in the present thesis project is more focusingon myRIO used for the wireless control of smart home devices, where smart lamps, sensors,speakers and a LCD-display was implemented.

    The other system is more focusing on myRIO for speech recognition and was built on myRIOwith a microphone connected. The speech recognition was implemented using mel frequencycepstral coefficients and dynamic time warping. A few commands could be recognized, includinga wake word ”Bosse” as well as other four commands for controlling the colors of a smart lamp.

    The thesis project is shown to be successful, having demonstrated that the implementation ofhome automation using the NI myRIO with two voice-controlled systems can correctly controlhome devices such as smart lamps, sensors, speakers and a LCD-display.

  • Jirblom, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Egenskaper och förtjockningspotential hos slam från MBR- respektive CAS-process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To comply with future stricter regulations on treated wastewater and an increasing load on

    the system due to a growing population, the Stockholm Vatten och Avfall Company (SVOA)

    is upgrading the Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant within the project Stockholm’s Future

    Wastewater Treatment (SFA). One of the main changes in the future plant is the introduction

    of MBR-treatment, where sludge and water will be separated through the use of membranes.

    This separation will change the composition of the sludge by removing a larger fraction of

    particles from the effluent than what can be achieved in conventional sedimentation basins.

    Hammarby Sjöstadsverk operates a pilot plant with a MBR-process, where the technology is

    evaluated before the implementation in the future Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant.

    This study examines the difference in the sludge characteristics, i.e. sedimentation,

    filterability, and the potential for thickening of excess sludge from the MBR-process in

    Hammarby Sjöstadsverk (ÖS-MBR) and from the activated sludge process in the current

    Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant (ÖS-CAS). Furthermore, a mass balance and a

    sensitivity analysis has been used within this study. The study aimed at providing decision

    support for optimisation of the sludge treatment at the future Henriksdal wastewater treatment

    plant once the MBR process is implemented. The results of this study show that the

    characteristics of ÖS-MBR and ÖS-CAS differ considerably in total solids (TS), total

    suspended solids (TSS) and filterability (TTF). No difference in sludge volume index (SVI)

    could be verified between the two types of sludges.

    After thickening in a rotary drum screen with different doses of polymer, the TSS in the

    reject water was higher for the ÖS-MBR than the ÖS-CAS. This difference indicates that

    particles in ÖS-MBR are less attracted to the particular thickening polymer used, than the

    particles in ÖS-CAS. Therefore, it is important to select the correct type of polymer when

    thickening ÖS-MBR in order to reach the target TSS of 1000 mg/L in the reject water. In

    addition, the thickened ÖS-MBR showed higher TS than ÖS-CAS. This could indicate that

    ÖS-MBR would be easier to thicken; however, this is not confirmed by the mass balances. In

    the end, this study could not conclusively show any trend in the level of thickening between

    the two types of sludges because the distribution of particles varied in each trial.

    Nevertheless, while a higher dosage of polymer evidently reduced the TSS in the reject water,

    the same was not true for the TS in the thickened sludge, which seems to be less affected by

    the dose of polymer after a certain level. An important consideration in this study was the

    clogging of the drum screen. However, centrifuges, which will be used in the future

    Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant, do not have the same operational problems.

  • González-Caneda, María
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Investigation Of Source Parameters Of Earthquakes In Northern Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By studying the frequency domain of seismic signals generated by earthquakes, the source parameters can be recovered, i.e., the seismic moment (M0) and the stress drop (Δσ). This method is an advantage especially since if the source parameters are calculated from the time domain a full waveform inversion is needed, therefore this procedure facilitates the computation. Besides, the moment magnitude (Mw) can be calculated from the seismic moment and, in turn, the local magnitude (ML) can be obtained by using an algorithm that matches different ranges of moment magnitude with their corresponding local magnitude.

    In the present thesis, small to moderate earthquakes in Northern Sweden have been used to develop a code that calculates the source parameters through the fitting of five different spectral models and, this way, discerns which model obtains the best determination of the parameters. These models have been chosen in a way that we can also extract information about the attenuation.

    The different models are; the Brune spectral model, Boatwright spectral model, Boatwright spectral model with a fixed fall-off rate, a general form of the spectral model with quality factor equal to 1000 and a general form of the spectral model with quality factor equal to 600. Among these models, the Boatwright model with fixed fall-off rate equal to 2, has been found to give the best fit to the data used in this thesis. This might be due to the regional conditions which are the low attenuation in the crust of northern Fennoscandia and the short hypocentral distances of the studied earthquakes. The earthquakes studied in the present thesis have shown a range of magnitudes from ML 4.2 to -0.2 with radius of an assumed circular fault ranging from 269 m to 66 m.

  • Carlgren, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ger radikal högerpopulism ett ökat valdeltagande?: En kvantitativ studie om Sverigedemokraternas effekt på valdeltagandet till Sveriges riksdag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My thesis examines the effects of the last two decades' increased support for populist, radical right-wing party “the Sweden Democrats”. Previous literature mostly focuses on how the party came to claim large chunks of the electorate and there seems to be a lack of research that investigates the consequences of this development. This thesis therefor strives to investigate theeffects of the Sweden Democrats by looking at voter turnout. The study observes the 290municipalities of Sweden through the general election years of 2006, 2010 and 2014. By using panel data, I manage to isolate for both known and unknown variables and can through thischoice of method get close to providing a causal relationship, revealing that an increase insupport for the Sweden Democrats yields a rise in voter turnout. The result raises questions about how radical right populism relates to democracy.

  • Ferreira Nogueira, Douglas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Mobile-Based Early WarningSystems in Mozambique.: An exploratory study on the viability to integrate Cell Broadcast into disaster mitigation routines.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mozambique is one of the countries most affected by natural hazards in the world. Therefore it can benefit greatly from enhancements on its early warning system. Cell broadcast, which is a technology able to send simultaneous alert messages to all mobile phones in a geographical area has gained attention of emergency authorities since various catastrophes in the years 2000’s and increasing diffusion of the mobile network. This research has looked into the disaster risk management routines in Mozambique, interviewing relevant institutions, to identify the currently in use early warning system and analyze the circuit of information from detecting a hazard until the transmission of alert messages to the population. The goal of this research has been to identify how alert messages are sent to the population and, based on currently available infrastructure, analyze the possibilities to use Cell Broadcast to target alerts to all subscribers on specific geographic zones. It has been identified that the country already uses a solution that sends SMS to a list of phone numbers registered in a database. Nonetheless, telecommunication operators in the country are willing to cooperate with emergency authorities to design a solution in which Cell Broadcast can be used to strategically target alerts to subscribers at designated areas of risk. In this way, enabling enhanced accuracy and efficiency of the public alert system in Mozambique, with reduced time between detection and the simultaneously delivery of public alert messages to the entire population or only to people located on relevant geographic zones. Furthermore, the results also allowed to speculate on the viability of automated solutions, which can be used in combination to the enhancements that Cell Broadcast can bring to disaster risk management routines.

  • Ekholm, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Modellering av olyckors påverkan på en järnvägsanläggnings driftsäkerhet och livscykelkostnad2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges for the railroad system to be able to be competitive, are the delays and how to reduce these delays. Therefore, it is important to look over the cost of accidents for the whole society. Accidents, involving humans and animals constitutes a lot of delays today, which impacts the whole railroad system, even far away from where the accident took place. In this study, delays have been investigated with the help of regression analysis. The purpose has been to evaluate time and cost for society of accidents involving humans and animals. The study has been conducted with a life-cycle-cost and reliability perspective. The approximated value of delay time for an accident involving humans has been set to 306 minutes, and to 18 minutes involving animals. It also showed that the time of the year doesn´t impact on how many minutes the train will be delayed if an accident occurs. Also, it would be interesting to investigate further different places and what can be done in specific places that suffer from a high number of delays to be able to improve the Swedish railroad even further. With the help of a calculation model, it has been calculated that accidents cost billions a year for the society. In the study, persons of interest at Trafikverket have been interviewed, and it shows that today's work with accidents manly targets what to do when an accident already has occurred, such as evacuating.

  • Sun, Huimin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Leakage and Value Chain in Relation to Cruise Industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Cruise Lines Association draws an optimistic scenario for cruise, and points out the fastest growing market is in Asia, where Chinese are the main force. Cruise travelling, as a new economic engine, is developing rapidly in China. However, among all the cruise terminals in China mainland, WSICT is the sole profitable port. Serious leakages of cruise industry are considered as the cause. What result in the leakage? In this thesis, a cruise value chain is proposed, covering main stages from planning to shore visiting. By tracking the cash flow in the value chain, potential sources of leakage are come up and then verified in the case study of Shanghai, where two typical companies, WSICT and Ctrip, are further analyzed. The investigation reveals some Chinese-Styled characters, such as “Retailer charter selling”, “packaged cruise products” and Chinese passengers’ preferences. All these factors impact on the value chain differently. The results implicate severe leakages in cruise planning, visiting and shopping. The preliminary success of WSICT could be attributed to its earliest participation into cruise, and geographical advantages. For travel agency like Ctrip, the typical retailer charter selling entitles them the right to design products, so they add extra services such as insurance and shore visiting to enhance profits. Totally, except for port companies and travel intermediaries, limited local communities participate in cruise industry. Hence, more positive policies are essential to motivate local communities.

  • Huldin, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    State of the Union: How democracy affects the European political process2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the correlation between how Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) vote and their respective domestic democracy level. In doing so, it tests two hypotheses – first, that domestic democracy level affects MEP voting conduct. Second, that domestic democracy level affects the way MEPs tend to be disloyal to their European Party Groups (EPGs). The first hypothesis regarding the correlation between democracy level and MEP voting conduct is analysed statistically through logistic regression, the data for which has been collected from VoteWatch, whereas the second hypothesis is tested in a qualitative discussion based upon a smaller dataset.

                          Both hypotheses are supported by the data, but because the study is based on a single issue, one can only feasibly generalise the findings to similar cases voted upon by the European Parliament. This paper uses a motion in the Parliament that directly concerns democratic values – as such, any conclusions drawn only apply to other cases similarly centred on democratic values. However, the findings of this study underline the importance of further studies on the topic of the influence of democracy levels on the political process of the European Union.

  • Forsén, Sven Johan Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Investigating Swedish Trade Unions’ Labor Market Preferences: the role of union member labor market risk exposure and the white-collar/blue-collar union divide2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature on the emergence of the welfare state, the strength of trade unions and the organized working class is often touted as the primary driving force behind the welfare state project. Furthermore, much of the previous literature has tended to assume union homogeneity across countries, federations, industries and professions. What is conspicuously lacking from the current political science literature is a systematic analysis of real-world trade unions’ choice of labor market advocacy focus. Using a qualitative approach and studying both published union material as well as conducting a number of elite interviews with high-level union officials, this thesis studies the degree to which Swedish trade unions’ labor market policy preferences are defined by the union members’ labor market risk exposure and whether the union adheres to white-collar or blue-collar unionism. While the conclusions indeed suggest that labor market risk and blue-collar/white-collar unionism do have a systematic impact on cartain aspects of trade unions’ labor market advocacy, future “large N” studies utilizing alternative methodological approaches will be required to draw more easily generalizable conclusions.

  • Grauman, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Veldwijk, Jorien
    Höglund, Anna T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Exploring research participants' perceptions of cardiovascular risk information-Room for improvement and empowerment.2019In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore research participants' (adults, age 50-65) perceptions of receiving cardiovascular risk information.

    METHODS: Five focus group interviews (N = 31) were performed with research participants aged 50-65 who participated in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study (SCAPIS). The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The categories; the complexity of cardiovascular risk; insufficient presentation of test result; emotional responses; and health examinations provides confirmation, emerged. The test results were written in medical terms and lacked recommendations for further action which made it difficult for lay people to understand and use, and for some, also caused unnecessary worry.

    CONCLUSION: There was inadequate guidance concerning the implications of the test results, especially for participants without clinical findings. In order to allow research participants to obtain better cognitive and behavioral control, improvements are needed with regard to how personal risk information is communicated in research projects connected to health services.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The participants largely relied on physical signs when assessing their own cardiovascular risk. Health examinations are crucial for helping to add nuance to individuals' risk perceptions. For personal health information to have any real value for individuals, it must be designed from a user perspective.

  • Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Laurentius Petrus Laurell Uplando-Roslagi. In Audit. Gustav. die XXVII Martii MDCCCXXX. H. P. M. S., P. V1830Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Fridericus Guilielmus Segerquist Uplandus In audit. Gust. die XVI Jun. MDCCCXXVIII., P. IV1828Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Philippus Gustavus Anjou stip. Possieth. Roslagi. In Audit. Gust. die XI Jun. MDCCCXXVIII. H. P. M. S., P. III1828Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Årre, Christopher Mauritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Commentariolum in vaticinia prophetæ Haggæi quod venia ampl. facult. philos. Upsal., p. p. Mag. Christophorus Mauritz. Årre ... et Edvardus Bergström stip. Reg. Uplandus[.] In audit. Gust. die XI Jun. MDCCCXXVIII., P. II1828Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)