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  • Hellström Muhli, Ulla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Svensson, Ann-Marie
    Skara Municipality, Sweden.
    Well-being in old age: A question of both continuity and change2017In: Well-being and Quality of Life: Medical Perspective / [ed] Mukadder Mollaoğlu, Rijeka, Croatia: InTechOpen , 2017, 147-162 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we are concerned with the well-being of people in old age, living at a residential care home (RCH), and how well-being can be supported in gerontological social work and care at the RCH. Based on empirical data consisting of well-being narratives with elderly residents (average age of 91), a dialogical performance analysis was undertaken about their experiences of well-being at the RCH. The findings of importance are reported through three themes: (1) childhood memories as a source of well-being, (2) family and work as a source of well-being, and (3) opportunities for the well-being of the elderly at the RCH. To be an individual with others is a phenomenon of a personal sense of self and a phenomenon of sociality. Well-being is also found in the individual’s self-renewal.

    Well-being is about a sense of both individual continuity and change. Well-being is created in social situations with others (including caregivers) in daily interactions and in human contacts at the RCH. This kind of individual self-renewal is about human growth and is a human need regardless of age. Consequently, the human growth in (and despite) old age at RCH should be the main target of gerontological social work and care.

  • Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Securitizing the past: a discussion on the connections between heritage and security2017In: PLURAL. Journal of the History and Geography Department, “Ion Creangă” Pedagogical State University, Chișinău, ISSN 2345-1262, Vol. 5, no 1, 5-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are there connections between security policies, peacebuilding, and heritage politics? The first aim of this paper is to discuss how heritage policies sometimes are used to add to and reinforce security policies and practices. This issue is largely unknown and remains to be researched. Secondly, it would also be of importance to try to better understand how security policies may be influenced by notions of heritage and certain interventions on heritage sites. It is argued that it has become necessary to move beyond the study of wars to better understand how heritage affects security and vice versa not only in conflicts but also in peacetime and in “afterwar” periods. The paper builds on a critical reading of previous research mainly on heritage studies and partly on security studies, and on a case study of Swedish-led heritage interventions in the Balkans following the Yugoslavian wars. The case study discusses how issues of security and safety may become relevant in heritage politics in the Balkans following the Yugoslavian wars. It serves to demonstrate how heritage interventions can be seen as either providing security in a community or constituting a threat to its survival. 

  • Solis, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Effects of Grade Retention on Human Capital Accumulation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grade retention is a widely used educational policy promoting human capital. However,its benets and costs are still under debate. Retention may aect learning, cognitive and psychologicalcapacities, educational attainment and the lifetime income (through the timingof entry to the labor market). This paper estimates the causal eects of grade retention onall these outcomes exploiting a retention rule based on the school GPA that enables a regressiondiscontinuity design. I use administrative data from a 15-years panel on the universeof students in the educational system in Chile. The ndings are fourfold. First, (marginally)retained students achieve the same amount of education than (marginally) promoted(i.e., high school graduation, higher education enrollment, etc.). Second, they improve theircognitive ability (measured by test scores) in the short and the long run. Third, inducesparents to increase parental time investments and expectations. Fourth, enhances studentpsychological traits, and overall learning experience.

  • Miclescu, Adriana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    The switch from buprenorphine to tapentadol: is it worth?2016In: Romanian Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Therapy, ISSN 2392-7518, Vol. 23, no 2, 133-139 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opioid analgesia continues to be the primary pharmacologic intervention for managing acute pain and malignant pain in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients. The increasing use of opioids in chronic nonmalignant pain is more problematic. Opioid treatment is complicated with the risks raised by adverse effects, especially cognitive disturbance, respiratory depression but also the risk of tolerance, opioid abuse and drug–disease interactions. Despite the growing number of available opioids within the last years, adequate trials of opioid rotation are lacking and most of the information is anecdotal. This article reviews the clinical evidence surrounding the switch from transdermal buprenorphine to tapentadol in malignant and non-malignant pain. Tapentadol acts on both the µ-opioid receptors (MOR) and on the neuronal reuptake of noradrenaline with a limited usefulness in acute pain management while buprenorphine is a mixed agonistantagonist, and both present some advantages over other opioids. Both drugs show particular pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties which reduce the risks of development of tolerance, opioid abuse, diversion and determine fewer hormone changes than the “classical opioids” making these opioids more attractive than other opioids in long term opioid treatment. However, in the absence of powered clinical trials, the evidence to support the method used for transdermal buprenorphine rotation to tapentadol is weak.

  • Wiklund, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Patnaik, Ranjana
    National Institute of Technology, School of Biomedical Engineering, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
    Sharma, Aruna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Miclescu, Adriana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Sharma, Hari Shanker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Cerebral Tissue Oxidative Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Connection with Experimental Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Effect of Mild Hypothermia and Methylene Blue2017In: Molecular Neurobiology, ISSN 0893-7648, E-ISSN 1559-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present investigation is an expansion of previous studies which all share a basic experimental protocol of a porcine-induced cardiac arrest (CA) of 12 min followed by 8 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), different experimental treatments (immediate as well as postponed induced mild hypothermia and administration of much or less cool intravenous fluids), and a follow-up period of 3 h after which the animals were sacrificed. Another group of animals was studied according to the same protocol after 12-min CA and Bstandard CPR.^ After death (within 1 min), the brains were harvested and frozen in liquid nitrogen awaiting analysis. Control brains of animals were collected in the same way after short periods of untreated CA (0 min, 5 min, and 15–30 min). Previous studies concerning chiefly neuropathological changes were now expanded with analyses of different tissue indicators (glutathione, luminol, leucigenin, malonialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase) of cerebral oxidative injury. The results indicate that a great part of oxidative injury occurs within the first 5 min after CA. Immediate cooling by administration of much intravenous fluid results in less cerebral oxidative injury compared to less intravenous fluid administration. A 30-min postponement of induction of hypothermia results in a cerebral oxidative injury comparable to that of Bstandard CPR^ or the oxidative injury found after 5 min of untreated CA. Intravenous administration of methylene blue (MB) during and immediately after CPR in combination with postponed cooling resulted in no statistical difference in any of the indicators of oxidative injury, except myeloperoxidase, and glutathione, when this treatment was compared with the negative controls, i.e., animals subjected to anesthesia alone.

  • Christidis, Yiannis
    et al.
    Cyprus University of Technology.
    Carpentier, Nico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Translating an Academic Text into Sound Art: An Experiment with a Communication Studies’ Text on Participation2017In: Present Scenarios of Media Production and Engagement, Bremen: edition lumière, 2017, 207-224 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Carpentier, Nico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Introduction: Researching Present Scenarios of Media Production and Engagement2017In: Present Scenarios of Media Production and Engagement / [ed] Simone Tosoni, Nico Carpentier, Maria Francesca Murru, Richard Kilborn, Leif Kramp, Risto Kunelius, Anthony Mcnicholas, Tobias Olsson, Pille Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, Bremen: edition lumière, 2017, 9-19 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Tosoni, Simone
    et al.
    Catholic University of Milan.
    Carpentier, NicoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.Murru, Maria FrancescaCatholic University of Milan.Kilborn, RichardStirling University.Kramp, LeifBremen University.Kunelius, RistoTampere University.McNicholas, AnthonyWestminster University.Olsson, TobiasLund University.Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, PilleMalmö University.
    Present Scenarios of Media Production and Engagement2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Mtetwa, Ezekia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University.
    Technology, Ideology and Environment: The Social Dynamics of Iron Metallurgy in Great Zimbabwe, AD 900 to the Present2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides insights into the nature and organization of iron technology associated with past and present communities of Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Written accounts, ethnographic enquiries and, results of archaeological field surveys and excavations are combined to provide the first detailed account of Great Zimbabwe’s iron production technologies. The existence of a considerable iron industry in Great Zimbabwe with complex and innovative designs and processes of iron smelting is established. Evidence includes tap slags, natural draft furnaces, one with a unique rectangular morphology, and the exploitation of manganese-rich iron ores or fluxes. Moderate to low levels of iron oxide in slag samples point to large-scale production of good quality iron for an extensive market at some time in the past of Great Zimbabwe. Iron slags, possible bloom pieces and broken tuyeres are examined using standard archaeometallurgical laboratory techniques to establish the decisions and choices underlying technology and pyro-metallurgical processes in and between sites. The results are explained using theoretical concepts of social practice and agency to address the worldviews, social values and beliefs of iron related practices in Great Zimbabwe over time.

    The study provides an alternative angle for approaching the social complexity of Great Zimbabwe (with its peak in the 12th–16th centuries AD), previously understood from the perspective of its spectacular architecture. Evidence of primary and secondary production activities in domestic and specialized settings outside settlements suggests a greater spatiotemporal complexity and ambiguity of the organization of technology than previously thought. Iron production in domestic contexts provided an inclusive space, creating the possibility for transformation of not just materials, but also women and children into social agents of technology, adding an alternative and more socially embedded perspective of technology in Africa.

    List of papers
    1. Iron metallurgy in the Great Zimbabwe hinterland:: New archaeometallurgical field evidence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iron metallurgy in the Great Zimbabwe hinterland:: New archaeometallurgical field evidence
    (English)In: Azania, ISSN 0067-270X, E-ISSN 1945-5534Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst our knowledge of iron production within the dry-stone-built urban centre of the Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa has significantly increased, very little is known about the nature of iron metallurgy in the hinterland and its possible relationship with the centre itself. Within these knowledge gaps, this paper uses results from previous and recent archaeological surveys and excavations to draw for the first time, a detailed account of the varied iron production technologies in areas surrounding the Great Zimbabwe centre. It brings to light a growing corpus of such archaeometallurgical materials as multiple-fused tuyeres, tap slag, large circular furnace bases as well as a previously unknown rectangular furnace design. The paper argues that these important findings, which have the potential to yield alternative insights into the technical and social complexities of Great Zimbabwe’s iron, represent clear evidence of engineering ingenuity in metallurgy over time.

    Abstract [fr]

    Malgré l’avancement de la connaissance sur la production du fer dans le centre urbain construit en pierre sèche du Grand Zimbabwe, au sud de l’Afrique, la connaissance de la métallurgie de ce métal dans le vaste paysage archéologique est encore déficitaire, notamment pour ce qui concerne les éventuels rapports établis avec le centre du Pays. Basé sur des informations issues des prospections et des fouilles récentes et anciennes, cet article présente un premier bilan détaillé sur les technologies de production du fer dans les aires environnantes du centre du Grand Zimbabwe. Un corpus de données de plus en plus croissant de matériaux archéométallurgiques comme des tuyères fusionnées, des scories, des bases de grands fourneaux circulaires, ainsi que le dessin d’un fourneau rectangulaire inconnu jusqu’à présent est mise à jour. Cet article soutient que ces importantes découvertes permettent d’apporter des interprétations alternatives sur les complexités sociales et technologiques du fer au Grand Zimbabwe, en témoignent d’une ingénierie ingénieuse de l’activité métallurgique au fil du temps.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis Group
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334794 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    2. The bloomery iron technologies of Great Zimbabwe from AD 1000:: An archaeometallurgy of social practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The bloomery iron technologies of Great Zimbabwe from AD 1000:: An archaeometallurgy of social practices
    (English)In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    We still know very little about the nature of bloomery iron production technologies of Great Zimbabwe, one of the largest and earliest societies linked to the origins of social complexity, urbanism and statehood around the end of the first millennium AD in southern Africa. This paper deals for the first time, with the detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of selected iron slags from eight sites around the Great Zimbabwe urban centre using metallographic and ICP-AES and ICP-MS techniques. Half of the studied sites have a slag chemistry that is particularly noteworthy, revealing low iron oxide content and remarkably high amounts of manganese relative to the typical range for bloomery slags. Slag samples from yet another site have very high silica and low iron oxide content, indicating the possible addition of silicate flux to smelt a presumably high-grade magnetite ore, producing highly fluid slags. The microstructure of these samples show well-crystallized and very fine-skeletal fayalite grains in a glassy matrix, as well as a white magnetite skin, underpinning the use of slag-tapping techniques at the site. These clear cases of variation and change in technological innovation and skill illuminate the complexity of the iron technologies of Great Zimbabwe, which were integral in the generation of monumental architecture and everyday social life.

    Keyword
    Iron; bloomery technology; innovation; social practices; Great Zimbabwe
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334795 (URN)
    Projects
    Part of PhD Thesis
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    3. The archaeometry of tuyeres from the Great Zimbabwe and wider implications for its iron production technologies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The archaeometry of tuyeres from the Great Zimbabwe and wider implications for its iron production technologies
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first detailed chemical, microstructural and thermal analyses of a growing corpus of metallurgical tuyeres from the wider archaeological landscape of Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Of note is the fusion of the tuyeres in multiples, suggestive of widespread use of natural draft iron smelting technologies for large-scale production of iron most likely during the zenith period of Great Zimbabwe (ca 12th-16th century AD). Considerable variation in elemental composition between sites attributable to the adaptation of ceramic technology to local clay materials across the landscape is established through XRF analytical techniques. We also pick from petrographic studies, a bias towards self-tempered clays dominated by  silt and fine sand at some sites and the tendency for technicians to crush coarse sand and gravel  a the others. Yet, and despite such variability in ceramic technology approaches, none of the studied sample had started to deform or melt at 1400oC, the maximum temperature of the furnace used for thermal analyses in the laboratory, revealing an unusually high refractoriness. We argue that such novel technologies natural draft furnaces would have built on an equally high degree of knowledge in ceramic technology, skilled prospection and manipulation of the material world. This brings out yet another intimate human-landscape interaction vividly depicted in Great Zimbabwe’s famous drystone architecture Great Zimbabwe

    Keyword
    GREAT ZIMBABWE, ARCHAEOMETRY, TUYERES, NATURAL DRAFT, IRON TECHNOLOGY
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334796 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    4. Great Zimbabwe's iron:: Its technological materials and social space
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Great Zimbabwe's iron:: Its technological materials and social space
    2018 (English)In: The World of Great Zimbabwe / [ed] Pikirayi, I., New York: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses results from varied archaeological surveys and excavations, radiocarbon dating, and ethnographic accounts by early European observers, supplemented by recent ethnographic enquiries around Great Zimbabwe, to illuminate three broad transformations in its iron technology and its organization. Around AD 900, agro-pastoral communities living in the area of Great Zimbabwe were already experimenting with natural draft smelting technology alongside bellows-driven furnaces. Household industry was the dominant organization of iron production among these communities. As Great Zimbabwe evolved into an important political, religious and trade between the 12th and 17th centuries AD, its iron smelting technologies varied and intensified. Specialists based most likely on kinship groups produced iron using sophisticated variations of natural draft technologies without totally replacing the existing forced draft technology. Part-time domestic iron production was most likely also present throughout this period. By the 19th century, iron producers were exploiting locally available woods and iron ores exclusively in bellows-driven furnaces, some with anthropomorphic features. By this time, the social organization of iron production was based on household production under the auspices of smaller kinship groups. The ongoing forging and casting of scrap metals driving rural and urban agriculture not just around Great Zimbabwe, but also in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa are vestiges of a long memory of metallurgical knowledge.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Routledge, 2018
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Research subject
    Archaeology; Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334798 (URN)
    Projects
    PhD tHESIS
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    5. When the smith is a woman: Innovation, improvisation and ambiguity in the organisation of African iron metallurgy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When the smith is a woman: Innovation, improvisation and ambiguity in the organisation of African iron metallurgy
    2017 (English)In: Archives, Objects, Places and Landscapes: Multidisciplinary approaches to Decolonised Zimbabwean pasts / [ed] Manyanga, M and Chirikure, S., Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG , 2017, 295-318 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeologists are accustomed to the idea that metallurgy is the domain of men. Anything outside this framework in the recent and distant past has always been considered an exception. This article exposes such an exception among the Murazvo family where, in defiance of the male norm, the chief smith is a woman who performs several livelihood crafts. Circumstances have made her the focal person entrusted with the task of passing on the smithing and several other categories of technology in the family, bequeathing them to her sons, daughters-in-law, and grandchildren. This case goes against most stereotypes in iron working. It challenges the received thinking in ascribing gender roles to metallurgy, as well as other categories of technology and expertise in the past. The chapter brings forth a discussion of the complexity and ambiguity of social relations in technology, and the tendency for the politics of inclusion and exclusion on gender and age axes to shift and become more tenuous. The aim is to foreground especially the world of women as innovative members of past and contemporary societal structures, whose co-authorship of our human past and present, together with men, is not just in procreation, but is daily enacted in many different spheres of life.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG, 2017
    National Category
    Archaeology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334792 (URN)9956764191 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-01-12
  • Public defence: 2018-01-24 09:15 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Vallot, Dorothée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modelling calving and sliding of Svalbard outlet glaciers: Spatio-temporal changes and interactions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future sea level rise associated to global warming is one of the greatest societal and environmental challenges of tomorrow. A large part of the contribution comes from glaciers and ice sheets discharging ice and meltwater into the ocean and the recent worldwide increase is worrying. Future predictions of sea level rise try to encompass the complex processes of ice dynamics through glacier modelling but there are still large uncertainties due to the lack of observations or too coarse parameterisation, particularly for processes occurring at the glacier interfaces with the bed (sliding) and with the ocean (calving). This thesis focuses on modelling these processes from two marine-terminating glaciers in Svalbard, Kronebreen and Tunabreen. By inverting three years of high temporal resolution time-series of surface velocities on Kronebreen, basal properties are retrieved with the ice flow model Elmer/Ice in Paper I. Results suggest that surface melt during the summer greatly influences the dynamics of the following season and that sliding laws for such glaciers should be adapted to local and global processes changing in space and time. The subglacial drainage system, fed by the surface melt, is modelled in Paper II during two melting seasons. Results show different configurations of efficient and inefficient drainage systems between years and the importance of using a sliding law dependent on spatio-temporal changes in effective pressure. The interaction with the ocean is incorporated in Paper III by combining a series of models, including an ice flow model, a plume model and a particle model for discrete calving and compares the output with observations. Results show the importance of glacier geometry, sliding and undercutting on calving rate and location. However, more observations and analytic methods are needed. Time-lapse imagery placed in front of Tunabreen have been deployed and a method of automatic detection for iceberg calving is presented in Paper IV. Results show the influence of the rising plume in calving and the front destabilisation of the local neighbourhood.

    List of papers
    1. Basal dynamics of Kronebreen, a fast-flowing tidewater glacier in Svalbard: non-local spatio-temporal response to water input
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Basal dynamics of Kronebreen, a fast-flowing tidewater glacier in Svalbard: non-local spatio-temporal response to water input
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the variability in basal friction for Kronebreen, Svalbard, a fast-flowing tidewater glacier. We invert 3 years (2013–15) of surface velocities at high temporal resolution (generally 11 days), to estimate the changing basal properties of the glacier. Our results suggest that sliding behaviour of Kronebreen within a year is primarily influenced by changes in water input patterns during the meltwater season and basal friction is highly variable from a year to another. At present, models usually employ parameterisations to encompass the complex physics of glacier sliding by mathematically simulate their net effect. For such ice masses with strong seasonal variations of surface melt, the spatio-temporal patterns of basal friction imply that it is neither possible nor appropriate to use a parameterisation for bed friction that is fixed in space and/or time, at least in a timescale of a few years. Basal sliding may not only be governed by local processes such as basal topography or summer melt, but also be mediated by factors that vary over a larger distance and over a longer time period such as subglacial hydrology organisation, ice-thickness changes or calving front geometry.

    Keyword
    Arctic glaciology, glacier modelling, ice dynamics, ice velocity, subglacial processes
    National Category
    Physical Geography
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334293 (URN)10.1017/jog.2017.69 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Modelled subglacial hydrology and basal sliding at Kronebreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelled subglacial hydrology and basal sliding at Kronebreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334778 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2017-11-27
    3. Effects of undercutting and sliding on calving: a global approach applied to Kronebreen, Svalbard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of undercutting and sliding on calving: a global approach applied to Kronebreen, Svalbard
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: The Cryosphere Discussions, ISSN 1994-0432, E-ISSN 1994-0440, ISSN 1994-0416Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334771 (URN)10.5194/tc-2017-166 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2017-11-29
    4. Automatic detection of calving events from time-lapse imagery at Tunabreen, Svalbard
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic detection of calving events from time-lapse imagery at Tunabreen, Svalbard
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334776 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2017-11-27
  • Karlsson, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Thermoelectric Cooler Prototype Based on Bismuth Telluride and Aimed for Space Applications1992Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal for this project was to design, manufacture and evaluate a thermoelectric cooler, TEC, prototype. One of the biggest challenges with TECs is that they need to be very reliable and have a long lifetime. The two biggest contributing factors to degradation and breakdown stem from thermal expansion mismatch, resulting in cracks, and from material diffusion between the thermoelectric material and connecting materials.

    The thermoelectric material in this case is Bismuth telluride, Bi2Te3, obtained from two suppliers.

    The thermoelectric cooler prototype was successfully manufactured. The prototype, which consisted of 38 thermoelectric elements, showed a maximum temperature difference of 65.1 degrees Celsius. A commercial TEC of the same size had a maximum temperature difference of 68 degrees Celsius.

    The figure of merit and grain size of p- and n-doped Bismuth Telluride from two different suppliers have been measured as means of testing the thermoelectric material prior to manufacturing, and to compare the suppliers. In this report, the figure of merit is a measure of how well a material converts electrical current to a heat gradient. The figure of merit for bismuth telluride, Bi2Te3, from both suppliers was found to be between 0.4 and 0.8 through the Harman method.

    Since studies show that smaller grains for Bi2Te3 result in a more durable material, the morphology was investigated. However, no grains could be observed with light optical microscopy with an applied etchant, or scanning electron microscopy. A cohesion tape test showed that Bismuth telluride from one of the suppliers is more fragile than the other.

  • Magnusson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Spelet mellan bilderna: Sekventiell analys av åhörares möjligheter att delta under bildspelspresentationer2017In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. NF 27, 221-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how slideshow presentations shape the social organization of participatory democracy meetings. Prior research on slideshow presentations claims that the presentation format inhibits interaction between presenter and audience. This implies that the use of the technology hinders participation and dialogue. In contrast with prior research, the present Conversation Analytic study is based on video-recordings of meetings where slideshow presentations are used. The analysis focusses on when, how, and for what actions members of the audience self-select to take the turn during presentations. The empirical findings validate the idea that the slideshow format indeed constrains participation. However, the projectability inherent in the slideshow format, coupled with the presenter’s manipulation of material objects, also affords opportunities for audience participation. The presenter’s action can thus project impending transition-relevance places and provides audience members with opportunities to take the turn “in-between” the slides. Slide changes constitute a discernable locus for turn transition, providing a space where audience members can contest the presenters’ perspective and, at least momentarily, turn the monologue into dialogue. These findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how turn projection allows members to capitalize on possible points of turn completion in multimodal environments.

  • Hassan, Baderkhan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: Aspects of follow-up and complications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the procedure of choice in most patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. The drawbacks of EVAR are a higher rate of complications and frequent need for reinterventions, requiring regular postoperative follow-up. Non-stratified follow-up may have a deleterious effect on patients and the health care system. The aim of this thesis is to develop strategies that can stratify the EVAR follow-up programme according to an individual patient´s risk profile.

    Study I, an international multicentre study of all abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients with EVAR in three centres (2000 to 2011) demonstrated a lower rate of late complications and reinterventions in patients with sac shrinkage during the first postoperative year, compared to the non-shrinkage group.

    Study II, an international multicentre study of patients treated for a ruptured aortic aneurysm with EVAR in three centres (2000 to 2012) demonstrated that ruptured EVAR (rEVAR) in patients with hostile anatomy is associated with a high rate of graft-related complications, reinterventions and increased overall mortality.

    Study III, a two-centre cohort study of 326 patients with EVAR (2001 to 2012), with first postoperative computerised tomographic angiography (CTA) within one year of the operation. Patients with adequate proximal and distal sealing zones and no endoleak in the first postoperative CTA had significantly lower risk for AAA-related complications and reinterventions up to five years postoperatively.

    Study IV, studied all complications and reinterventions in a two-centre cohort study of all EVAR patients (1998 to 2012), One-fourth of the patients in the study developed complications during a mean follow-up of five years. Most complications were asymptomatic imaging-detected. Ultrasound could detect most of the clinically significant complications.

    List of papers
    1. Early sac shrinkage predicts a low risk of late complications after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early sac shrinkage predicts a low risk of late complications after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair
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    2014 (English)In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 101, no 7, 802-810 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aneurysm shrinkage has been proposed as a marker of successful endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Patients with early postoperative shrinkage may experience fewer subsequent complications, and consequently require less intensive surveillance. Methods: Patients undergoing EVAR from 2000 to 2011 at three vascular centres (in 2 countries), who had two imaging examinations (postoperative and after 6-18 months), were included. Maximum diameter, complications and secondary interventions during follow-up were registered. Patients were categorized according to early sac dynamics. The primary endpoint was freedom from late complications. Secondary endpoints were freedom from secondary intervention, postimplant rupture and direct (type I/III) endoleaks. Results: Some 597 EVARs (71.1 per cent of all EVARs) were included. No shrinkage was observed in 284 patients (47.6 per cent), moderate shrinkage (5-9mm) in 142 (23.8 per cent) and major shrinkage (at least 10mm) in 171 patients (28.6 per cent). Four years after the index imaging, the rate of freedom from complications was 84.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 78.7 to 89.8), 88.1 (80.6 to 95.5) and 94.4 (90.1 to 98.7) per cent respectively. No shrinkage was an independent risk factor for late complications compared with major shrinkage (hazard ratio (HR) 3.11; P < 0.001). Moderate compared with major shrinkage (HR 2.10; P = 0.022), early postoperative complications (HR 3.34; P < 0.001) and increasing abdominal aortic aneurysm baseline diameter (HR 1.02; P = 0.001) were also risk factors for late complications. Freedom from secondary interventions and direct endoleaks was greater for patients with major sac shrinkage. Conclusion: Early change in aneurysm sac diameter is a strong predictor of late complications after EVAR. Patients with major sac shrinkage have a very low risk of complications for up to 5 years. This parameter may be used to tailor postoperative surveillance.

    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-228003 (URN)10.1002/bjs.9516 (DOI)000335648000010 ()
    Available from: 2014-07-03 Created: 2014-07-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Challenging Anatomy Predicts Mortality and Complications After Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Anatomy Predicts Mortality and Complications After Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of Endovascular Therapy, ISSN 1526-6028, E-ISSN 1545-1550, Vol. 23, no 6, 919-927 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of aortic anatomy and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) inside and outside the instructions for use (IFU) on outcomes in patients treated for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA).

    METHODS: All 112 patients (mean age 73 years; 102 men) treated with standard EVAR for rAAA between 2000 and 2012 in 3 European centers were included in the retrospective analysis. Patients were grouped based on aortic anatomy and whether EVAR was performed inside or outside the IFU. Data on complications, secondary interventions, and mortality were extracted from the patient records. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of mortality and complications; results are presented as the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

    RESULTS: Of the 112 patients examined, 61 (54%) were treated inside the IFU, 43 (38%) outside the IFU, and 8 patients lacked adequate preoperative computed tomography scans for determination. Median follow-up of those surviving 30 days was 2.5 years. Mortality at 30 days was 15% (95% CI 6% to 24%) inside the IFU vs 30% (95% CI 16% to 45%) outside (p=0.087). Three-year mortality estimates were 33.8% (95% CI 20.0% to 47.5%) inside the IFU vs 56% (95% CI 39.7% to 72.2%) outside (p=0.016). At 5 years, mortality was 48% (95% CI 30% to 66%) inside the IFU vs 74% (95% CI 54% to 93%) outside (p=0.015). Graft-related complications occurred in 6% (95% CI 0% to 13%) inside the IFU and 30% (95% CI 14% to 42%) outside (p=0.015). The rate of graft-related secondary interventions was 14% (95% CI 4% to 22%) inside the IFU vs 35% (95% CI 14% to 42%) outside (p=0.072). In the multivariate analysis, neck length <15 mm (HR 8.1, 95% CI 3.0 to 21.9, p<0.001) and angulation >60° (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p=0.045) were independent predictors of late graft-related complications. Aneurysm neck diameter >29 mm (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.9, p=0.035) was an independent predictor of overall mortality.

    CONCLUSION: Long-term mortality and complications after rEVAR are associated with aneurysm anatomy. The role of adjunct endovascular techniques and the outcome of open repair in cases with challenging anatomy warrant further study.

    Keyword
    abdominal aortic aneurysm, complications, endovascular aneurysm repair, instructions for use, mortality, neck angulation, neck diameter, neck length, secondary interventions, stent-graft
    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308343 (URN)10.1177/1526602816658494 (DOI)000387483900012 ()27385153 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Follow-up after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair can be stratified based on first postoperative imaging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Follow-up after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair can be stratified based on first postoperative imaging
    (English)In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    National Category
    Surgery Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334332 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    4. Detection of late complications after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and implications for follow-up
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of late complications after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and implications for follow-up
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Surgery
    Research subject
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334329 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04
  • Ericson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants: Prevalence and effects of support2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to describe the prevalence of breastfeeding in preterm infants and to evaluate the effectiveness and mother’s experiences of proactive person-centred telephone support after discharge. Furthermore, to describe the duration of breastfeeding and risks of ceasing breastfeeding up to 12 months. The first study, a register study with data from the Swedish Neonatal Quality register (SNQ), included breastfeeding data at discharge from 29 445 preterm infants born from 2004-2013. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among preterm infants in Sweden decreased during the study period, especially among extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks). We also performed a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of 493 breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants discharged from six neonatal units in Sweden. The intervention consisted of a proactive breastfeeding telephone support system in which a breastfeeding support team called the mothers once everyday up to 14 days after discharge. The control group received reactive support; the mothers were invited to call the breastfeeding support team if they wanted to talk or ask any questions (i.e., usual care).

    The RCT demonstrated that the intervention did not affect exclusive breastfeeding at eight weeks after discharge (primary outcome) or up to 12 months. The proactive support did not affect maternal breastfeeding satisfaction, attachment, quality of life or method of feeding (secondary outcomes). However, parental stress was significantly reduced in mothers in the intervention group. Mothers in the intervention group were significantly more satisfied and involved in the support and felt empowered compared with mothers in the control group, who experienced reactive support as dual. Further findings showed that a lower maternal educational level, partial breastfeeding at discharge and longer stay in the neonatal unit increased the risk of ceasing breastfeeding during the first 12 months of postnatal age. In conclusion, the trend for exclusive breastfeeding at discharge in preterm infants is declining, which necessitates concern. The evaluated intervention of telephone support did not affect breastfeeding, in the short-or long-term. However, maternal stress was reduced and mothers were significantly more satisfied with the proactive support and felt empowered by the support.

    List of papers
    1. Changes in the prevalence of breast feeding in preterm infants discharged from neonatal units: a register study over 10 years
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in the prevalence of breast feeding in preterm infants discharged from neonatal units: a register study over 10 years
    2016 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 12, e012900Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There are indications that the prevalence of exclusively breastfed preterm infants is decreasing in Sweden. The objective was to investigate trends in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from Swedish neonatal units and associated factors in preterm infants. Design, setting and participants: This is a register study with data from the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. Data from 29 445 preterm infants (gestational age (GA) < 37 weeks) who were born during the period 2004-2013 were retrieved. Data included maternal, perinatal and neonatal characteristics. Data were analysed for the whole population as well as for 3 GA groups. Results: From 2004 to 2013, the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding decreased, in extremely preterm (GA 22-27 weeks) from 55% to 16%, in very preterm (GA 28-31 weeks) from 41% to 34% and in moderately preterm infants (GA 32-36 weeks) from 64% to 49%. The decline was statistically significant (p<0.001) in all 3 GA groups. This decline remained significant when adjustments were made for factors negatively associated with exclusive breast feeding and which became more prevalent during the study period, that is, small for GA (all groups) and maternal mental illness (very preterm and moderately preterm infants). Conclusions: In the past 10 years, Sweden has experienced a lower rate of exclusive breast feeding in preterm infants, especially in extremely preterm infants. The factors analysed in this study explain only a small proportion of this decline. The decline in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from neonatal units raises concern and present challenges to the units to support and promote breast feeding.

    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315938 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012900 (DOI)000391303600043 ()27965252 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
    2. The effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
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    2013 (English)In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 13, 73- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although breast milk has numerous benefits for infants' development, with greater effects in those born preterm (at < 37 gestational weeks), mothers of preterm infants have shorter breastfeeding duration than mothers of term infants. One of the explanations proposed is the difficulties in the transition from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to the home environment. A person-centred proactive telephone support intervention after discharge from NICU is expected to promote mothers' sense of trust in their own capacity and thereby facilitate breastfeeding. Methods/design: A multicentre randomized controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of person-centred proactive telephone support on breastfeeding outcomes for mothers of preterm infants. Participating mothers will be randomized to either an intervention group or control group. In the intervention group person-centred proactive telephone support will be provided, in which the support team phones the mother daily for up to 14 days after hospital discharge. In the control group, mothers are offered a person-centred reactive support where mothers can phone the breastfeeding support team up to day 14 after hospital discharge. The intervention group will also be offered the same reactive telephone support as the control group. A stratified block randomization will be used; group allocation will be by high or low socioeconomic status and by NICU. Recruitment will be performed continuously until 1116 mothers (I: 558 C: 558) have been included. Primary outcome: proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at eight weeks after discharge. Secondary outcomes: proportion of breastfeeding (exclusive, partial, none and method of feeding), mothers satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment, stress and quality of life in mothers/partners at eight weeks after hospital discharge and at six months postnatal age. Data will be collected by researchers blind to group allocation for the primary outcome. A qualitative evaluation of experiences of receiving/providing the intervention will also be undertaken with mothers and staff. Discussion: This paper presents the rationale, study design and protocol for a RCT providing person-centred proactive telephone support to mothers of preterm infants. Furthermore, with a health economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed. Trial registration: NCT01806480

    Keyword
    Breastfeeding, Mothers, Neonatal care, Preterm infant, Support, Telephone
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-202370 (URN)10.1186/1471-2431-13-73 (DOI)000318953500001 ()
    Available from: 2013-06-24 Created: 2013-06-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants after discharge: a randomised controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants after discharge: a randomised controlled trial
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    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333573 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-23
    4. Breastfeeding duration in preterm infants and long-term effects of telephone support: a randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breastfeeding duration in preterm infants and long-term effects of telephone support: a randomized controlled trial
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    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333571 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-23
    5. Mothers’ experiences of a telephone-based breastfeeding support intervention after discharge from neonatal intensive care units – a mixed-method study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mothers’ experiences of a telephone-based breastfeeding support intervention after discharge from neonatal intensive care units – a mixed-method study
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333572 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-23
  • Liu, Fengyi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    High-resolution offshore reflection seismic investigation of the Stockholm Bypass tunnel2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Boat-towed high-frequency, short source and receiver spacing, reflection seismic data, 16 profiles and in total 3884 m long, were acquired in 2008 for the planning of the Stockholm Bypass multilane (3 lanes in each direction in two different tubes) underground motorway tunnel designed to ease the ever increasing car traffic on the city and neighbouring regions. The planned bypass will be about 21 km long of which 18 km will be in the form of bedrock tunnel. The planned tunnel will intersect three water passages at where the tunnel will be at around 40-50 m depth. In this study, the seismic data along two of three water passages have been processed and interpreted. Due to the relatively shallow water depth (< 10 m), the main challenge for the reflection data processing was the interferences of strong multiples from lake sediments and bedrock. After a number of tests, it was found that conventional processing methods could not attenuate multiples effectively. Therefore, an optimized workflow based on predictive deconvolution de-multiple method was developed. The new workflow proved to be effective at suppressing multiple reflections, while primary reflections as well as diffraction signals could be well preserved. After carefully attenuating the multiples in the pre-stack and post-stack domains, processing continued with time-to-depth conversion for data interpretations. To reduce uncertainty with time-to-depth conversion errors, bathymetry data available from the study area were used to match the water-sediment interface that also generated a clear reflection in the data. Bedrock surface shows strong undulations, which is typical for the Scandinavian geology from steep valleys to sometimes sub-horizontal at some parts of the water passages. Nevertheless, a dominant bedrock valley-type direction can be recognized striking in the same direction as the water passages. The planned tunnel at the nearest point is estimated to locate approximately 19 m below bedrock surface, which is important factor for the excavation planning of the tunnel and its reinforcements. The steep valley-shaped bedrock may also imply a zone of weakness, fault and/or fracture zone, where the water passages were formed and the reflection seismic data clearly depict this shape under the overlying saucer-shaped unconsolidated sediments.