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  • Korinek, Michal
    et al.
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Dept Biotechnol, Coll Life Sci, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Tsai, Yi-Hong
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    El-Shazly, Mohamed
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Ain Shams Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Fac Pharm, Cairo, Egypt..
    Lai, Kuei-Hung
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Backlund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Wu, Shou-Fang
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Dev Ctr Biotechnol, Nat Resource Dev Inst Pharmaceut, New Taipei, Taiwan..
    Lai, Wan-Chun
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Wu, Tung-Ying
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Chen, Shu-Li
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Wu, Yang-Chang
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Res Ctr Nat Prod & Drug Dev, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ Hosp, Dept Med Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Cheng, Yuan-Bin
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Res Ctr Nat Prod & Drug Dev, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Ctr Infect Dis & Canc Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Hwang, Tsong-Long
    Chang Gung Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Med, Taoyuan, Taiwan.;Chang Gung Univ Sci & Technol, Res Ctr Chinese Herbal Med, Res Ctr Food & Cosmet Safety, Coll Human Ecol, Taoyuan, Taiwan.;Chang Gung Univ Sci & Technol, Coll Human Ecol, Grad Inst Hlth Ind Technol, Taoyuan, Taiwan.;Chang Gung Mem Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol, Taoyuan, Taiwan..
    Chen, Bing-Hung
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Dept Biotechnol, Coll Life Sci, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ Hosp, Dept Med Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ, Inst Biomed Sci, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Chang, Fang-Rong
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Ctr Infect Dis & Canc Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ, Dept Marine Biotechnol & Resources, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Res Ctr Environm Med, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ Hosp, Canc Ctr, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Anti-allergic Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Typhonium blumei Explored through ChemGPS-NP2017In: Frontiers in Pharmacology, ISSN 1663-9812, E-ISSN 1663-9812, Vol. 8, 356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing prevalence of allergic diseases with an inadequate variety of treatment drives forward search for new alternative drugs. Fatty acids, abundant in nature, are regarded as important bioactive compounds and powerful nutrients playing an important role in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Phytochemical study on Typhonium blumei Nicolson and Sivadasan (Araceae), a folk anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory medicine, yielded four oxygenated fatty acids, 12R-hydroxyoctadec-9Z, 13E-dienoic acid methyl ester (1) and 10R-hydroxyoctadec-8E, 12Z-dienoic acid methyl ester (2), 9R-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (3), and 12R *-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (4). Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods along with GC-MS analysis. Isolated fatty acids together with a series of saturated, unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acids were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities in vitro. Unsaturated (including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) as well as hydroxylated unsaturated fatty acids exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity in superoxide anion generation (IC50 2.14-3.73 mu M) and elastase release (IC50 1.26-4.57 mu M) assays. On the other hand, in the anti-allergic assays, the unsaturated fatty acids were inactive, while hydroxylated fatty acids showed promising inhibitory activity in A23187-and antigen-induced degranulation assays (e.g., 9S-hydroxy-10E, 12Z-octadecadienoic acid, IC50 92.4 and 49.7 mu M, respectively). According to our results, the presence of a hydroxy group in the long chain did not influence the potent anti-inflammatory activity of free unsaturated acids. Nevertheless, hydroxylation of fatty acids (or their methyl esters) seems to be a key factor for the anti-allergic activity observed in the current study. Moreover, ChemGPS-NP was explored to predict the structure-activity relationship of fatty acids. The anti-allergic fatty acids formed different cluster distant from clinically used drugs. The bioactivity of T. blumei, which is historically utilized in folk medicine, might be related to the content of fatty acids and their metabolites.

  • Halcox, Julian P.
    et al.
    Swansea Univ, Inst Life Sci 2, Coll Med, Singleton Pk, Swansea SA2 8PP, W Glam, Wales..
    Banegas, Jose R.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med & Publ Hlth, IdiPaz, Madrid, Spain.;CIBER Epidemiol & Publ Hlth CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain..
    Roy, Carine
    Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, INSERM CIC EC 1425, Paris, France.;Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Dept Epidemiol & Rech Clin, Paris, France..
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Univ Lille Nord France, Inst Pasteur Lille, INSERM, U744, Lille, France..
    De Backer, Guy
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium..
    Guallar, Eliseo
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Baltimore, MD USA.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Med, Baltimore, MD USA.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Welch Ctr Prevent Epidemiol & Clin Res, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus Univ, Sch Hlth & Caring Sci, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Hajage, David
    Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, INSERM CIC EC 1425, Paris, France.;Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Dept Epidemiol & Rech Clin, Paris, France..
    Henriksson, Karin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Borghi, Claudio
    Univ Bologna, Dept Internal Med Ageing & Clin Nephrol, Bologna, Italy..
    Prevalence and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Europe: EURIKA, a cross-sectional observational study2017In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, 160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes, yet markers of this condition are often ignored in clinical practice. Here, we address a clear evidence gap by assessing the prevalence and treatment of two markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia: elevated triglyceride levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Methods: This cross-sectional observational study assessed the prevalence of two atherogenic dyslipidemia markers, high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, in the study population from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; N = 7641; of whom 51.6% were female and 95.6% were White/Caucasian). The EURIKA population included European patients, aged at least 50 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no history of cardiovascular disease.

    Results: Over 20% of patients from the EURIKA population have either triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the proportions of patients with one of these markers were higher in subpopulations with type 2 diabetes mellitus or those already calculated to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately 55% of the EURIKA population who have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia are not receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

    Conclusions: A considerable proportion of patients with at least one major cardiovascular risk factor in the primary cardiovascular disease prevention setting have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia. The majority of these patients are not receiving optimal treatment, as specified in international guidelines, and thus their risk of developing cardiovascular disease is possibly underestimated.

  • Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Sundberg, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Pristovsek, Nusa
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Ibrahim, Ahmed
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Prote & Nanotechnol, Sci Life Lab, S-17121 Solna, Sweden.;Natl Res Ctr, Div Pharmaceut Ind, Dokki 12622, Egypt..
    Jonsson, Philip
    Univ Houston, Dept Biol & Biochem, Houston, TX 77204 USA.;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Human Oncol & Pathogenesis Program, New York, NY 10065 USA..
    Katona, Borbala
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Clausson, Carl-Magnus
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Zieba, Agata
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Ramström, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Söderberg, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Williams, Cecilia
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Prote & Nanotechnol, Sci Life Lab, S-17121 Solna, Sweden.;Univ Houston, Dept Biol & Biochem, Houston, TX 77204 USA.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Asplund, Anna
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Insufficient antibody validation challenges oestrogen receptor beta research2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of oestrogen receptor beta (ER beta/ESR2) was a landmark discovery. Its reported expression and homology with breast cancer pharmacological target ER alpha (ESR1) raised hopes for improved endocrine therapies. After 20 years of intense research, this has not materialized. We here perform a rigorous validation of 13 anti-ER beta antibodies, using well-characterized controls and a panel of validation methods. We conclude that only one antibody, the rarely used monoclonal PPZ0506, specifically targets ER beta in immunohistochemistry. Applying this antibody for protein expression profiling in 44 normal and 21 malignant human tissues, we detect ER beta protein in testis, ovary, lymphoid cells, granulosa cell tumours, and a subset of malignant melanoma and thyroid cancers. We do not find evidence of expression in normal or cancerous human breast. This expression pattern aligns well with RNA-seq data, but contradicts a multitude of studies. Our study highlights how inadequately validated antibodies can lead an exciting field astray.

  • Nolte, Ilja M.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Munoz, M. Loretto
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Tragante, Vinicius
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Dept Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar 6000, Ethiopia..
    Jansen, Rick
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res & Neurosci, Dept Psychiat,GGZ inGeest, Campus Amsterdam, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vaez, Ahmad
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.;Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Sch Med, Esfahan 8174673461, Iran..
    von der Heyde, Benedikt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Avery, Christy L.
    Univ N Carolina, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA 98104 USA..
    Dierckx, Bram
    Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Generat Study Grp R, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB0 Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    van Dongen, Jenny
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Gogarten, Stephanie M.
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Goyette, Philippe
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T IC8, Canada..
    Hernesniemi, Jussi
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Sch Med, Tampere 33014, Finland.;Tampere Univ Hosp, Heart Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Tampere 33521, Finland..
    Huikari, Ville
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Hwang, Shih-Jen
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA.;NHLBI, Populat Sci Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Jaju, Deepali
    Sultan Qaboos Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Muscat 123, Oman..
    Kerr, Kathleen F.
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kluttig, Alexander
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Med Epidemiol Biostat & Informat, D-06097 Halle, Germany..
    Krijthe, Bouwe P.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kumar, Jitender
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    van der Laan, Sander W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Heart & Lung, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Sch Med, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Maihofer, Adam X.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92093 USA.;VA San Diego Healthcare Syst, Ctr Stress & Mental Hlth CESAMH, San Diego, CA 92161 USA..
    Minassian, Arpi
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92093 USA.;VA San Diego Healthcare Syst, Ctr Stress & Mental Hlth CESAMH, San Diego, CA 92161 USA..
    van der Most, Peter J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Med, Univ Hosp Munich, D-80539 Munich, Germany.;Munich Heart Alliance, DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site, D-80336 Munich, Germany..
    Nivard, Michel
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Salvi, Erika
    Univ Milan, Dept Hlth Sci, I-20122 Milan, Italy..
    Stewart, James D.
    Univ N Carolina, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Carolina Populat Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    Thayer, Julian F.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Psychol, 1835 Neil Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Verweij, Niek
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Wong, Andrew
    UCL, MRC Unit Lifelong Hlth & Ageing, 33 Bedford Pl, London WC1B 5JU, England..
    Zabaneh, Delilah
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, De Crespigny Pk, London SE5 8AF, England.;UCL, Genet Inst, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Zafarmand, Mohammad H.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Abdellaoui, Abdel
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Albarwani, Sulayma
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Physiol, Muscat Al Khoudh 123, Oman..
    Albert, Christine
    Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Alonso, Alvaro
    Emory Univ, Rollins Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Ashar, Foram
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, McKusick Nathans Inst Genet Med, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    Auvinen, Juha
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu 90014, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu 90220, Finland..
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Baker, Dewleen G.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92093 USA.;VA San Diego Healthcare Syst, Ctr Stress & Mental Hlth CESAMH, San Diego, CA 92161 USA..
    de Bakker, Paul I. W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Genet, Ctr Mol Med, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Barcella, Matteo
    Univ Milan, Dept Hlth Sci, I-20122 Milan, Italy..
    Bayoumi, Riad
    Mohammed Bin Rashid Univ, Coll Med, Dubai Healthcare City, POB 505055, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Bieringa, Rob J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Boomsma, Dorret
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Boucher, Gabrielle
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T IC8, Canada..
    Britton, Annie R.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Christophersen, Ingrid E.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA.;MIT, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA.;Baerum Hosp, Vestre Viken Hosp Trust, Dept Med Res, N-1346 Rud, Norway..
    Dietrich, Andrea
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Ehret, George B.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, McKusick Nathans Inst Genet Med, Ctr Complex Dis Genom, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.;Geneva Univ Hosp, Dept Specialties Internal Med, Cardiol, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Ellinor, Patrick T.
    Broad Inst Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA.;MIT, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Cardiac Arrhythmia Serv, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Eskola, Markku
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Heart Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Tampere 33521, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Cardiol, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Felix, Janine F.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Floras, John S.
    Univ Toronto, Univ Hlth Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Mt Sinai Hosp, Div Cardiol, Dept Med, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Hlth Network, Toronto Gen Res Inst, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada..
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Friberg, Peter
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Inst Med, Dept Mol & Clin Med, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gademan, Maaike G. J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Geyer, Mark A.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92093 USA..
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Dept Psychiat, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hemerich, Daiane
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Dept Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.;Minist Educ Brazil, CAPES Fdn, BR-70040020 Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Huikuri, Heikki
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr, Res Unit Internal Med, Oulu 90220, Finland.;Univ Oulu, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland..
    Hutri-Kahonen, Nina
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Tampere 33521, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Pediat, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Jouven, Xavier
    Paris Descartes Univ, INSERM, U970, F-75006 Paris, France..
    Junttila, Juhani
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr, Res Unit Internal Med, Oulu 90220, Finland.;Univ Oulu, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland..
    Juonala, Markus
    Univ Turku, Dept Med, Turku 20520, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Div Med, Turku 20521, Finland..
    Kiviniemi, Antti M.
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr, Res Unit Internal Med, Oulu 90220, Finland.;Univ Oulu, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland..
    Kors, Jan A.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Med Informat, NL-3015 CE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kumari, Meena
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.;Essex Univ, ISER, Colchester CO4 3SQ, Essex, England..
    Kuznetsova, Tatiana
    Univ Leuven, KU Leuven Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Studies Coordinating Ctr, Res Unit Hypertens & Cardiovasc Epidemiol, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium..
    Laurie, Cathy C.
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lefrandt, Joop D.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Internal Med, Div Vasc Med, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Li, Yong
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Med, Med Center, Div Genet Epidemiol,Inst Med Biometry & Stat, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany..
    Li, Yun
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Biostat, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Comp Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    Liao, Duanping
    Penn State Univ, Coll Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Div Epidemiol, Hershey, PA 17033 USA..
    Limacher, Marian C.
    Univ Florida, Coll Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA..
    Lin, Henry J.
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Dept Pediat, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst Harbor, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA.;Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Dept Pediat, Div Med Genet, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Univ Oxford, Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Lubitz, Steven A.
    Broad Inst Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA.;MIT, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Cardiac Arrhythmia Serv, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    McKnight, Barbara
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA 98104 USA.;Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Publ Hlth Sci Div, Seattle, WA 98109 USA..
    zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Meyer
    Univ Basel, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Biopharm, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res & Neurosci, Dept Psychiat,GGZ inGeest, Campus Amsterdam, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Mononen, Nina
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Sch Med, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England..
    Nalls, Mike A.
    NIA, Lab Neurogenet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Navis, Gerjan
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Internal Med, Div Nephrol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Neijts, Melanie
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Nikus, Kjell
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Heart Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Tampere 33521, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Cardiol, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    North, Kari E.
    Univ N Carolina, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Carolina Ctr Genome Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    O'Connor, Daniel T.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Med, San Diego, CA 92093 USA..
    Ormel, Johan
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Dept Psychiat, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Perz, Siegfried
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Peters, Annette
    Munich Heart Alliance, DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site, D-80336 Munich, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;German Ctr Diabet Res, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA 98104 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Serv, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Grp Hlth Cooperat Puget Sound, Grp Hlth Res Inst, Seattle, WA 98101 USA..
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku 20521, Finland.;Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku 20520, Finland..
    Risbrough, Victoria B.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92093 USA.;VA San Diego Healthcare Syst, Ctr Stress & Mental Hlth CESAMH, San Diego, CA 92161 USA..
    Sinner, Moritz F.
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Med, Univ Hosp Munich, D-80539 Munich, Germany.;Munich Heart Alliance, DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site, D-80336 Munich, Germany..
    Siscovick, David
    New York Acad Med, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Smit, Johannes H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res & Neurosci, Dept Psychiat,GGZ inGeest, Campus Amsterdam, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Smith, Nicholas L.
    Grp Hlth Cooperat Puget Sound, Grp Hlth Res Inst, Seattle, WA 98101 USA.;Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Vet Affairs Off Res & Dev, Seattle Epidemiol Res & Informat Ctr, Seattle, WA 98108 USA..
    Soliman, Elsayed Z.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Epidemiol Cardiol Res Ctr EPICARE, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Sotoodehnia, Nona
    Univ Washington, Dept Med & Epidemiol, Div Cardiol, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA 98101 USA..
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Univ Leuven, KU Leuven Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Studies Coordinating Ctr, Res Unit Hypertens & Cardiovasc Epidemiol, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium..
    Stein, Phyllis K.
    Washington Univ, Heart Rate Variabil Lab, Sch Med, St Louis, MO 63108 USA..
    Stilp, Adrienne M.
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Dept Cardiol Intervent Electrocardi & Hypertens 1, PL-31008 Krakow, Poland..
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Chair Genet Epidemiol, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, D-81377 Munich, Germany..
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Swenne, Cees A.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Tardif, Jean-Claude
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T IC8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ H3T IJ4, Canada..
    Taylor, Kent D.
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst, Dept Pediat & Med, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90509 USA..
    Teumer, Alexander
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Thornton, Timothy A.
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Tinker, Lesley E.
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Publ Hlth Sci Div, Seattle, WA 98109 USA..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 CE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Netherlands Consortium Hlth Aging, Netherlands Genom Initiat, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    van Setten, Jessica
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Dept Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Voss, Andreas
    IGHT Jena Ernst Abbe Hsch, Inst Innovat Hlth Technol, D-07745 Jena, Germany..
    Waldenberger, Melanie
    Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet & Neurol, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Renaissance Comp Inst, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Wong, Quenna
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Zhang, Zhu-Ming
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Epidemiol Cardiol Res Ctr EPICARE, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Zonderman, Alan B.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Cusi, Daniele
    Italian Natl Res Council, CNR, Inst Biomed Technol, I-20090 Milan, Italy.;KOS Genet SRL, I-20091 Milan, Italy..
    Evans, Michele K.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Greiser, Halina K.
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Canc Epidemiol, D-69210 Heidelberg, Germany..
    van der Harst, Pim
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hassan, Mohammad
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Physiol, Muscat Al Khoudh 123, Oman..
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu 90014, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu 90220, Finland.;Imperial Coll London, Fac Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, St Marys Campus, London, England.;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Kaab, Stefan
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Med, Univ Hosp Munich, D-80539 Munich, Germany.;Munich Heart Alliance, DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site, D-80336 Munich, Germany..
    Kahonen, Mika
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere 33521, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Kooperberg, Charles
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Publ Hlth Sci Div, Seattle, WA 98109 USA..
    Kuh, Diana
    UCL, MRC Unit Lifelong Hlth & Ageing, 33 Bedford Pl, London WC1B 5JU, England..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Sch Med, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nievergelt, Caroline M.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92093 USA.;VA San Diego Healthcare Syst, Ctr Stress & Mental Hlth CESAMH, San Diego, CA 92161 USA..
    O'Donnell, Chris J.
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA.;NHLBI, Populat Sci Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.;Boston Vet Adm Healthcare Boston, Cardiol Sect, Boston, MD 02132 USA..
    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Dept Psychiat, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Penninx, Brenda
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res & Neurosci, Dept Psychiat,GGZ inGeest, Campus Amsterdam, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Reiner, Alexander P.
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Publ Hlth Sci Div, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.;Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Riese, Harriette
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Dept Psychiat, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    van Roon, Arie M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Internal Med, Div Vasc Med, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Rioux, John D.
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T IC8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ H3T IJ4, Canada..
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst, Dept Pediat & Med, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90509 USA..
    Sofer, Tamar
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Stricker, Bruno H.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Inspectorate Hlth Care, NL-2511 VX The Hague, Netherlands..
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Epidemiol, POB 2060, NL-3000 CB Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Asselbergs, Folkert W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Dept Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.;UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, 222 Euston Rd, London NW1 2DA, England.;ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, NL-3501 DG Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Inst Cardiovasc Res, Dept Physiol, Med Ctr, De Boelelaan 1118, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Heckbert, Susan R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA 98104 USA.;Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Whitsel, Eric A.
    Univ N Carolina, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Med, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    den Hoed, Marcel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Snieder, Harold
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, POB 30001, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    de Geus, Eco J. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol Behav & Movement Sci, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Genetic loci associated with heart rate variability and their effects on cardiac disease risk2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced cardiac vagal control reflected in low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with greater risks for cardiac morbidity and mortality. In two-stage meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for three HRV traits in up to 53,174 individuals of European ancestry, we detect 17 genome-wide significant SNPs in eight loci. HRV SNPs tag non-synonymous SNPs (in NDUFA11 and KIAA1755), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (influencing GNG11, RGS6 and NEO1), or are located in genes preferentially expressed in the sinoatrial node (GNG11, RGS6 and HCN4). Genetic risk scores account for 0.9 to 2.6% of the HRV variance. Significant genetic correlation is found for HRV with heart rate (-0.74 < r(g) < -0.55) and blood pressure (-0.35 < r(g) < -0.20). These findings provide clinically relevant biological insight into heritable variation in vagal heart rhythm regulation, with a key role for genetic variants (GNG11, RGS6) that influence G-protein heterotrimer action in GIRK-channel induced pacemaker membrane hyperpolarization.

  • Pathak, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Med Coll, Dept Paediat, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mahadik, Kalpana
    Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Med Coll, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Swami, Manmat B.
    Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Med Coll, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Roy, Pulak K.
    Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Med Coll, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Sharma, Megha
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Med Coll, Dept Pharmacol, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Mahadik, Vijay K.
    Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Med Coll, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Incidence and risk factors for surgical site infections in obstetric and gynecological surgeries from a teaching hospital in rural India2017In: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, ISSN 2047-2994, E-ISSN 2047-2994, Vol. 6, 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most common healthcare associated infections in the low-middle income countries. Data on incidence and risk factors for SSI following surgeries in general and Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries in particular are scare. This study set out to identify risk factors for SSI in patients undergoing Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries in an Indian rural hospital.

    Methods: Patients who underwent a surgical procedure between September 2010 to February 2013 in the 60-bedded ward of Obstetric and Gynecology department were included. Surveillance for SSI was based on the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) definition and methodology. Incidence and risk factors for SSI, including those for specific procedure, were calculated from data collected on daily ward rounds.

    Results: A total of 1173 patients underwent a surgical procedure during the study period. The incidence of SSI in the cohort was 7.84% (95% CI 6.30-9.38). Majority of SSI were superficial. Obstetric surgeries had a lower SSI incidence compared to gynecological surgeries (1.2% versus 10.3% respectively). The risk factors for SSI identified in the multivariate logistic regression model were age (OR 1.03), vaginal examination (OR 1.31); presence of vaginal discharge (OR 4.04); medical disease (OR 5.76); American Society of Anesthesia score greater than 3 (OR 12.8); concurrent surgical procedure (OR 3.26); each increase in hour of surgery, after the first hour, doubled the risk of SSI; inappropriate antibiotic prophylaxis increased the risk of SSI by nearly 5 times. Each day increase in stay in the hospital after the surgery increased the risk of contacting an SSI by 5%.

    Conclusions: Incidence and risk factors from prospective SSI surveillance can be reported simultaneously for the Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries and can be part of routine practice in resource-constrained settings. The incidence of SSI was lower for Obstetric surgeries compared to Gynecological surgeries. Multiple risk factors identified in the present study can be helpful for SSI risk stratification in low-middle income countries.

  • Cato, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sylvén, Sara M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Lindbäck, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rubertsson, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Risk factors for exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months-Identifying women in need of targeted breastfeeding support2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, e0179402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breastfeeding rates in Sweden are declining, and it is important to identify women at risk for early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum.

    Methods: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Six hundred and seventy-nine women were included in this sub-study. Questionnaires were sent at five days, six weeks and six months postpartum, including questions on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as several other background variables. The main outcome measure was exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used in order to calculate adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI).

    Results: Seventy-seven percent of the women reported exclusive breastfeeding at two months postpartum. The following variables in the multivariate regression analysis were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum: being a first time mother (AOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.32 +/- 3.49), reporting emotional distress during pregnancy (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35 +/- 3.62) and giving birth by cesarean section (AOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.34 +/- 5.17).

    Conclusions: Factors associated with shorter exclusive breastfeeding duration were determined. Identification of women experiencing emotional distress during pregnancy, as well as scrutiny of caregiving routines on cesarean section need to be addressed, in order to give individual targeted breastfeeding support and promote longer breastfeeding duration.

  • Yang, Xiao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Yanshan Univ, Coll Civil Engn & Mech, Qin Huangdao 066004, Hebei, Peoples R China..
    Li, Huijian
    Yanshan Univ, Coll Civil Engn & Mech, Qin Huangdao 066004, Hebei, Peoples R China..
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Mat & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kang, Taewon
    Dongguk Univ, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea..
    Luo, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Dongguk Univ, Nano Informat Technol Acad, Seoul 100715, South Korea..
    Formation and electronic properties of palladium hydrides and palladium-rhodium dihydride alloys under pressure2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 3520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the formation possibility for Pd-hydrides and Pd-Rh hydrides system by density functional theory (DFT) in high pressure upto 50 GPa. Calculation confirmed that PdH2 in face-centered cubic (fcc) structure is not stable under compression that will decomposition to fcc-PdH and H-2. But it can be formed under high pressure while the palladium is involved in the reaction. We also indicate a probably reason why PdH2 can not be synthesised in experiment due to PdH is most favourite to be formed in Pd and H-2 environment from ambient to higher pressure. With Rh doped, the Pd-Rh dihydrides are stabilized in fcc structure for 25% and 75% doping and in tetragonal structure for 50% doping, and can be formed from Pd, Rh and H-2 at high pressure. The electronic structural study on fcc type PdxRh1-xH2 indicates the electronic and structural transition from metallic to semi-metallic as Pd increased from x = 0 to 1.

  • Gromova, Arina
    Voltage-gated K+ channel modulation by resin-acid derivatives - a computational study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels are known to cause serious disease upon their malfunction. Kv channels desensitised to voltage show inability to fully repolarise the membrane in excitable cells, which can make the membrane hyperexcited and in turn cause seizures such as in epilepsy, periodic ataxia or heart arrhythmia. Therefore, enhancers of Kv channels could serve as potential drugs. Some of these enhancers are polyunsaturated fatty acids and resin-acids which bind at the proteinlipid surface and affect the movement of the voltage sensor in the channel by a mechanism called the lipoelectric effect. To explore the lipoelectric modulation mechanism, we have performed an extensive computational study including docking and molecular dynamics simulations on resin-acid derivatives added to a model potassium channel called Shaker. Four derivatives, Wu32 and Wu50 that excite the channel and thus induce repolarisation of the membrane, as well as Wu18 and Wu27, who were found to be non-potent in previous experimental studies, have helped to point out a novel binding site in Shaker. The site is located between the pore and voltage-sensing domain of the channel and is in direct contact with the first gating charge arginine, R1, and the residue W454. We hypothesize that it is possible for resinacid derivatives to directly bind to the voltage-sensor when it is in an activated state, prolonging the time Shaker stays open. Further experimental studies on Shaker and human homologs are now needed to test our hypothesis. Therefore, we suggest recording the sensitivity of Shaker towards potent derivatives in combination with mutations of W454. If our findings of the novel binding site are correct, the suitability of Shaker as a model system for human Kv channel modulation by lipoelectric modulators can be questioned as W454 is replaced by small hydrophobic side chains in mammalian Shaker homologs.

  • Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grape Viding, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Rydwik, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Solna, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Acad Primary Care Ctr, CEFAM, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Huss, Ephrat
    Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Charlotte B & Jack J Spitzer Dept Social Work, Beer Sheva, Israel..
    Arts as an ecological method to enhance quality of work experience of healthcare staff: a phenomenological-hermeneutic study2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, 1333898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the impact of self-chosen arts-based recreational activities, as opposed to the traditional arts therapy activities, on the well-being of healthcare providers. Three qualitative case studies of programs in which arts-based activities were used to work with healthcare providers, lasting for 10 weeks each, are phenomenological-hermeneutically evaluated using interviews and focus groups. The findings show what we refer to as an "ecological" ripple of effects: (1) the arts-based activities helped to reduce individual stress and to enhance mood over time, (2) the activities helped to transform workplace relationships within wards, and (3) the arts humanized the overall work climate in the healthcare setting. These effects go beyond those of using the art production as a strategy for stress reduction and imply potential for a more encompassing role for the arts within healthcare.

  • Stjärnkvist, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Biohacking: Heroiska underdogs och (isär)skruvade martyrkroppar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In popular culture, the integration of mankind and technology is often a tale of experiments gone wrong. For a biohacker, however, “going wrong” is an integral part of the project to update the human body. This study takes aim at the subculture of biohacking through the lens of technology and gender. More specifically, the intersection of gender and class in masculinist and queer constructions of identity. Additionally the study examines the entanglement of risk, gender and the body in grinder practice.

    Transcripts from the internet forum biohack.me were downloaded and relevant parts were selected. Through discourse analysis, articulations were read in relation to gender, class and the corporeal. The reader is provided with an outline of a “grinder subject”. This is identified as the a product of an cyber culture built on an ideology of DIY and freedom of information. It presumes an essence of humanity, uninformed by gender and body politics, just waiting to be hacked. Masculinist constructions of such a discourse includes an underdog “man-of-action hero” as a rebellion against established elites, and a technological martyrdom.

    The study informs the reader on an ongoing identification process regarding the integration of body and technology, beyond traditional spaces such as the research hospital. The study confirms well-established feminist views on discourses about the body and technology as implicitly gender marked as masculine. Additionally, a reluctance to discuss politics of the body as well as a indifferent or negative view of queer voices in such a situation. A rebellion against institutionalised bio-power might theoretically blend well with a corporeal feminist critique on gender, but is instead trumped by fear of ridicule and ambitions of mainstream acceptance. However, the study observes a a glimmer of traditionally marginalised and queer folk speaking up about their experiences within a context of grinding. This also questions the notion that discussions of the body and technology assert a binary gender system.

    A feminist theoretical view on grinder practices requires a analysis of the body open to scrutiny, modification and harm. In discussing “aftercare”, a collective/individual management of risk emerges as a gendered cyborg concept, and the body as an essential agent in the grinder project. This is articulated through encouragement and concern when presented with failed grinder projects.This further supports the entangling of the body and the biohacker subject as a corporeal and gendered agent. 

  • Höglund, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Ljungberg, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Strandberg, Ludvig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Småbarnsföräldrars kunskaper om och inställningar till livsmedelstillsatser: En webbenkätstudie bland föräldrar till barn mellan 0-6 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Livsmedelstillsatser är ett omdiskuterat och kontroversiellt ämne i dagens samhälle. Konsumenter efterfrågar naturliga produkter och ingredienser utan tillsatser men vill samtidigt erbjudas tillgängliga, tilltalande produkter med lång hållbarhet. Sparsam mängd forskning kring ämnet bland föräldrar till barn 0-6 år avgjorde att undersöka just denna målgrupp.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka småbarnsföräldrars kunskaper om och inställningar till livsmedelstillsatser.

    Metod: En webbaserad enkät distribuerades till föräldrar i fyra olika Facebook-grupper samt via författarnas egna profiler på sociala plattformen Facebook. Enkäten utformades i programmet Google Forms och bestod av 19 frågor med fasta svarsalternativ som undersökte respondenternas kunskaper och inställningar till livsmedelstillsatser, samt kommentarsfält till vissa frågor.

    Resultat: Totalt deltog 149 föräldrar i studien. Mer än två tredjedelar av totala antalet respondenter hade en något negativ eller negativ inställning till livsmedelstillsatser generellt. Ingen av respondenterna angav positiv som generell inställning till livsmedelstillsatser. Till tillsatgrupperna sötningsmedel och färgämnen uppvisade respondenterna mest negativ inställning. 60 % av respondenterna hade bristande kunskap, 39 % god kunskap och 1 % mycket god kunskap. Kunskapsnivån varierade överlag, trots att statliga myndigheter (t.ex. Livsmedelsverket) utgjorde huvudkälla för information hos majoriteten av respondenterna. Ett Chi-två test påvisade ingen korrelation mellan högre självskattad kunskap och bättre inställning. Ett Kruskal-Wallis test påvisade inte att högre självskattad kunskap gav högre kunskapspoäng.

    Slutsats: Respondenterna uppvisade övervägande negativ inställning till livsmedelstillsatser och varierande kunskaper, vilket kan indikera att kommunikation av information kring ämnet till småbarnsföräldrar behövs.

  • Hill, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Vahlstedt, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    “Grismjölk finns det också, men det äter inte vi så ofta”: Vad förmedlar pedagoger till förskolebarn om mat, en observationsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: ​Barn kan lära sig goda matvanor tidigt och förskolepedagoger har en stor möjlighet att påverka inlärningen. Tidigare studier visar att pedagoger ibland känner sig osäkra över hur måltiden ska integreras i verksamheten och vad som ska förmedlas till barnen. 

    Syfte:​ Att undersöka vilken information kring mat och måltider pedagoger förmedlar till förskolebarn under lunch och mellanmål. 

    Metod och material: ​Data har samlats in genom 20 observationer på 13 pedagoger på en förskola under lunch och mellanmål under en vecka. Datan har därefter analyserats genom tematisk analys. En enkät angående pedagogernas utbildning delades också ut och visade att kost överlag inte ingått i pedagogernas utbildning men att de vidareutbildats via förskolan.

    Resultat: ​Fyra teman identifierades: ​kunskap om matens egenskaper och ursprung ​ (hur man äter vissa livsmedel och namn på livsmedel och maträtter), ​regler och normer kring måltiden, (uppförande vid matbordet), ​en grund för goda matvanor​ (mängden mat och variation på tallriken)​ ​ och​ kunskap med maten som hjälpmedel ​ (pedagogerna använde maten som ett pedagogiskt verktyg).

    Slutsats: ​Den information som förmedlades kan enligt tidigare litteratur främja hälsosamma kostvanor hos barnet och med fördel läras ut under pedagogisk måltid. Dock saknades information relaterad till främjande av hälsosamma kostvanor varför en mer komplett informationsförmedling förslagsvis bör vara målet vid kommande satsningar på informationsförmedling från pedagoger.

  • Gyllstedt, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Pucar, Sanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    En svensk livsmedelskedjas extra satsningar för att minska matsvinn: Vilka åtgärder förekommer och hur kan de värderas?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En stor andel ätbar mat slängs i svenska livsmedelsbutiker som förutom de sociala och ekonomiska aspekterna, skapar en påfrestning på miljön och klimatet. Dock är engagemangen att minska matsvinn i livsmedelsbutiker stort och ett viktigt arbete som pågår.

    Syfte: Syftet var att identifiera matsvinnsreducerande åtgärder inom en svensk livsmedelskedja och med hjälp av frågeställningar även värdera och prioritera de identifierade åtgärderna främst efter USEPAs matsvinnshierarki (2017).

    Metod och material: En sekundäranalys gjordes på en undersökning som livsmedelskedjan ICA genomförde bland ICA-handlarna 2016. Strukturerade telefonintervjuer samt transkribering genomfördes av undersökningsföretaget Concilia. Företaget hade i avsikt att nå ICAs 1297 butiker och uttalanden från 336 butiker gällande “extra satsning för att minska matsvinn”, som var ett alternativ för en av undersökningens sju frågor, utgjorde uppsatsen urval. Element av en innehållsanalys har tillämpas för att koda uttalanden och identifiera samt kvantifiera åtgärder inom ICAs fyra butiksprofiler, som sedan främst värderades för att prioriteras enligt USEPAs matsvinnshierarki.

    Resultat: Urvalet för uppsatsen resulterade i ett bortfall som uppgick till 74 % av det totala antalet ICA-butiker i Sverige. Frekvenssvaren gällande tillämpning av åtgärder som var mest förekommande visade följande rangordning: reducerat pris, matdonation, djurfoder, egen produktion, inköpsplanering, biobränsle och Övrigt. Dessa åtgärder bör dock i linje med främst USEPAs matsvinnshierarki prioriteras på följande vis: inköpsplanering, reducerat pris/egen produktion/matdonation, djurfoder följt av biobränsle. Signifikanta skillnader med avseende på åtgärder mellan butiksprofilerna identifierades enbart för egen produktion och tillämpades främst bland butiksprofilen Kvantum, följt av Maxi, Supermarket och Nära.

    Slutsats: Inköpsplanering är den åtgärd som ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv (främst utifrån USEPAs matsvinnshierarki) bör prioriteras högst bland matsvinnsreducerande åtgärder i den undersökta livsmedelskedjan. Den hierarkiska ordningen av tillämpning för de resterande åtgärderna låg relativt i linje med framför allt USEPAs matsvinnshierarki.

  • Dagergård, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Skatt, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    ”Man ville liksom att han skulle vara mätt inför natten”: Småbarnsföräldrars upplevelser av välling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Majoriteten av svenska småbarnsföräldrar ger välling till sina barn. En av vällingens fördelar är att den är berikad med järn som har stor betydelse för små barns tillväxt och utveckling.  Forskning visar dock på flera potentiella nackdelar, där bevisen är särskilt starka för att barn som dricker välling löper större risk att utveckla övervikt.

    Syfte: Att undersöka upplevelser av välling bland föräldrar som ger eller nyligen slutat ge sitt barn välling. 

    Metod: Sex semistrukturerade intervjuer med mödrar i åldern 30-37 år med ett eller två barn i åldern åtta mån till sju år. Samtliga mödrar hade en eftergymnasial utbildning och bodde i Stockholm. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades tematiskt.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i två teman med tillhörande underteman: allsidigt hjälpmedel uppdelat i bekvämt för barnet och praktiskt för föräldrarna samt tveksamheter och tvivel med underteman konsekvenser för barnet och osäkerhet hos föräldrarna. I intervjuerna framkommer hur vällingen används som ett praktiskt hjälpmedel i vardagen. Den är lätt att tillreda och bekväm att servera i nappflaska och ingår ofta i en rutin inför natten och upplevs få barnet att komma till ro och sova bättre under natten. Föräldrar nämner även viss oro och osäkerhet kring vällingen, hur den påverkar barnets tandhälsa, dess innehåll och tillsatser samt en tydlig ängslan inför att sluta ge välling.

    Slutsats: Välling ses som en given del av barnets kost och beslutet att börja med välling har skett naturligt och har ej påverkats av aktuell forskning eller av råd från barnavårdscentraler eller Livsmedelsverket.

  • Apelman, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Veskoukis, Angelica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Det rationella,  det trovärdiga och  det ideologiska: Budskap i marknadsföring av kosttillskott i svenska tidskrifter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Nationella rekommendationer avråder från allmän användning av kosttillskott. Ändå visar försäljningsstatistik och kostundersökningar att många svenskar konsumerar kosttillskott. Vi var intresserade av att studera budskap kring kosttillskott som sänds via svenska media.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen var att kartlägga och tolka budskap i annonser som marknadsför kosttillskott i kommersiella svenska tidskrifter. Metod: Metoden som användes för att kartlägga och tolka budskap var en kvalitativ innehållsanalys inspirerad av Graneheim och Lundman. Texterna transkriberades och innehållet kodades. Därefter kategoriserades och abstraherades innehållet för att identifiera centrala teman som beskriver centrala mönster.

    Material: För att begränsa materialet till enbart annonser för kosttillskott formulerades ett antal inklusions- och exklusionskriterier. Här inkluderades produkter med märkningen kosttillskott eller dietary supplements, samt produkter som angavs innehålla minst en typ av vitamin eller mineral och säljas i avgränsade doser. Totalt inkluderades 29 annonser i nio olika tidskrifter. Tidpunkt för materialinsamlingen var april 2017.

    Resultat: Tre centrala teman identifierades: det rationella, det trovärdiga, samt det ideologiska. Dessa beskriver centrala mönster bland budskapen.

    Diskussion och slutsats: Resultaten i denna uppsats tyder på att det finns tre teman bland de budskap som återfinns i annonser som marknadsför kosttillskott i svenska tidskrifter. Rationella budskap om att kosttillskott är nödvändigt, har en förmåga att behandla hälsoproblem och skydda mot hälsorisker, samt hälsoförbättrande egenskaper. Andra mönster som framställs är trovärdighet som har belägg i vetenskaplig forskning och personliga upplevelser, samt ideologiska budskap om att kosttillskott är naturligt och helande förmågor.

  • Sandberg, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Simonsson, Daniella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    "Hållbarhet är ju någonting som borde genomsyra allt vi gör": Om kostchefers syn på implementeringen av olika hållbarhetsaspekter i kommunala måltidsverksamheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Kostchefer har, i sin roll som ansvariga för offentliga måltidsverksamheter, stor möjlighet att påverka hållbarhetsarbetet på samhällsnivå. Arbetet för att uppnå hållbarhet inom måltidsverksamheter verkar vara komplext och dedikerade aktörer kan vara avgörande för om arbetet ska lyckas. 

    Syfte: Syftet är att studera hur kostchefer i kommunala måltidsverksamheter ser på arbetet med att implementera olika hållbarhetsaspekter i verksamheten.

    Metod: Sex semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med kostchefer. För att analysera materialet genomfördes sedan en tematisk analys.

    Resultat: Många kostchefer upplever en stor komplexitet kring hållbarhetsfrågor och en brist på tydliga hållbarhetsmål. I kostchefernas arbete finns en konflikt mellan frihet och ansvar.  Friheten gällande hållbarhetsarbetet och hur det ska implementeras är stor och hur mycket ansvar kostcheferna lägger på sig själva i detta arbete är valfritt. Majoriteten av kostcheferna erfar att ett personligt engagemang kan skapa goda förutsättningar för implementeringen av hållbarhetsarbetet i verksamheterna. I implementeringsarbetet berättar kostcheferna att de arbetar med olika uppdrag, vilka kan handla om att utforma genomarbetade underlag till politiker inför beslutsfattande, skapa en teamkänsla bland personalen eller att lära ut hållbara matvanor till matgästerna. Att arbeta kommunikativt gentemot aktörerna i måltidsverksamheten är något som de flesta av kostcheferna framhåller som mycket viktigt för implementeringsprocessen.

    Slutsats: Komplexiteten som ses på området leder till att kostchefer många gånger upplever arbetet med hållbarhet och dess implementering som svårt. För en lyckad implementeringsprocess tycks ett personligt engagemang från kostchefens sida vara viktigt samtidigt som de olika aktörerna i verksamheten behöver vara med på tåget.

  • Jansson, Ida-Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Larsson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Hemmaboende äldres kännedom om Livsmedelsverkets kostråd samt deras intag av utvalda livsmedel i relation till dessa: - en enkätsundersökning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: För att främja god livskvalitet, minska prevalensen av kostrelaterade sjukdomar samt öka äldres möjlighet att bo kvar i hemmet är det av vikt att ta hänsyn till målgruppens olika förutsättningar vid förmedling av kostråd.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka hemmaboende äldres kännedom om Livsmedelsverkets kostråd samt målgruppens självskattade intag av livsmedel i relation till dessa.

    Metod och material: En kvantitativ enkät med fasta svarsalternativ användes, denna distribuerades genom pensionärsföreningar i Uppsala län. Respondenterna var 65+ och hemmaboende. Databearbetning utfördes i SPSS.

    Resultat: 110 enkätsvar erhölls, de flesta respondenter (86,5%) var “yngre äldre” (65-79 år). Kännedomen om Livsmedelsverkets kostråd var “något låg” och den främsta informationskällan för kostråd var familj/vänner​ ​(25,7%). Majoriteten (84,6%) uppgav ett frukt- och grönsaksintag av en-två portioner per dag. Cirka hälften (47,7%) uppgav ett fisk- och skaldjursintag av två-tre måltider i veckan, och intaget av rött kött och chark uppgavs av majoriteten (90,8%) bestå av fyra huvudmåltider eller färre per vecka. Övervägande del (69,3%) uppgav att de valde lättare mjölk. Majoriteten (66,6%) uppgav att de valde flytande matfetter till matlagning.

    Slutsats: Kännedomen om Livsmedelsverket kostråd är otillräcklig vilket kan vara en följd av att få uppgav Livsmedelsverket som främsta informationskälla för kostråd. Majoriteten uppgav ett frukt och grönsaksintag under rekommendationen och ett intag av rött kött och chark, fisk och skaldjur, typ av mjölk samt fett till matlagning i enlighet med kostråden.

  • Hellman, Amanda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Hellstedt, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Matsvinn ur ett hushållsperspektiv: En kvantitativ studie om livsmedelsinköp i webbutik respektive fysisk livsmedelsbutik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Matsvinn är ett problem i hela livsmedelskedjan och existerar både på internationell och nationell nivå. Då hushållen står för den största mängden genererat matsvinn ville vi undersöka om olika sätt att handla på, påverkar mängden matsvinn genom att jämföra digital mathandel, som är ett nytt växande fenomen, mot att handla i fysisk livsmedelsbutik.

    Syfte: Syftet var att jämföra matsvinn mellan hushåll som handlar flest livsmedel digitalt på MatHem och hushåll som handlar flest livsmedel i fysisk livsmedelsbutik.

    Metod: Kvantitativ metod användes i form av en webbenkät med 13 frågor. Deltagarna bestod av två oberoende grupper som rekryterades via bekvämlighetsurval. Totalt deltog 124 individer. Insamlad data analyserades i SPSS genom Chi-två test och Fisher-Freeman-Halton Test (signifikansnivå 5%) samt via Microsoft Office Excel för Mac där diagram utarbetades.

    Resultat: Ingen signifikant skillnad i mängd matsvinn påvisades mellan grupperna i avseende på livsmedelskategorierna: Frukt (p=0,905), Grönsaker (p=0,146), Bröd (p=0,208), Pålägg (p=0,478), Mjölkprodukter (p=0,388), Ägg (p=0,334), Ej tillagat fisk/kött/kyckling (p=1,000), Dryck (p=0,311) samt Tillagad mat (p=0,979). 98,3% av respondenterna som handlar på MatHem Instämmer helt och Instämmer delvis att de planerar sina inköp i förväg i jämförelse mot respondenterna som handlar i fysisk livsmedelsbutik där 73,4% Instämmer helt eller Instämmer delvis. Fishers-Freeman-Halton Test visar en signifikant skillnad (p=0,000) mellan urvalsgrupperna. De vanligaste anledningarna till matsvinn i båda grupperna var Sparade bortglömda rester och Mögel/luktar/smakar illa. Ingen signifikant skillnad påvisades mellan grupperna.

    Slutsats: Ingen signifikant skillnad påvisades i mängd matsvinn mellan urvalsgrupperna. Kunder från MatHem planerade dock sina inköp i signifikant högre grad än kunder i en fysisk livsmedelsbutik. Det fanns ingen signifikant skillnad gällande orsak till matsvinn.

  • Eliasson, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lagerqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Pettersson, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    "P.S. allt är bra som det är, har inget speciellt att klaga på”: - en kvantitativ studie om matlådor för äldre personer i ordinärt boende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Undernäring är ett problem inom äldreomsorgen och den största delen av de satsningar som görs sker inom de särskilda boendeformerna samtidigt som allt fler äldre bor kvar hemma. Uppmärksamhet behöver i större omfattning även riktas till måltider hos de äldre i ordinärt boende. Rätten för de äldre att själva påverka sin vardag och sina måltider betyder mycket för dem som individer och fler studier inom detta område efterfrågas.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka vad äldre personer i ordinärt boende i Sandvikens kommun tycker om de matlådor som leverera till dem. I syftet inkluderas även frågeställningar om vad de äldre personerna har för önskemål om maten på menyn samt om de själva får välja vilka maträtter som ska beställas från menyn.

    Metod: I studien användes en kvantitativ metod i form av en enkätundersökning, som utfördes på individer i ordinärt boende med matlådeleverans i Sandvikens kommun. Enkäten behandlade frågor om matlådorna som levereras och systemet kring matlådorna. Databearbetning utfördes i form av beskrivande statistik där resultaten först beräknades med hjälp av statistikprogrammet SPSS.

    Resultat: Resultaten visar att de 178 svarande individerna överlag tyckte att matens smak och utseende var bra. Portionsstorlekarna ansågs av de flesta vara lagom stora och variationen av maträtter på menyn tyckte de flesta var bra. Resultaten visar också att majoriteten av respondenterna själva väljer vilka maträtter de ska beställa från menyn. De flesta önskemålen om menyn gäller kötträtter. Klassisk husmanskost med fläskkött, nötkött och korv var det som flest respondenter efterfrågade. 

    Slutsats: Resultatet av den aktuella studien visade att majoriteten av de äldre var nöjda med matlådorna, med avseende på smak, utseende och variationen på menyn. De äldre framförde egna önskemål om traditionellt svenska maträtter, men även modernare maträtter. Majoriteten av de äldre individerna i studien fick själva välja vilka maträtter som skulle beställas från menyn.

  • Bjurling, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Hellsten, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    "Vi är gamla, försiktiga och vågar inte stå upp för oss själva”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om äldres måltidsupplevelse i särskilt boende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Andelen äldre ökar i samhället och åldrandet kan innebära konsekvenser som bidrar till nedsatt aptit och risk för undernäring. Studier har visat att när hänsyn togs till preferenser, sociala interaktioner, variationen samt möjligheten att påverka utbudet ökade tillfredsställelsen hos de äldre. Det finns varierande resultat om vilka preferenser äldre har idag samt variationer i uppfattningar angående måltider mellan personal och äldre. Därav är det viktigt att ta reda på, och inte anta, vad äldre värdesätter kring måltiden.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka vilka faktorer som äldre inom särskilda boenden upplever har betydelse för deras måltidsupplevelse. Vidare var syftet att undersöka vad äldre anser om möjligheterna att påverka sin måltidssituation.

    Metod: Sex semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med kvinnliga informanter i åldrarna 80-97 år, från tre särskilda boenden, i en större stad i Mellansverige. Intervjuerna transkriberades samt analyserades med tematisk analys.

    Resultat: De faktorer som hade betydelse för informanternas måltidsupplevelse var att maten tillagas på ”rätt” sätt, att ha möjlighet till sociala interaktioner samt att hänsyn tas till preferenser, traditioner, matkulturella smaksättningar och samt att synpunkter tas i beaktande. Dock förekom en tveksamhet till att vilja påverka då informanterna inte vill anses vara retfulla eller belasta personalen. Vidare framkom en upplevelse av uppgivenhet hos informanterna då synpunkterna endast nådde vårdpersonalen.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar att faktorer av igenkännande i måltidssituationer ansågs vara viktiga. Detta skulle kunna uppnås genom regelbunden kommunikation mellan måltidsorganisationer och de äldre om vikten av att belysa att möjligheten finns för äldre att ge deras synpunkter.

  • Hultberg, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Kyrkorna i Silte: Om kyrkobyggnader och kyrkofynd från det tidigmedeltida Gotland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks to examine the relationship between the church buildings and archaeological finds from under the church floor in Silte parish on the baltic isle, Gotland. The material was excavated in 1971-1972, after evidence of an older wooden church was uncovered during restoration work. This older structure, revealed to have consisted of a chancel and choir, had evidently been connected to the present stone choir for some time. The well preserved foundation was excavated along with a rich archeological material consisting of, amongst other things, some 1700 coins and 18 graves along with skeletal material indicating an additional 25 individuals. In this thesis the material and the buildings are put into context and an attempt is made to link it to different phases of christianization. One connecting to the timbered stave church, and one to the later stone church. The results are then used to make a connection between this development and the formation of the parish system on the island and the increased stratification of church and society during the early Middle Ages in Sweden and Scandinavia. 

  • Tärnlund, Sten-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    P is not equal to NP2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SAT  is not in  P  is proved, in a first-order theory, with a new single finite axiom of Turing's theory of computing. So, P  is not equal to NP.

  • Bett, Bernard
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Said, Mohammed Y.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Sang, Rosemary
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Bukachi, Salome
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Anthropol Gender & African Studies, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Wanyoike, Salome
    Minist Agr, Dept Vet Serv, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kifugo, Shem C.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Otieno, Fredrick
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Ontiri, Enoch
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Njeru, Ian
    Kenyatta Natl Hosp, Minist Publ Hlth & Sanitat, Div Dis Surveillance & Response, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Effects of flood irrigation on the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens in an arid and semi-arid area in the eastern Kenya2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0172626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. Results demonstrate a drastic decline in vegetation cover over R approximate to 25 years particularly in the irrigated areas where cropland increased by about 1,400% and non-farm land (under closed trees, open to closed herbaceous vegetation, bushlands and open trees) reduced by 30-100%. The irrigated areas had high densities of Aedes mcintoshi, Culexspp. and Mansonia spp. (important vectors for multiple arboviruses) during the wet and dry season while pastoral areas had high densities of Ae. tricholabis specifically in the wet season. The seroprevalences of RVFV, WNV and DFV were higher in the irrigated compared to the pastoral areas while those for Leptospira spp and Brucella spp. were higher in the pastoral compared to the irrigated areas. It is likely that people in the pastoral areas get exposed to Leptospira spp by using water fetched from reservoirs that are shared with livestock and wildlife, and to Brucella spp. by consuming raw or partially cooked animal source foods such as milk and meat. This study suggests that irrigation increases the risk of mosquito-borne infections while at the same time providing a protective effect against zoonotic pathogens that thrive in areas with high livestock population densities.

  • Nalusiba, Aisha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Level, knowledge of and barriers and facilitators for physical activity among students at Makerere University Business School in Kampala, Uganda2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • van Vliet, Philine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA. University of Amsterdam.
    Simulations of the Electron Current Spectrometer Setup in Geant4: Exploring the Physics Limitations of Compact High Gradient Accelerating Structures2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high field gradient of 100 MV/m that will be applied to the accelerator cavities of the CompactLinear Collider (CLIC), gives rise to the problem of RF breakdowns. The eld collapses and a plasmaof electrons and ions is being formed in the cavity, preventing the RF field from penetrating the cavity. Electrons in the plasma are being accelerated and ejected out, resulting in a breakdown current up to a few Amperes, measured outside the cavities. These breakdowns lead to luminosity loss, so reducing their amount is of great importance. For this, a better understanding of the physics behind RF breakdowns is needed. To study these breakdowns, the XBox 2 test facility has a spectrometer setup installed after the RF cavity that is being conditioned. For this report, a simulation of this spectrometer setup has been made using Geant4. Once a detailed simulation of the RF eld and cavity has been made, it canbe connected to this simulation of the spectrometer setup and used to recreate the data that has been collected at XBox 2, before and after a breakdown has occured. In this way, we hope to be able to look further into the RF breakdowns occuring in high field gradient accelerator structures.

  • Andin, Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Relationship Between Hekla’s Magmatic System and Its Eruptive Behavior2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The southern part of Iceland incorporates two parallel volcanic zones, the Eastern Volcanic Zone and the Western Volcanic Zone. These two branches are connected by an E-W transform. Hekla is located close to intersection between the two plate boundaries. Hekla is one of Iceland's most active and explosive volcanoes. Unique to Hekla is that it is one of the few volcanoes on Iceland that produces explosive silica rich magma. Hekla gives no clear warning of its eruptions and sends out seismic signals with very short notice. It is therefore of interest to try to understand Hekla's magma system and magmatic processes in order to gain an increased knowledge of its volcanic processes. The study is based on calculating crystallization conditions for the minerals plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthoproxene. Calculations is based on the assumption that minerals, which are in equilibrium with the associated melt are directly associated with the thermodynamics of crystallization. The result of the study shows that Hekla's magma chamber is located at a depth of 8-12 km. The samples from Hekla are poor in minerals, which can be explained by separation due to fractional crystallization that forms a crystal mush. Fast ascending primitive magma along with degassing will eventually lead to an eruption. The absence of crystal zoning indicates a limited chance of magma mixing or crustal contamination. Oxides related to the eruption tend to comprise a low titanium content, which is related with an increased pressure condition. Geospeedometry suggested that recharge occurred up to 10 days before eruption. Erupted oxides shows up to 30 years residence which suggest long-term crystal mush.

  • Smith, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Changes in Hydrologic Regime to Balance Human and Environmental Requirements: a Case Study in the Långan River Basin, Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dams and reservoirs play an important role in the Swedish energy system, and a large number of rivers are today regulated. How to combine the ecological and economic interests in the regulation of these rivers is a growing concern for stakeholders and authorities. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual environmentally- oriented dam release plan that combines economic and ecological needs for the Lower Långan Natura 2000 area as well as evaluating how the water stage of the reservoir Lake Landösjön would change with a more environmentally oriented flow regime. Three flow scenarios were established: (0) Current flow regime, (1) EU demand for good ecological status which requires changes in discharge dynamics, and (2) the environmental design flow. The Dundee hydrological regime assessment method (DHRAM) was used to evaluate the hydrological alterations for each of the three scenarios. Scenario 0 exhibited the largest alteration from natural flow and the results from the DHRAM analysis indicated on high risk of ecological impact in the river system. Scenario 1 met EU’s demand of good ecological status but the water stage in Lake Landösjön exceeded the maximum allowed legal limit. Scenario 2 comprised a flow regime encompassing both economic and ecological interests and is the most realistic scenario for improving ecology in the Lower Långan River. In conclusion in order to meet EU demand of good ecological status a change in upstream regulation is needed. 

  • Dashevska, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    What are the success strategies for changing behaviour?: An explorative intervention study of an application based and a non-application based approach for reducing smartphone overuse with focus on persuasive design 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing role the smartphone technology is gaining in our daily life the concerned voices about its negative impacts on human social skills, social interactions and mental health are getting louder. Smartphone use has become a habit not at least due to high access to different kind of rewards provided by this technology. In this thesis, a qualitative explorative study analyses two approaches, an application based and a non-application based, in their ability to deal with the subjectively perceived smartphone overuse in order to find weaknesses and advantages behind those approaches. The study design is based on behaviour change theories such as the Goal-Setting Theory, the Social Cognitive Theory, and the Cognitive Dissonance Theory and on the persuasive design strategies. The results of the five weeks long intervention study, during which eight participants tried both approaches in a within-group design setup, suggests that a combination of an application based and a non-application based intervention could be more beneficial than relying on technology alone in order to support the user with means to reduce the smartphone overuse. The results furthermore suggest that the application based approach functioned well as an eye opener and as an incentive to prepare participants to take own actions. 

  • Prytz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The production of textbooks in mathematics in Sweden, 1930-19802017In: "Dig where you stand" 4: Proceedings of the fourth International Conference on the History of Mathematics Education / [ed] Bjarnadóttir, K., Furinghetti, F., Menghini, M., Prytz, J., & Schubring, G., Roma: Edizioni Nuova Cultura , 2017, 309-324 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a bibliometric study on the prod uction of mathematics textbooks in Sweden in the period of 1930–1980. The analysis concerns grades 1- 9. The main source is a database of mathematics textbooks. Official reports on the Swedish textbook market comprise a second source.

  • Grace, Delia
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Wanyoike, Francis
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Bett, Bernard
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Randolph, Tom
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Rich, Karl M.
    Lincoln Univ, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand..
    Poor livestock keepers: ecosystem – poverty – health interactions2017In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, no 1725, 20160166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have never been healthier, wealthier or more numerous. Yet, present success may be at the cost of future prosperity and in some places, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty persists. Livestock keepers, especially pastoralists, are over-represented among the poor. Poverty has been mainly attributed to a lack of access, whether to goods, education or enabling institutions. More recent insights suggest ecosystems may influence poverty and the self-reinforcing mechanisms that constitute poverty traps in more subtle ways. The plausibility of zoonoses as poverty traps is strengthened by landmark studies on disease burden in recent years. While in theory, endemic zoonoses are best controlled in the animal host, in practice, communities are often left to manage disease themselves, with the focus on treatment rather than prevention. We illustrate this with results from a survey on health costs in a pastoral ecosystem. Epidemic zoonoses are more likely to elicit official responses, but these can have unintended consequences that deepen poverty traps. In this context, a systems understanding of disease control can lead to more effective and pro-poor disease management. We illustrate this with an example of how a system dynamics model can help optimize responses to Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Kenya by giving decision makers real-time access to the costs of the delay in vaccinating. In conclusion, a broader, more ecological understanding of poverty and of the appropriate responses to the diseases of poverty can contribute to improved livelihoods for livestock keepers in Africa.

    This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'.

  • Ekholm, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Oancea, Alexandru
    UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, Inst Math Jussieu Paris Rive Gauche, France.
    Symplectic and contact differential graded algebras2017In: Geometry and Topology, ISSN 1465-3060, E-ISSN 1364-0380, Vol. 21, no 4, 2161-2230 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We define Hamiltonian simplex differential graded algebras (DGA) with differentials that deform the high-energy symplectic homology differential and wrapped Floer homology differential in the cases of closed and open strings in a Liouville manifold of finite type, respectively. The order-m term in the differential is induced by varying natural degree-m coproducts over an (m-1)-simplex, where the operations near the boundary of the simplex are trivial. We show that the Hamiltonian simplex DGA is quasi-isomorphic to the (nonequivariant) contact homology algebra and to the Legendrian homology algebra of the ideal boundary in the closed and open string cases, respectively.

  • Bråting, Kajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Österman, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics.
    John Dewey and mathematics education in Sweden2017In: "Dig where you stand" 4. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the History of Mathematics Education, Roma: Edizioni Nuova Cultura , 2017, 61-72 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 09:15 Grönwallsalen, Uppsala
    Nyberg, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Metabolic and Endocrine Response in the Acute Stage of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rupture of an aneurysm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a dramatic event causing a severe impact on the brain and a transient or permanent ischemic condition. Several types of responses to meet the challenges of SAH have been found in the acute phase, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system, elevated levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and disturbances in cerebral and systemic metabolism.

    Cerebral metabolism and the endocrine stress response in the ultra-early phase was investigated in a novel porcine model of SAH in which autologous blood was injected to the anterior skull base. Early activation of the HPA axis was found with rapid elevation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone. The peak values of these hormones were early and may be impossible to catch in patients. There were indications of a sympathetic nervous response with excretion of catecholamines in urine as well as plasma chromogranin-A elevation. Cerebral microdialysis suggested immediate substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose. The animal model seems suited for further studies of aneurysmal SAH.

    NT-proBNP was investigated in 156 patients with SAH, there was a dynamic course with increasing levels during the first 4 days of the disease. Factors predicting high NT-proBNP load included female sex, high age, high Troponin-I at admission, angiographic finding of an aneurysm and worse clinical condition at admission. High levels of NT-proBNP were correlated to factors indicating a more severe disease, suggesting the initial injury in aneurysmal SAH is an important factor in predicting high NT-proBNP during the acute stage of the disease.

    Measurements with indirect calorimetry were performed daily during the first week after SAH on 32 patients with SAH. There was a dynamic course with increasing energy expenditure (EE) the first week after SAH. Comparisons with three predictive equations indicated that measured EE generally is higher than predicted, but considerable variation exists within and between patients, indicating that prediction of EE in SAH is difficult.

    Altogether, the studies demonstrate a complicated response in acute SAH that needs to be further studied to increase possibility of good outcome in SAH patients.

    List of papers
    1. Metabolic Pattern of the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Novel Porcine Model: Studies with Cerebral Microdialysis with High Temporal Resolution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic Pattern of the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Novel Porcine Model: Studies with Cerebral Microdialysis with High Temporal Resolution
    2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, e99904- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may produce cerebral ischemia and systemic responses including stress. To study immediate cerebral and systemic changes in response to aneurysm rupture, animal models are needed. Objective: To study early cerebral energy changes in an animal model. Methods: Experimental SAH was induced in 11 pigs by autologous blood injection to the anterior skull base, with simultaneous control of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor concentrations of glucose, pyruvate and lactate. Results: In nine of the pigs, a pattern of transient ischemia was produced, with a dramatic reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure soon after blood injection, associated with a quick glucose and pyruvate decrease. This was followed by a lactate increase and a delayed pyruvate increase, producing a marked but short elevation of the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Glucose, pyruvate, lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio thereafter returned toward baseline. The two remaining pigs had a more severe metabolic reaction with glucose and pyruvate rapidly decreasing to undetectable levels while lactate increased and remained elevated, suggesting persisting ischemia. Conclusion: The animal model simulates the conditions of SAH not only by deposition of blood in the basal cisterns, but also creating the transient global ischemic impact of aneurysmal SAH. The metabolic cerebral changes suggest immediate transient substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose upon reperfusion. The model has features that resemble spontaneous bleeding, and is suitable for future research of the early cerebral and systemic responses to SAH that are difficult to study in humans.

    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-229957 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0099904 (DOI)000338508200053 ()24940881 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-08-18 Created: 2014-08-18 Last updated: 2017-08-17Bibliographically approved
    2. The Early Endocrine Stress Response in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Early Endocrine Stress Response in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, e0151457Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction In patients with severe illness, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a physiologic stress response is triggered. This includes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the very early responses of these systems. Methods A porcine animal model of aneurysmal SAH was used. In this model, blood is injected slowly to the basal cisterns above the anterior skull base until the cerebral perfusion pressure is 0 mm Hg. Sampling was done from blood and urine at -10, +15, +75 and +135 minutes from time of induction of SAH. Analyses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, catecholamines and chromogranin-A were performed. Results Plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma aldosterone increased in the samples following induction of SAH, and started to decline after 75 minutes. Urine cortisol also increased after SAH. Urine catecholamines and their metabolites were found to increase after SAH. Many samples were however below detection level, not allowing for statistical analysis. Plasma chromogranin-A peaked at 15 minutes after SAH, and thereafter decreased. Conclusions The endocrine stress response after aneurysmal SAH was found to start within 15 minutes in the HPA axis with early peak values of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone. The fact that the concentrations of the HPA axis hormones decreased 135 minutes after SAH may suggest that a similar pattern exists in SAH patients, thus making it difficult to catch these early peak values. There were also indications of early activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the small number of valid samples made interpretation difficult.

    National Category
    Endocrinology and Diabetes Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-296872 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0151457 (DOI)000372701200055 ()
    Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2017-08-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Predictors of increased cumulative serum levels of the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide 4 days after acute spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of increased cumulative serum levels of the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide 4 days after acute spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, Vol. 120, no 3, 599-604 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Object. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is followed by increased intracranial pressure and decreased cerebral blood flow. A major systemic stress reaction follows, presumably to restore cerebral blood flow. However, this reaction can also cause adverse effects, including myocardial abnormalities, which are common and can be serious, and increased levels of natriuretic peptides, especially brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The association of BNP with fluid and salt balance, vasospasm, brain ischemia, and cardiac injury has been studied but almost exclusively regarding events after admission. Brain natriuretic peptide has also been measured at various time points and analyzed in different ways statistically. The authors approached BNP measurement in a new way; they used the calculated area under the curve (AUC) for the first 4 days to quantitatively measure the BNP load during the first critical part of the disease state. Their rationale was a suspicion that early BNP load is a marker of the severity of the ictus and will influence the subsequent course of the disease by disturbing the fluid and salt balance. Methods. The study included 156 patients with acute spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Mean patient age was 59.8 +/- 11.2 years, and 105 (67%) of the patients were female. An aneurysm was found in 138 patients. A total of 82 aneurysms were treated by endovascular coiling, 50 were treated by surgery, and 6 were untreated. At the time of admission, serum samples were collected for troponin-I analysis and for the N-terminal prohormone of BNP (NT-proBNP); daily thereafter, samples were collected for the NT-proBNP analysis. The cumulative BNP load was calculated as the AUC for NT-proBNP during the first 4 days. The following variables were studied in terms of their influence on the AUC for NT-proBNP: sex, age, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade of SAH, Fisher grade, angiographic result, treatment of aneurysm,'clinical neurological deterioration, verified infections, vasospasm treatment, and 6-month outcome. Results. The AUC for NT-proBNP was larger when variables indicated a more severe SAH. These variables were higher Fisher and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades, high levels of troponin-I at admission, an aneurysm, neurological deficits, and infections. The AUC for NT-proBNP was also larger among women, older patients, and patients with poor outcomes. Linear regression showed that the best predicting model for large AUC for NT-proBNP was the combination of the following: female sex, high levels of troponin-I, an aneurysm, neurological deficits, and advanced age. Conclusions. The cumulative BNP load during the first days after SAH can be predicted by variables describing the severity of the disease already known at the time of admission. This information can be used to identify patients at risk for an adverse course of the disease.

    Keyword
    subarachnoid hemorrhage, NT-proBNP, vascular disorders, brain natriuretic peptide, troponin-I
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-222748 (URN)10.3171/2013.8.JNS13625 (DOI)000332048800003 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2017-08-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Daily Energy Expenditure in the Acute Phase of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Daily Energy Expenditure in the Acute Phase of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Neurology Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328119 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2017-08-17
  • Henriksson, Dorcus Kiwanuka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Fredriksson, Mio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Waiswa, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Uganda.
    Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Swartling Peterson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Bottleneck analysis at district level to illustrate gaps within the district health system in Uganda2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, 1327256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Poor quality of care and access to effective and affordable interventions have been attributed to constraints and bottlenecks within and outside the health system. However, there is limited understanding of health system barriers to utilization and delivery of appropriate, high-impact, and cost-effective interventions at the point of service delivery in districts and sub-districts in low-income countries. In this study we illustrate the use of the bottleneck analysis approach, which could be used to identify bottlenecks in service delivery within the district health system.

    METHODS: A modified Tanahashi model with six determinants for effective coverage was used to determine bottlenecks in service provision for maternal and newborn care. The following interventions provided during antenatal care were used as tracer interventions: use of iron and folic acid, intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria, HIV counseling and testing, and syphilis testing. Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in Mayuge and Namayingo districts in Uganda were used in this study.

    RESULTS: Effective coverage and human resource gaps were identified as the biggest bottlenecks in both districts, with coverage ranging from 0% to 66% for effective coverage and from 46% to 58% for availability of health facility staff. Our findings revealed a similar pattern in bottlenecks in both districts for particular interventions although the districts are functionally independent.

    CONCLUSION: The modified Tanahashi model is an analysis tool that can be used to identify bottlenecks to effective coverage within the district health system, for instance, the effective coverage for maternal and newborn care interventions. However, the analysis is highly dependent on the availability of data to populate all six determinants and could benefit from further validation analysis for the causes of bottlenecks identified.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 13:00 Ekmansalen, Uppsala
    Bremer, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Silurian vertebrates of Gotland (Sweden) and the Baltic Basin2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Silurian, the Swedish island Gotland was positioned close to the equator and covered by a shallow sea called the Baltic Basin. The sedimentary rocks (predominantly carbonates) comprising most of the island today were initially formed in this warm sea, and the relatively complete succession of rocks often contains fossil fragments and scales from early vertebrates, including heterostracans, anaspids, thelodonts, osteostracans, acanthodians, and a stem-osteichthyan. Fossils of early vertebrates become increasingly more common in younger Silurian rocks, but are mostly represented by fragmentary remains and rarer occurrences of articulated jawless vertebrates (agnathans). However, the record of articulated specimens and jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are more numerous in rocks of the following Devonian Period. Isolated peaks of agnathan diversity during the Silurian and disarticulated remains of gnathostomes from this period hint at a cryptic evolutionary history. A micropaleontological approach with broader sampling may provide a better understanding of early vertebrate distribution patterns and hopefully give some insights into this history. The objective of this study was to build upon previous sampling on Gotland and to use established frameworks for disarticulated remains with the aim of making comparisons with similar studies performed in the East Baltic. However, difficulties locating the collections from these previous works necessitated a different focus. Undescribed museum collections and newly sampled material enabled some taxonomical revisions and greatly improved the understanding of vertebrate distribution in the youngest part of the Gotland sequence. It also indicated that this interval may represent the early stages of the diversification of gnathostomes that become increasingly dominant toward the end of the Silurian. Furthermore, the description of samples from partly coeval sections in Poland enabled some preliminary comparisons outside of Gotland, and presented a striking example of restricted environmental occurrences for a thelodont taxon. This is encouraging for future sampling and investigations on Gotland. Together with the establishment of a facies-framework comparable to that developed in the East Baltic and correlations to other areas, this may prove fruitful for an increased understanding of early vertebrate distribution and evolution during the Silurian.

    List of papers
    1. An updated stratigraphic and environmental framework for the distribution of Silurian vertebrates on Gotland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An updated stratigraphic and environmental framework for the distribution of Silurian vertebrates on Gotland
    2015 (English)In: Estonian journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1736-4728, E-ISSN 1736-7557, Vol. 64, no 1, 13-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keyword
    vertebrate distribution, stratigraphy, facies, Silurian events, Gotland, Sweden
    National Category
    Developmental Biology Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251824 (URN)10.3176/earth.2015.03 (DOI)000351327700004 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-08-21
    2. End-Wenlock terminal Mulde carbon isotope excursion in Gotland, Sweden: Integration of stratigraphy and taphonomy for correlations across restricted facies and specialized faunas
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-Wenlock terminal Mulde carbon isotope excursion in Gotland, Sweden: Integration of stratigraphy and taphonomy for correlations across restricted facies and specialized faunas
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    2016 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 457, 304-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299498 (URN)10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.031 (DOI)000380598800025 ()
    Available from: 2016-07-21 Created: 2016-07-21 Last updated: 2017-08-21
    3. Vertebrate remains and conodont biostratigraphy in the Ludlow Burgsvik Formation of Gotland, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate remains and conodont biostratigraphy in the Ludlow Burgsvik Formation of Gotland, Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328226 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-20 Created: 2017-08-20 Last updated: 2017-08-25
    4. Vertebrate dermal remains and conodont distribution in the upper Silurian Hamra and Sundre formations of Gotland, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate dermal remains and conodont distribution in the upper Silurian Hamra and Sundre formations of Gotland, Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328227 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-20 Created: 2017-08-20 Last updated: 2017-08-21
    5. Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland
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    2017 (English)In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, 1-19 p., doi:10.1017/S0016756817000681Article in journal (Other academic) Epub ahead of print
    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281657 (URN)10.1017/S0016756817000681 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2017-09-04
  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 10:15 Sal IX, Uppsala
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Central Politics and Local Peacemaking: The Conditions for Peace after Communal Conflict2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under what conditions can peace be established after violent communal conflict? This question has received limited research attention to date, despite the fact that communal conflicts kill thousands of people each year and often severely disrupt local livelihoods. This dissertation analyzes how political dynamics affect prospects for peace after communal conflict. It does so by studying the role of the central government, local state and non-state actors, and the interactions between these actors and the communal groups that are engaged in armed conflict. A particular focus is on the role of political bias, in the sense that central government actors have ties to one side in the conflict or strategic interests in the conflict issue. The central claim is that political bias shapes government strategies in the face of conflict, and influences the conflict parties’ strategic calculations and ability to overcome mistrust and engage in conflict resolution. To assess these arguments, the dissertation strategically employs different research methods to develop and test theoretical arguments in four individual essays. Two of the essays rely on novel data to undertake the first cross-national large-N studies of government intervention in communal conflict and how it affects the risk of conflict recurrence. Essay I finds that conflicts that are located in an economically important area, revolve around land and authority, or involve groups with ethnic ties to central rulers are more likely to prompt military intervention by the government. Essay II finds that ethnic ties, in turn, condition the impact that government intervention has on the risk of conflict recurrence. The other two essays are based on systematic analysis of qualitative sources, including unique and extensive interview material collected during several field trips to Kenya. Essay III finds that government bias makes it more difficult for the conflict parties to resolve their conflict through peace agreements. Essay IV finds that by engaging in governance roles otherwise associated with the state, non-state actors can become successful local peacemakers. Taken together, the essays make important contributions by developing, assessing and refining theories concerning the prospects for communal conflict resolution.

    List of papers
    1. Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 52, no 6, 791-805 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    What factors drive governments’ decisions to intervene in local conflicts within their borders? Communal conflict – that is, organized violence between non-state groups that are mobilized along a shared communal identity – kills thousands each year and severely impacts local livelihoods, at times threatening to spread and affect entire regions. Given the state’s assumed monopoly over the legitimate use of force, we should expect the concerned governments to be critical actors of the overall effort to restore peace in cases of local communal conflict, but empirical evidence indicates that central states tend to only intervene in some cases but not in others. This phenomenon has so far been understudied and the variations in states’ efforts to manage these conflicts remain unexplained. This article presents the first quantitative study of state intervention in communal conflicts. Building on existing scholarly work, I argue that state intervention is explained by a combination of strategic interests and state capacity, and that interests related to ethnic constituencies and land control play an important part in explaining governments’ strategies. These propositions find support in a statistical analysis covering sub-Saharan Africa from 1989 to 2010.

    Keyword
    Communal conflict, intervention, land control, non-state, non-state conflict, sub-Saharan Africa
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265486 (URN)10.1177/0022343315597968 (DOI)000364164200007 ()
    Available from: 2015-10-29 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2017-08-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflict
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflict
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324925 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2017-08-18
    3. The political conditions for local peacemaking: A comparative study of communal conflict resolution in Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The political conditions for local peacemaking: A comparative study of communal conflict resolution in Kenya
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324926 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2017-08-18
    4. Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, no 3, 469-493 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Under what circumstances can non-state actors become successful local peacemakers? A growing body of research documents the involvement of non-state actors in local conflict resolution in Africa. However, there is large variation in such actors' power, legitimacy, and ultimately their ability to contribute to conflict resolution. The ways in which contextual and dynamic factors at local and national levels, and in particular the relationship between non-state and state actors and institutions, affect local conflict resolution are not sufficiently understood. To address this gap, this paper analyses the peace process addressing a long-standing conflict in Kerio Valley, Kenya. The analysis illustrates how the failure of the state to provide security and basic services led non-state actors to fill important roles in governance. Through this process, they were endowed with legitimacy and power which enabled them to play key roles in a peace process that led to a mutually acceptable peace agreement.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300965 (URN)10.1017/S0022278X16000227 (DOI)000382379300005 ()
    Available from: 2016-08-16 Created: 2016-08-16 Last updated: 2017-08-18Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 13:00 Föreläsningssalen Biblioteket, Falun
    Hesselman, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Caesarean Section: Short- and long-term maternal complications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Caesarean section is a common major surgical procedure and long-term complications have not been fully investigated. By longitudinal population based register studies, based on National health registers and medical data records, maternal complications after caesarean delivery at subsequent labour (N=7 683), among extremely preterm births (N=406), and at remote gynaecologic surgery (N=25 354) were explored.

    In Paper I, uterine closure was investigated in respect to uterine rupture in a subsequent delivery after caesarean section. Uterine rupture occurred in 1.3 % of women with a previous caesarean section. There was no increased risk of uterine rupture with single compared with double layers for closure of the uterus (adjusted Odds Ratio 1.17, 95 % CI 0.78-1.70). Modifiable risk factors of uterine rupture in a trial of labour after caesarean section included induction of labour and use of epidural analgesia.

    In Paper II, maternal outcomes and surgical aspects of caesarean section in the extremely preterm period were assessed. Maternal complications were more frequently reported in extremely preterm- compared with term caesarean delivery. No increase in short-term morbidity was observed at 22-24 compared with 25-27 gestational weeks, but uterine corporal incisions were performed more frequently (18.1 % vs. 9.6 %, p=0.02).

    Furthermore, risk factors for abdominal adhesions after caesarean section and organ injury in remote gynaecologic surgery were analysed (Paper III and IV). Numbers of prior caesarean sections were the most important factor for formation of adhesions. Advanced maternal age, obesity, infection and delivery year 1997-2013 were factors associated with adhesions in conjunction with caesarean section. Organ injury occurred in 2.2 % of women undergoing benign hysterectomy. A history of caesarean section increased the risk (adjusted Odds Ratio 1.74, 95 % CI 1.41-2.15), but was only partly explained by the presence of adhesions. The organ affected depended on medical history; prior caesarean predisposed for bladder injury, prior bowel/pelvic surgery for bowel injury and endometriosis was associated with ureter injury at time of hysterectomy. In conclusion; data from National health registers indicates that caesarean delivery is associated with long-term complications, although the absolute risk of severe complications for the woman is low.

    List of papers
    1. The risk of uterine rupture is not increased with single- compared with double-layer closure: a Swedish cohort study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The risk of uterine rupture is not increased with single- compared with double-layer closure: a Swedish cohort study
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    2015 (English)In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, no 11, 1535-1541 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To compare single- with double-layer closure of the uterus for the risk of uterine rupture in women attempting vaginal birth after one prior caesarean delivery.

    DESIGN:

    Cohort study.

    SETTING:

    Sweden.

    POPULATION:

    From a total of 19 604 nulliparous women delivered by caesarean section in the years 2001-2007, 7683 women attempting vaginal birth in their second delivery were analysed.

    METHODS:

    Data from population-based registers were linked to hospital-based registers that held data from maternity and delivery records. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of uterine rupture after single- or double-layer closure of the uterus. Results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

    Uterine rupture.

    RESULTS:

    Uterine rupture during labour occurred in 103 (1.3%) women. There was no increased risk of uterine rupture when single- was compared with double-layer closure of the uterus (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.78-1.76). Maternal factors associated with uterine rupture were: age ≥35 years and height ≤160 cm. Factors from the first delivery associated with uterine rupture in a subsequent delivery were: infection and giving birth to an infant large for gestational age. Risk factors from the second delivery were induction of labour, use of epidural analgesia, and a birthweight of ≥4500 g.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    There was no significant difference in the rate of uterine rupture when single-layer closure was compared with double -layer closure of the uterus.

    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232789 (URN)10.1111/1471-0528.13015 (DOI)000362752100020 ()25088680 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Society of Medicine
    Available from: 2014-09-25 Created: 2014-09-25 Last updated: 2017-08-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Maternal complications in settings where two-thirds of extremely preterm births are delivered by cesarean section
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal complications in settings where two-thirds of extremely preterm births are delivered by cesarean section
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    2017 (English)In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 45, no 1, 121-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the maternal complications associated with cesarean section (CS) in the extremely preterm period according to the gestational week (GW) and to indication of delivery. Study design: This is a retrospective case-referent study with a review of medical records of women who delivered at 22-27 weeks of gestation (n = 647) at two level III units in Sweden. For abdominal delivery, gestational length was stratified into 22-24 (n = 105) and 25-27 (n = 301) weeks. For comparison, data on women who underwent a CS at term were identified in a register-based database. Results: The rate of CS in extremely preterm births was 62.8%. There was no difference in the complication rates, but types of incisions other than the low transverse incision were required more often at 22-24 (18.1%) weeks than at 25-27 GWs (9.6%) (P = 0.02). Major maternal complications occurred in 6.6% compared with 2.1% in the extremely preterm and term CS, respectively (P < 0.01). A maternal indication of extremely preterm CS increased the risk of complications. Conclusions: Almost two-thirds of the births at 22-27 GWs had an abdominal delivery. No increase in short-term morbidity was observed at 22-24 weeks compared to 25-27 weeks. CS performed extremely preterm had more major complications recorded than cesarean at term. The complications are driven by the underlying maternal condition.

    Keyword
    Cesarean section, extremely preterm birth, post-operative complications, pregnancy complications
    National Category
    Pediatrics Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317691 (URN)10.1515/jpm-2016-0198 (DOI)000393201100016 ()27768584 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-03-17 Created: 2017-03-17 Last updated: 2017-08-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Abdominal adhesions in gynaecologic surgery after caesarean section: a longitudinal population-based register study.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abdominal adhesions in gynaecologic surgery after caesarean section: a longitudinal population-based register study.
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    2017 (English)In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between abdominal adhesions at the time of gynaecologic surgery and a history of caesarean delivery, and to investigate obstetric factors contributing to adhesion formation after caesarean section (CS).

    DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based register study.

    SETTING: Sweden.

    POPULATION: Women undergoing benign hysterectomy and/or adnexal surgery in Sweden, 2000-2014, with a previous delivery during 1973-2013 (n = 15 479).

    METHODS: Information about abdominal adhesions during gynaecological surgery, prior medical history, pregnancies and deliveries were retrieved from Swedish National Health and Quality registers.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adhesions.

    RESULTS: In women with previous CS, adhesions were present in 37%, compared with 10% of women with no previous CS [odds ratio (OR): 5.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.70-5.71]. Adhesions increased with the number of caesarean sections: 32% after one CS; 42% after two CS and 59% after three or more CS (P < 0.001). Regardless of the number of CS, factors at CS such as age ≥35 years (aOR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05-1.55), body mass index (BMI) ≥30 [adjusted OR (aOR): 1.91, 95% CI: 1.49-2.45] and postpartum infection (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05-2.30) increased the risk of adhesions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Presence of adhesions in abdominal gynaecological surgery is associated with women's personal history of caesarean delivery. The number of caesarean sections was the important predictor of adhesions; advanced age, obesity and postpartum infection further increased the incidence.

    TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Repeat caesarean, age, obesity and infection increased the risk of pelvic adhesions after caesarean section.

    Keyword
    Adhesions, adhesive disease, caesarean section, gynaecologic surgery
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327111 (URN)10.1111/1471-0528.14708 (DOI)28444984 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-08-03 Created: 2017-08-03 Last updated: 2017-08-18
    4. Effect of remote cesarean delivery on complications during hysterectomy: a cohort study.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of remote cesarean delivery on complications during hysterectomy: a cohort study.
    2017 (English)In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, S0002-9378(17)30863-3Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cesarean section is frequently performed worldwide, and follow-up studies reporting complications at subsequent surgery are warranted.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between a previous abdominal delivery and complications during a subsequent hysterectomy, and to estimate the fraction of complications driven by the presence of adhesions.

    STUDY DESIGN: This was a longitudinal population based register study of 25354 women undergoing a benign hysterectomy at 46 hospital units in Sweden 2000-2014.

    RESULTS: Adhesions were found in 45 % of the women with a history of cesarean delivery. Organ injury affected 2.2 %. The risk of organ injury (aOR 1.74, 95 % CI 1.41-2.15) and post-operative infection (aOR 1.26, 95 % CI 1.15-1.39) was increased with prior cesarean section, irrespective of whether adhesions were present or not. The direct effect on organ injury by a personal history of cesarean delivery was estimated to 73 %, and only 27 % was mediated by the presence of adhesions. Previous cesarean was a predictor of bladder injury (aOR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.40-2.47) and bowel injury (aOR 1.83, 95 % CI 1.10-3.03) but not ureter injury. A personal history of other abdominal surgeries was associated with bowel injury (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.37-3.78), and the presence of endometriosis increased the risk of ureter injury (aOR 2.15, 95 % CI 1.34-3.44).

    CONCLUSIONS: Prior cesarean delivery is associated with an increased risk of complications during a subsequent hysterectomy, but the risk is only partly attributable to the presence of adhesions. Previous cesarean delivery and presence of endometriosis were major predisposing factors of organ injury at the time of the hysterectomy whereas background and perioperative characteristics were of minor importance.

    Keyword
    Adhesive disease, adhesions, cesarean section, complications, endometriosis, hysterectomy
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327110 (URN)10.1016/j.ajog.2017.07.021 (DOI)28735704 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-08-03 Created: 2017-08-03 Last updated: 2017-08-18
  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 13:15 Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Uppsala
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Income Taxation and Wealth Inequality2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with inequality, redistribution and taxation, in particular the taxation of labour income and the distribution of wealth. Most of the analysis is focused on Sweden. The thesis consists of four self-contained essays.

    Essay 1: “Analyzing tax reforms using the Swedish Labour Income Microsimulation Model”. Labour income taxation is a central policy topic because labour income makes up the majority of national income and most taxes are in the end taxes on labour. In order to quantify how behavioural responses of labour income earners affect tax revenue, the Swedish Labour Income Microsimulation Model (SLIMM) is constructed and used to evaluate tax reforms. Elasticities are calibrated to match midpoints of estimates found in the quasiexperimental literature. The simulations indicate that the earned income tax credit has increased employment by 128,000 and has a degree of self-financing of 21 percent. Almost half of the revenue increase from higher municipal tax rates would disappear due to behavioural responses. Tax cuts for the richest fifth of working Swedes are completely self-financing.

    Essay 2: “The Laffer curve for high incomes”. An expression for the Laffer curve for high incomes is derived, assuming a constant Pareto parameter and elasticity of taxable income. Microsimulations using Swedish population data show that the simulated curve matches the theoretically derived Laffer curve well, suggesting that the analytical expression is not too much of a simplification. A country-level dataset of top effective marginal tax rates and Pareto parameters is assembled. This is used to draw Laffer curves for 27 OECD countries. Revenue-maximizing tax rates and degrees of self-financing for a small tax cut are also computed. The results indicate that degrees of self-financing range between 28 and 195 percent. Five countries have higher tax rates than the peak of the Laffer curve.

    Essay 3: “Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden” (with Spencer Bastani). We examine preferences for redistribution inherent in Swedish tax policy 1971–2012 using the inverse optimal tax approach. The income distribution is carefully characterized with the help of administrative register data and we employ behavioral elasticities reflecting the perceived distortionary effects of taxation. The revealed social welfare weights are high for non-workers, small for low-income earners, and hump-shaped around the median. At the top, they are always negative, especially so during the high-tax years of the 1970s and ’80s. The weights on non-workers increased sharply in the 1970s, fell drastically in the late ’80s and early ’90s, and have since then increased.

    Essay 4: “Wealth inequality in Sweden: What can we learn from capitalized income data?” (with Daniel Waldenström). This paper presents new estimates of wealth inequality in Sweden during 2000–2012, linking wealth register data up to 2007 and individually capitalized wealth based on income and property tax registers for the period thereafter when a repeal of the wealth tax stopped the collection of individual wealth statistics. We find that wealth inequality increased after 2007 and that more unequal bank holdings and housing appear to be important drivers. We also evaluate the performance of the capitalization method by contrasting its estimates and their dispersion with observed stocks in register data up to 2007. The goodness-of-fit varies tremendously across assets and we conclude that although capitalized wealth estimates may well approximate overall inequality levels and trends, they are highly sensitive to assumptions and the quality of the underlying data sources.

  • Johansson, Linnea
    Component State Prediction Based on Field Data: Master Thesis in Energy System Engineering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is part of a big project at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery (SIT) in Finspång aimed to use the operation experience available at SIT to predict the state of the gas turbines in general and some mechanical components in particular. The objective of the thesis is to continue the development of a prediction model based on experience data for estimations of a components lifetime. In a previous master thesis by Alessandro Olivi statistical analysis of environmental attributes effect on the expected lifetime of components in a gas turbine was performed. Olivi’s thesis constitutes the starting point on which to keep building to create a reliable prediction model.

    In this thesis extensive validation tests have been performed in order to further quantify the reliability of the model. Investigations aimed towards finding ways to further develop and improve the prediction model are carried out. The relevant new findings are applied to the model and analysis concerning improvements in the prediction accuracy is carried out. It was revealed that the model is able to make accurate predictions for most of the validation points for each failure mode, but more research is needed to obtain a completely reliable prediction model.

  • Giassi, Marianna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Göteman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Thomas, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Engström, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Multi-parameter optimization of hybrid arrays of point absorber Wave Energy Converters2017In: Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Giassi, Marianna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Göteman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Parameter optimization in wave energy design by a genetic algorithm2017In: Proceeings 32nd International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Chiodaroli, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Günaydin, Murat
    Penn State Univ, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Johansson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics. Stockholm Univ, Nordita, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Roiban, Radu
    Penn State Univ, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Explicit formulae for Yang-Mills-Einstein amplitudes from the double copy2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 7, 002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the double-copy construction of Yang-Mills-Einstein theories formulated in our earlier work, we obtain compact presentations for single-trace Yang-Mills-Einstein tree amplitudes with up to five external gravitons and an arbitrary number of gluons. These are written as linear combinations of color-ordered Yang-Mills trees, where the coefficients are given by color/kinematics-satisfying numerators in a Yang-Mills + phi(3) theory. The construction outlined in this paper holds in general dimension and extends straightforwardly to supergravity theories. For one, two, and three external gravitons, our expressions give identical or simpler presentations of amplitudes already constructed through string-theory considerations or the scattering equations formalism. Our results are based on color/kinematics duality and gauge invariance, and strongly hint at a recursive structure underlying the single-trace amplitudes with an arbitrary number of gravitons. We also present explicit expressions for all-loop single-graviton Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes in terms of Yang-Mills amplitudes and, through gauge invariance, derive new all-loop amplitude relations for Yang-Mills theory.

  • Singull, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University .
    Szendrői, Balázs
    University of Oxford.
    Antonella, Zanna
    University of Bergen.
    Evaluation Report of the Eastern Africa Universities Mathematics Programme (EAUMP)2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Eastern Africa Universities Mathematics Programme (EAUMP) was launched in 2002 by the International Science Programme (ISP) with support fromthe Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) in collaboration with the Departments of Mathematics at University of Nairobi, Kenya; University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Makerere University, Uganda. The Mathematics Departments of the University of Rwanda and the University of Zambia joined the EAUMP network in the late 2000s. The main activities of the network have consisted of capacity building via training PhD and MSc students; organizing mathematics Conferences and Summer schools; network exchange visits and coordinator meetings; research visits for postdocs to Sweden and elsewhere; as well as support for building up equipment and for research expenses. The total ISP support to EAUMP for the period 2002-2016 was 29,259,902 SEK or (at the current exchange rates) EUR 2.99M or USD 3.12M.

    It is the view of the Evaluation Team that the EAUMP network has played an absolutely essential and transformative role, at a reasonable and proportionate cost, in building mathematics research and teaching capacity throughout the Eastern African region, introducing new areas of mathematics and strengthening existing ones. There are signs of consolidating and emerging research groups, regular activities becoming embedded and finding additional support, as well as new types of activity. The continuing support, in a suitable form and shape, and taking into account the recommendations below, of mathematics, the most fundamental of enabling sciences, in the East African region is a worthwhile endeavour fully in accordance with the aims and objectives of ISP and its main funder Sida.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 09:30 Polhemssalen, Ång/10134, Uppsala
    Guo, Meiyuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Theoretical Chemistry.
    Electronic structure investigations of transition metal complexes through X-ray spectroscopy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalysts based on the first-row (3d) transition metals are commonly seen in chemical and biological reactions. To understand the role of the transition metal in the catalyst, the element specific technique core level spectroscopy is used to probe the electronic structure and geometric properties centered around the metal site. Different types of X-ray spectra can be applied to probe the metal 3d character orbitals involved in reactions, which make it possible to identify and characterize the reactive sites of samples in different forms. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the different X-ray spectra requires a unified method which can be used to model different types of X-ray spectra, e.g., soft and hard X-rays. In this thesis, theoretical investigations of the electronic structures of 3d transition metal complexes through X-ray spectroscopy are presented. The restricted active space method (RAS) is used to successfully reproduce different types of X-ray spectra by including all important spectral effects: multiplet structures, spin-orbit coupling, charge-transfer excitations, ligand field splitting and 3d-4p orbital hybridization. Different prototypes of molecules are adopted to test the applicability of the RAS theory.

    The metal L edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra of low spin complexes [Fe(CN)6]n and [Fe(P)(ImH)2]n in ferrous and ferric oxidation state are discussed. The RAS calculations on iron L edge spectra of these comparing complexes have been performed to fingerprint the oxidation states of metal ion, and different ligand environments. The Fe(P) system has several low-lying spin states in the ground state, which is used as a model to identify unknown species by their spectroscopic fingerprints through RAS spectra simulations. To pave the route of understanding the electronic structure of oxygen evolution complex of Mn4CaO5 cluster, the MnII(acac)2 and MnIII(acac)3 are adopted as prototypical Mn-complexes. The 3d partial fluorescence yield-XAS are employed on the Mn L-edge in solution. Combining experiments and RAS calculations, primary questions related to the oxidation state and spin state are discussed.

    The first application to simulate the metal K pre-edge XAS of mono-iron complexes and iron dimer using RAS method beyond the electric dipole is completed by implementing the approximate origin independent calculations for the intensities. The K pre-edge spectrum of centrosymmetric complex [FeCl6]n– ferrous state is discussed as s and a donor model systems. The intensity of the K pre-edge increases significantly if the centrosymmetric environment is broken, e:g:, when going from a six-coordinate to the four-coordinate site in [FeCl4]n. Distortions from centrosymmetry allow for 3d-4p orbital hybridization, which gives rise to electric dipole-allowed transitions in the K pre-edge region. In order to deliver ample electronic structure details with high resolution in the hard X-ray energy range, the two-photon 1s2p resonant inelastic X-ray scattering process is employed. Upon the above successful applications of one-photon iron L edge and K pre-edge spectra, the RAS method is extended to simulate and interpret the 1s2p resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra of [Fe(CN)6]n in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The RAS applications on X-ray simulations are not restricted to the presented spectra in the thesis, it can be applied to the photon process of interest by including the corresponding core and valence orbitals of the sample.

    List of papers
    1. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: From molecular orbitals to multiplet states
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: From molecular orbitals to multiplet states
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    2014 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 141, no 12, 124116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The metal L-edge (2p -> 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe3+, high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-236075 (URN)10.1063/1.4896373 (DOI)000342844100021 ()25273421 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Correction in: Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 141, issue 4, article number: 149905, DOI: 10.1063/1.4908043 ISI: 000349847000064

    Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-11-12 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 37, no 5, 477-486 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6](3-) and [Fe(CN)(6)](3-). For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of 1 eV in peak positions, 30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and 50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double- basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems.

    Keyword
    transition metals; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; multiconfigurational wavefunction; spin-orbit coupling; charge transfer
    National Category
    Theoretical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-276263 (URN)10.1002/jcc.24237 (DOI)000369176900002 ()26502979 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), s00112-267 liu-2012-00060-46Carl Tryggers foundation Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2016-02-10 Created: 2016-02-10 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Fingerprinting electronic structures of heme using theoretical modeling of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fingerprinting electronic structures of heme using theoretical modeling of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327409 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2017-08-16
    4. Probing the oxidation state: A case study of Mn II (acac) 2 and Mn III (acac) 3 on how charge and spin densities determine Mn L-edge X-ray absorption energies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing the oxidation state: A case study of Mn II (acac) 2 and Mn III (acac) 3 on how charge and spin densities determine Mn L-edge X-ray absorption energies
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327410 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2017-08-16
    5. Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the core restricted active space method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the core restricted active space method
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    2016 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 4, 3250-3259 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The intensities and relative energies of metal K pre-edge features are sensitive to both geometric and electronic structures. With the possibility to collect high-resolution spectral data it is important to find theoretical methods that include all important spectral effects: ligand-field splitting, multiplet structures, 3d-4p orbital hybridization, and charge-transfer excitations. Here the restricted active space (RAS) method is used for the first time to calculate metal K pre-edge spectra of open-shell systems, and its performance is tested against on six iron complexes: [FeCl6](n-), [FeCl4](n-), and [Fe(CN)(6)](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The method gives good descriptions of the spectral shapes for all six systems. The mean absolute deviation for the relative energies of different peaks is only 0.1 eV. For the two systems that lack centrosymmetry [FeCl4](2-/1-), the ratios between dipole and quadrupole intensity contributions are reproduced with an error of 10%, which leads to good descriptions of the integrated pre-edge intensities. To gain further chemical insight, the origins of the pre-edge features have been analyzed with a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture that serves as a bridge between the spectra and the electronic structures. The pre-edges contain information about both ligand-field strengths and orbital covalencies, which can be understood by analyzing the RAS wavefunction. The RAS method can thus be used to predict and rationalize the effects of changes in both the oxidation state and ligand environment in a number of hard X-ray studies of small and medium-sized molecular systems.

    National Category
    Theoretical Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Quantum Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-243571 (URN)10.1039/c5cp07487h (DOI)000369506000108 ()26742851 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilCarl Tryggers foundation Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW-2013.0020Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), snic2013-1-317Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), snic2014-5-36
    Available from: 2015-02-10 Created: 2015-02-10 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved
    6. Applications to metal K pre-edges of transitionmetal dimers illustrate the approximate origin independence for the intensities in the length representation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications to metal K pre-edges of transitionmetal dimers illustrate the approximate origin independence for the intensities in the length representation
    2017 (English)In: Molecular Physics, ISSN 0026-8976, E-ISSN 1362-3028, Vol. 115, no 1-2, 174-189 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in the metal K pre-edge is a standard probe of electronic and geometric structure of transition metal complexes. Simulating the K pre-edge spectra requires contributions beyond the electric dipole, but if that term is non-zero, the second-order terms, e. g. electric quadrupoles, are no longer origin-independent. In the velocity representation, complete origin independence can be achieved by including all terms to the same order in the oscillator strength. Here, we implement that approach in the length representation and use it for restricted active space (RAS) simulations of metal K pre-edges of iron monomers and dimers. Complete origin independence is not achieved and the size of the remaining errors depends on the electric dipole oscillator strength and its ratio in length and velocity representations. The error in the origin independence is in the ANO basis sets two orders of magnitude smaller than the value of the individual contributions. For systemswith strong electric dipole contributions, the errors are not significant within 3 angstrom from a metal centre, far enough to handlemany multi-metal systems. Furthermore, we discuss the convergence of the multipole expansion, the possibility to assign spectral contributions, and the origin of negative absorption intensities. [GRAPHICS]

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017
    Keyword
    Multiconfigurational wavefunction, oscillator strengths, quadrupole intensities, properties, X-ray spectroscopy
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319774 (URN)10.1080/00268976.2016.1225993 (DOI)000396794700015 ()
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW-2013.0020Swedish Research Council, 2012-3910 2012-3924
    Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved
    7. Molecular orbital simulations of metal 1s2p resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular orbital simulations of metal 1s2p resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 120, no 29, 5848-5855 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    For first-row transition metals, high-resolution 3d electronic structure information can be obtained using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). In the hard X-ray region, a K pre-edge (1s -> 3d) excitation can be followed by monitoring the dipole-allowed K alpha (2p -> 1s) or K beta (3p -> 1s) emission, processes labeled 1s2p or 1s3p RIXS. Here the restricted active space (RAS) approach, which is a molecular orbital method, is used for the first time to study hard X-ray RIXS processes. This is achieved by including the two sets of core orbitals in different partitions of the active space. Transition intensities are calculated using both first- and second-order expansions of the wave vector, including, but not limited to, electric dipoles and quadrupoles. The accuracy of the approach is tested for 1s2p RIXS of iron hexacyanides [Fe(CN)(6)](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. RAS simulations accurately describe the multiplet structures and the role of 2p and 3d spin-orbit coupling on energies and selection rules. Compared to experiment, relative energies of the two [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) resonances deviate by 0.2 eV in both incident energy and energy transfer directions, and multiplet splittings in [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) are reproduced within 0.1 eV. These values are similar to what can be expected for valence excitations. The development opens the modeling of hard X-ray scattering processes for both solution catalysts and enzymatic systems.

    National Category
    Theoretical Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Quantum Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302165 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpca.6b05139 (DOI)000380730400008 ()27398775 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW-2013.0020
    Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2017-08-16Bibliographically approved
  • Khadhem, Laith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Volatilernas påverkan på marina vulkanutbrott2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Cape Verde archipelago is located 2000 km east of the Atlantic oceanic ridge and 500 km west of the western part of Africa. The plateau of the archipelago rises on average 2 km above the seafloor, which makes it one of the highest oceanic plateaus on Earth. Cape Verde originates from hotspot formation, a geological phenomenon which takes place beyond the tectonic plate boundaries where magma rises to the surface. In this thesis, volcanic material taken from the Charles Darwin volcanic field at a depth of more than 3000 meter and made up by four basaltic rocks and one agglomerate will be investigated. The agglomerate and vesicles in the rock shows that explosive volcanism occurs in high water depths, which is generally not common. Therefore, the material will be investigated to find out how explosive volcanism can occur at high water depths. The investigation will be based on quantifying the number of vesicles to able to calculate their area and analyze the magmatic water content in clinopyroxene crystals taken from the agglomerate by FTIR spectroscopy. Water is a volatile substance in the composition of magma and has a huge effect on its behavior at eruption. The results of quantification show that the area taken by vesicles varies from 7- 54 % which shows that magmatic products with high number of vesicles are common. The FTIR analysis shows that the magmatic water content can be high enough to cause an oversaturated magma system, which creates explosive eruptions. This statement is based on only one clinopyroxene crystal that had a magmatic water content of 3,87 ± 0,77 %. Other possible reasons for explosive eruptions at high water depth are the CO2 content in the magma and the size of volcanic vent.

  • Andersson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, International Science Programme (ISP).
    Sundin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, International Science Programme (ISP).
    Tracing ISP Graduates 2008-20132016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The International Science Programme (ISP) at Uppsala University, Sweden, aims to contribute to the growth of scientific knowledge in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The ISP model is designed to prevent brain drain by improving local facilities and conditions for research and by promoting local postgraduate training. When local training is not possible, sandwich postgraduate training is employed, where students spend part of their training at their home university and part at a more resourceful scientific host institution abroad, in the North or in the region.

    The focus of this report is PhD graduates from ISP supported research groups and networks during the granting period 2008-2013, to trace where they are today and what they are doing.

    Most of the 154 traced PhD graduates (92%) are currently working in their home countries (126) or regions (16), most as Lecturers or Senior Lecturers at universities or research institutes. Twelve graduates are currently living in OECD countries, all but two of them employed in academia. A slightly higher share of students trained locally have stayed in their home countries or relocated within the regions, compared to sandwich students.

  • Kronning, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages, Romance Languages.
    Conditionnalité et proximité factuelle2017In: Points de vue: Mélanges offerts à Henning Nølke à l'occasion de sa retraite / [ed] Birkelund, Merete, Aarhus: Institut de Communication et de Culture, Université d'Aarhus , 2017, 23-42 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article a previously unidentified dimension of predictive conditionals (traditionally coined as “hypothetical”) is introduced and studied: the quantification of factual proximity. Syntactically, the quantifiers of factual proximity are invariably incorporated into the protasis, whatever its structure, with the exception however of prepositional protases. Semantically, four categories of these quantifiers with different properties are distinguished. Finally, a hypothesis, based on some empirical evidence, is put forward to the effect that there is a positive quantitative relation between these quantifiers and the use of certain tenses.

  • Di Paolo, Antonello
    et al.
    Univ Pisa, Sect Pharmacol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Via Roma 55, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
    Sarkozy, Francois
    FSNB Hlth & Care, Carenity, Paris, France.
    Ryll, Bettina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Melanoma Patient Network Europe.
    Siebert, Uwe
    UMIT Univ Hlth Sci Med Informat & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth Hlth Serv Res & Hlth Technol Asses, Hall In Tirol, Austria.;ONCOTYROL Ctr Personalized Canc Med, Area Hlth Technol Assessment, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Personalized medicine in Europe: not yet personal enough?2017In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 17, 289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Personalized medicine has the potential to allow patients to receive drugs specific to their individual disease, and to increase the efficiency of the healthcare system. There is currently no comprehensive overview of personalized medicine, and this research aims to provide an overview of the concept and definition of personalized medicine in nine European countries. Methods: A targeted literature review of selected health databases and grey literature was conducted to collate information regarding the definition, process, use, funding, impact and challenges associated with personalized medicine. In-depth qualitative interviews were carried out with experts with health technology assessment, clinical provisioning, payer, academic, economic and industry experience, and with patient organizations. Results: We identified a wide range of definitions of personalized medicine, with most studies referring to the use of diagnostics and individual biological information such as genetics and biomarkers. Few studies mentioned patients' needs, beliefs, behaviour, values, wishes, utilities, environment and circumstances, and there was little evidence in the literature for formal incorporation of patient preferences into the evaluation of new medicines. Most interviewees described approaches to stratification and segmentation of patients based on genetic markers or diagnostics, and few mentioned health-related quality of life. Conclusions: The published literature on personalized medicine is predominantly focused on patient stratification according to individual biological information. Although these approaches are important, incorporation of environmental factors and patients' preferences in decision making is also needed. In future, personalized medicine should move from treating diseases to managing patients, taking into account all individual factors.

  • Grönberg, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    Ahlin, Cecilia
    Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Naeser, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    Tiensuu Janson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci & Med, London, England..
    Fjällskog, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    Ghrelin is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, e0176059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides, encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. Both are expressed in breast cancer tissue and ghrelin has been implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Despite recent advances in breast cancer management the need for new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer remains high. We studied the prognostic impact of ghrelin and obestatin in women with node negative breast cancer. Within a cohort of women with breast cancer with tumor size <= 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy, 190 women were identified who died from breast cancer and randomly selected 190 women alive at the corresponding time as controls. Tumor tissues were immunostained with antibodies versus the peptides. Ghrelin expression was associated with better breast cancer specific survival in univariate analyses (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.84) and in multivariate models, adjusted for endocrine treatment and age (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.89). Obestatin expression was non-informative (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.60-2.46). Ghrelin expression is independent prognostic factor for breast cancer death in node negative patients-halving the risk for dying of breast cancer. Our data implies that ghrelin could be a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 09:15 A1:111a, BMC, Uppsala
    Källback, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala Universitet.
    Development and Application of Software Tools for Mass Spectrometry Imaging2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been extensively used to produce qualitative maps of distributions of proteins, peptides, lipids, neurotransmitters, small molecule pharmaceuticals and their metabolites directly in biological tissue sections. Moreover, during the last 10 years, there has been growing demand to quantify target compounds in tissue sections of various organs. This thesis focuses on development and application of a novel instrument- and manufacturer-independent MSI software suite, msIQuant, in the open access format imzML, which has been developed specifically for quantitative analysis of MSI data. The functionality of msIQuant facilitates automatic generation of calibration curves from series of standards that can be used to determine concentrations of specific analytes. In addition, it provides many tools for image visualization, including modules enabling multiple interpolation, low intensity transparency display, and image fusion and sharpening. Moreover, algorithms and advanced data management modules in msIQuant facilitate management of the large datasets generated following rapid recent increases in the mass and spatial resolutions of MSI instruments, by using spectra transposition and data entropy reduction (at four selectable levels: coarse, medium, fine or superfine) before lossless compression of the data. As described in the thesis, implementation of msIQuant has been exemplified in both quantitative (relative or absolute) and qualitative analyses of distributions of neurotransmitters, endogenous substances and pharmaceutical drugs in brain tissue sections. Our laboratory have developed a molecular-specific approach for the simultaneous imaging and quantitation of multiple neurotransmitters, precursors, and metabolites, such as tyrosine, tryptamine, tyramine, phenethylamine, dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine, in histological tissue sections at high spatial resolution by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) MSI. Chemical derivatization by charge-tagging primary amines of analytes significantly increased the sensitivity, enabling mapping of neurotransmitters that were not previously detectable by MSI. The two MSI approaches have been used to directly measure changes in neurotransmitter levels in specific brain structures in animal disease models, which facilitates understanding of biochemical mechanisms of drug treatments. In summary, msIQuant software has proven potency (particularly in combination with the reported derivatization technique) for both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Further developments will enable its implementation in multiple operating system platforms and use for statistical analysis.

    List of papers
    1. Novel mass spectrometry imaging software assisting labeled normalization and quantitation of drugs and neuropeptides directly in tissue sections
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel mass spectrometry imaging software assisting labeled normalization and quantitation of drugs and neuropeptides directly in tissue sections
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, Vol. 75, no 16, 4941-4951 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    MALDI MS imaging has been extensively used to produce qualitative distribution maps of proteins, peptides, lipids, small molecule pharmaceuticals and their metabolites directly in biological tissue sections. There is growing demand to quantify the amount of target compounds in the tissue sections of different organs. We present a novel MS imaging software including protocol for the quantitation of drugs, and for the first time, an endogenous neuropeptide directly in tissue sections. After selecting regions of interest on the tissue section, data is read and processed by the software using several available methods for baseline corrections, subtractions, denoising, smoothing, recalibration and normalization. The concentrations of in vivo administered drugs or endogenous compounds are then determined semi-automatically using either external standard curves, or by using labeled compounds, i.e., isotope labeled analogs as standards. As model systems, we have quantified the distribution of imipramine and tiotropium in the brain and lung of dosed rats. Substance P was quantified in different mouse brain structures, which correlated well with previously reported peptide levels. Our approach facilitates quantitative data processing and labeled standards provide better reproducibility and may be considered as an efficient tool to quantify drugs and endogenous compounds in tissue regions of interest.

    Keyword
    Brain, Deuterated standard, MALDI, Neuropeptide, Lung, Standard curve
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182525 (URN)10.1016/j.jprot.2012.07.034 (DOI)000308524400007 ()
    Note

    This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Mass Spectrometry: A User's Guide to a New Technique for Biological and Biomedical Research.

    Available from: 2012-10-12 Created: 2012-10-11 Last updated: 2017-08-19Bibliographically approved
    2. msIQuant - Quantitation Software for Mass Spectrometry Imaging Enabling Fast Access, Visualization, and Analysis of Large Data Sets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>msIQuant - Quantitation Software for Mass Spectrometry Imaging Enabling Fast Access, Visualization, and Analysis of Large Data Sets
    2016 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 88, no 8, 4346-4353 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents msIQuant, a novel instrument- and manufacturer-independent quantitative mass spectrometry imaging software suite that uses the standardized open access data format imzML. Its data processing structure enables rapid image display and the analysis of very large data sets (>50 GB) without any data reduction. In addition, msIQuant provides many tools for image visualization including multiple interpolation methods, low intensity transparency display, and image fusion. It also has a quantitation function that automatically generates calibration standard curves from series of standards that can be used to determine the concentrations of specific analytes. Regions-of-interest in a tissue section can be analyzed based on a number of quantities including the number of pixels, average intensity, standard deviation of intensity, and median and quartile intensities. Moreover, the suite's export functions enable simplified postprocessing of data and report creation. We demonstrate its potential through several applications including the quantitation of small molecules such as drugs and neurotransmitters. The msIQuant suite is a powerful tool for accessing and evaluating very large data sets, quantifying drugs and endogenous compounds in tissue areas of interest, and for processing mass spectra and images.

    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297908 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04603 (DOI)000374706000026 ()27014927 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2013-3105 2014-6215 2009-6050
    Available from: 2016-06-29 Created: 2016-06-28 Last updated: 2017-08-19
    3. A Space Efficient Direct Access Data Compression Approach for Mass Spectrometry Imaging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Space Efficient Direct Access Data Compression Approach for Mass Spectrometry Imaging
    (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328051 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-19 Created: 2017-08-19 Last updated: 2017-08-19
    4. Direct targeted quantitative molecular imaging of neurotransmitters in brain tissue sections
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct targeted quantitative molecular imaging of neurotransmitters in brain tissue sections
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    2014 (English)In: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 84, no 4, 697-707 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Current neuroimaging techniques have very limited abilities to directly identify and quantify neurotransmitters from brain sections. We have developed a molecular-specific approach for the simultaneous imaging and quantitation of multiple neurotransmitters, precursors, and metabolites, such as tyrosine, tryptamine, tyramine, phenethylamine, dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, GABA, glutamate, acetylcholine, and L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, in histological tissue sections at high spatial resolutions. The method is employed to directly measure changes in the absolute and relative levels ofneurotransmitters in specific brain structures in animal disease models and in response to drug treatments, demonstrating the power of mass spectrometry imaging in neuroscience.

    National Category
    Medical Bioscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239353 (URN)10.1016/j.neuron.2014.10.011 (DOI)000345424900007 ()25453841 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-22 Last updated: 2017-08-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Simultaneous imaging of multiple neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances in the brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simultaneous imaging of multiple neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances in the brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
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    2016 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 136, 129-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With neurological processes involving multiple neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, it is important to have the ability to directly map and quantify multiple signaling molecules simultaneously in a single analysis. By utilizing a molecular-specific approach, namely desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI), we demonstrated that the technique can be used to image multiple neurotransmitters and their metabolites (dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate,gamma-aminobutyric acid, adenosine) as well as neuroactive drugs (amphetamine, sibutramine, fluvoxamine) and drug metabolites in situ directly in brain tissue sections. The use of both positive and negative ionization modes increased the number of identified molecular targets. Chemical derivatization by charge-tagging the primary amines of molecules significantly increased the sensitivity, enabling the detection of low abundant neurotransmitters and other neuroactive substances previously undetectable by MSI. The sensitivity of the imaging approach of neurochemicals has a great potential in many diverse applications in fields such as neuroscience, pharmacology, drug discovery, neurochemistry, and medicine.

    Keyword
    Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Imaging, Mass spectrometry, Parkinson's disease, Serotonin
    National Category
    Neurology Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299698 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.004 (DOI)000378048000012 ()27155126 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2013-3105 2014-6215 2009-6050The Swedish Brain FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0078EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607517
    Available from: 2016-07-27 Created: 2016-07-26 Last updated: 2017-08-19Bibliographically approved