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Conrady, K., Bolin, K., Sjöblom, A. & Rutgersson, A. (2020). Amplitude modulation of wind turbine sound in cold climates. Applied Acoustics, 158, Article ID UNSP 107024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amplitude modulation of wind turbine sound in cold climates
2020 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 158, article id UNSP 107024Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amplitude modulation is assumed to be a major annoyance factor of wind turbine sound. However, studies on the generation of amplitude modulation and the impact of atmospheric conditions on amplitude modulation are limited, especially in cold climates. Long-term acoustic and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of a wind farm in northern Sweden show a dependence of the occurrence of amplitude modulation on wind direction and atmospheric stability. The occurrence of amplitude modulation is highest for crosswinds from southwest, compared with the other wind directions. Moreover, the occurrence of amplitude modulation is clearly linked to atmospheric stability and highest for very stable conditions. The impact of atmospheric stability is supported by analyses of wind shear, the wind speed gradient close to the surface and the bulk Richardson number. Amplitude modulation is more likely during winter than during summer and more likely during night and early morning than during noon and early afternoon. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020
Keywords
Amplitude modulation, Atmospheric acoustics, Wind turbine sound
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400012 (URN)10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.107024 (DOI)000499735400008 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40969-1
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E., Wrang, L., Rutgersson, A., Dingwell, A. & Strömstedt, E. (2020). Assessment of Extreme and Metocean Conditions in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone for Wave Energy. Atmosphere, 11(3), Article ID 229.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Extreme and Metocean Conditions in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone for Wave Energy
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2020 (English)In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, accessibility to near-shore and offshore marine sites is evaluated based on wave and ice conditions. High-resolution third-generation wave model results are used to examine the operation and maintenance conditions for renewable energy sources with a focus on wave energy. Special focus is given to the wave field and ice characteristics for areas within the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone including analysis of return levels for extreme values for significant wave height, which provides guidance for dimensioning wave energy converters. It is shown that the number of weather windows and accessibility are influenced by distance from the coast and sea-ice conditions. The longest waiting periods for the closest weather window that is available for Operation and Maintenance (O&M) is in ice-free conditions shown to be strongly correlated with the fetch conditions. The sheltered Baltic Sea is shown to have very high accessibility if marine infrastructure and vessels are designed for access limits of significant wave height up to 3 m. In the northern basins, the waiting periods increase significantly, if and when the ice-conditions are found to be critical for the O&M activity considered. The ice-conditions are examined based on compiled operational sea-ice data over a climatic time period of 34 years. The results are location specific for the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone, but the analysis methods are transferable and applicable to many other parts of the world, to facilitate assessment of the most promising areas in different regions.

Keywords
operation and maintenance, sea-ice, extreme value analysis, wave power, third-generation wave model, Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone, semi-enclosed basin, wave energy
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405393 (URN)10.3390/atmos11030229 (DOI)000524490500048 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 42256-1Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01784
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-05-08Bibliographically approved
Engström, J., Göteman, M., Eriksson, M., Bergkvist, M., Nilsson, E. O., Rutgersson, A. & Strömstedt, E. (2020). Energy absorption from parks of point-absorbing wave energy converters in the Swedish exclusive economic zone. Energy Science & Engineering, 38-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy absorption from parks of point-absorbing wave energy converters in the Swedish exclusive economic zone
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2020 (English)In: Energy Science & Engineering, ISSN 2050-0505, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a future energy system based on renewable energy sources, wave energy will most likely play a role due to its high energy potential and low intermittency. The power production from parks of wave energy converters of point absorber type has been extensively studied. This is also the case for the wave energy resource at many coastal areas around the globe. Wave energy has not yet reached a commercial level, and a large variety of technologies exist; therefore, an established method to calculate the technical potential for wave energy has still not been established. To estimate the technical potential of wave energy conversion, some approximations inevitably need to be taken due to the systems high complexity. In this study, a detailed mapping of the wave climate and simulation of large arrays of hydrodynamically cross‐coupled wave energy converters are combined to calculate the technical potential for wave energy conversion in the Swedish exclusive economic zone. A 16‐year wave data set distributed in a 1.1 km × 1.1 km grid is used to calculate the absorbed energy from a park of 200 generic point absorbers. The areas with best potential have an average annual energy absorption of 16 GWh for the selected wave energy park adapted to 1 km2 when using a constant damping, while the theoretical upper bound is 63 GWh for the same area.

Keywords
point absorber, Swedish exclusive economic zone, technical potential, wave energy conversion, wave energy park
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-399934 (URN)10.1002/ese3.507 (DOI)000492721800001 ()
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy Agency, 42256‐1
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2020-04-20Bibliographically approved
Rutgersson, A., Pettersson, H., Nilsson, E. O., Bergström, H., Wallin, M., Nilsson, D., . . . Mårtensson, E. M. (2020). Using land-based stations for air–sea interaction studies. Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, 72(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using land-based stations for air–sea interaction studies
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2020 (English)In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 72, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-399967 (URN)10.1080/16000870.2019.1697601 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
Thandlam, V., Rutgersson, A. & Rahaman, H. (2019). Are We in the Right Path in Using Early Warning Systems?. Journal of Extreme Events
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are We in the Right Path in Using Early Warning Systems?
2019 (English)In: Journal of Extreme Events, ISSN 2345-7376Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper focusses on the recent tsunami in Indonesia and the factors led to the mass killing. We also discussed the failure of early warning systems, steps, methods, and technologies, in general, to improve the early warning systems in the future to mitigate the loss of lives and property during these impending disasters. We believe that this paper is timely as Indonesia has seen one of the worst tsunamis in recent years and the threat is still on. Hence, we stress the importance of improving and strengthening the existing early warning systems.

Keywords
Early warning systems, tsunami, Indonesia, disaster risk, INCOIS
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393374 (URN)10.1142/S2345737619500039 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E. O., Rutgersson, A., Dingwell, A., Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., Axell, L., . . . Strömstedt, E. (2019). Characterization of Wave Energy Potential for the Baltic Sea with Focus on the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. Energies, 12(5), Article ID 793.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Wave Energy Potential for the Baltic Sea with Focus on the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone
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2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 793Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, a third-generation wave model is used to examine the wave power resource for the Baltic Sea region at an unprecedented one-kilometer-scale resolution for the years 1998 to 2013. Special focus is given to the evaluation and description of wave field characteristics for the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone (SEEZ). It is carried out to provide a more detailed assessment of the potential of waves as a renewable energy resource for the region. The wave energy potential is largely controlled by the distance from the coast and the fetch associated with the prevailing dominant wave direction. The ice cover is also shown to significantly influence the wave power resource, especially in the most northern basins of the SEEZ. For the areas in focus here, the potential annual average wave energy flux reaches 45 MWh/m/year in the two sub-basins with the highest wave energies, but local variations are up to 65 MWh/m/year. The assessment provides the basis for a further detailed identification of potential sites for wave energy converters. An outlook is given for additional aspects studied within a broad multi-disciplinary project to assess the conditions for offshore wave energy conversion within the SEEZ.

Keywords
wave energy potential, wave power, wave energy resource assessment, third-generation wave model, Baltic Sea, Swedish exclusive economic zone, semi-enclosed basin, water depth, distance from coast
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Meteorology; Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377979 (URN)10.3390/en12050793 (DOI)000462646700026 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 42256-1Swedish Research Council, 2015-06020Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01784
Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Steinhoff, T., Gkritzalis, T., Lauvset, S. K., Jones, S., Schuster, U., Olsen, A., . . . Watson, A. (2019). Constraining the Oceanic Uptake and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases by Building an Ocean Network of Certified Stations: The Ocean Component of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, ICOS-Oceans. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, Article ID 544.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constraining the Oceanic Uptake and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases by Building an Ocean Network of Certified Stations: The Ocean Component of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, ICOS-Oceans
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 544Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Research Infrastructure Consortium "Integrated Carbon Observation System" (ICOS) aims at delivering high quality greenhouse gas (GHG) observations and derived data products (e.g., regional GHG-flux maps) for constraining the GHG balance on a European level, on a sustained long-term basis. The marine domain (ICOS-Oceans) currently consists of 11 Ship of Opportunity lines (SOOP - Ship of Opportunity Program) and 10 Fixed Ocean Stations (FOSs) spread across European waters, including the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and the Barents, North, Baltic, and Mediterranean Seas. The stations operate in a harmonized and standardized way based on community-proven protocols and methods for ocean GHG observations, improving operational conformity as well as quality control and assurance of the data. This enables the network to focus on long term research into the marine carbon cycle and the anthropogenic carbon sink, while preparing the network to include other GHG fluxes. ICOS data are processed on a near real-time basis and will be published on the ICOS Carbon Portal (CP), allowing monthly estimates of CO2 air-sea exchange to be quantified for European waters. ICOS establishes transparent operational data management routines following the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) guiding principles allowing amongst others reproducibility, interoperability, and traceability. The ICOS-Oceans network is actively integrating with the atmospheric (e.g., improved atmospheric measurements onboard SOOP lines) and ecosystem (e.g., oceanic direct gas flux measurements) domains of ICOS, and utilizes techniques developed by the ICOS Central Facilities and the CP. There is a strong interaction with the international ocean carbon cycle community to enhance interoperability and harmonize data flow. The future vision of ICOS-Oceans includes ship-based ocean survey sections to obtain a three-dimensional understanding of marine carbon cycle processes and optimize the existing network design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019
Keywords
ocean observation, network design, CO2 fluxes, flux maps, carbon sink
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394716 (URN)10.3389/fmars.2019.00544 (DOI)000483601000001 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 654410Swedish Research Council FormasEU, Horizon 2020, 731036Academy of Finland
Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Sjöblom, A., Sahlée, E., Falck, E. & Rutgersson, A. (2019). Enhanced Air–Sea Exchange of Heat and Carbon Dioxide Over a High Arctic Fjord During Unstable Very-Close-to-Neutral Conditions. Boundary-layer Meteorology, 170(3), 471-488
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Air–Sea Exchange of Heat and Carbon Dioxide Over a High Arctic Fjord During Unstable Very-Close-to-Neutral Conditions
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2019 (English)In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 170, no 3, p. 471-488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eddy-covariance measurements made in the marine atmospheric boundary layer above a high Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, Svalbard) are analyzed. When conditions are unstable, but close to neutral −0.1 < z/L < 0, where z is the height, and L is the Obukhov length, the exchange coefficient for sensible heat CH is significantly enhanced compared with that expected from classical surface-layer theory. Cospectra of the vertical velocity component (w) and temperature (T) reveal that a high-frequency peak develops at f ≈ 1 Hz for z/L > − 0.15. A quadrant analysis reveals that the contribution from downdrafts to the vertical heat flux increases as conditions become close to neutral. These findings are the signature of the evolving unstable very-close-to-neutral (UVCN) regime previously shown to enhance the magnitude of sensible and latent heat fluxes in the marine surface layer over the Baltic Sea. Our data reveal the significance of the UVCN regime for the vertical flux of the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (C). The cospectrum of w and C clearly shows how the high-frequency peak grows in magnitude for z/L > − 0.15, while the high-frequency peak dominates for z/L > − 0.02. As found for the heat flux, the quadrant analysis of the CO2 flux shows a connection between the additional small-scale turbulence and downdrafts from above. In contrast to the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat, which are primarily enhanced by the very different properties of the air from aloft (colder and drier) during UVCN conditions, the increase in the air–sea transfer of CO2 is possibly a result of the additional small-scale turbulence causing an increase in the water-side turbulence. The data indicate an increase in the gas-transfer velocity for CO2for z/L > − 0.15 but with a large scatter. During the nearly 2 months of continuous measurements (March–April 2013), as much as 36% of all data are associated with the stability range −0.15 < z/L < 0, suggesting that the UVCN regime is of significance in the wintertime Arctic for the air–sea transfer of heat and possibly also CO2.

Keywords
Air–sea exchange, Arctic, CO2, Gas-transfer velocity, Unstable very-close-to-neutral
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368019 (URN)10.1007/s10546-018-0408-9 (DOI)000459463000006 ()
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
Gutiérrez Loza, L., Wallin, M., Sahlée, E., Nilsson, E. O., Bange, H., Koch, A. & Rutgersson, A. (2019). Measurement of air-sea methane fluxes in the Baltic Sea using the eddy covariance method. Frontiers in Earth Science, 7, Article ID 93.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of air-sea methane fluxes in the Baltic Sea using the eddy covariance method
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 7, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Methane (CH4) is the second-most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere having a significant effect on global climate. The ocean-particularly the coastal regions-have been recognized to be a net source of CH4, however, the constraints on temporal and spatial resolution of CH4 measurements have been the limiting factor to estimate the total oceanic contributions. In this study, the viability of micrometeorological methods for the analysis of CH4 fluxes in the marine environment was evaluated. We present 1 year of semi-continuous eddy covariance measurements of CH4 atmospheric dry mole fractions and air-sea CH4 flux densities at the Ostergarnsholm station at the east coast of the Gotland Island in the central Baltic Sea. The mean annual CH4 flux density was positive, indicating that the region off Gotland is a net source of CH4 to the atmosphere with monthly mean flux densities ranging between -0.1 and 36 nmol m(-2)s(-1). Both the air-water concentration gradient and the wind speed were found to be crucial parameters controlling the flux. The results were in good agreement with other measurements in the Baltic Sea reported in the MEMENTO database. Our results suggest that the eddy covariance technique is a useful tool for studying CH4 fluxes and improving the understanding of air-sea gas exchange processes with high-temporal resolution. Potentially, the high resolution of micrometeorological data can increase the understanding of the temporal variability and forcing processes of CH4 flux.

National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382883 (URN)10.3389/feart.2019.00093 (DOI)000467258000001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council, 2012-03902Swedish Research Council, 2013-02044
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2020-05-07Bibliographically approved
Svensson, N., Arnqvist, J., Bergström, H., Rutgersson, A. & Sahlée, E. (2019). Measurements and Modelling of Offshore Wind Profiles in a Semi-Enclosed Sea. Atmosphere, 10(4), Article ID 194.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and Modelling of Offshore Wind Profiles in a Semi-Enclosed Sea
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2019 (English)In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A conically scanning, continuous-wave LIDAR is placed on an island in the central Baltic Sea with large open-water fetch, providing wind and turbulence profiles up to 300 m height. LIDAR and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) profiles from one year are used to characterize the marine boundary layer, at the same time performing an evaluation of the WRF model against LIDAR measurements with a focus on low-level jet representation. A good agreement is found between the average wind speed profile in WRF and LIDAR, with the largest bias occurring during stable conditions. The LLJ frequency is highest in May with frequency of occurrence ranging between 18% and 27% depending on the method of detection. Most of the LLJs occur during nighttime, indicating that most of them do not have local origin. For cases with simultaneous LLJs in both data sets the WRF agrees well with the LIDAR. In many cases, however, the LLJ is misplaced in time or space in the WRF simulations compared to the LIDAR. This shows that models still must be improved to capture mesoscale effects in the coastal zone.

Keywords
LIDAR, WRF, coastal meteorology, low-level jet
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology; Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382500 (URN)10.3390/atmos10040194 (DOI)000467313400033 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-02044Swedish Energy Agency, 47054-1
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7656-1881

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