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Lindahl, J., Ragan, I. K., Rowland, R. R., Wainaina, M., Mbotha, D. & Wilson, W. (2019). A multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay for increased understanding of Rift Valley fever immune responses in ruminants in Kenya. Journal of Virological Methods, 269, 70-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay for increased understanding of Rift Valley fever immune responses in ruminants in Kenya
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 269, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important mosquito-borne pathogen with devastating impacts on agriculture and public health. With outbreaks being reported beyond the continent of Africa to the Middle East, there is great concern that RVFV will continue to spread to non-endemic areas such as the Americas and Europe. There is a need for safe and high throughput serological assays for rapid detection of RVFV during outbreaks and for surveillance. We evaluated a multiplexing fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in ruminant sera against the RVFV nucleocapsid Np, glycoprotein Gn, and non-structural protein NSs. Sheep and cattle sera from a region in Kenya with previous outbreaks were tested by FMIA and two commercially available competitive ELISAs (BDSL and IDvet). Our results revealed strong detection of RVFV antibodies against the Np, Gn and NSs antigen targets. Additionally, testing of samples with FMIA Np and Gn had 100% agreement with the IDvet ELISA. The targets developed in the FMIA assay provided a basis for a larger ruminant disease panel that can simultaneously screen several abortive and zoonotic pathogens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Arbovirus, DIVA test, Seroconversion, Serology, Vector-borne disease
National Category
Veterinary Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384636 (URN)10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.04.011 (DOI)000469890400012 ()30974177 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-06-07 Created: 2019-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Ahlberg, S., Randolph, D., Okoth, S. & Lindahl, J. (2019). Aflatoxin Binders in Foods for Human Consumption-Can This be Promoted Safely and Ethically?. Toxins, 11(7), Article ID 410.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aflatoxin Binders in Foods for Human Consumption-Can This be Promoted Safely and Ethically?
2019 (English)In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 410Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aflatoxins continue to be a food safety problem globally, especially in developing regions. A significant amount of effort and resources have been invested in an attempt to control aflatoxins. However, these efforts have not substantially decreased the prevalence nor the dietary exposure to aflatoxins in developing countries. One approach to aflatoxin control is the use of binding agents in foods, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been studied extensively for this purpose. However, when assessing the results comprehensively and reviewing the practicality and ethics of use, risks are evident, and concerns arise. In conclusion, our review suggests that there are too many issues with using LAB for aflatoxin binding for it to be safely promoted. Arguably, using binders in human food might even worsen food safety in the longer term.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Aflatoxins, binding, food safety, biocontrol, food discipline
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393837 (URN)10.3390/toxins11070410 (DOI)000482110000052 ()31337106 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Sirma, A. J., Makita, K., Grace Randolph, D., Senerwa, D. & Lindahl, J. (2019). Aflatoxin Exposure from Milk in Rural Kenya and the Contribution to the Risk of Liver Cancer. Toxins, 11(8), Article ID 469.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aflatoxin Exposure from Milk in Rural Kenya and the Contribution to the Risk of Liver Cancer
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2019 (English)In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 469Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Milk is an important commodity in Kenya; the country has the largest dairy herd and highest per capita milk consumption in East Africa. As such, hazards in milk are of concern. Aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite of aflatoxin B-1 (AFB(1)) excreted in milk by lactating animals after ingesting AFB(1)-contaminated feeds. This metabolite is injurious to human health, but there is little information on the risk to human health posed by AFM(1) in milk in rural Kenya. To fill this gap, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) applying probabilistic statistical tools to quantify risks was conducted. This assessed the risk of liver cancer posed by AFM(1) in milk, assuming 10-fold lower carcinogenicity than AFB(1). Data from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya (semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid) were used. We estimated that people were exposed to between 0.3 and 1 ng AFM(1) per kg body weight per day through the consumption of milk. The annual incidence rates of cancer attributed to the consumption of AFM(1) in milk were 3.5 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 3 x 10(-3)-3.9 x 10(-3)), 2.9 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 2.5 x 10(-3)-3.3 x 10(-3)), 1.4 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 1.2 x 10(-3)-1.5 x 10(-3)) and 2.7 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 2.3 x 10(-3)-3 x 10(-3)) cancers per 100,000 in adult females, adult males, children 6-18 years old, and in children less than five years old, respectively. Our results show that aflatoxin exposure from milk contributes relatively little to the incidence of liver cancer. Nonetheless, risk managers should take action based on cumulative exposure from all sources of aflatoxins.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
mycotoxins, risk assessment, food safety standards, hepatocellular carcinoma, East Africa
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393826 (URN)10.3390/toxins11080469 (DOI)000482994200015 ()31405092 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Bett, B., Lindahl, J., Sang, R., Wainaina, M., Kairu-Wanyoike, S., Bukachi, S., . . . Grace, D. (2019). Association between Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalences in livestock and humans and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients, Tana River County, Kenya. Epidemiology and Infection, 147, Article ID e67.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalences in livestock and humans and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients, Tana River County, Kenya
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2019 (English)In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 147, article id e67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We implemented a cross-sectional study in Tana River County, Kenya, a Rift Valley fever (RVF)-endemic area, to quantify the strength of association between RVF virus (RVFv) seroprevalences in livestock and humans, and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs). The study involved 1932 livestock from 152 households and 552 humans from 170 households. Serum samples were collected and screened for anti-RVFv immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using inhibition IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data collected were analysed using generalised linear mixed effects models, with herd/household and village being fitted as random variables. The overall RVFv seroprevalences in livestock and humans were 25.41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23.49-27.42%) and 21.20% (17.86-24.85%), respectively. The presence of at least one seropositive animal in a household was associated with an increased odds of exposure in people of 2.23 (95% CI 1.03-4.84). The ICCs associated with RVF virus seroprevalence in livestock were 0.30 (95% CI 0.19-0.44) and 0.22 (95% CI 0.12-0.38) within and between herds, respectively. These findings suggest that there is a greater variability of RVF virus exposure between than within herds. We discuss ways of using these ICC estimates in observational surveys for RVF in endemic areas and postulate that the design of the sentinel herd surveillance should consider patterns of RVF clustering to enhance its effectiveness as an early warning system for RVF epidemics.

Keywords
Hierarchical modelling, Rift Valley fever, intra-cluster correlation coefficients, risk factors, seroprevalence
National Category
Pathobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373034 (URN)10.1017/S0950268818003242 (DOI)000455339100066 ()30516123 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-02-06Bibliographically approved
Mutua, F., Lindahl, J. & Grace, D. (2019). Availability and use of mycotoxin binders in selected urban and Peri-urban areas of Kenya. Food Security, 11(2), 359-369
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Availability and use of mycotoxin binders in selected urban and Peri-urban areas of Kenya
2019 (English)In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aflatoxins are carcinogenic, toxic and immunosuppressive substances produced by some species of the fungal genus, Aspergillus. Consumption of aflatoxins can have serious health effects. Widespread in the tropical and sub-tropical world, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is found in many staple foods and feeds; after ingestion it is metabolized to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which transfers to milk. One option for reducing aflatoxin concentration in cow milk is addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feeds, but little is known about this practice in the smallholder dairy systems in developing countries. We undertook a study to investigate the availability and use of mycotoxin binders in selected urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya. Data were collected using key informant interviews with government officials and one-to-one questionnaire-guided interviews with agrovet outlets (shops that sell animal health products (such as antibiotics) and crop inputs (such as fertilizers) and feed processors. Nine different mycotoxin binder types were reported. They were sold by 8% (4/49) of agrovets and 33% (3/9) of feed processors. The binders were purchased by farmers formulating their own feeds and by feed processors. Our review of regulations found that incorporating binders into animal feeds is not mandatory and there are no specific standards governing their use in Kenya. Feed processors are expected to respect the maximum allowable limit of 5g/kg for AFB1 in complete feeds. Gaps in the local feed supplies that may potentially lead to increased risks of aflatoxin exposure through milk are discussed. This study provides key data on the availability and local use of mycotoxin binders, which were previously lacking. However, there is a need for continued research on their effectiveness in the local smallholder context, in order to promote their appropriate use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Aflatoxins, Mycotoxin binders, Standards and regulations, Smallholder dairy value chains, Food safety, Feed safety
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387560 (URN)10.1007/s12571-019-00911-4 (DOI)000469372900007 ()
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Lindahl, J., Vrentas, C. E., Deka, R. P., Hazarika, R. A., Rahman, H., Bambal, R. G., . . . Swain, B. B. (2019). Brucellosis in India: results of a collaborative workshop to define One Health priorities.. Tropical Animal Health and Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brucellosis in India: results of a collaborative workshop to define One Health priorities.
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2019 (English)In: Tropical Animal Health and Production, ISSN 0049-4747, E-ISSN 1573-7438Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brucellosis is an important zoonosis worldwide. In livestock, it frequently causes chronic disease with reproductive failures that contribute to production losses, and in humans, it causes an often-chronic febrile illness that is frequently underdiagnosed in many low- and middle-income countries, including India. India has one of the largest ruminant populations in the world, and brucellosis is endemic in the country in both humans and animals. In November 2017, the International Livestock Research Institute invited experts from government, national research institutes, universities, and different international organizations to a one-day meeting to set priorities towards a "One Health" control strategy for brucellosis in India. Using a risk prioritization exercise followed by discussions, the meeting agreed on the following priorities: collaboration (transboundary and transdisciplinary); collection of more epidemiological evidence in humans, cattle, and in small ruminants (which have been neglected in past research); Economic impact studies, including cost effectiveness of control programmes; livestock vaccination, including national facilities for securing vaccines for the cattle population; management of infected animals (with the ban on bovine slaughter, alternatives such as sanctuaries must be explored); laboratory capacities and diagnostics (quality must be assured and better rapid tests developed); and increased awareness, making farmers, health workers, and the general public more aware of risks of brucellosis and zoonoses in general. Overall, the meeting participants agreed that brucellosis control will be challenging in India, but with collaboration to address the priority areas listed here, it could be possible.

Keywords
Brucella, Brucellosis, India, Livestock, Public health
National Category
Veterinary Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400979 (URN)10.1007/s11250-019-02029-3 (DOI)31620958 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-03 Created: 2020-01-03 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Bett, B., Lindahl, J. & Delia, G. (2019). Climate Change and Infectious Livestock Diseases: The Case of Rift Valley Fever and Tick-Borne Diseases. In: Todd S. Rosenstock, Andreea Nowak & Evan Girvetz (Ed.), The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers: Investigating the Business of a Productive, Resilient and Low Emission Future (pp. 29-37). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate Change and Infectious Livestock Diseases: The Case of Rift Valley Fever and Tick-Borne Diseases
2019 (English)In: The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers: Investigating the Business of a Productive, Resilient and Low Emission Future / [ed] Todd S. Rosenstock, Andreea Nowak & Evan Girvetz, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 29-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Climate change influences the occurrence and transmission of a wide range of livestock diseases through multiple pathways. Diseases caused by pathogens that spent part of their life cycle outside the host (e.g. in vectors or the environment) are more sensitive in this regard, compared to those caused by obligate pathogens. In this chapter, we use two well-studied vector-borne diseases—Rift Valley fever (RVF) and tick-borne diseases (TBDs)—as case studies to describe direct pathways through which climate change influences infectious disease-risk in East and southern Africa. The first case study demonstrates that changes in the distribution and frequency of above-normal precipitation increases the frequency of RVF epidemics. The second case study suggests that an increase in temperature would cause shifts in the spatial distribution of TBDs, with cooler and wetter areas expected to experience heightened risk with climate change. These diseases already cause severe losses in agricultural productivity, food security and socio-economic development wherever they occur, and an increase in their incidence or geographical coverage would intensify these losses. We further illustrate some of the control measures that can be used to manage these diseases and recommend that more research should be done to better understand the impacts of climate change on livestock diseases as well as on the effectiveness of the available intervention measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Keywords
Climate change, Livestock, Rift Valley fever, Tick-borne disease, Vector control, Vaccination
National Category
Other Veterinary Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373055 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-92798-5_3 (DOI)978-3-319-92797-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-92798-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Chauhan, A. S., George, M. S., Lindahl, J., Grace, D. & Kakkar, M. (2019). Community, system and policy level drivers of bovine tuberculosis in smallholder periurban dairy farms in India: a qualitative enquiry. BMC Public Health, 19, Article ID 301.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community, system and policy level drivers of bovine tuberculosis in smallholder periurban dairy farms in India: a qualitative enquiry
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2019 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Rapid urbanization has led to expansion of peri-urban fringes, where intensive, industry-style livestock rearing has led to emerging vulnerabilities at the human-animal-environment interface. This study was undertaken to understand the health system and farm-level factors that influenced the risk of transmission of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in animals and humans in peri-urban smallholder dairy farms of India.

Methods

Thematic guides were developing through literature review and expert consultation. In-depth interviews were conducted till attainment of saturation. Identification of core themes was followed by etiological enquiry and generation of a conceptual model.

Results

Veterinarians were consulted as a last resort after home-remedies and quacks had failed. Damage control measures, especially with respect to- selling or abandoning sick animals, added to the risk of disease transmission. Although civic authorities believed in the adequacy of a functioning laboratory network, end users were aggrieved at the lack of services. Despite the presence of extension services, knowledge and awareness was limited, promoting risky behaviour. The absence of cogent policies in dealing with bTB was a significant barrier. Stakeholders did not consider bTB to be a major concern. It is possible that they underestimate the problem.

Conclusion

The current study helps to identify gaps which need to be addressed through collaborative research, and OneHealth interventions to build community awareness.

Keywords
Bovine tuberculosis, Dairy farm, Dairy farmers, Qualitative, Zoonoses, India
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381086 (URN)10.1186/s12889-019-6634-3 (DOI)000461300200002 ()30866894 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Makita, K., Sina, S. K., Lindahl, J. & Desissa, F. (2019). Computation of Risk Assessment Modelling. In: David Barling, Jessica Fanzo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability: Volume 3: Sustainable Food Systems and Agriculture (pp. 371-380). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computation of Risk Assessment Modelling
2019 (English)In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability: Volume 3: Sustainable Food Systems and Agriculture / [ed] David Barling, Jessica Fanzo, Elsevier, 2019, p. 371-380Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demand for risk assessment to evaluate the safety of foods is increasing in low and middle income countries, but almost no textbook on risk assessment modelling for informal market is available. This chapter introduces practical steps for the risk assessors to tackle with such a situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Other Veterinary Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373056 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.22554-7 (DOI)978-0-12-812688-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Shome, R., Deka, R. P., Milesh, L., Sahay, S., Grace, D. & Lindahl, J. (2019). Coxiella seroprevalence and risk factors in large ruminants in Bihar and Assam, India.. Acta Tropica, 194, 41-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coxiella seroprevalence and risk factors in large ruminants in Bihar and Assam, India.
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2019 (English)In: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 194, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coxiellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous bacteria Coxiella burnetii, which can be spread either through ticks or through body fluids. In humans the infection is characterized by a febrile disease; ruminants may abort and reduce their milk yield, causing serious production losses for the farmer. In India, the disease has been known to be present since the 1970s, but little is known about the epidemiology in most states. In this cross-sectional survey in the two states of Assam and Bihar, 520 households were interviewed for risk factors, and serum samples from 744 dairy animals were analyzed using ELISA as well as PCR. Out of the farms, 17.4% had at least one seropositive animal, with significantly higher seroprevalence in Bihar (27.1%) than Assam (5.8%); and significantly more sero-positive farms in urban areas (23.1%) than rural (12.2%). On an individual animal level, 14.1% were seropositive, with higher prevalence among buffaloes than cows (28.0% versus 13.6%). Out of the seropositive animals, 10.6% had aborted during the last three years, and 37.5% had experienced problems with repeat breeding: both higher than in non-seropositive animals. In conclusion, this study indicates that coxiellosis is potentially an important cause of reproductive failures and production losses in dairy animals. The high prevalence, especially in urban areas, is a public health risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology and identify mitigation options that could work in the different settings of different Indian states.

Keywords
Coxiella burnetti, Dairy production, India, Q fever, Seroepidemiology, Zoonosis
National Category
Veterinary Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384638 (URN)10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.03.022 (DOI)000467666100006 ()30902620 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-07 Created: 2019-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1175-0398

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