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Simangan, D., Bose, S., Candelaria, J. L., Krampe, F. & Kaneko, S. (2023). Positive peace and environmental sustainability: Local evidence from Afghanistan and Nepal. Environment and Security, 1(3-4), 142-162
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Positive peace and environmental sustainability: Local evidence from Afghanistan and Nepal
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environment and Security, E-ISSN 2753-8796, Vol. 1, nr 3-4, s. 142-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate and other forms of global environmental change are transforming the security landscape where peace and conflict manifest. Given that most studies on the relationship between peace and the environment focus on (the absence of) violent conflicts or negative peace, this study seeks to identify environmental security issues at the local or community levels using the concept of positive peace. A thematic analysis of focus group discussions from Afghanistan and Nepal, two countries with histories of violent conflict and vulnerable to climate change, reveals non-violent security issues that could undermine resilience to conflict and environmental change. In Afghanistan, local communities view poor water quality and inequitable water distribution as outstanding issues related to government inaction. In Nepal, local communities perceive threats of wild animals and agricultural problems as prominent issues linked to inadequate government support. These findings confirm the value of positive peace in illuminating and contextualizing the relationship between peace and environmental sustainability. This integrated framework can contribute to a more holistic approach toward climate security and environmental peacebuilding.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
SAGE Publications, 2023
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-508527 (URN)10.1177/27538796231185677 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-08-03 Laget: 2023-08-03 Sist oppdatert: 2024-05-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Krampe, F., Jägerskog, A. & Swain, A. (2022). The Environment and Human Security: a Water-Food-Energy Nexus Approach. In: Richard A. Matthew, Evgenia Nizkorodov & Crystal Murphy (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Environmental Security: (pp. 250-259). Abingdon ; New York: Routledge
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Environment and Human Security: a Water-Food-Energy Nexus Approach
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Routledge Handbook of Environmental Security / [ed] Richard A. Matthew, Evgenia Nizkorodov & Crystal Murphy, Abingdon ; New York: Routledge, 2022, s. 250-259Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

To understand the link between the environment and human security, the water–food–energy nexus is critical. Indeed, a growing body of literature shows how environmental degradation and change fundamentally affect the livelihood of people around the world, especially through pathways related to water, food, and energy. In fragile and conflict-affected states, environmental change, in particular, exacerbates societal instability and is linked to sustained conflict. In this chapter, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the interlinkages of the environment and human security by looking at both the risks and opportunities. We provide specific linkages to the key determinants of human security, namely food, water, and energy, and illustrate the connection with case studies.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Abingdon ; New York: Routledge, 2022
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-464682 (URN)10.4324/9781315107592-25 (DOI)978-1-138-09229-7 (ISBN)978-1-032-14980-6 (ISBN)978-1-315-10759-2 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-01-15 Laget: 2022-01-15 Sist oppdatert: 2023-02-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Krampe, F. & Swain, A. (2021). Environmental Peacebuilding. In: Oliver P. Richmond & Gëzim Visoka (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Peacebuilding, Statebuilding, and Peace Formation: (pp. 563-577). New York: Oxford University Press
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Environmental Peacebuilding
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of Peacebuilding, Statebuilding, and Peace Formation / [ed] Oliver P. Richmond & Gëzim Visoka, New York: Oxford University Press, 2021, s. 563-577Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

For international and domestic actors, postconflict situations constitute one of the most difficult policy arenas to understand and operate within. In this context, the sustainable management of natural resources to prevent conflict and build peace—before, during, or after conflict—has received increasing scholarly attention over the past three decades. Emphasizing the potential for environmental cooperation to support peace and stability, researchers have focused on the ecological foundations for a socially, economically, and politically resilient peace. This chapter takes stock of the current state of the art on environmental peacebuilding, providing a summary of the most common definitions before looking back at the development of environmental peacebuilding along the two most noticeable perspectives and the remaining challenges and pathways for future research.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
New York: Oxford University Press, 2021
Emneord
environment, peacebuilding, natural resources, water, resilience
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-464679 (URN)10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190904418.013.40 (DOI)2-s2.0-85101240086 (Scopus ID)9780190904418 (ISBN)9780190904425 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-01-15 Laget: 2022-01-15 Sist oppdatert: 2022-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Queiroz, C., Norström, A. V., Downing, A., Harmáčková, Z. V., De Coning, C., Adams, V., . . . Matthews, N. (2021). Investment in resilient food systems in the most vulnerable and fragile regions is critical. Nature Food, 2(8), 546-551
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Investment in resilient food systems in the most vulnerable and fragile regions is critical
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Nature Food, E-ISSN 2662-1355, Vol. 2, nr 8, s. 546-551Artikkel i tidsskrift, Editorial material (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
Abstract [en]

Reversing the alarming trend of rising food insecurity requires transformations towards just, sustainable and healthy food systems with an explicit focus on the most vulnerable and fragile regions. 

Emneord
Food systems, food security, climate change, conflict
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-481176 (URN)10.1038/s43016-021-00345-2 (DOI)000687693200002 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-08-05 Laget: 2022-08-05 Sist oppdatert: 2022-12-08bibliografisk kontrollert
Krampe, F. (2021). Ownership and inequalities: exploring UNEP’s Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding Program. Sustainability Science, 16, 1159-1172
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ownership and inequalities: exploring UNEP’s Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding Program
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 16, s. 1159-1172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The question of ownership—that is, who is included and excluded from policy processes—has become one of the most pressing issues in the global discourse on peace and conflict. While research shows that the inclusion of domestic actors is critical to success, broader international processes often neglect these actors. Focused on environmental peacebuilding—the sustainable management of natural resources in post-conflict settings—as an emerging area, this article employs qualitative content analysis (QCA) to study four core reports of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)’s Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding Programme (2008–2015). The results reveal that the framing of environmental peacebuilding in these documents contributes to power inequalities being reinforced. The reports’ language suggests that, overall, UNEP favors international ownership of environmental peacebuilding. By contrast, local actors—both state and non-state—appear to be considered a risk in the context of natural resource management. This article discusses the implications of this lack of inclusion for peacebuilding practice.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer, 2021
Emneord
United Nations Environment Programme, Ownership, Environmental peacebuilding, Qualitative content analysis
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-435046 (URN)10.1007/s11625-021-00926-x (DOI)000619386700002 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-02-18 Laget: 2021-02-18 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Krampe, F., Smith, E. S. & Hamidi, M. D. (2021). Security implications of climate development in conflict-affected states: Implications of local-level effects of rural hydropower development on farmers in Herat. Political Geography, 90, Article ID 102454.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Security implications of climate development in conflict-affected states: Implications of local-level effects of rural hydropower development on farmers in Herat
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Political Geography, ISSN 0962-6298, E-ISSN 1873-5096, Vol. 90, artikkel-id 102454Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Development initiatives aimed at mitigating or adapting to climate change impacts may result in unanticipated effects especially in conflict-affected contexts. To improved understanding of the implications of future climate development projects in conflict-affected states, this article qualitatively examines the experiences of local communities in the Zinda Jan district, located downstream from the Salma Dam in Herat Province, Afghanistan. Conducted in 2018, the research questions what local-level side effects (LLSEs) were experienced by communities downstream of the Salma Dam after its 2016 inauguration, and how these LLSEs might affect the potential for sustainable peace. The article builds from 25 in-depth interviews with local stakeholders in the Zinda Jan district, and highlights how communities generally experienced increased water scarcity after the completion of the dam in 2016, due to poor water management and lack of necessary infrastructure related to the dam. This water scarcity was a factor in grievances related to water access among local communities, and increased the likelihood of related communal violence. However, local perspectives also indicate desire for joint management of water resources between the state and civilians, from the source to their farms. The article provides important insight for research and policy actors to better understand the implications of future climate development projects in conflict-affected states, and their inherent contribution and/or risk to broader peace processes.

Emneord
climate adaptation, peacebuilding, hydropower, Afghanistan
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-448570 (URN)10.1016/j.polgeo.2021.102454 (DOI)
Forskningsfinansiär
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-07-06 Laget: 2021-07-06 Sist oppdatert: 2021-07-07bibliografisk kontrollert
Krampe, F., Hegazi, F. & VanDeveer, S. (2021). Sustaining peace through better resource governance: Three potential mechanisms for environmental peacebuilding. World Development, 144, Article ID 105508.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sustaining peace through better resource governance: Three potential mechanisms for environmental peacebuilding
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 144, artikkel-id 105508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

For international and domestic actors, post-conflict peacebuilding is one of the most difficult policy arenas to understand and in which to operate. Environmental and natural resource governance have the potential to facilitate peacebuilding in such contexts, but existing research has not yet produced a cohesive theoretical understanding of the pathways by which natural resource management strategies can facilitate positive peace. This paper explores the wider benefits of natural resource management and discusses their potential for reducing political fragility in affected states and helping to build positive peace. The paper outlines three mechanisms through which improved natural resource governance in post-conflict contexts is theorized to have positive effects on peace: (a) the contact hypothesis, whereby the facilitation of intergroup cooperation reduces bias and prejudice; (b) the diffusion of transnational norms, where the introduction of environmental and other good governance norms supports human empowerment and strengthens civil society; and (c) state service provision, where the provision of access to public services addresses the instrumental needs of communities, thereby strengthening their belief in the state. Guided by an interest in the opportunities presented by natural resource management to support peacebuilding processes in post-conflict states, the paper seeks to revise and advance the current environmental peacebuilding research agenda.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-442078 (URN)10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105508 (DOI)000653755700019 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-05-07 Laget: 2021-05-07 Sist oppdatert: 2022-07-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Swatuk, L. A., Thomas, B. K., Wirkus, L., Krampe, F. & Batista da Silva, L. P. (2021). The ‘boomerang effect’: insights for improved climate action. Climate and Development, 13(1), 61-67
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The ‘boomerang effect’: insights for improved climate action
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 61-67Artikkel i tidsskrift, Editorial material (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
Abstract [en]

States have been negotiating climate mitigation actions centred around greenhouse gas emissions for several decades. In the wake of the Paris Agreement, a significant body of research has emerged reflecting on the unintended negative consequences of climate mitigation action. More recently, this research includes a focus on climate adaptation actions. The negative impacts have, together, been labelled ‘maladaptation’. Maladaptation as articulated in the literature takes many forms: e.g. displacement of communities from traditional lands such as forests and pasture, violent conflict at different scales, resource capture by elites. In this article, we argue in support of a careful delineation between local-level side effects of climate action and negative effects reaching back to the state (through different pathways and at different levels). The latter we label ‘boomerang effects’. We illustrate, through several examples, the pathways leading from climate action to local impact to boomerang effect, arguing that careful articulation of policy and program decisions, actions and effects upon the state provide support for improved policy making. Climate action is necessary, and necessarily must be better informed in order to achieve the broadest socio-ecological benefits possible.

Emneord
Adaptation, mitigation, climate change, boomerang effect, maladaptation, climate policy, NDCs
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-407074 (URN)10.1080/17565529.2020.1723470 (DOI)000513978800001 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-19 Laget: 2020-03-19 Sist oppdatert: 2021-08-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Aminga, V. M. & Krampe, F. (2020). Climate-related Security Risks and the African Union. Solna: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Climate-related Security Risks and the African Union
2020 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

There has been considerable attention on the conventional climate mitigation and adaptation debate in Africa, including the prominent efforts of the African Group of Negotiators on Climate Change in global climate forums. However, there is little understanding of how the African Union (AU) is discussing and responding to the security implications of climate change.

This Policy Brief outlines key strengths of the African Union’s response, such as a rapidly evolving discourse around climate security and efforts to improve collaboration and coordination among different parts of the institution. But also, key weaknesses in the discourse around AU policy responses, such as the lack of tangible policy operationalization as well as financial unpreparedness and limited member state accountability.

The Policy Brief makes recommendations highlighting entry points for advancing the understanding and response to climate-related security risks within the AU, such as: (a) develop and institutionalize coordinated responses to climate-related security risks, (b) develop strong climate security leadership within the African Union, and (c) change the narrative to focus on shared problems and therefore shared solutions—multilateralism rather than nationalism.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Solna: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2020. s. 12
Serie
SIPRI Policy Brief
Emneord
Climate change, African Union, climate security
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417778 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-08-25 Laget: 2020-08-25 Sist oppdatert: 2020-08-27bibliografisk kontrollert
Krampe, F. & Lisa, E. (2020). Post-War Legitimacy: A Framework on Relational Agency in Peacebuilding. In: Oliver P. Richmond & Roger Mac Ginty (Ed.), Local Legitimacy and International Peacebuilding: (pp. 215-239). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Post-War Legitimacy: A Framework on Relational Agency in Peacebuilding
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Local Legitimacy and International Peacebuilding / [ed] Oliver P. Richmond & Roger Mac Ginty, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020, s. 215-239Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

There is increasing interest in the role of legitimacy as an indicator of social and political stability in post-war societies. In this chapter we provide an analytical framework to examine peacebuilding interventions from a legitimacy perspective. The relationship between the state and society is conceived as crucial to international peacebuilding interventions seeking to assist conflict-torn countries toward a self-sustaining peace – or a situation where external support is unnecessary. The literature on peacebuilding primarily has discussed the importance of legitimacy of peacebuilding interventions. However, we argue that contemporary peacebuilding interventions and the scholarly assessments of them have largely overlooked the relationship between the domestic actors involved in, and affected by, the conflict. Instead of focusing on the principal purpose of peacebuilding processes, which is to build sustainable peace within a country, peacebuilding interventions deal with legitimacy as a tool to justify the peacebuilding agenda and approaches of international actors. The international quest for legitimacy has paradoxically redirected attention away from addressing the important challenge facing domestic peacebuilding processes, namely the peaceful relationship between the domestic state and society. We conceive of peacebuilding as founded in the relational agency between politics and society, i.e. between state and non-state actors (both military and civilian). We define peacebuilding as the process where in a post-war situation the structural-normative setup of the state in relation to society becomes renegotiated through the interactions of domestic state and non-state actors with, or without, the involvement of international or other external actors. We maintain that perceived legitimacy of the relationship between the domestic state and society constitutes the foundation of the social and political post-war order. In this chapter we begin by discussing the existing peacebuilding literature and practices, before articulating our framework on legitimacy, actors and relational agency in peacebuilding. Thereafter, we present an extended application of the framework on two recent peacebuilding processes. The chapter concludes by stressing the necessity to refocus peacebuilding interventions to the relational dynamics and legitimacy of domestic state and non-state actors.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020
Emneord
legitimacy, peacebuilding, Afghanistan, Nepal, state-society relations, interventions
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417775 (URN)9781474466264 (ISBN)9781474466295 (ISBN)9781474466288 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-08-25 Laget: 2020-08-25 Sist oppdatert: 2021-08-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2208-794X