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Ramji, R., Nilsson, M., Arnetz, B., Wiklund, Y. & Arnetz, J. (2019). Taking a Stand: An Untapped Strategy to Reduce Waterpipe Smoking in Adolescents. Substance Use & Misuse, 54(3), 514-524
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Taking a Stand: An Untapped Strategy to Reduce Waterpipe Smoking in Adolescents
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 514-524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Waterpipe use amongst adolescents is on the rise globally. Thus, there is a need to understand adolescents 'attitudes towards and perceptions of waterpipe use in order to develop specific interventions against this form of tobacco use. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted among 37 Swedish adolescents (14 boys and 23 girls) from grades 10 to 12. Waterpipe users and nonusers were interviewed separately, with two groups each for users and nonusers. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and thematically analyzed using content analysis. Results: Six themes emerged including taking a stand, weighing the risks, Lack of knowledge, Social context, Waterpipe new and unknown, and Family influence. Taking a stand was about being able to stand up for one's owns views rather than giving in to peer pressure to smoke waterpipe. Participants feared harming others via secondhand smoke and expressed criticism of the tobacco industry. Participants considered the health consequences and feared addiction. Lack of knowledge concerning health effects of waterpipe smoking due to the unavailability of credible information was also reported. Waterpipe smoking was considered a social event carried out in the company of friends. Perceived as novel and fun, waterpipe was smoked out of curiosity. Parents' and siblings' smoking behaviors influenced adolescent waterpipe use. Conclusion: Adolescents reported lacking information about the possible health effects of waterpipe smoking and that gaining such knowledge would make it easier for them to take a stand and refuse smoking waterpipe. Prevention strategies should focus on providing adolescents with factual information about the dangers of waterpipe use.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Nyckelord
Hookah, shisha, adolescents, qualitative study, tobacco, attitudes, addiction
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382475 (URN)10.1080/10826084.2018.1521429 (DOI)000462920000015 ()30688142 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Folkhälsomyndigheten, 1059/2014-6.2
Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-30 Skapad: 2019-04-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Ramji, R., Arnetz, B., Nilsson, M., Wiklund, Y., Jamil, H., Maziak, W. & Arnetz, J. (2018). Waterpipe use in adolescents in Northern Sweden: Association with mental well-being and risk and health behaviours. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 46(8), 867-876
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Waterpipe use in adolescents in Northern Sweden: Association with mental well-being and risk and health behaviours
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, nr 8, s. 867-876Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: There is a lack of studies examining the association between waterpipe smoking and mental well-being among adolescents. This study sought to determine whether waterpipe smoking is associated with mental well-being and other risk and health behaviours in adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1006 adolescents in grades 9-12 (with a response rate of >95%), containing questions on measures of stress, mental energy and sleep. In addition, the questionnaire assessed risk and health behaviours, including use of a waterpipe, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, snus, alcohol, narcotics, gambling and exercise. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with waterpipe use. Results: Thirty-seven per cent (n=371) of the participants had used a waterpipe at some point. Waterpipe use was associated with lower mental energy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.99), higher stress (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.20) and use of cigarettes (OR = 3.82, 95% CI 2.33-6.03), e-cigarettes (OR = 3.26, 95% CI 2.12-4.99), snus (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 2.12-4.99), alcohol (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.07-3.44) and narcotics (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.75-7.58). Waterpipe use was not significantly associated with gambling, exercise or sleep quality. Conclusions: Waterpipe use in adolescents is associated with worse mental well-being, as well as use of other nicotine products, alcohol and narcotics. Prospective studies are needed to delineate causal and temporal relationships further between waterpipe use and mental well-being and its relationship to other risky behaviours in order to design effective prevention programs.

Nyckelord
Hookah/shisha, e-cigarette, snus, risk behaviour, high-school students
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372701 (URN)10.1177/1403494817746534 (DOI)000452310700011 ()29226800 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Folkhälsomyndigheten, 1059/2014-6.2
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-09 Skapad: 2019-01-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Arnetz, B. B., Lewalski, P., Arnetz, J., Breejen, K. & Przyklenk, K. (2017). Examining self-reported and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents: a single-centre cross-sectional assessment in the USA. BMJ Open, 7(8), Article ID e016479.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Examining self-reported and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents: a single-centre cross-sectional assessment in the USA
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 8, artikel-id e016479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives To examine the relationship between perceived and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents. Design Self-rated stress and stress biomarkers were assessed in residents in Emergency Medicine before and after a day shift. The supervising physicians and residents reported numbers of near misses. Setting The study took place in the Emergency Department of a large trauma 1 centre, located in Detroit, USA. Participants Residents in Emergency Medicine volunteered to participate. The sample consisted of 32 residents, with complete data on 28 subjects. Residents' supervising physicians assessed the clinical performance of each resident. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants' preshift and postshift stress, biological stress (salivary cortisol, plasma interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), residents' and supervisors' reports of near misses, number of critically ill and patients with trauma seen during the shift. Results Residents' self-reported stress increased from an average preshift level of 2.79 of 10 (SD 1.81) to a postshift level of 5.82 (2.13) (p<0.001). Residents cared for an average of 2.32 (1.52) critically ill patients and 0.68 (1.06) patients with trauma. Residents reported a total of 7 near misses, compared with 11 reported by the supervising physicians. After controlling for baseline work-related exhaustion, residents that cared for more patients with trauma and had higher levels of TNF-a reported a higher frequency of near misses (R-2=0.72; p=0.001). Residents' preshift ratings of how stressful they expected the shift to be were related to the supervising physicians' ratings of residents' near misses during the shift. Conclusion Residents' own ratings of near misses were associated with residents' TNF-alpha, a biomarker of systemic inflammation and the number of patients with trauma seen during the shift. In contrast, supervisor reports on residents' near misses were related only to the residents' preshift expectations of how stressful the shift would be.

Nationell ämneskategori
Arbetsmedicin och miljömedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340106 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016479 (DOI)000411802700163 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2018-01-31 Skapad: 2018-01-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-04-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Wright, A. M., Talia, Y. R., Aldhalimi, A., Broadbridge, C. L., Jamil, H., Lumley, M. A., . . . Arnetz, J. E. (2017). Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 19(1), 98-107
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 98-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
SPRINGER, 2017
Nyckelord
Kidnapping, Refugees, Resilience, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Depression
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319648 (URN)10.1007/s10903-015-0340-8 (DOI)000394213200013 ()26781328 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-07 Skapad: 2017-04-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Flink, H., Tegelberg, Å., Arnetz, J. E. & Birkhed, D. (2017). Patient-reported negative experiences related to caries and its treatment among Swedish adult patients. BMC Oral Health, 17, Article ID 95.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Patient-reported negative experiences related to caries and its treatment among Swedish adult patients
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 17, artikel-id 95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: It has been suggested that dental caries should be regarded as a chronic disease as many individuals repeatedly develop new caries lesions. How this is perceived by caries active patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported attitudes and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment.

Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. The questionnaire included items regarding patient-reported oral health; attitudes towards caries and efforts to prevent them; and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment. Questionnaire data were supplemented with data on caries and caries prophylaxis from patients' dental records. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on items related to patients' perceptions of problems to see whether scales could be created. Experiences, perceptions and dental records of CA and CI patients were compared.

Results: The overall response rate was 69%. Dental records confirmed that CA patients had significantly more decayed teeth per year and a longer period of caries-active time than CI patients. Factor analysis resulted in 3 distinct scales measuring problems related to caries; 1) caries-related information; 2) negative experiences; and 3) negative treatment/staff attitudes. A fourth scale measuring perceived problems related to caries was also created. The CA group reported significantly more problems related to caries and dental treatment, received significantly more caries-related information, and reported significantly more negative treatment experiences compared to CI patients.

Conclusions: Caries prophylaxis methods need to be improved in order to better meet the needs of caries active patients and to create a more positive experience with dental care.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2017
Nyckelord
Attitudes, Dental caries, Dental records, Long-term evaluation, Negative emotions, Negative experiences, Questionnaire
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327448 (URN)10.1186/s12903-017-0384-3 (DOI)000403007600001 ()28583156 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-25 Skapad: 2017-08-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Arnetz, J. E., Hamblin, L., Russell, J., Upfal, M. J., Luborsky, M., Janisse, J. & Essenmacher, L. (2017). Preventing Patient-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals: Outcome of a Randomized Controlled Intervention. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(1), 18-27
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Preventing Patient-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals: Outcome of a Randomized Controlled Intervention
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 18-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a randomized controlled intervention on the incidence of patient-to-worker (Type II) violence and related injury in hospitals. Methods: Forty-one units across seven hospitals were randomized into intervention (n = 21) and control (n = 20) groups. Intervention units received unit-level violence data to facilitate development of an action plan for violence prevention; no data were presented to control units. Main outcomes were rates of violent events and injuries across study groups over time. Results: Six months post-intervention, incident rate ratios of violent events were significantly lower on intervention units compared with controls (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29 to 0.80). At 24 months, the risk for violence-related injury was lower on intervention units, compared with controls (IRR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.83). Conclusions: This data-driven, worksite-based intervention was effective in decreasing risks of patient-to-worker violence and related injury.

Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315065 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000000909 (DOI)000391123100006 ()28045793 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-01 Skapad: 2017-03-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Hamblin, L. E., Essenmacher, L., Luborsky, M., Russell, J., Janisse, J., Upfal, M. & Arnetz, J. (2017). Worksite Walkthrough Intervention: Data-driven Prevention of Workplace Violence on Hospital Units. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(9), 875-884
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Worksite Walkthrough Intervention: Data-driven Prevention of Workplace Violence on Hospital Units
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, nr 9, s. 875-884Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the implementation of a data-driven, unit-based walkthrough intervention shown to be effective in reducing the risk of workplace violence in hospitals.

Methods: A structured worksite walkthrough was conducted on 21 hospital units. Unit-level workplace violence data were reviewed and a checklist of possible prevention strategies and an Action Plan form guided development of unit-specific intervention. Unit supervisor perceptions of the walkthrough and implemented prevention strategies were reported via questionnaires. Prevention strategies were categorized as environmental, behavioral, or administrative.

Results: A majority of units implemented strategies within 12 months' postintervention. Participants found the walkthrough useful, practical, and worthy of continued use.

Conclusions: Structured worksite walkthroughs provide a feasible method for workplace violence reduction in hospitals. Core elements are standardized yet flexible, promoting fidelity and transferability of this intervention.

Nationell ämneskategori
Arbetsmedicin och miljömedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337765 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0000000000001081 (DOI)000412537000008 ()28692010 (PubMedID)
Anmärkning

Funding: This study was funded by The Centers for Disease Control-National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [CDC-NIOSH], grant number R01 OH009948. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of CDC-NIOSH.

Tillgänglig från: 2018-01-12 Skapad: 2018-01-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Wright, A. M., Aldhalimi, A., Lumley, M. A., Jamil, H., Pole, N., Arnetz, J. E. & Arnetz, B. B. (2016). Determinants of resource needs and utilization among refugees over time. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51(4), 539-549
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Determinants of resource needs and utilization among refugees over time
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 539-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined refugees' resource needs and utilization over time, investigated the relationships between pre-displacement/socio-demographic variables and resource needs and utilization, and explored the role of resource needs and utilization on psychiatric symptom trajectories. Iraqi refugees to the United States (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival and at 1-year intervals for 2 years for socio-demographic variables and pre-displacement trauma experiences, their need for and utilization of 14 different resources, and PTSD and depressive symptoms. Although refugees reported reduction of some needs over time (e.g., need for cash assistance declined from 99 to 71 %), other needs remained high (e.g., 99 % of refugees reported a need for health care at the 2-year interview). Generally, the lowest needs were reported after 2 years, and the highest utilization occurred during the first year post-arrival. Pre-displacement trauma exposure predicted high health care needs but not high health care utilization. Both high need for and use of health care predicted increasing PTSD and depressive symptoms. Specifically, increased use of psychological care across the three measurement waves predicted more PTSD and depression symptoms at the 2-year interview. Differences emerged between need for and actual use of resources, especially for highly trauma-exposed refugees. Resettlement agencies and assistance programs should consider the complex relationships between resource needs, resource utilization, and mental health during the early resettlement period.

Nyckelord
Refugees, Resource need, Resource utilization, PTSD, Depression
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykiatri
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295561 (URN)10.1007/s00127-015-1121-3 (DOI)000373707600008 ()26370213 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-08 Skapad: 2016-06-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Flink, H., Tegelberg, Å., Arnetz, J. & Birkhed, D. (2016). Patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis among Swedish caries active adults in a long-term perspective. Swedish Dental Journal, 40(1), 101-110
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis among Swedish caries active adults in a long-term perspective
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 101-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med studien var att undersöka patientrapporterade utfallsmått för kariesprofylax och jämföra dem med tidigare dokumenterade journaldata. Ett frågeformulär skickades till 134 kariesaktiva (CA) och 40 kariesinaktiva (CI) vuxna patienter vid folktandvården i Sala, och besvarades av 69%. Frågorna gällde patientupplevelser relaterat till kariesprofylax avseende: 1) behandlingar och rekommendationer vid tandvårdsbesök, 2) genomförd egenvård, och 3) upp-levd effekt och förhoppningar om önskat resultat. Svaren analyserades i förhållande till kliniska data, som hämtades retrospektivt ur patienternas tandvårdsjournaler. Medelvärdet för upp-följningstiden var > 16 år. Information angående karies och profylax (p=0.01) samt rekommen-dationer om egenvård (p=0.04) hade oftare givits till CA än till CI-gruppen. Kompletterande undersökningar och rekommendation av extra riskprofylax var mer vanligt förekommande hos CA-gruppen (p<0.001). CA-patienterna hade även mer ofta gjort extra ansträngningar för att undvika karies genom att ändra matvanor (p<0.001), förbättra munhygien (p=0.04) och använt extra fluor (p=0.001). I CA-gruppen upplevde 60% att de trots sina extra profylaxinsatser inte blivit kariesfria, och 40% var inte nöjda med resultatet. De flesta patienter (>90%) satte dock stort värde till kariesprofylax som förväntades att kunna minska antalet kariesangrepp. Patientrapporterade utfallsmått för kariesprofylax överensstämde med journaldata. Både tandläkare och de kariesaktiva patienterna i denna studie var medvetna om behovet av extra profylax. De kariesaktiva patienterna hade genomfört mer extra profylax, men många hade ej upplevt att de blev kariesfria.

Nyckelord
Caries prophylaxis, dental records, long-term evaluation, national guidelines, questionnaire
Nationell ämneskategori
Odontologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298036 (URN)000374716300011 ()27464386 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-29 Skapad: 2016-06-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-05-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Arnetz, J. E., Hamblin, L., Ager, J., Luborsky, M., Upfal, M. J., Russell, J. & Essenmacher, L. (2016). Response to Letter to the Editor, "Measurement of Workplace Violence Reporting" [Letter to the editor]. Workplace Health & Safety, 64(2), 46-47
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Response to Letter to the Editor, "Measurement of Workplace Violence Reporting"
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Workplace Health & Safety, ISSN 2165-0799, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 46-47Artikel i tidskrift, Letter (Refereegranskat) Published
Nationell ämneskategori
Omvårdnad
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284647 (URN)10.1177/2165079915611132 (DOI)000370191500002 ()26814228 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-19 Skapad: 2016-04-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad
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