uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Laurila, Anssi
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 84) Show all publications
Meyer-Lucht, Y., Luquet, E., Johannesdottir, F., Mörch, P. R., Quintela, M., Richter Boix, A., . . . Laurila, A. (2019). Genetic basis of amphibian larval development along a latitudinal gradient: Gene diversity, selection and links with phenotypic variation in transcription factor C/EBP-1. Molecular Ecology, 28(11), 2786-2801
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic basis of amphibian larval development along a latitudinal gradient: Gene diversity, selection and links with phenotypic variation in transcription factor C/EBP-1
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2786-2801Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ectotherm development rates often show adaptive divergence along climatic gradients, but the genetic basis for this variation is rarely studied. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for phenotypic variation in larval development in the moor frog Rana arvalis from five regions along a latitudinal gradient from Germany to northern Sweden. We focused on the C/EBP-1 gene, a transcription factor associated with larval development time. Allele frequencies at C/EBP-1 varied strongly among geographical regions. Overall, the distribution of alleles along the gradient was in concordance with the dual post-glacial colonization routes into Scandinavia, with a large number of alleles exclusively present along the southern colonization route. Only three of 38 alleles were shared between the routes. Analysis of contemporary selection on C/EBP-1 showed divergent selection among the regions, probably reflecting adaptation to the local environmental conditions, although this was especially strong between southern and northern regions coinciding also with lineages from different colonization routes. Overall, the C/EBP-1 gene has historically been under purifying selection, but two specific amino acid positions showed significant signals of positive selection. These positions showed divergence between southern and northern regions, and we suggest that they are functionally involved in the climatic adaptation of larval development. Using phenotypic data from a common garden experiment, we found evidence for specific C/EBP-1 alleles being correlated with larval development time, suggesting a functional role in adaptation of larval development to large-scale climatic variation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
adaptation, amphibians, climate change, ecological genetics, life history evolution
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390651 (URN)10.1111/mec.15123 (DOI)000473204200007 ()31067349 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4503
Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Mörch, P. R., Luquet, E., Meyer-Lucht, Y., Richter Boix, A., Höglund, J. & Laurila, A. (2019). Latitudinal divergence in a widespread amphibian: Contrasting patterns of neutral and adaptive genomic variation. Molecular Ecology, 28(12), 2996-3011
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latitudinal divergence in a widespread amphibian: Contrasting patterns of neutral and adaptive genomic variation
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 2996-3011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stochastic effects from demographic processes and selection are expected to shape the distribution of genetic variation in spatially heterogeneous environments. As the amount of genetic variation is central for long‐term persistence of populations, understanding how these processes affect variation over large‐scale geographical gradients is pivotal. We investigated the distribution of neutral and putatively adaptive genetic variation, and reconstructed demographic history in the moor frog (Rana arvalis) using 136 individuals from 15 populations along a 1,700‐km latitudinal gradient from northern Germany to northern Sweden. Using double digest restriction‐site associated DNA sequencing we obtained 27,590 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and identified differentiation outliers and SNPs associated with growing season length. The populations grouped into a southern and a northern cluster, representing two phylogeographical lineages from different post‐glacial colonization routes. Hybrid index estimation and demographic model selection showed strong support for a southern and northern lineage and evidence of gene flow between regions located on each side of a contact zone. However, patterns of past gene flow over the contact zone differed between neutral and putatively adaptive SNPs. While neutral nucleotide diversity was higher along the southern than the northern part of the gradient, nucleotide diversity in differentiation outliers showed the opposite pattern, suggesting differences in the relative strength of selection and drift along the gradient. Variation associated with growing season length decreased with latitude along the southern part of the gradient, but not along the northern part where variation was lower, suggesting stronger climate‐mediated selection in the north. Outlier SNPs included loci involved in immunity and developmental processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
adaptive divergence, amphibians, divergent selection, genetic drift, range expansion, small populations
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390931 (URN)10.1111/mec.15132 (DOI)000475983100005 ()
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Luquet, E., Mörch, P. R., Cortazar-Chinarro, M., Meyer-Lucht, Y., Höglund, J. & Laurila, A. (2019). Post-glacial colonization routes coincide with a life-history breakpoint along a latitudinal gradient. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 32(4), 356-368
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-glacial colonization routes coincide with a life-history breakpoint along a latitudinal gradient
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 356-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although adaptive divergence along environmental gradients has repeatedly been demonstrated, the role of post‐glacial colonization routes in determining phenotypic variation along gradients has received little attention. Here, we used a hierarchical QSTFST approach to separate the roles of adaptive and neutral processes in shaping phenotypic variation in moor frog (Rana arvalis) larval life histories along a 1,700 km latitudinal gradient across northern Europe. This species has colonized Scandinavia via two routes with a contact zone in northern Sweden. By using neutral SNP and common garden phenotypic data from 13 populations at two temperatures, we showed that most of the variation along the gradient occurred between the two colonizing lineages. We found little phenotypic divergence within the lineages; however, all phenotypic traits were strongly diverged between the southern and northern colonization routes, with higher growth and development rates and larger body size in the north. The QST estimates between the colonization routes were four times higher than FST, indicating a prominent role for natural selection. QST within the colonization routes did not generally differ from FST, but we found temperature‐dependent adaptive divergence close to the contact zone. These results indicate that lineage‐specific variation can account for much of the adaptive divergence along a latitudinal gradient.

Keywords
cogradient variation, colonization, countergradient variation, latitudinal gradient, life-history traits, local adaptation, Q(ST)-F-ST comparison
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382989 (URN)10.1111/jeb.13419 (DOI)000464516900006 ()30703260 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4503Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationCarl Tryggers foundation
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Kärvemo, S., Laurila, A. & Höglund, J. (2019). Urban environment and reservoir host species are associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection prevalence in the common toad. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 134(1), 33-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban environment and reservoir host species are associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection prevalence in the common toad
2019 (English)In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, ISSN 0177-5103, E-ISSN 1616-1580, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 33-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human-induced changes of the environment, including landscape alteration and habitat loss, may affect wildlife disease dynamics and have important ramifications for wildlife conservation. Amphibians are among the vertebrate taxa most threatened by anthropogenic habitat change. The emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused extinctions and population declines in hundreds of anuran species globally. We studied how the urban landscape is associated with the prevalence of Bd infections by sampling 655 anurans of 3 species (mainly the common toad Bufo bufo) in 42 ponds surrounded by different amounts of urban habitat (defined as towns, cities or villages). We also examined the association between Bd infections and a potential reservoir host species (the moor frog Rana arvalis). We found that 38% of the sites were positive for Bd with an infection prevalence of 4.4%. The extent of urban landscape was negatively correlated with Bd infection prevalence. However, the positive association of Bd with the presence of the possible reservoir species was substantially stronger than the urban effects. The body condition index of B. bufo was negatively associated with Bd infection. This Bd effect was stronger than the negative effect of urban landscape on body condition. Our results suggest that urban environments in Sweden have a negative impact on Bd infections, while the presence of the reservoir species has a positive impact on Bd prevalence. Our study also highlights the potential importance of Bd infection on host fitness, especially in rural landscapes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
INTER-RESEARCH, 2019
Keywords
Amphibians, Chytrid, Disease transmission, Body condition, Scandinavia
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394177 (URN)10.3354/dao03359 (DOI)000484001500004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 215-2014-594
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Fisher, M. C., Ghosh, P., Shelton, J. M. G., Bates, K., Brookes, L., Wierzbicki, C., . . . Garner, T. W. J. (2018). Development and worldwide use of non-lethal, and minimal population-level impact, protocols for the isolation of amphibian chytrid fungi. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 7772.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and worldwide use of non-lethal, and minimal population-level impact, protocols for the isolation of amphibian chytrid fungi
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7772Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Parasitic chytrid fungi have emerged as a significant threat to amphibian species worldwide, necessitating the development of techniques to isolate these pathogens into culture for research purposes. However, early methods of isolating chytrids from their hosts relied on killing amphibians. We modified a pre-existing protocol for isolating chytrids from infected animals to use toe clips and biopsies from toe webbing rather than euthanizing hosts, and distributed the protocol to researchers as part of the BiodivERsA project RACE; here called the RML protocol. In tandem, we developed a lethal procedure for isolating chytrids from tadpole mouthparts. Reviewing a database of use a decade after their inception, we find that these methods have been applied across 5 continents, 23 countries and in 62 amphibian species. Isolation of chytrids by the non-lethal RML protocol occured in 18% of attempts with 207 fungal isolates and three species of chytrid being recovered. Isolation of chytrids from tadpoles occured in 43% of attempts with 334 fungal isolates of one species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) being recovered. Together, these methods have resulted in a significant reduction and refinement of our use of threatened amphibian species and have improved our ability to work with this group of emerging pathogens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356449 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-24472-2 (DOI)000432340300001 ()29773857 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-01 Created: 2018-08-01 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Kärvemo, S., Meurling, S., Berger, D., Höglund, J. & Laurila, A. (2018). Effects of host species and environmental factors on the prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in northern Europe. PLoS ONE, 13(10), Article ID e0199852.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of host species and environmental factors on the prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in northern Europe
Show others...
2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0199852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) poses a major threat to amphibian populations. To assist efforts to address such threats, we examined differences in Bd host infection prevalence among amphibian species and its relations to both local environmental factors in breeding habitats and landscape variables measured at three scales (500, 2000 and 5000 m radii) around breeding sites in southernmost Sweden. We sampled 947 anurans of six species in 31 ponds and assessed their infection status. We then examined correlations of infection prevalence with canopy cover, pond perimeter and pH (treated as local-scale pond characteristics), and the number of ponds, area of arable land, area of mature forest, number of resident people and presence of sea within the three radii (treated as landscape variables). The Bd infection prevalence was very low, 0.5-1.0%, in two of the six anuran species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria), and substantially higher (13-64%) in the other four (Bombina bombina, Bufotes variabilis, Epidalea calamita, Rana arvalis). In the latter four species Bd infection prevalence was positively associated with ponds' pH (site range: 5.3-8.1), and negatively associated with areas of mature forest and/or wetlands in the surroundings. Our results show that the infection dynamics of Bd are complex and associated with host species, local pond characteristics and several landscape variables at larger spatial scales. Knowledge of environmental factors associated with Bd infections and differences in species' susceptibility may help to counter further spread of the disease and guide conservation action plans, especially for the most threatened species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369896 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0199852 (DOI)000448438400003 ()30359384 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 215-2014-594Carl Tryggers foundation , 15:220, KF17:14
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, B., Orizaola, G. & Laurila, A. (2018). Interacting effects of predation risk and resource level on escape speed of amphibian Larvae along a latitudinal gradient. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 31(8), 1216-1226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interacting effects of predation risk and resource level on escape speed of amphibian Larvae along a latitudinal gradient
2018 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1216-1226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast-growing genotypes living in time-constrained environments are often more prone to predation, suggesting that growth-predation risk trade-offs are important factors maintaining variation in growth along climatic gradients. However, the mechanisms underlying how fast growth increases predation-mediated mortality are not well understood. Here, we investigated if slow-growing, low-latitude individuals have faster escape swimming speed than fast-growing high-latitude individuals using common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles from eight populations collected along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient. We measured escape speed in terms of burst and endurance speeds in tadpoles raised in the laboratory at two food levels and in the presence and absence of a predator (Aeshna dragonfly larvae). We did not find any latitudinal trend in escape speed performance. In low food treatments, burst speed was higher in tadpoles reared with predators but did not differ between high-food treatments. Endurance speed, on the contrary, was lower in high-food tadpoles reared with predators and did not differ between treatments at low food levels. Tadpoles reared with predators showed inducible morphology (increased relative body size and tail depth), which had positive effects on speed endurance at low but not at high food levels. Burst speed was positively affected by tail length and tail muscle size in the absence of predators. Our results suggest that escape speed does not trade-off with fast growth along the latitudinal gradient in R. temporaria tadpoles. Instead, escape speed is a plastic trait and strongly influenced by the interaction between resource level and predation risk.

Keywords
growth, inducible defences, locomotion, phenotypic plasticity, predation, sprint speed, tadpoles
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364052 (URN)10.1111/jeb.13298 (DOI)000440653200011 ()29802672 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
O'Hanlon, S. J., Rieux, A., Farrer, R. A., Rosa, G. M., Waldman, B., Bataille, A., . . . Fisher, M. C. (2018). Recent Asian origin of chytrid fungi causing global amphibian declines. Science, 360(6389), 621-+
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent Asian origin of chytrid fungi causing global amphibian declines
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, no 6389, p. 621-+Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Globalized infectious diseases are causing species declines worldwide, but their source often remains elusive. We used whole-genome sequencing to solve the spatiotemporal origins of themost devastating panzootic to date, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a proximate driver of global amphibian declines. We traced the source of B. dendrobatidis to the Korean peninsula, where one lineage, BdASIA-1, exhibits the genetic hallmarks of an ancestral population that seeded the panzootic. We date the emergence of this pathogen to the early 20th century, coinciding with the global expansion of commercial trade in amphibians, and we show that intercontinental transmission is ongoing. Our findings point to East Asia as a geographic hotspot for B. dendrobatidis biodiversity and the original source of these lineages that now parasitize amphibians worldwide.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356489 (URN)10.1126/science.aar1965 (DOI)000431790900037 ()29748278 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, ERC 260801-Big_IdeaAustralian Research Council, FT100100375Australian Research Council, DP120100811Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-1389-26445-20
Available from: 2018-07-30 Created: 2018-07-30 Last updated: 2018-07-30Bibliographically approved
Cortazar-Chinarro, M., Meyer-Lucht, Y., Laurila, A. & Höglund, J. (2018). Signatures of historical selection on MHC reveal different selection patterns in the moor frog (Rana arvalis). Immunogenetics, 70(7), 477-484
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Signatures of historical selection on MHC reveal different selection patterns in the moor frog (Rana arvalis)
2018 (English)In: Immunogenetics, ISSN 0093-7711, E-ISSN 1432-1211, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 477-484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MHC genes are key components in disease resistance and an excellent system for studying selection acting on genetic variation in natural populations. Current patterns of variation in MHC genes are likely to be influenced by past and ongoing selection as well as demographic fluctuations in population size such as those imposed by post-glacial recolonization processes. Here, we investigated signatures of historical selection and demography on an MHC class II gene in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700-km latitudinal gradient. Sequences were obtained from 207 individuals and consecutively assigned into two different clusters (northern and southern clusters, respectively) in concordance with a previously described dual post-glacial colonization route. Selection analyses comparing the relative rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) suggested evidence of different selection patterns in the northern and the southern clusters, with divergent selection prevailing in the south but uniform positive selection predominating in the north. Also, models of codon evolution revealed considerable differences in the strength of selection: The southern cluster appeared to be under strong selection while the northern cluster showed moderate signs of selection. Our results indicate that the MHC alleles in the north diverged from southern MHC alleles as a result of differential selection patterns.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341392 (URN)10.1007/s00251-017-1051-1 (DOI)000435594000006 ()29387920 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 215-2014-594Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4503
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2019-04-20Bibliographically approved
Carreira, B. M., Segurado, P., Laurila, A. & Rebelo, R. (2017). Can heat waves change the trophic role of the world's most invasive crayfish?: Diet shifts in Procambarus clarkii. PLoS ONE, 12(9), Article ID e0183108.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can heat waves change the trophic role of the world's most invasive crayfish?: Diet shifts in Procambarus clarkii
2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, article id e0183108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the Mediterranean basin, the globally increasing temperatures are expected to be accompanied by longer heat waves. Commonly assumed to benefit cold-limited invasive alien species, these climatic changes may also change their feeding preferences, especially in the case of omnivorous ectotherms. We investigated heat wave effects on diet choice, growth and energy reserves in the invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In laboratory experiments, we fed juvenile and adult crayfish on animal, plant or mixed diets and exposed them to a short or a long heat wave. We then measured crayfish survival, growth, body reserves and Fulton's condition index. Diet choices of the crayfish maintained on the mixed diet were estimated using stable isotopes (C-13 and N-15). The results suggest a decreased efficiency of carnivorous diets at higher temperatures, as juveniles fed on the animal diet were unable to maintain high growth rates in the long heat wave; and a decreased efficiency of herbivorous diets at lower temperatures, as juveniles in the cold accumulated less body reserves when fed on the plant diet. Heat wave treatments increased the assimilation of plant material, especially in juveniles, allowing them to sustain high growth rates in the long heat wave. Contrary to our expectations, crayfish performance decreased in the long heat wave, suggesting that Mediterranean summer heat waves may have negative effects on P. clarkii and that they are unlikely to boost its populations in this region. Although uncertain, it is possible that the greater assimilation of the plant diet resulted from changes in crayfish feeding preferences, raising the hypotheses that i) heat waves may change the predominant impacts of this keystone species and ii) that by altering species' trophic niches, climate change may alter the main impacts of invasive alien species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335397 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0183108 (DOI)000409282800010 ()28873401 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications