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Enarsson, M., Bergström, T., Jarvius, M., Sundström, A., Nyberg, F., Haglund, C., . . . Segerman, A. (2019). Mesenchymal transition and increased therapy resistance of glioblastoma cells is related to astrocyte reactivity. Journal of Pathology, 249(3), 295-307
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mesenchymal transition and increased therapy resistance of glioblastoma cells is related to astrocyte reactivity
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 249, no 3, p. 295-307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Grade IV astrocytoma/glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is essentially incurable, partly due to its heterogenous nature, demonstrated even within the glioma-initiating cell (GIC) population. Increased therapy resistance of GICs is coupled to transition into a mesenchymal (MES) cell state. The GBM MES molecular signature displays a pronounced inflammatory character and its expression vary within and between tumors. Herein, we investigate how MES transition of GBM cells relates to inflammatory responses of normal astroglia. In response to CNS insults astrocytes enter a reactive cell state and participate in directing neuroinflammation and subsequent healing processes. We found that the MES signature show strong resemblance to gene programs induced in reactive astrocytes. Likewise, astrocyte reactivity gene signatures were enriched in therapy-resistant MES-like GIC clones. Variable expression of astrocyte reactivity related genes also largely defined intratumoral GBM cell heterogeneity at the single-cell level and strongly correlated with our previously defined therapy-resistance signature (based on linked molecular and functional characterization of GIC clones). In line with this, therapy-resistant MES-like GIC secreted immunoregulatory and tissue repair related proteins characteristic of astrocyte reactivity. Moreover, sensitive GIC clones could be made reactive through long-term exposure to the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1 beta). IL1 beta induced a slow MES transition, increased therapy resistance, and a shift in DNA methylation profile towards that of resistant clones, which confirmed a slow reprogramming process. In summary, GICs enter through MES transition a reactive-astrocyte-like cell state, connected to therapy resistance. Thus, from a biological point of view, MES GICs would preferably be called 'reactive GICs'. The ability of GBM cells to mimic astroglial reactivity contextualizes the immunomodulatory and microenvironment reshaping abilities of GBM cells that generate a tumor-promoting milieu. This insight will be important to guide the development of future sensitizing therapies targeting treatment-resistant relapse-driving cell populations as well as enhancing the efficiency of immunotherapies in GBM. (c) 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
glioblastoma, mesenchymal transition, resistant, astrogliosis, reactive astrocytes
National Category
Cell Biology Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-398842 (URN)10.1002/path.5317 (DOI)000484294400001 ()31298733 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Cancer Society
Available from: 2019-12-19 Created: 2019-12-19 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Daskalakis, K., Norlén, O., Karakatsanis, A., Hellman, P., Larsson, R., Nygren, P. & Stålberg, P. (2018). Ex Vivo Activity of Cytotoxic Drugs and Targeted Agents in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors. Paper presented at 15th Annual ENETS Conference for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumor Disease, MAR 07-09, 2018, Barcelona, SPAIN. Neuroendocrinology, 106(Supplement: 1), 189-189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex Vivo Activity of Cytotoxic Drugs and Targeted Agents in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors
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2018 (English)In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 106, no Supplement: 1, p. 189-189Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Keywords
ex vivo activity, cytotoxic drugs, targeted agents, small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354378 (URN)10.1159/000487699 (DOI)000427285300187 ()
Conference
15th Annual ENETS Conference for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumor Disease, MAR 07-09, 2018, Barcelona, SPAIN
Note

Meeting Abstract: H06

Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Daskalakis, K., Norlén, O., Karakatsanis, A., Hellman, P., Larsson, R., Nygren, P. & Stålberg, P. (2018). Ex vivo activity of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 25(4), 471-480
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex vivo activity of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
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2018 (English)In: Endocrine-Related Cancer, ISSN 1351-0088, E-ISSN 1479-6821, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 471-480Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are generally considered resistant to systemic treatment. To date, predictive markers for drug activity are lacking. Tumor samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinicopathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers. For cytotoxic drugs, SI-NETs demonstrated similar or higher sensitivity to 5-FU, platinum, gemcitabine and doxorubicin compared with CRC. For several of the targeted kinase inhibitors, SI-NET was among the most sensitive solid tumor types. CLL and ovarian cancer were generally the most sensitive tumor types to both cytotoxic drugs and protein kinase inhibitors. SI-NET was more sensitive to the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus than the other solid tumor types tested. Individual SI-NET samples demonstrated great variability in ex vivo sensitivity for most drugs. Cross-resistance between different drugs also varied considerably, being higher among protein kinase inhibitors. Age, stage, grade, peritoneal carcinomatosis and extra-abdominal metastases as well as serum chromogranin A and urine 5-HIAA concentrations at diagnosis did not correlate to drug sensitivity ex vivo. SI-NETs exhibit intermediate sensitivity ex vivo to cytotoxic and targeted drugs. Clinicopathological factors and currently used biomarkers are not clearly associated to ex vivo sensitivity, challenging these criteria for treatment decisions in SI-NET. The great variability in drug sensitivity calls for individualized selection of therapy.

Keywords
ex vivo activity, cytotoxic drugs, targeted agents, small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354255 (URN)10.1530/ERC-17-0404 (DOI)000430730300013 ()29440231 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-28 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Kashif, M., Andersson, C., Mansoori, S., Larsson, R., Nygren, P. & Gustafsson, M. G. (2017). Bliss and Loewe interaction analyses of clinically relevant drug combinations in human colon cancer cell lines reveal complex patterns of synergy and antagonism. OncoTarget, 8(61), 103952-103967
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bliss and Loewe interaction analyses of clinically relevant drug combinations in human colon cancer cell lines reveal complex patterns of synergy and antagonism
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2017 (English)In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 61, p. 103952-103967Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyzed survival effects for 15 different pairs of clinically relevant anticancer drugs in three iso-genic pairs of human colorectal cancer carcinoma cell lines, by applying for the first time our novel software (R package) called COMBIA. In our experiments iso-genic pairs of cell lines were used, differing only with respect to a single clinically important KRAS or BRAF mutation. Frequently, concentration dependent but mutation independent joint Bliss and Loewe synergy/antagonism was found statistically significant. Four combinations were found synergistic/antagonistic specifically to the parental (harboring KRAS or BRAF mutation) cell line of the corresponding iso-genic cell lines pair. COMBIA offers considerable improvements over established software for synergy analysis such as MacSynergy (TM) II as it includes both Bliss (independence) and Loewe (additivity) analyses, together with a tailored non-parametric statistical analysis employing heteroscedasticity, controlled resampling, and global (omnibus) testing. In many cases Loewe analyses found significant synergistic as well as antagonistic effects in a cell line at different concentrations of a tested drug combination. By contrast, Bliss analysis found only one type of significant effect per cell line. In conclusion, the integrated Bliss and Loewe interaction analysis based on non-parametric statistics may provide more robust interaction analyses and reveal complex patterns of synergy and antagonism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IMPACT JOURNALS LLC, 2017
Keywords
synergy analysis, combinations, iso-genic, COMBIA, R package
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345218 (URN)10.18632/oncotarget.21895 (DOI)000419562500095 ()29262612 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-09 Created: 2018-03-09 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
De Rosa, M., Lu, L., Zamaratski, E., Szałaj, N., Cao, S., Wadensten, H., . . . Karlen, A. (2017). Design, synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of oligopeptides targeting E. coli type I signal peptidase (LepB). Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 25(3), 897-911
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of oligopeptides targeting E. coli type I signal peptidase (LepB)
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2017 (English)In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 897-911Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Type I signal peptidases are potential targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. Here we report finding potent inhibitors of E. coli type I signal peptidase (LepB), by optimizing a previously reported hit compound, decanoyl-PTANA-CHO, through modifications at the N- and C-termini. Good improvements of inhibitory potency were obtained, with IC50s in the low nanomolar range. The best inhibitors also showed good antimicrobial activity, with MICs in the low μg/mL range for several bacterial species. The selection of resistant mutants provided strong support for LepB as the target of these compounds. The cytotoxicity and hemolytic profiles of these compounds are not optimal but the finding that minor structural changes cause the large effects on these properties suggests that there is potential for optimization in future studies.

Keywords
Antibacterials, Escherichia coli, Oligopeptides, Solid-phase peptide synthesis, Type I signal peptidase
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314110 (URN)10.1016/j.bmc.2016.12.003 (DOI)000394201900009 ()28038943 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 521-2014-6711 521-2013-2904 521-2013-3105 621-2014-6215Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0078Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
Note

Maria De Rosa and Lu Lu contributed equally to this work.

Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2017-01-27 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Y., Marinescu, V. D., Xie, Y., Jarvius, M., Maturi, N. P., Haglund, C., . . . Uhrbom, L. (2017). Glioblastoma Cell Malignancy and Drug Sensitivity Are Affected by the Cell of Origin. Cell reports, 18(4), 977-990
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glioblastoma Cell Malignancy and Drug Sensitivity Are Affected by the Cell of Origin
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2017 (English)In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 977-990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The identity of the glioblastoma (GBM) cell of origin and its contributions to disease progression and treatment response remain largely unknown. We have analyzed how the phenotypic state of the initially transformed cell affects mouse GBM development and essential GBM cell (GC) properties. We find that GBM induced in neural stem-cell-like glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells in the subventricular zone of adult mice shows accelerated tumor development and produces more malignant GCs (mGC1GFAP) that are less resistant to cancer drugs, compared with those originating from more differentiated nestin- (mGC2NES) or 2,'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (mGC3CNP)-expressing cells. Transcriptome analysis of mouse GCs identified a 196 mouse cell origin (MCO) gene signature that was used to partition 61 patient-derived GC lines. Human GC lines that clustered with the mGC1GFAP cells were also significantly more self-renewing, tumorigenic, and sensitive to cancer drugs compared with those that clustered with mouse GCs of more differentiated origin.

Keywords
cancer stem cell, cell of origin, central nervous system, drug response, glioblastoma, glioma, mouse model, neural stem cell, oligodendrocyte precursor cell, self-renewal
National Category
Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Research subject
Pathology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319084 (URN)10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.003 (DOI)000396474300013 ()28122246 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 110363 140385 150628Swedish Research Council, 90283201 C0259101 B0310101 E0331401Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, PROJ11/057 PR2014-0143Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
Available from: 2017-03-31 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Strese, S., Hassan, S. B., Velander, E., Haglund, C., Höglund, M., Larsson, R. & Gullbo, J. (2017). In vitro and in vivo anti-leukemic activity of the peptidase-potentiated alkylator melflufen in acute myeloid leukemia. OncoTarget, 8(4), 6341-6352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vitro and in vivo anti-leukemic activity of the peptidase-potentiated alkylator melflufen in acute myeloid leukemia
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2017 (English)In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 6341-6352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The novel aminopeptidase potentiated alkylating agent melflufen, was evaluated for activity in acute myeloid leukemia in a range of in vitro models, as well as in a patient derived xenograft study. All tested AML cell lines were highly sensitive to melflufen while melphalan was considerably less potent. In the HL-60 cell line model, synergy was observed for the combination of melflufen and cytarabine, an interaction that appeared sequence dependent with increased synergy when melflufen was added before cytarabine. Also, in primary cultures of AML cells from patients melflufen was highly active, while normal PBMC cultures appeared less sensitive, indicating a 7-fold in vitro therapeutic index. Melphalan, on the other hand, was only 2-fold more potent in the AML patient samples compared with PBMCs. Melflufen was equally active against non-malignant, immature CD34(+) progenitor cells and a more differentiated CD34(+) derived cell population (GM14), whereas the stem cell like cells were less sensitive to melphalan. Finally, melflufen treatment showed significant anti-leukemia activity and increased survival in a patient derived xenograft of AML in mice. In conclusion, melflufen demonstrates high and significant preclinical activity in AML and further clinical evaluation seem warranted in this disease.

Keywords
melflufen, drug development, alkylator, pre-clinical, acute myeloid leukemia
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317697 (URN)10.18632/oncotarget.13856 (DOI)000393289000079 ()27974676 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-17 Created: 2017-03-17 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Herman, S., Emami Khoonsari, P., Aftab, O., Krishnan, S., Strömbom, E., Larsson, R., . . . Gustafsson, M. G. (2017). Mass spectrometry based metabolomics for in vitro systems pharmacology: pitfalls, challenges, and computational solutions.. Metabolomics, 13(7), Article ID 79.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mass spectrometry based metabolomics for in vitro systems pharmacology: pitfalls, challenges, and computational solutions.
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2017 (English)In: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Mass spectrometry based metabolomics has become a promising complement and alternative to transcriptomics and proteomics in many fields including in vitro systems pharmacology. Despite several merits, metabolomics based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a developing area that is yet attached to several pitfalls and challenges. To reach a level of high reliability and robustness, these issues need to be tackled by implementation of refined experimental and computational protocols.

OBJECTIVES: This study illustrates some key pitfalls in LC-MS based metabolomics and introduces an automated computational procedure to compensate for them.

METHOD: Non-cancerous mammary gland derived cells were exposed to 27 chemicals from four pharmacological classes plus a set of six pesticides. Changes in the metabolome of cell lysates were assessed after 24 h using LC-MS. A data processing pipeline was established and evaluated to handle issues including contaminants, carry over effects, intensity decay and inherent methodology variability and biases. A key component in this pipeline is a latent variable method called OOS-DA (optimal orthonormal system for discriminant analysis), being theoretically more easily motivated than PLS-DA in this context, as it is rooted in pattern classification rather than regression modeling.

RESULT: The pipeline is shown to reduce experimental variability/biases and is used to confirm that LC-MS spectra hold drug class specific information.

CONCLUSION: LC-MS based metabolomics is a promising methodology, but comes with pitfalls and challenges. Key difficulties can be largely overcome by means of a computational procedure of the kind introduced and demonstrated here. The pipeline is freely available on www.github.com/stephanieherman/MS-data-processing.

Keywords
Batch effects, Data handling, Drug metabolism, Mass spectrometry, Metabolomics
National Category
Bioinformatics (Computational Biology)
Research subject
Bioinformatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323946 (URN)10.1007/s11306-017-1213-z (DOI)000403779800002 ()28596718 (PubMedID)
Funder
Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscienceSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-06-11 Created: 2017-06-11 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, H., Fryknäs, M., Strese, S., Gullbo, J., Westman, G., Bremberg, U., . . . Nygren, P. (2017). Mechanistic characterization of a copper containing thiosemicarbazone with potent antitumor activity. OncoTarget, 8(18), 30217-30234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic characterization of a copper containing thiosemicarbazone with potent antitumor activity
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2017 (English)In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 18, p. 30217-30234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The thiosemicarbazone CD 02750 (VLX50) was recently reported as a hit compound in a phenotype-based drug screen in primary cultures of patient tumor cells. We synthesized a copper complex of VLX50, denoted VLX60, and characterized its antitumor and mechanistic properties.

Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effects and mechanistic properties of VLX60 were investigated in monolayer cultures of multiple human cell lines, in tumor cells from patients, in a 3-D spheroid cell culture system and in vivo and were compared with those of VLX50.

Results: VLX60 showed >= 3-fold higher cytotoxic activity than VLX50 in 2-D cultures and, in contrast to VLX50, retained its activity in the presence of additional iron. VLX60 was effective against non-proliferative spheroids and against tumor xenografts in vivo in a murine model. In contrast to VLX50, gene expression analysis demonstrated that genes associated with oxidative stress were considerably enriched in cells exposed to VLX60 as was induction of reactive oxygen. VLX60 compromised the ubiquitin-proteasome system and was more active in BRAF mutated versus BRAF wild-type colon cancer cells.

Conclusions: The cytotoxic effects of the copper thiosemicarbazone VLX60 differ from those of VLX50 and shows interesting features as a potential antitumor drug, notably against BRAF mutated colorectal cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IMPACT JOURNALS LLC, 2017
Keywords
cancer drug, thiosemicarbazone, spheroid, VLX60, BRAF
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323035 (URN)10.18632/oncotarget.16324 (DOI)000400456200055 ()28415818 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Wickström, M., Nygren, P., Larsson, R., Harmenberg, J., Lindberg, J., Sjoberg, P., . . . Gullbo, J. (2017). Melflufen: a peptidase-potentiated alkylating agent in clinical trials. OncoTarget, 8(39), 66641-66655
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Melflufen: a peptidase-potentiated alkylating agent in clinical trials
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2017 (English)In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 39, p. 66641-66655Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aminopeptidases like aminopeptidase N (APN, also known as CD13) play an important role not only in normal cellular functioning but also in the development of cancer, including processes like tumor cell invasion, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, motility, and angiogenesis. An increased expression of APN has been described in several types of human malignancies, especially those characterized by fast-growing and aggressive phenotypes, suggesting APN as a potential therapeutic target. Melphalan flufenamide ethyl ester (melflufen, previously denoted J1) is a peptidase-potentiated alkylating agent. Melflufen readily penetrates membranes and an equilibrium is rapidly achieved, followed by enzymatic cleavage in aminopeptidase positive cells, which results in trapping of less lipophilic metabolites. This targeting effect results in very high intracellular concentrations of its metabolite melphalan and subsequent apoptotic cell death. This results in a potency increase (melflufen vs melphalan) ranging from 10- to several 100-fold in different in vitro models. Melflufen triggers a rapid, robust, and an irreversible DNA damage which may account for its ability to overcome melphalan-resistance in multiple myeloma cells. Furthermore, anti-angiogenic properties of melflufen have been described. Consequently, it is hypothesized that melflufen could provide better efficacy but no more toxicity than what is achieved with melphalan, an assumption so far supported by experiences from hollow fiber and xenograft studies in rodents as well as by clinical data from patients with solid tumors and multiple myeloma. This review summarizes the current preclinical and clinical knowledge of melflufen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IMPACT JOURNALS LLC, 2017
Keywords
melflufen, aminopeptidase, cancer, targeted chemotherapy
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346504 (URN)10.18632/oncotarget.18420 (DOI)000410291200163 ()29029544 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-19 Created: 2018-03-19 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3427-4128

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