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Hammarlund-Udenaes, MargaretaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9181-1321
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Publications (10 of 88) Show all publications
Sulku, J., Jansson, C., Melhus, H., Malinovschi, A., Ställberg, B., Bröms, K., . . . Nielsen, E. I. (2019). A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Appropriateness Of Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment In Primary And Secondary Care Patients With COPD In Sweden. The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 14, 2451-2460
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Appropriateness Of Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment In Primary And Secondary Care Patients With COPD In Sweden
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2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 14, p. 2451-2460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often more widely prescribed in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than what is recommended in the guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of ICS treatment in COPD patients using the algorithm proposed by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) and to identify factors associated with ICS treatment.

Patients and methods: Appropriateness of ICS therapy was studied with respect to concomitant asthma, history of exacerbations and blood eosinophils (B-Eos) in a Swedish cohort of primary and secondary care patients with COPD. Factors associated with ICS were investigated using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Triple treatment was found to be the most common treatment combination, used by 46% of the 561 included patients, and in total 63% were using ICS. When applying the IPCRG algorithm, there was a possible indication for discontinuation of ICS in 55% of the patients with ICS treatment. Of the patients not using ICS, 18% had an indication for starting such treatment. The strongest factors associated with ICS therapy were frequent exacerbations (aOR 8.61, 95% CI 4.06, 20.67), secondary care contacts (aOR 6.99, 95% CI 2.48, 25.28) and very severe airflow limitation (aOR 5.91, 95% CI 1.53, 26.58).

Conclusion: More than half of the COPD patients on ICS met the criteria where withdrawal of the treatment could be tried. There was, however, also a subgroup of patients not using ICS for whom there was an indication for starting ICS treatment. Patients using ICS were characterized by more frequent exacerbations and lower lung function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2019
Keywords
ICS, pharmacological management, inappropriate therapy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPCRG
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397585 (URN)10.2147/COPD.S218747 (DOI)000494042200001 ()
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, S., Sehlin, D., Lampa, E., Hammarlund-Udenaes, M. & Loryan, I. (2019). Heterogeneous drug tissue binding in brain regions of rats, Alzheimer’s patients and controls: impact on translational drug development. Scientific Reports, 9, Article ID 5308.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous drug tissue binding in brain regions of rats, Alzheimer’s patients and controls: impact on translational drug development
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2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 5308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For preclinical and clinical assessment of therapeutically relevant unbound, free, brain concentrations, the pharmacokinetic parameter fraction of unbound drug in brain (fu,brain) is commonly used to compensate total drug concentrations for nonspecific brain tissue binding (BTB). As, homogenous BTB is assumed between species and in health and disease, rat BTB is routinely used. The impact of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on drug BTB in brain regions of interest (ROI), i.e., fu,brain,ROI, is yet unclear. This study for the first time provides insight into regional drug BTB and the validity of employing rat fu,brain,ROI as a surrogate of human BTB, by investigating five marketed drugs in post-mortem tissue from AD patients (n = 6) and age-matched controls (n = 6). Heterogeneous drug BTB was observed in all within group comparisons independent of disease and species. The findings oppose the assumption of uniform BTB, highlighting the need of case-by-case evaluation of fu,brain,ROI in translational CNS research.

National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347201 (URN)10.1038/s41598-019-41828-4 (DOI)000462728000002 ()30926941 (PubMedID)
Note

Title in thesis list of papers: Heterogeneous drug tissue binding in brain regions of rats, Alzheimer’s disease patients and controls: implications for translational drug development and pharmacotherapy

Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-04-30Bibliographically approved
Puris, E., Gynther, M., de Lange, E. C. M., Auriola, S., Hammarlund-Udenaes, M., Huttunen, K. M. & Loryan, I. (2019). Mechanistic Study on the Use of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 for Brain Intracellular Delivery of Ketoprofen via Prodrug: A Novel Approach Supporting the Development of Prodrugs for Intracellular Targets. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 16(7), 3261-3274
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic Study on the Use of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 for Brain Intracellular Delivery of Ketoprofen via Prodrug: A Novel Approach Supporting the Development of Prodrugs for Intracellular Targets
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2019 (English)In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 3261-3274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

L-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), selectively expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain parenchymal cells, mediates brain delivery of drugs and prodrugs such as L-dopa and gabapentin. Although knowledge about BBB transport of LAT1-utilizing prodrugs is available, there is a lack of quantitative information about brain intracellular delivery and influence of prodrugs on the transporter's physiological state. We studied the LAT1-mediated intrabrain distribution of a recently developed prodrug of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketoprofen as well as its impact on transporter protein expression and function (i.e., amino acid exchange) using brain slice method in mice and rats. The intrabrain distribution of the prodrug was 16 times higher than that of ketoprofen. LAT1 involvement in brain cellular barrier uptake of the prodrug was confirmed, reflected by a higher unbound brain intracellular compared to brain extracellular fluid concentration. The prodrug did not alter LAT1 protein expression and amino acid exchange. Integration of derived parameters with previously performed in vivo pharmacokinetic study using the Combinatory Mapping Approach allowed to estimate the brain extra- and intracellular levels of unbound ketoprofen, prodrug, and released parent drug. The overall efficiency of plasma to brain intracellular delivery of prodrug-released ketoprofen was 11 times higher than after ketoprofen dosing. In summary, this study provides quantitative information supporting the use of the LAT1-mediated prodrug approach for enhanced brain delivery of drugs with intracellular targets.

Keywords
pharmacokinetics, transporter, LAT1, prodrug, intrabrain distribution, brain slice
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390997 (URN)10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00502 (DOI)000474475400039 ()31180686 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Yusof, S. R., Mohd Uzid, M., Teh, E.-H., Hanapi, N. A., Mohideen, M., Mohamad Arshad, A. S., . . . Hammarlund-Udenaes, M. (2019). Rate and extent of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine blood-brain barrier transport and their intra-brain distribution: the missing link in pharmacodynamic studies. Addiction Biology, 24(5), 935-945
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rate and extent of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine blood-brain barrier transport and their intra-brain distribution: the missing link in pharmacodynamic studies
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2019 (English)In: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mitragyna speciosa is reported to be beneficial for the management of chronic pain and opioid withdrawal in the evolving opioid epidemic. Data on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, the active compounds of the plant, are still lacking and inconclusive. Here, we present for the first time the rate and the extent of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine transport across the BBB, with an investigation of their post-BBB intra-brain distribution. We utilized an in vitro BBB model to study the rate of BBB permeation of the compounds and their interaction with efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Mitragynine showed higher apical-to-basolateral (A-B, i.e. blood-to-brain side) permeability than 7-hydroxymitragynine. 7-Hydroxymitragynine showed a tendency to efflux, with efflux ratio (B-A/A-B) of 1.39. Both were found to inhibit the P-gp and are also subject to efflux by the P-gp. Assessment of the extent of BBB transport in vivo in rats from unbound brain to plasma concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain ) revealed extensive efflux of both compounds, with less than 10 percent of unbound mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine in plasma crossing the BBB. By contrast, the extent of intra-brain distribution was significantly different, with mitragynine having 18-fold higher brain tissue uptake in brain slice assay compared with 7-hydroxymitragynine. Mitragynine showed a moderate capacity to accumulate inside brain parenchymal cells, while 7-hydroxymitragynine showed restricted cellular barrier transport. The presented findings from this systematic investigation of brain pharmacokinetics of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are essential for design and interpretation of in vivo experiments aiming to establish exposure-response relationship.

Keywords
7-hydroxymitragynine, blood-brain barrier, extent, mitragynine, permeability, pharmacokinetics
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences Pharmacology and Toxicology Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362221 (URN)10.1111/adb.12661 (DOI)000480622000008 ()30088322 (PubMedID)
Note

Shared last authorship between Irena Loryan and Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes.

Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Hu, Y., Gaillard, P. J., De lange, E. C. .. & Hammarlund-Udenaes, M. (2019). Targeted Brain Delivery of Methotrexate by Glutathione PEGylated Liposomes: How can the Formulation Make a Difference?. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 139, 197-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Targeted Brain Delivery of Methotrexate by Glutathione PEGylated Liposomes: How can the Formulation Make a Difference?
2019 (English)In: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, ISSN 0939-6411, E-ISSN 1873-3441, Vol. 139, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate how conjugation of GSH to different liposomal formulations influence the brain delivery of methotrexate (MTX) in rats. GSH-PEG liposomal MTX based on hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) or egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) and their corresponding PEG control liposomes were prepared. The brain delivery of MTX after intravenously administering free MTX, four liposomal formulations or free MTX + empty GSH-PEG-HSPC liposomes was evaluated by performing microdialysis in brain interstitial fluid and blood. Compared to free MTX with a steady-state unbound brain-toplasma concentration ratio (K-p,K-uu) of 0.10, PEG-HSPC liposomes did not affect the brain uptake of MTX, while PEG-EYPC liposomes improved the uptake (K-p,(uu) 1.5, p < 0.05). Compared to PEG control formulations, GSHPEG-HSPC liposomes increased brain delivery of MTX by 4-fold (K-p,(uu) 0.82, p < 0.05), while GSH-coating on PEG-EYPC liposomes did not result in a further enhancement in uptake. The co-administration of empty GSHPEG-HSPC liposomes with free MTX did not influence the uptake of MTX into the brain. This work showed that the brain-targeting effect of GSH-PEG liposomal MTX is highly dependent on the liposomal formulation that is combined with GSH, providing insights on formulation optimization of this promising brain delivery platform.

Keywords
Brain delivery, Brain-targeting, Liposomes, Glutathione, Formulation, Methotrexate, Microdialysis
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Pharmaceutical Science; Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365858 (URN)10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.04.004 (DOI)000468711400021 ()30951819 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Hu, Y., Hammarlund-Udenaes, M. & Fridén, M. (2019). Understanding the Influence of Nanocarrier-Mediated Brain Delivery on Therapeutic Performance Through Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling.. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 108(10), 3425-3433
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the Influence of Nanocarrier-Mediated Brain Delivery on Therapeutic Performance Through Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling.
2019 (English)In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN 0022-3549, E-ISSN 1520-6017, Vol. 108, no 10, p. 3425-3433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed at evaluating how encapsulation in a regular nanocarrier (NC) (providing extended circulation time) or in a brain-targeting NC (providing prolonged circulation time and increased brain uptake) may influence the therapeutic index compared with the unformulated drug and to explore the key parameters affecting therapeutic performance using a model-based approach. Pharmacokinetic (PK) models were built with chosen PK parameters. For a scenario where central effect depends on area under the unbound brain concentration curve and peripheral toxicity relates to peak unbound plasma concentration, dose-effect and drug-side effect curves were constructed, and the therapeutic index was evaluated. Regular NC improved the therapeutic index compared with the unformulated drug due to reduced peripheral toxicity, while brain-targeting NC enhanced the therapeutic index by lowering peripheral toxicity and increasing central effect. Decreasing drug release rate or systemic clearance of NC with drug still encapsulated could increase the therapeutic index. Also, a drug with shorter half-life would therapeutically benefit more from a NC encapsulation. This work provides insights into how a NC for brain delivery should be optimized to maximize the therapeutic performance and is helpful to predict if and to what extent a drug with certain PK properties would obtain therapeutic benefit from nanoencapsulation.

Keywords
blood-brain barrier, brain delivery, dose-response relationship, model-based approach, nanocarrier, pharmacokinetics
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395591 (URN)10.1016/j.xphs.2019.05.029 (DOI)000495939800030 ()31163187 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, S., Gustavsson, T., Roshanbin, S., Hultqvist, G., Hammarlund-Udenaes, M., Sehlin, D. & Syvänen, S. (2018). Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease With or Without Acute 3D6 Immunotherapy. Neuropharmacology, 143, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease With or Without Acute 3D6 Immunotherapy
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2018 (English)In: Neuropharmacology, ISSN 0028-3908, E-ISSN 1873-7064, Vol. 143, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is suggested to be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The concomitant presence of vascular amyloid beta (AD) pathology, so called cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), also predisposes impairment of vessel integrity. Additionally, immunotherapy against A beta may lead to further damage of the BBB. To what extent this affects the BBB passage of molecules is debated. The current study aimed to investigate BBB integrity to large molecules in transgenic mice displaying abundant A beta pathology and age matched wild type animals, with or without acute anti-A beta antibody treatment. Animals were administered a single i.v. injection of PBS or 3D6 (10 mg/kg), i.e. the murine version of the clinically investigated A beta antibody bapineuzumab, supplemented with [(125)]3D6. Three days post injections, a 4 kDa FITC and a 150 kDa Antonia Red dextran were administered i.v. to all animals. After termination, fluorescent detection in brain and serum was used for the calculation of dextran brain-to-blood concentration ratios. Further characterization of antibody fate and the presence of CAA were investigated using radioactivity measurements and Congo red staining. BBB passage of large molecules was equally low in wild type and transgenic mice, suggesting an intact BBB despite A beta pathology. Neither was the BBB integrity affected by acute 3D6 treatment. However, CAA was confirmed in the transgenes and local antibody accumulations were observed in the brain, indicating CAA-antibody interactions. The current study shows that independently of A beta pathology or acute 3D6 treatment, the BBB is intact, without extensive permeability to large molecules, including the 3D6 antibody.

National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347199 (URN)10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.09.001 (DOI)000453493200001 ()30201212 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-02413Magnus Bergvall FoundationGun och Bertil Stohnes StiftelseStiftelsen Gamla Tjänarinnor
Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Hu, Y., Gaillard, P. J., Rip, J., De lange, E. C. .. & Hammarlund-Udenaes, M. (2018). In Vivo Quantitative Understanding of PEGylated Liposome’s Influence on Brain Delivery of Diphenhydramine. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 15(12), 5493-5500
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Vivo Quantitative Understanding of PEGylated Liposome’s Influence on Brain Delivery of Diphenhydramine
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2018 (English)In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 12, p. 5493-5500Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the promising features of liposomes as brain drug delivery vehicles, it remains uncertain how they influence the brain uptake in vivo. In order to gain a better fundamental understanding of the interaction between liposomes and the blood–brain barrier (BBB), it is indispensable to test if liposomes affect drugs with different BBB transport properties (active influx or efflux) differently. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate how PEGylated (PEG) liposomes influence brain delivery of diphenhydramine (DPH), a drug with active influx at the BBB, in rats. The brain uptake of DPH after 30 min intravenous infusion of free DPH, PEG liposomal DPH, or free DPH + empty PEG liposomes was compared by determining the unbound DPH concentrations in brain interstitial fluid and plasma with microdialysis. Regular blood samples were taken to measure total DPH concentrations in plasma. Free DPH was actively taken up into the brain time-dependently, with higher uptake at early time points followed by an unbound brain-to-plasma exposure ratio (Kp,uu) of 3.0. The encapsulation in PEG liposomes significantly decreased brain uptake of DPH, with a reduction of Kp,uu to 1.5 (p < 0.05). When empty PEG liposomes were coadministered with free drug, DPH brain uptake had a tendency to decrease (Kp,uu 2.3), and DPH was found to bind to the liposomes. This study showed that PEG liposomes decreased the brain delivery of DPH in a complex manner, contributing to the understanding of the intricate interactions between drug, liposomes, and the BBB.

Keywords
nanocarrier, liposome, blood-brain barrier, brain uptake, microdialysis, diphenhydramine
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Pharmaceutical Science; Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365857 (URN)10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b00611 (DOI)000452344600006 ()30376346 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, S., Lindström, V., Ingelsson, M., Hammarlund-Udenaes, M. & Syvänen, S. (2018). Intact blood-brain barrier transport of small molecular drugs in animal models of amyloid beta and alpha-synuclein pathology. Neuropharmacology, 128, 482-491
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intact blood-brain barrier transport of small molecular drugs in animal models of amyloid beta and alpha-synuclein pathology
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2018 (English)In: Neuropharmacology, ISSN 0028-3908, E-ISSN 1873-7064, Vol. 128, p. 482-491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pathophysiological impairment of the neurovascular unit, including the integrity and dynamics of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), has been denoted both a cause and consequence of neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological impact on BBB drug delivery has also been debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate BBB drug transport, by determining the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (K-p,K-uu,K-brain), in aged A beta PP-transgenic mice, alpha-synuclein transgenic mice, and wild type mice. Mice were dosed with a cassette of five compounds, including digoxin, levofloxacin (1 mg/kg, s.c.), paliperidone, oxycodone, and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.). Brain and blood were collected at 0.5,1, or 3 h after dosage. Drug concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. The total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio was calculated and equilibrium dialysis was used to determine the fraction of unbound drug in brain and plasma for all compounds. Together, these three measures were used to determine the Kp,uu,brain value. Despite A beta or alpha-synuclein pathology in the current animal models, no difference was observed in the extent of drug transport across the BBB compared to wild type animals for any of the compounds investigated. Hence, the present study shows that the concept of a leaking barrier within neurodegenerative conditions has to be interpreted with caution when estimating drug transport into the brain. The capability of the highly dynamic BBB to regulate brain drug exposure still seems to be intact despite the presence of pathology. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Blood-brain barrier, Pharmacokinetics, Drug transport, Disease, Amyloid beta, Alpha-synuclein
National Category
Neurology Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340458 (URN)10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.08.002 (DOI)000418977200043 ()28797721 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved
Mihajlica, N., Betsholtz, C. & Hammarlund-Udenaes, M. (2018). Pharmacokinetics of Pericyte Involvement in Small-Molecular Drug Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 122, 77-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pharmacokinetics of Pericyte Involvement in Small-Molecular Drug Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN 0928-0987, E-ISSN 1879-0720, Vol. 122, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pericytes are perivascular cells that play important roles in the regulation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties. Pericyte-deficiency causes compromised BBB integrity and increase in permeability to different macromolecules mainly by upregulated transcytosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate pericyte involvement in the extent of small-molecular drug transport across the BBB. This was performed with five compounds: diazepam, digoxin, levofloxacin, oxycodone and paliperidone. Compounds were administered at low doses via subcutaneous injections as a cassette (simultaneously) to pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice and corresponding WT controls. Total drug partitioning across the BBB was calculated as the ratio of total drug exposures in brain tissue and plasma (K-p,K-brain). In addition, equilibrium dialysis experiments were performed to estimate unbound drug fractions in brain (f(u,brain)) and plasma (f(u,plasma)). This enabled estimation of unbound drug partitioning coefficients (K-p,K-uu,K-brain). The results indicated slight tendencies towards increase of total brain exposures in Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice as reflected in K-p,K-brain values, which were within the 2-fold limit. Part of these differences could be explained by differences in plasma protein binding. No difference was found in brain tissue binding. The combined in vivo and in vitro data resulted in no differences in BBB transport in pericyte-deficiency, as described by similar K-p,K-uu,K-brain Values in Pdgfb(ret/ret) and control mice. In conclusion, these findings imply no influence of pericytes on the extent of BBB transport of small-molecular drugs, and suggest preserved BBB features relevant for handling of this type of molecules irrespective of pericyte presence at the brain endothelium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Pericytes, Blood-brain barrier, Small-molecular drugs, Drug partitioning, Extent of transport, Unbound drug fractions
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345932 (URN)10.1016/j.ejps.2018.06.018 (DOI)000439564000009 ()29933077 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9181-1321

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