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Skulason, S., Parsons, K. J., Svanbäck, R., Rasanen, K., Ferguson, M. M., Adams, C. E., . . . Snorrason, S. S. (2019). A way forward with eco evo devo: an extended theory of resource polymorphism with postglacial fishes as model systems. Biological Reviews, 94(5), 1786-1808
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A way forward with eco evo devo: an extended theory of resource polymorphism with postglacial fishes as model systems
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2019 (English)In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 1786-1808Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major goal of evolutionary science is to understand how biological diversity is generated and altered. Despite considerable advances, we still have limited insight into how phenotypic variation arises and is sorted by natural selection. Here we argue that an integrated view, which merges ecology, evolution and developmental biology (eco evo devo) on an equal footing, is needed to understand the multifaceted role of the environment in simultaneously determining the development of the phenotype and the nature of the selective environment, and how organisms in turn affect the environment through eco evo and eco devo feedbacks. To illustrate the usefulness of an integrated eco evo devo perspective, we connect it with the theory of resource polymorphism (i.e. the phenotypic and genetic diversification that occurs in response to variation in available resources). In so doing, we highlight fishes from recently glaciated freshwater systems as exceptionally well-suited model systems for testing predictions of an eco evo devo framework in studies of diversification. Studies on these fishes show that intraspecific diversity can evolve rapidly, and that this process is jointly facilitated by (i) the availability of diverse environments promoting divergent natural selection; (ii) dynamic developmental processes sensitive to environmental and genetic signals; and (iii) eco evo and eco devo feedbacks influencing the selective and developmental environments of the phenotype. We highlight empirical examples and present a conceptual model for the generation of resource polymorphism - emphasizing eco evo devo, and identify current gaps in knowledge.

Keywords
divergent evolution, epigenetics, genetics, niche construction, non-genetic inheritance, phenotype, phenotypic plasticity, natural selection, polymorphic fishes, speciation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394947 (URN)10.1111/brv.12534 (DOI)000485285900013 ()31215138 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M. H. K., Svanbäck, R., Faulks, L., Breed, M. F., Scharnweber, K., Zha, Y. & Eklöv, P. (2019). Asymmetrical habitat coupling of an aquatic predator: The importance of individual specialization. Ecology and Evolution, 9(6), 3405-3415
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asymmetrical habitat coupling of an aquatic predator: The importance of individual specialization
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2019 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 3405-3415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Predators should stabilize food webs because they can move between spatially separate habitats. However, predators adapted to forage on local resources may have a reduced ability to couple habitats. Here, we show clear asymmetry in the ability to couple habitats by Eurasian perch—a common polymorphic predator in European lakes. We sampled perch from two spatially separate habitats—pelagic and littoral zones—in Lake Erken, Sweden. Littoral perch showed stronger individual specialization, but they also used resources from the pelagic zone, indicating their ability to couple habitats. In contrast, pelagic perch showed weaker individual specialization but near complete reliance on pelagic resources, indicating their preference to one habitat. This asymmetry in the habitat coupling ability of perch challenges the expectation that, in general, predators should stabilize spatially separated food webs. Our results suggest that habitat coupling might be constrained by morphological adaptations, which in this case were not related to genetic differentiation but were more likely related to differences in individual specialization.

Keywords
diet specialization, food web, landscape genetics, morphological specialization, Perca fluviatilis
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315719 (URN)10.1002/ece3.4973 (DOI)000462384800024 ()30962901 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

Title in thesis list of papers: Asymmetrical habitat coupling of a top predator

Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Zhang, L., Thibert-Plante, X., Ripe, J., Svanbäck, R. & Brannstrom, A. (2019). Biodiversity loss through speciation collapse: Mechanisms, warning signals, and possible rescue. Evolution, 73(8), 1504-1516
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodiversity loss through speciation collapse: Mechanisms, warning signals, and possible rescue
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2019 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 73, no 8, p. 1504-1516Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Speciation is the process that generates biodiversity, but recent empirical findings show that it can also fail, leading to the collapse of two incipient species into one. Here, we elucidate the mechanisms behind speciation collapse using a stochastic individual-based model with explicit genetics. We investigate the impact of two types of environmental disturbance: deteriorated visual conditions, which reduce foraging ability and impede mate choice, and environmental homogenization, which restructures ecological niches. We find that: (1) Species pairs can collapse into a variety of forms including new species pairs, monomorphic or polymorphic generalists, or single specialists. Notably, polymorphic generalist forms may be a transient stage to a monomorphic population; (2) Environmental restoration enables species pairs to reemerge from single generalist forms, but not from single specialist forms; (3) Speciation collapse is up to four orders of magnitude faster than speciation, while the reemergence of species pairs can be as slow as de novo speciation; (4) Although speciation collapse can be predicted from either demographic, phenotypic, or genetic signals, observations of phenotypic changes allow the most general and robust warning signal of speciation collapse. We conclude that factors altering ecological niches can reduce biodiversity by reshaping the ecosystem's evolutionary attractors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
Assortative mating, hybridization, speciation, species diversity, warning signals
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393743 (URN)10.1111/evo.13736 (DOI)000482092600001 ()30980527 (PubMedID)
Note

This article corresponds to VanWallendael A. 2019. Digest: Species collapse from disturbance occurs quickly, and recovery is slow. Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.13794

Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Johansson, F., Bini, L. M., Coiffard, P., Svanbäck, R., Wester, J. & Heino, J. (2019). Environmental variables drive differences in the beta diversity of dragonfly assemblages among urban stormwater ponds. Ecological Indicators, 106, Article ID 105529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental variables drive differences in the beta diversity of dragonfly assemblages among urban stormwater ponds
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2019 (English)In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 106, article id 105529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stormwater ponds are beneficial to urban landscapes because these man-made systems can reduce the negative effects of flooding in urban areas and restrain the distribution of pollutants. In addition, these systems are especially important to maintain the biodiversity of urban landscapes. Here, we sampled a set of 18 stormwater ponds in the city of Uppsala in Sweden to test the relationship between beta diversity of adult dragonflies and environmental factors (local and land use variables). We analysed the total beta diversity and its two components: replacement and richness difference. We recorded 31 species of Odonata, comprising 61% of the Odonata species in the province of Uppland in Sweden. By itself, this result indicates the importance of stormwater ponds in contributing to biodiversity in urban areas. The richness difference component of beta diversity was higher than the replacement component. Results from generalized dissimilarly models indicated that the richness difference component was mainly related with pond area and total vegetation cover (aquatic vegetation plus vegetation surrounding ponds). Focusing on different vegetation variables separately, models indicated that the beta diversity components were significantly correlated with percentage cover of floating algae scums, emergent aquatic macrophytes and tall shore vegetation. These results are consistent with what is known about the ecology of dragonflies, including the importance of aerial plant structures for perching, shelter from terrestrial and aquatic predators, and for providing oviposition sites. We also found that the stormwater ponds harboured a large part of the regional species pool. These systems are therefore important havens of biodiversity in urban landscapes. Our results also indicate that the management of different types of vegetation is key to maximize the potential of these systems in maintaining regional biodiversity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2019
Keywords
Beta diversity, Compositional dissimilarity, Environmental gradients, Generalised dissimilarity modelling, Geographic distance, Odonata, Urban ecology
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396429 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105529 (DOI)000490577900092 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-11-06 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M. H. K., Svanbäck, R. & Eklöv, P. (2019). Habitat coupling mediates trophic cascades in an aquatic community. Ecosphere, 10(9)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habitat coupling mediates trophic cascades in an aquatic community
2019 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trophic cascades and other indirect effects can significantly mediate community interactions. Movement of energy between systems has been shown to be important for trophic cascades in food webs, where coupling between habitats can be important for food web stability and species evenness. To investigate the effects of habitat coupling on the stability and dynamics of chlorophyll a (used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), mediated by the abundance and composition of zooplankton and macroinvertebrates, we manipulated habitat use by the predator perch. We show a greater indirect effect of predation on phytoplankton abundance when no habitat coupling occurs, indicating a stronger predation effect and a decrease in zooplankton grazing pressure leading to an increase in phytoplankton biomass. Although we found a significant effect on chlorophyll a between the treatments, this effect was not evident in the abundance of prey resources of perch (zooplankton and macroinvertebrates). Other indirect effects, not measured in this study, such as compositional changes in prey groups, could potentially explain the lack of effect in prey resources. While there is a strong theoretical argument for the stabilizing effects of habitat coupling, empirical evidence is scarce. Our study offers tentative support for these theoretical predictions in a natural system.

National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315717 (URN)10.1002/ecs2.2863 (DOI)000490766500019 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Svanbäck, R. & Johansson, F. (2019). Predation selects for smaller eye size in a vertebrate: effects of environmental conditions and sex. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 286(1897), Article ID 20182625.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predation selects for smaller eye size in a vertebrate: effects of environmental conditions and sex
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1897, article id 20182625Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased eye size in animals results in a larger retinal image and thus improves visual acuity. Thus, larger eyes should aid both in finding food as well as detecting predators. On the other hand, eyes are usually very conspicuous and several studies have suggested that eye size is associated with predation risk. However, experimental evidence is scant. In this study, we address how predation affects variation in eye size by performing two experiments using Eurasian perch juveniles as prey and either larger perch or pike as predators. First, we used large outdoor tanks to compare selection due to predators on relative eye size in open and artificial vegetated habitats. Second, we studied the effects of both predation risk and resource levels on phenotypic plasticity in relative eye size in indoor aquaria experiments. In the first experiment, we found that habitat altered selection due to predators, since predators selected for smaller eye size in a non-vegetated habitat, but not in a vegetated habitat. In the plasticity experiment, we found that fish predators induced smaller eye size in males, but not in females, while resource levels had no effect on eye size plasticity. Our experiments provide evidence that predation risk could be one of the driving factors behind variation in eye size within species.

Keywords
predation, natural selection, eye size, Perca fluviatilis, phenotypic plasticity, selection gradients
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383887 (URN)10.1098/rspb.2018.2625 (DOI)000465432500015 ()30963847 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
van Dorst, R. M., Gårdmark, A., Svanbäck, R., Beier, U., Weyhenmeyer, G. A. & Huss, M. (2019). Warmer and browner waters decrease fish biomass production. Global Change Biology, 25(4), 1395-1408
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Warmer and browner waters decrease fish biomass production
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2019 (English)In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1395-1408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change studies have long focused on effects of increasing temperatures, often without considering other simultaneously occurring environmental changes, such as browning of waters. Resolving how the combination of warming and browning of aquatic ecosystems affects fish biomass production is essential for future ecosystem functioning, fisheries, and food security. In this study, we analyzed individual- and population-level fish data from 52 temperate and boreal lakes in Northern Europe, covering large gradients in water temperature and color (absorbance, 420 nm). We show that fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) biomass production decreased with both high water temperatures and brown water color, being lowest in warm and brown lakes. However, while both high temperature and brown water decreased fish biomass production, the mechanisms behind the decrease differed: temperature affected the fish biomass production mainly through a decrease in population standing stock biomass, and through shifts in size- and age-distributions toward a higher proportion of young and small individuals in warm lakes; brown water color, on the other hand, mainly influenced fish biomass production through negative effects on individual body growth and length-at-age. In addition to these findings, we observed that the effects of temperature and brown water color on individual-level processes varied over ontogeny. Body growth only responded positively to higher temperatures among young perch, and brown water color had a stronger negative effect on body growth of old than on young individuals. Thus, to better understand and predict future fish biomass production, it is necessary to integrate both individual- and population-level responses and to acknowledge within-species variation. Our results suggest that global climate change, leading to browner and warmer waters, may negatively affect fish biomass production, and this effect may be stronger than caused by increased temperature or water color alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
biomass production, browning, climate change, Eurasian perch, fish, individual body growth, lakes, length distribution, ontogeny, warming
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381109 (URN)10.1111/gcb.14551 (DOI)000461817500016 ()30570185 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-03752Swedish Research Council Formas, 217-2014-474
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Zha, Y., Alexander, E., Johansson, F. & Svanbäck, R. (2018). Effects of predation stress and food ration on perch gut microbiota. Microbiome, 6, Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of predation stress and food ration on perch gut microbiota
2018 (English)In: Microbiome, ISSN 0026-2633, E-ISSN 2049-2618, Vol. 6, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Gut microbiota provide functions of importance to influence hosts' food digestion, metabolism, and protection against pathogens. Factors that affect the composition and functions of gut microbial communities are well studied in humans and other animals; however, we have limited knowledge of how natural food web factors such as stress from predators and food resource rations could affect hosts' gut microbiota and how it interacts with host sex. In this study, we designed a two-factorial experiment exposing perch (Perca fluviatilis) to a predator (pike, Esox lucius), and different food ratios, to examine the compositional and functional changes of perch gut microbiota based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We also investigated if those changes are host sex dependent.

Results: We showed that overall gut microbiota composition among individual perch significantly responded to food ration and predator presence. We found that species richness decreased with predator presence, and we identified 23 taxa from a diverse set of phyla that were over-represented when a predator was present. For example, Fusobacteria increased both at the lowest food ration and at predation stress conditions, suggesting that Fusobacteria are favored by stressful situations for the host. In concordance, both food ration and predation stress seemed to influence the metabolic repertoire of the gut microbiota, such as biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, metabolism of cofactors, and vitamins. In addition, the identified interaction between food ration and sex emphasizes sex-specific responses to diet quantity in gut microbiota.

Conclusions: Collectively, our findings emphasize an alternative state in gut microbiota with responses to changes in natural food webs depending on host sex. The obtained knowledge from this study provided us with an important perspective on gut microbiota in a food web context.

National Category
Microbiology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341520 (URN)10.1186/s40168-018-0400-0 (DOI)000424692400001 ()29409543 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR-2011-05646, VR-2012-4592Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , ICA10-0015
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Miller, E. T., Svanbäck, R. & Bohannan, B. J. M. (2018). Microbiomes as Metacommunities: Understanding Host-Associated Microbes through Metacommunity Ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 33(12), 926-935
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbiomes as Metacommunities: Understanding Host-Associated Microbes through Metacommunity Ecology
2018 (English)In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 926-935Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interest in host-associated microbiomes has skyrocketed recently, yet our ability to explain microbiome variation has remained stubbornly low. Considering scales of interaction beyond the level of the individual host could lead to new insights. Metacommunity theory has many of the tools necessary for modeling multiscale processes and has been successfully applied to host microbiomes. However, the biotic nature of the host requires an expansion of theory to incorporate feedback between the habitat patch (host) and their local (microbial) community. This feedback can have unexpected effects, is predicted to be common, and can arise through a variety of mechanisms, including developmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes. We propose a new way forward for both metacommunity theory and host microbiome research that incorporates this feedback.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON, 2018
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372948 (URN)10.1016/j.tree.2018.09.002 (DOI)000450294900008 ()30266244 (PubMedID)
Funder
NIH (National Institute of Health), P50GM098911
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M. H. K., Svanbäck, R., Zha, Y., Scharnweber, K. & Eklöv, P. (2018). The influence of habitat accessibility on the dietary and morphological specialisation of an aquatic predator. Oikos, 127(1), 160-169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of habitat accessibility on the dietary and morphological specialisation of an aquatic predator
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2018 (English)In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 160-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individual diet and habitat specialisation are widespread in animal taxa and often related to levels of predation and competition. Mobile consumers such as predatory fish can stabilise lake food webs by ranging over a larger area than their prey, thereby switching between habitats. Although, this switching assumes that the predator has equal preference for the available prey, individual diet specialisation and morphological adaptations to different habitats could potentially prevent individuals from switching between habitats. In this study, we assessed the niche width and individual specialisation in Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis in response to a shift in habitat use by manipulating the ability for this top predator to couple habitats. We ran an eight weeks pond experiment, to test the effect of habitat switching on diet and morphological specialisations. We show that habitat coupling influenced individual diet specialisation and niche use in expected directions where specialisation increased with decreasing habitat switching. In contrast to expectations, the morphological variation decreased with increasing diet specialisation. Our results expand on previous work and suggest that individual specialisation and niche width can impact the ability of mobile predators to couple habitats. Furthermore, it shows the importance of individual specialisations in relation to habitat coupling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315718 (URN)10.1111/oik.04094 (DOI)000419102100015 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3221-4559

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