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Ekselius, L
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Publications (10 of 110) Show all publications
Folke, F., Hursti, T., Kanter, J. W., Arinell, H., Tungström, S., Söderberg, P. & Ekselius, L. (2018). Exploring the relationship between activities and emotional experience using a diary in a mental health inpatient setting.. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27(1), 276-286
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the relationship between activities and emotional experience using a diary in a mental health inpatient setting.
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mental health inpatient milieus have repeatedly been found to be associated with passivity, social disengagement, and low levels of interaction with staff. However, little is known about patients' experiences related to different ward activities. In the present study, we aimed to study the reports of activities and associated experiences of patients admitted to acute psychiatric inpatient wards. Disengaged, inactive, and solitary activities were hypothesized to be associated with less reward and more distress than their counterparts. We also aimed to investigate if such activities predicted distress, and if they were associated with clinical severity. Participants (n = 102) recorded their activities along with concurrent ratings of reward and distress in a structured 1-day diary, and nurses provided clinical severity ratings. On average, 3.74 of the 11 hours assessed (34%) were spent doing nothing, only 0.88 hours (8%) were spent with staff, and most of the time was spent in solitude. Doing nothing, being alone, and passivity were associated with the greatest levels of distress and lowest levels of reward, whereas informal socializing demonstrated the opposite pattern. Distress was not predicted by activity or reward when adjusting for baseline distress. Clinical severity was not associated with the amount of time spent alone or the experience of reward during activity. In conclusion, the risk for passivity and social disengagement during admission prevails. This activity pattern could have detrimental emotional consequences and warrants action, but more studies are needed to determine if activity actually precedes emotional experience.

Keywords
activity, diary, hospitalized, mental health inpatient, reward
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330226 (URN)10.1111/inm.12318 (DOI)000419717100027 ()28220616 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, D. & Ekselius, L. (2018). Long-Term Tolerability and Safety of Pharmacological Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A 6-Year Prospective Naturalistic Study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 38(4), 370-375
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-Term Tolerability and Safety of Pharmacological Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A 6-Year Prospective Naturalistic Study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0271-0749, E-ISSN 1533-712X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 370-375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder typically treated with stimulants and atomoxetine. Data on long-term tolerability and safety of such pharmacological treatment in subjects diagnosed in adulthood are limited.

Methods: A cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation. Of 168 adults, 112 (67%) who initiated medication were available for follow-up. Data were obtained from patient record data, self-report forms, and a telephone interview.

Results: Of the 112 participants assessed, 57 (51%) were still on treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) at follow-up and 55 (49%) had discontinued. The 3 leading reasons for discontinuing treatment with MPH were lack of effect (29%), elevated mood or hypomania (11%), and losing contact with the prescribing physician (9%). The most common adverse effects in subjects still on treatment with MPH were decreased appetite (28%), dry mouth (24%), anxiousness/restlessness and increased pulse frequency (19% each), decreased sexual desire (17%), and perspiration (15%). Subjects still on treatment reported increased quality of life, a higher level of functioning, and a greater understanding of their way of functioning from those being close compared with nonmedicated subjects.

Conclusions: The high attrition rate underscores the need for further research to identify possible modes to increase retention to treatment. Those diagnosed with ADHD and on long-term treatment with stimulants experience mild and tolerable adverse effects.

National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327891 (URN)10.1097/JCP.0000000000000917 (DOI)000438053700016 ()29927781 (PubMedID)
Note

Title in dissertation reference list: Long-Term Tolerability and Safety of Pharmacological Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Volgsten, H., Schmidt, L., Skoog Svanberg, A., Ekselius, L. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2018). Psychiatric disorders in women and men up to five years after undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment: a prospective cohort study. Human Fertility, 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychiatric disorders in women and men up to five years after undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment: a prospective cohort study
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2018 (English)In: Human Fertility, ISSN 1464-7273, E-ISSN 1742-8149, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This is a prospective cohort study with the objective to describe psychiatric disorders, such as any mood and anxiety disorders, in both women and men five years after assisted reproductive technology (ART). The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) questionnaire, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), was used as the diagnostic tool to evaluate psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and confidence interval (CI) for factors associated with psychiatric disorders at the follow-up. Overall, 278 (63.3%) women and 183 (41.7%) men filled in and returned the questionnaire. Approximately 11.5% of women and 5.5% of men fulfilled the criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis. Of these, any mood disorder was present in 9.4% of women and 4.4% of men. The major risk factor for mood or anxiety disorders at follow-up was mood or anxiety disorders at the time of the index ART. Mood disorders were not more common in women who remained childless after ART. In conclusion, these findings indicate that psychiatric disorders at five years follow-up after ART are less common than at the baseline assessment in conjunction with the ART.

Keywords
Assisted reproductive technology, cohort study, depression, follow-up, infertility, psychiatric disorders
National Category
Psychiatry Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351123 (URN)10.1080/14647273.2018.1474279 (DOI)29768933 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-19 Created: 2018-05-19 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, D. & Ekselius, L. (2018). Six-Year Outcome in Subjects Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Adults. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 268(4), 337-347
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Six-Year Outcome in Subjects Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Adults
2018 (English)In: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491, Vol. 268, no 4, p. 337-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are very few studies on the long-term outcome in subjects diagnosed with ADHD as adults. The objective of the present study was to assess this and relate the outcome to whether there was current medication or not and to other potential predictors of favourable outcome. A prospective clinical cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation (n = 124; mean age 42 years, 51% males). ADHD symptom trajectories were assessed as well as medication, global functioning, disability, health-related quality of life, and alcohol and drug consumption at follow-up. Ninety percent of those diagnosed were initially treated pharmacologically and half of them discontinued treatment. One-third reported remission, defined as not fulfilling any ADHD subtype and a GAF-value last year ≥ 70, which was not affected by comorbidity at baseline. Current medication was not associated with remission. Subjects evaluated and first diagnosed with ADHD as adults are functionally improved at follow-up 6 years later despite a high percentage of psychiatric comorbidity at baseline. Half dropped out of medication, and there was no difference in ADHD remission between subjects with on-going medication at follow-up or subjects without medication, although current medication was related to a higher degree of self-reported global improvement.

National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327890 (URN)10.1007/s00406-017-0850-6. (DOI)000432412500003 ()29143159 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-08-11 Created: 2017-08-11 Last updated: 2018-07-30Bibliographically approved
Kask, J., Ramklint, M., Kolia, N., Panagiotakos, D., Ekbom, A., Ekselius, L. & Papadopoulos, F. C. (2017). Anorexia nervosa in males: excess mortality and psychiatric co-morbidity in 609 Swedish in-patients. Psychological Medicine, 47(8), 1489-1499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anorexia nervosa in males: excess mortality and psychiatric co-morbidity in 609 Swedish in-patients
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2017 (English)In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1489-1499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder with high mortality.

METHOD: A retrospective register study of 609 males who received hospitalized care for AN in Sweden between 1973 and 2010 was performed. The standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and Cox regression-derived hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as measures of mortality. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the mortality rates in patients with AN and controls both with and without psychiatric diagnoses.

RESULTS: The SMR for all causes of death was 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.1-5.3]. For those patients with psychiatric co-morbidities, the SMR for all causes of death was 9.1 (95% CI 6.6-12.2), and for those without psychiatric co-morbidity, the SMR was 1.6 (95% CI 0.9-2.7). For the group of patients with alcohol use disorder, the SMR for natural causes of death was 11.5 (95% CI 5.0-22.7), and that for unnatural causes was 35.5 (95% CI 17.7-63.5). The HRs confirmed the increased mortality for AN patients with psychiatric co-morbidities, even after adjusting for confounders. The IRRs revealed no significant difference in mortality patterns between the AN patients with psychiatric co-morbidity and the controls with psychiatric diagnoses, with the exceptions of alcohol use disorder and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, which seemed to confer a negative synergistic effect on mortality.

CONCLUSION: Mortality in male AN patients was significantly elevated compared with the general population among only the patients with psychiatric co-morbidities. Specifically, the presence of alcohol and other substance use disorders was associated with more profound excess mortality.

Keywords
Anorexia nervosa, eating disorders, males
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318530 (URN)10.1017/S0033291717000034 (DOI)000401293800014 ()28162109 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Society of Medicine, SLS-253101 SLS-230421
Available from: 2017-03-25 Created: 2017-03-25 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
Björkenstam, E., Ekselius, L., Burström, B., Kosidou, K. & Björkenstam, C. (2017). Association between childhood adversity and a diagnosis of personality disorder in young adulthood: a cohort study of 107,287 individuals in Stockholm County. European Journal of Epidemiology, 32(8), 721-731
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between childhood adversity and a diagnosis of personality disorder in young adulthood: a cohort study of 107,287 individuals in Stockholm County
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 721-731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Childhood adversity (CA) may increase the risk for later developing of personality disorder (PD). However, less is known about the association between cumulative CA and PD, and the role of childhood psychopathology and school performance. The current study examined the relationship between a range of CAs and a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood, and the roles of childhood psychopathology and school performance in this relationship. All individuals born in Stockholm County 1987-1991 (n = 107,287) constituted our cohort. Seven CAs were measured between birth and age 14: familial death, parental criminality, parental substance abuse and psychiatric morbidity, parental separation and/or single-parent household, household public assistance and residential instability. Individuals were followed from their 18th birthday until they were diagnosed with PD or until end of follow-up (December 31st 2011). Adjusted estimates of risk of PD were calculated as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Associations were observed between cumulative CA and PD. During the follow-up 770 individuals (0.7%) were diagnosed with PD. Individuals exposed to 3+ CAs had the highest risks of being diagnosed with PD (HR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4-3.7). Childhood psychopathology and low school grades further increased the risk of PD among individuals exposed to CA. Cumulative CA is strongly associated with a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood. Our findings indicate that special attention should be given in schools and health services to children exposed to adversities to prevent decline in school performance, and to detect vulnerable individuals that may be on negative life-course trajectories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2017
Keywords
Childhood adversity, Personality disorder, Epidemiology, Cohort, Sweden
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335716 (URN)10.1007/s10654-017-0264-9 (DOI)000410179400009 ()28560537 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, Å., Skalkidou, A., Hellgren, C., Gingnell, M., Ekselius, L., Willebrand, M. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2017). Different patterns of attentional bias in antenatal and postpartum depression. Brain and Behavior, 7(11), Article ID e00844.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different patterns of attentional bias in antenatal and postpartum depression
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2017 (English)In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 7, no 11, article id e00844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundBiased information processing in attention, memory, and interpretation is proposed to be central cognitive alterations in patients with major depressive disorder, but studies in women with peripartum depression are scarce. Because of the many similarities with depression in nonperipartum states as regards symptom profile and risk factors, we hypothesized that women with antenatal and postpartum depression would display attentional bias to negatively and positively valenced words. MethodsOne hundred and seventy-seven pregnant and 157 postpartum women were included. Among these, 40 suffered from antenatal depressive disorder and 33 from postpartum depressive disorder. An emotional Stroop task with neutral, positive, negative, and negatively valenced obstetric words was used. ResultsNo significant difference in emotional interference scores was noted between women with antenatal depression and nondepressed pregnant women. In contrast, women with postpartum depression displayed shorter reaction times to both positive (p=.028) and negative (p=.022) stimuli, compared with neutral words. Pregnant women on antidepressant treatment displayed longer reaction times to negatively valenced obstetric words in comparison with untreated depressed women (p=.012), and a trend toward greater interference in comparison with controls (p=.061). ConclusionsIn contrast with the hypothesis, we found no evidence of attentional bias to emotionally valenced stimuli in women with untreated peripartum depression. However, the shorter reaction times to emotional stimuli in women with postpartum depression may indicate emotional numbing, which in turn, is a functional impairment that may have repercussions for child development and well-being. Our findings emphasize the need to identify and treat women with postpartum depression at the earliest possible time point to ensure swift recovery and support for the family.

Keywords
antenatal depression, attentional bias, emotional Stroop, postpartum depression, pregnancy, women
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342913 (URN)10.1002/brb3.844 (DOI)000416063200009 ()29201545 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Condén, E., Rosenblad, A., Wagner, P., Leppert, J., Ekselius, L. & Åslund, C. (2017). Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24(5), 522-533
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 522-533Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Methods: Utilising data from the Vastmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results: In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions: No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2017
Keywords
All-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, type D personality
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320269 (URN)10.1177/2047487316687427 (DOI)000397434800009 ()28071958 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2017-04-18 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
Wallin Lundell, I., Sundström Poromaa, I., Ekselius, L., Georgsson, S., Frans, Ö., Helström, L., . . . Skoog Svanberg, A. (2017). Neuroticism-related personality traits are associated with posttraumatic stress after abortion: findings from a Swedish multi-center cohort study. BMC Women's Health, 17, Article ID 96.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism-related personality traits are associated with posttraumatic stress after abortion: findings from a Swedish multi-center cohort study
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2017 (English)In: BMC Women's Health, Vol. 17, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Most women who choose to terminate a pregnancy cope well following an abortion, although some women experience severe psychological distress. The general interpretation in the field is that the most consistent predictor of mental disorders after induced abortion is the mental health issues that women present with prior to the abortion. We have previously demonstrated that few women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after induced abortion. Neuroticism is one predictor of importance for PTSD, and may thus be relevant as a risk factor for the development of PTSD or PTSS after abortion. We therefore compared Neuroticism-related personality trait scores of women who developed PTSD or PTSS after abortion to those of women with no evidence of PTSD or PTSS before or after the abortion.

Methods: A Swedish multi-center cohort study including six Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments, where 1294 abortion-seeking women were included. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used to evaluate PTSD and PTSS. Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six month after the abortion. The Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) was used for assessment of Neuroticism-related personality traits. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the risk factors for development of PTSD or PTSS post abortion.

Results: Women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion had higher scores than the comparison group on several of the personality traits associated with Neuroticism, specifically Somatic Trait Anxiety, Psychic Trait Anxiety, Stress Susceptibility and Embitterment. Women who reported high, or very high, scores on Neuroticism had adjusted odds ratios for PTSD/PTSS development of 2.6 (CI 95% 1.2-5.6) and 2.9 (CI 95% 1.3-6.6), respectively.

Conclusion: High scores on Neuroticism-related personality traits influence the risk of PTSD or PTSS post abortion. This finding supports the argument that the most consistent predictor of mental disorders after abortion is pre-existing mental health status.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330695 (URN)10.1186/s12905-017-0417-8 (DOI)000412081900002 ()
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-21Bibliographically approved
Cunningham, J. L., Zanzi, M., Willebrand, M., Ekselius, L. & Ramklint, M. (2017). No regrets: Young adult patients in psychiatry report positive reactions to biobank participation. BMC Psychiatry, 17, Article ID 21.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No regrets: Young adult patients in psychiatry report positive reactions to biobank participation
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2017 (English)In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Research in vulnerable individuals must insure voluntariness and minimize negative reactions caused by participation. This study aimed to describe consent and completion rate in young psychiatric patients in relation to study components, degree of disability and to compare response to research participation in patients and controls.

METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 463 patients with psychiatric disorders between the ages of 18-25 from the Dept. of General Psychiatry at Uppsala University Hospital and 105 controls were recruited to donate data and samples to a biobank. Consent and completion in relation to questionnaires, biological sampling of blood, saliva or feces, were monitored. Both groups were also asked about their perceived disability and how research participation affected them.

RESULTS: Most patients who participated consented to and completed questionnaires and blood sampling. The majority also consented to saliva sampling, while less than half consented to collect feces. Of those who gave consent to saliva and feces only half completed the sampling. Both patients and controls reported high voluntariness and were positive to research participation. Within the patient group, those with greater perceived disability reported greater distress while participating in research, but there was no difference in consent or completion rates or level of regret.

CONCLUSIONS: With the described information procedures, psychiatric patients, regardless of perceived disability, reported high voluntariness and did not regret participation in biobanking. Compared to questionnaires and blood sampling, given consent was reduced for feces and completion was lower for both saliva and feces sampling.

Keywords
Biobanking, Disability, Ethics, General psychiatry, Voluntariness
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318531 (URN)10.1186/s12888-017-1199-0 (DOI)000394384300003 ()28095825 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Society of Medicine
Note

Correction in BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 17 Article number 74. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-017-1228-z

Available from: 2017-03-25 Created: 2017-03-25 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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