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Kolliopoulos, C., Lin, C.-Y., Heldin, C.-H., Moustakas, A. & Heldin, P. (2019). Has2 natural antisense RNA and Hmga2 promote Has2 expression during TGFβ-induced EMT in breast cancer. Matrix Biology, 80, 29-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Has2 natural antisense RNA and Hmga2 promote Has2 expression during TGFβ-induced EMT in breast cancer
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2019 (English)In: Matrix Biology, ISSN 0945-053X, E-ISSN 1569-1802, Vol. 80, p. 29-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan has a crucial role in tissue organization and cell signaling. Hyaluronan accumulates in conjunction with rapid tissue remodeling during embryogenesis, as well as in inflammatory conditions and cancer. We report a negative correlation between the expression of genes encoding hyaluronan synthase HAS2, its natural antisense transcript HAS2-AS, the chromatin modulating factor HMGA2 and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and survival of patients with invasive breast carcinomas. In mouse mammary epithelial cells, TGFβ activates Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, resulting in the transcriptional induction of Has2, Has2as (the mouse ortholog of HAS2-AS) and Hmga2, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-promoting transcription factors, such as Snail. Importantly, Has2as abrogation suppressed the TGFβ induction of EMT markers, including Snai1, Hmga2, Fn1, and suppressed the mesenchymal phenotype. TGFβ induction of Hmga2, Has2as and Has2, and synthesis of hyaluronan were accompanied with activation of Akt and Erk1/2 MAP-kinase signaling and were required for breast cancer cell motility. Importantly, the hyaluronan receptor Cd44, but not Hmmr, was required for TGFβ-mediated EMT phenotype. Interestingly, Has2as was found to contribute to the maintenance of stem cell factors and breast cancer stemness. Our findings show that Has2as has a key role in TGFβ- and HAS2-induced breast cancer EMT, migration and acquisition of stemness.

Keywords
Cancer, EMT, Hyaluronan, Stemness, lncRNA
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372431 (URN)10.1016/j.matbio.2018.09.002 (DOI)000471739100003 ()30194979 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 15 0778Swedish Research Council, 15 02757
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Morén, A., Bellomo, C., Tsubakihara, Y., Kardassis, D., Mikulits, W., Heldin, C.-H. & Moustakas, A. (2019). LXR alpha limits TGF beta-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma associated fibroblast differentiation. Oncogenesis, 8, Article ID 36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LXR alpha limits TGF beta-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma associated fibroblast differentiation
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2019 (English)In: Oncogenesis, E-ISSN 2157-9024, Vol. 8, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is deposited in the extracellular space of diverse tissues. Resident fibroblasts respond to TGF beta and undergo myofibroblastic differentiation during tissue wound healing and cancer progression. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) communicate with tumor cells during cancer progression, under the guidance of TGF beta signaling. We report that agonist-activated liver X receptors (LXR) limit the expression of key components of myofibroblast differentiation, including the a-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA) gene in liver cancer cells. CAFs derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) express high aSMA and low LXR alpha levels, whereas hepatocarcinoma cells exhibit an inverse expression pattern. All hepatoma cells analyzed responded to the LXR alpha agonist T0901317 by inducing fatty acid synthase (FASN) expression. On the other hand, T0901317 antagonized TGF beta-induced fibroblastic marker responses, such as fibronectin and calponin, in a subset of hepatoma cells and all CAFs analyzed. Mechanistically, LXR alpha antagonized TGF beta signaling at the transcriptional level. Smad3 and LXR alpha were recruited to adjacent DNA motifs of the ACTA2 promoter. Upon cloning the human ACTA2 promoter, we confirmed its transcriptional induction by TGF beta stimulation, and LXR alpha overexpression repressed the promoter activity. Hepatosphere formation by HCC cells was enhanced upon co-culturing with CAFs. T0901317 suppressed the positive effects exerted on hepatosphere growth by CAFs. Taken together, the data suggest that LXR alpha agonists limit TGF beta-dependent CAF differentiation, potentially limiting primary HCC growth.

National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387277 (URN)10.1038/s41389-019-0140-4 (DOI)000468075200001 ()31097694 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2013-66 x - 14936-10-5Swedish Research Council, 2017-01588Swedish Research Council, 2018-02757Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeEU, European Research Council, 787472
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Papoutsoglou, P., Tsubakihara, Y., Caja, L., Morén, A., Pallis, P., Ameur, A., . . . Moustakas, A. (2019). The TGFB2-AS1 lncRNA Regulates TGF-beta Signaling by Modulating Corepressor Activity. Cell reports, 28(12), 3182-3198.ell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The TGFB2-AS1 lncRNA Regulates TGF-beta Signaling by Modulating Corepressor Activity
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2019 (English)In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 3182-3198.ellArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Molecular processes involving lncRNAs regulate cell function. By applying transcriptomics, we identify lncRNAs whose expression is regulated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Upon silencing individual lncRNAs, we identify several that regulate TGF-beta signaling. Among these lncRNAs, TGFB2-antisense RNA1 (TGFB2-AS1) is induced by TGF-beta through Smad and protein kinase pathways and resides in the nucleus. Depleting TGFB2-AS1 enhances TGF-beta/Smad-mediated transcription and expression of hallmark TGF-beta-target genes. Increased dose of TGFB2-AS1 reduces expression of these genes, attenuates TGF-beta-induced cell growth arrest, and alters BMP and Wnt pathway gene profiles. Mechanistically, TGFB2-AS1, mainly via its 3' terminal region, binds to the EED adaptor of the Polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2), promoting repressive histone H3K27me(3) modifications at TGF-beta-target gene promoters. Silencing EED or inhibiting PRC2 methylation activity partially rescues TGFB2-AS1-mediated gene repression. Thus, the TGF-beta-induced TGFB2-AS1 lncRNA exerts inhibitory functions on TGF-beta/BMP signaling output, supporting auto-regulatory negative feedback that balances TGF-beta/BMP-mediated responses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CELL PRESS, 2019
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395306 (URN)10.1016/j.celrep.2019.08.028 (DOI)000486389400014 ()31533040 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, CAN2015/438Swedish Research Council, K2013-66X-14936-10-5Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757EU, European Research Council, 787472
Available from: 2019-10-18 Created: 2019-10-18 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Kolliopoulos, C., Raja, E., Razmara, M., Heldin, P., Heldin, C.-H., Moustakas, A. & van der Heide, L. P. (2019). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induces NUAK kinase expression to fine-tune its signaling output. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 294(11), 4119-4136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induces NUAK kinase expression to fine-tune its signaling output
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 294, no 11, p. 4119-4136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

TGFβ signaling via SMAD proteins and protein kinase pathways up- or down-regulates the expression of many genes and thus affects physiological processes, such as differentiation, migration, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis during developmental or adult tissue homeostasis. We here report that NUAK family kinase 1 (NUAK1) and NUAK2 are two TGFβ target genes. NUAK1/2 belong to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, whose members control central and protein metabolism, polarity and overall cellular homeostasis. We found that TGFβ-mediated transcriptional induction of NUAK1 and NUAK2 requires SMAD family members 2, 3 and 4 (SMAD2/3/4) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, which provided immediate and early signals for the transient expression of these two kinases. Genomic mapping identified an enhancer element within the first intron of the NUAK2 gene that can recruit SMAD proteins, which, when cloned, could confer induction by TGFβ.  Furthermore, NUAK2 formed protein complexes with SMAD3 and the TGFβ type I receptor. Functionally, NUAK1 suppressed and NUAK2 induced TGFβ signaling. This was evident during TGFβ-induced epithelial cytostasis, mesenchymal differentiation and myofibroblast contractility, in which NUAK1 or NUAK2 silencing enhanced or inhibited these responses, respectively. In conclusion, we have identified a bifurcating loop during TGFβ signaling, whereby transcriptional induction of NUAK1 serves as a negative checkpoint and NUAK2 induction positively contributes to signaling and terminal differentiation responses to TGFβ activity.

Keywords
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), SMAD transcription factor, cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), myofibroblast, signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B)
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378698 (URN)10.1074/jbc.RA118.004984 (DOI)000461854400024 ()30622137 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2010-67X-14936-07-3Swedish Research Council, K2013-66X-14936-10-5Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Maturi, V., Morén, A., Enroth, S., Heldin, C.-H. & Moustakas, A. (2018). Genomewide binding of transcription factor Snail1 in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Molecular Oncology, 12(7), 1153-1174
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genomewide binding of transcription factor Snail1 in triple-negative breast cancer cells
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2018 (English)In: Molecular Oncology, ISSN 1574-7891, E-ISSN 1878-0261, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1153-1174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transcriptional regulation mediated by the zinc finger protein Snail1 controls early embryogenesis. By binding to the epithelial tumor suppressor CDH1 gene, Snail1 initiates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT generates stem-like cells and promotes invasiveness during cancer progression. Accordingly, Snail1 mRNA and protein is abundantly expressed in triple-negative breast cancers with enhanced metastatic potential and phenotypic signs of the EMT. Such high endogenous Snail1 protein levels permit quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis. Snail1 associated with 185 genes at cis regulatory regions in the Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer cell model. These genes include morphogenetic regulators and signaling components that control polarized differentiation. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Hs578T cells, a double deletion of 10bp each was engineered into the first exon and into the second exon-intron junction of Snail1, suppressing Snail1 expression and causing misregulation of several hundred genes. Specific attention to regulators of chromatin organization provides a possible link to new phenotypes uncovered by the Snail1 loss-of-function mutation. On the other hand, genetic inactivation of Snail1 was not sufficient to establish a full epithelial transition to these tumor cells. Thus, Snail1 contributes to the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells via diverse new mechanisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
bone morphogenetic protein, breast cancer, chromatin immunoprecipitation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, transforming growth factor beta
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360496 (URN)10.1002/1878-0261.12317 (DOI)000436942300011 ()29729076 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2013-66X-14936-10-5Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), b2013260Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2012/438Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2015/438Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2016/445
Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Maturi, V., Enroth, S., Heldin, C.-H. & Moustakas, A. (2018). Genome-wide binding of transcription factor ZEB1 in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 233(10), 7113-7127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-wide binding of transcription factor ZEB1 in triple-negative breast cancer cells
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 233, no 10, p. 7113-7127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is a transcriptional regulator involved in embryonic development and cancer progression. ZEB1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Triple-negative human breast cancers express high ZEB1 mRNA levels and exhibit features of EMT. In the human triple-negative breast cancer cell model Hs578T, ZEB1 associates with almost 2,000 genes, representing many cellular functions, including cell polarity regulation (DLG2 and FAT3). By introducing a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated 30bp deletion into the ZEB1 second exon, we observed reduced migratory and anchorage-independent growth capacity of these tumor cells. Transcriptomic analysis of control and ZEB1 knockout cells, revealed 1,372 differentially expressed genes. The TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 and the teneurin transmembrane protein 2 genes showed increased expression upon loss of ZEB1, possibly mediating pro-tumorigenic actions of ZEB1. This work provides a resource for regulators of cancer progression that function under the transcriptional control of ZEB1. The data confirm that removing a single EMT transcription factor, such as ZEB1, is not sufficient for reverting the triple-negative mesenchymal breast cancer cells into more differentiated, epithelial-like clones, but can reduce tumorigenic potential, suggesting that not all pro-tumorigenic actions of ZEB1 are linked to the EMT.

Keywords
ZEB1, EMT, ChIP-seq, CRISPR-Cas9
National Category
Cell Biology
Research subject
Biochemistry; Biology with specialization in Molecular Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334438 (URN)10.1002/jcp.26634 (DOI)000438352300071 ()29744893 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757Swedish Research Council, K2013-66X-14936-10-5Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2012/438Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2015/438Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2016/445
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Yakymovych, I., Yakymovych, M. & Heldin, C.-H. (2018). Intracellular trafficking of transforming growth factor beta receptors. Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica, 50(1), 3-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intracellular trafficking of transforming growth factor beta receptors
2018 (English)In: Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica, ISSN 1672-9145, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 3-11Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members signal via heterotetrameric complexes of type I (T beta RI) and type II (T beta RII) dual specificity kinase receptors. The availability of the receptors on the cell surface is controlled by several mechanisms. Newly synthesized T beta RI and T beta RII are delivered from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface via separate routes. On the cell surface, TGF beta receptors are distributed between different microdomains of the plasma membrane and can be internalized via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytic mechanisms. Although receptor endocytosis is not essential for TGF beta signaling, localization of the activated receptor complexes on the early endosomes promotes TGF beta-induced Smad activation. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which is widely regarded as a mechanism that facilitates the degradation of TGF beta receptors, has been shown to be required for TGF beta signaling via non-Smad pathways. The importance of proper control of TGF beta receptor intracellular trafficking is emphasized by clinical data, as mislocalization of receptors has been described in connection with several human diseases. Thus, control of intracellular trafficking of the TGF beta receptors together with the regulation of their expression, posttranslational modifications and down-regulation, ensure proper regulation of TGF beta signaling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
TGF beta receptor, endocytosis, clathrin, lipid rafts, endosome
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350115 (URN)10.1093/abbs/gmx119 (DOI)000423304200002 ()29186283 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Heldin, C.-H., Lennartsson, J. & Westermark, B. (2018). Involvement of platelet-derived growth factor ligands and receptors in tumorigenesis. Journal of Internal Medicine, 283(1), 16-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Involvement of platelet-derived growth factor ligands and receptors in tumorigenesis
2018 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 283, no 1, p. 16-44Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms and their receptors have important roles during embryogenesis, particularly in the development of various mesenchymal cell types in different organs. In the adult, PDGF stimulates wound healing and regulates tissue homeostasis. However, overactivity of PDGF signalling is associated with malignancies and other diseases characterized by excessive cell proliferation, such as fibrotic conditions and atherosclerosis. In certain tumours, genetic or epigenetic alterations of the genes for PDGF ligands and receptors drive tumour cell proliferation and survival. Examples include the rare skin tumour dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance, which is driven by autocrine PDGF stimulation due to translocation of a PDGF gene, and certain gastrointestinal stromal tumours and leukaemias, which are driven by constitute activation of PDGF receptors due to point mutations and formation of fusion proteins ofthe receptors, respectively. Moreover, PDGF stimulates cells in tumour stroma and promotes angiogenesis as well as the development of cancer-associated fibroblasts, both of which promote tumour progression. Inhibitors of PDGF signalling may thus be of clinical usefulness in the treatment of certain tumours.

Keywords
inhibitor, kinase, malignancy, receptor, signal transduction, PDGF
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347709 (URN)10.1111/joim.12690 (DOI)000418411100002 ()28940884 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 2016/445; 2015/226; 2014/468Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Sundqvist, A., Morikawa, M., Ren, J., Vasilaki, E., Kawasaki, N., Kobayashi, M., . . . ten Dijke, P. (2018). JUNB governs a feed-forward network of TGF beta signaling that aggravates breast cancer invasion. Nucleic Acids Research, 46(3), 1180-1195
Open this publication in new window or tab >>JUNB governs a feed-forward network of TGF beta signaling that aggravates breast cancer invasion
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2018 (English)In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 1180-1195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is well established that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) switches its function from being a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter during the course of tumorigenesis, which involves both cell-intrinsic and environment-mediated mechanisms. We are interested in breast cancer cells, in which SMAD mutations are rare and interactions between SMAD and other transcription factors define pro-oncogenic events. Here, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing analyses which indicate that the genome-wide landscape of SMAD2/3 binding is altered after prolonged TGF beta stimulation. De novo motif analyses of the SMAD2/3 binding regions predict enrichment of binding motifs for activator protein (AP) 1 in addition to SMAD motifs. TGF beta-induced expression of the AP1 component JUNB was required for expression of many late invasion-mediating genes, creating a feed-forward regulatory network. Moreover, we found that several components in the WNT pathway were enriched among the late TGF beta-target genes, including the invasion-inducing WNT7 proteins. Consistently, overexpression of WNT7A or WNT7B enhanced and potentiated TGF beta-induced breast cancer cell invasion, while inhibition of the WNT pathway reduced this process. Our study thereby helps to explain how accumulation of pro-oncogenic stimuli switches and stabilizes TGF beta-induced cellular phenotypes of epithelial cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349356 (URN)10.1093/nar/gkx1190 (DOI)000425294400020 ()29186616 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 09 0773, 10 0452, 2016/445Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Papadopoulos, N., Lennartsson, J. & Heldin, C.-H. (2018). PDGFR beta translocates to the nucleus and regulates chromatin remodeling via TATA element-modifying factor 1. Journal of Cell Biology, 217(5), 1701-1717
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PDGFR beta translocates to the nucleus and regulates chromatin remodeling via TATA element-modifying factor 1
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 217, no 5, p. 1701-1717Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Translocation of full-length or fragments of receptors to the nucleus has been reported for several tyrosine kinase receptors. In this paper, we show that a fraction of full-length cell surface platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor beta (PDG FR beta) accumulates in the nucleus at the chromatin and the nuclear matrix after ligand stimulation. Nuclear translocation of PDG FR beta was dependent on PDGF-BB-induced receptor dimerization, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, beta-importin, and intact Golgi, occurring in both normal and cancer cells. In the nucleus, PDG FR beta formed ligand-inducible complexes with the tyrosine kinase Fer and its substrate, TATA element-modifying factor 1 (TMF-1). PDGF-BB stimulation decreased TMF-1 binding to the transcriptional regulator Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg-1) and released Brg-1 from the SWI-SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Moreover, knockdown of TMF-1 by small interfering RNA decreased nuclear translocation of PDG FR beta and caused significant up-regulation of the Brg-1/p53-regulated cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A (encoding p21) without affecting PDG FR beta-inducible immediate-early genes. In conclusion, nuclear interactions of PDG FR beta control proliferation by chromatin remodeling and regulation of p21 levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2018
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356403 (URN)10.1083/jcb.201706118 (DOI)000431616300016 ()29545370 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02757Swedish Cancer Society, 2016/445Swedish Cancer Society, 140332
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-07-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9508-896x

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