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Bjornerud, Atle
Alternative names
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Morell, A., Lennmyr, F., Jonsson, O., Tovedal, T., Pettersson, J., Bergquist, J., . . . Bjørnerud, A. (2015). Influence of blood/tissue differences in contrast agent relaxivity on tracer based MR perfusion measurements. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, 28(2), 135-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of blood/tissue differences in contrast agent relaxivity on tracer based MR perfusion measurements
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2015 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, ISSN 0968-5243, E-ISSN 1352-8661, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 135-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE:

Perfusion assessment by monitoring the transport of a tracer bolus depends critically on conversion of signal intensity into tracer concentration. Two main assumptions are generally applied for this conversion; (1) contrast agent relaxivity is identical in blood and tissue, (2) change in signal intensity depends only on the primary relaxation effect. The purpose of the study was to assess the validity and influence of these assumptions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Blood and cerebral tissue relaxivities r1, r2, and r2* for gadodiamide were measured in four pigs at 1.5 T. Gadolinium concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Influence of the relaxivities, secondary relaxation effects and choice of singular value decomposition (SVD) regularization threshold was studied by simulations.

RESULTS:

In vivo relaxivities relative to blood concentration [in s-1 mM-1 for blood, gray matter (GM), white matter (WM)] were for r1 (2.614 ± 1.061, 0.010 ± 0.001, 0.004 ± 0.002), r2 (5.088 ± 0.952, 0.091 ± 0.008, 0.059 ± 0.014), and r2* (13.292 ± 3.928, 1.696 ± 0.157, 0.910 ± 0.139). Although substantial, by a nonparametric test for paired samples, the differences were not statistically significant. The GM to WM blood volume ratio was estimated to 2.6 ± 0.9 by r1, 1.6 ± 0.3 by r2, and 1.9 ± 0.2 by r2*. Secondary relaxation was found to reduce the tissue blood flow, as did the SVD regularization threshold.

CONCLUSION:

Contrast agent relaxivity is not identical in blood and tissue leading to substantial errors. Further errors are introduced by secondary relaxation effects and the SVD regularization.

Keywords
MRI, relaxivity, contrast agent, perfusion
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Radiology; Medical Radiophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-170528 (URN)10.1007/s10334-014-0452-5 (DOI)000352149200004 ()
Available from: 2012-03-28 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, O., Morell, A., Zemgulis, V., Lundström, E., Tovedal, T., Myrdal Einarsson, G., . . . Lennmyr, F. (2011). Minimal Safe Arterial Blood Flow During Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion at 20° Centigrade. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 91(4), 1198-1205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimal Safe Arterial Blood Flow During Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion at 20° Centigrade
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2011 (English)In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 0003-4975, E-ISSN 1552-6259, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 1198-1205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) enables surgery on the aortic arch, where cerebral ischemia may cause neurologic sequels. This study aims to identify the minimum arterial flow level to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during SACP in deep hypothermia in the pig.

Methods

Two groups of pigs were subjected to SACP at 20°C α-stat. In group 1 (n = 6), flow was stepwise adjusted from 8-6-4-2-8 mL · kg−1 · min−1 and in group 2 (n = 5), flow was kept constant at 6 mL · kg−1 · min−1. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were performed at each flow level together with hemodynamic monitoring and blood gas analysis. The biochemical marker of cerebral damage protein S100β was measured in peripheral blood.

Results

Decreased mixed venous oxygen saturation and increased lactate in magnetic resonance spectroscopy was seen as a sign of anaerobic metabolism below 6 mL · kg−1 · min−1. No ischemic damage was seen on diffusion-weighted imaging, but the concentrations of S100β were significantly elevated in group 1 compared with group 2 at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05). Perfusion-weighted imaging showed coherence between flow setting and cerebral perfusion, increase of blood volume across time, and regional differences in perfusion during SACP.

Conclusions

The findings suggest an ischemic threshold close to 6 mL · kg−1 · min−1 in the present model. Regional differences in perfusion during SACP may be of pathogenic importance to focal cerebral ischemia.

Keywords
cerebral perfusion
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Thorax Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-147480 (URN)10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.12.066 (DOI)000288785800057 ()21353198 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, k2010-64x-08268-23-3
Available from: 2011-02-25 Created: 2011-02-25 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Wikström, J., Bjornerud, A., McGill, S. & Johansson, L. (2009). Venous saturation slab causes overestimation of stenosis length in two-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Acta Radiologica, 50(1), 55-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Venous saturation slab causes overestimation of stenosis length in two-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography
2009 (English)In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The use of downstream saturation slabs in two-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (2D TOF MRA) of the arterial system eliminates signal from regions with countercurrent flow, as seen in veins, but possibly also beyond arterial stenoses because of flow turbulence. PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of a downstream saturation slab to signal intensity (SI) loss beyond stenoses at 2D TOF MRA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 2D TOF MRA was performed on a bifurcation phantom with a tight stenosis at 1.5T during pulsatile flow. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of stenosis delineation were performed with different echo times (TE) (3.7 or 7.0 ms), spatial resolution (1 x 1 x 1 or 1 x 1 x 5 mm(3)), and with or without a downstream saturation slab. For reference, a high-resolution contrast-enhanced sequence without flow was obtained. RESULTS: The downstream saturation slab caused severe signal loss immediately distal to the stenosis, causing overestimation of stenosis length. This region corresponded with a region of poststenotic flow jet, where turbulence is expected. With increase in TE, there was some increased SI loss at the level of maximum stenosis. A lower spatial resolution resulted in overall poorer delineation of the stenosis. CONCLUSION: Using clinically relevant sequence parameters, the use of a downstream saturation slab at 2D TOF MRA was found to be a major contributor to signal loss in stenotic regions, which can result in an overestimation of stenosis length.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-124838 (URN)10.1080/02841850802562063 (DOI)000262638600008 ()19052937 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Morell, A., Ahlström, H., Schoenberg, S., Abildgaard, A., Bock, M. & Bjørnerud, A. (2008). Quantitative renal cortical perfusion in human subjects with magnetic resonance imaging using iron-oxide nanoparticles: influence of T1 shortening. Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987), 49(8), 955-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative renal cortical perfusion in human subjects with magnetic resonance imaging using iron-oxide nanoparticles: influence of T1 shortening
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2008 (English)In: Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987), ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 955-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Using conventional contrast agents, the technique of quantitative perfusion by observing the transport of a bolus with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited to the brain due to extravascular leakage. PURPOSE: To perform quantitative perfusion measurements in humans with an intravascular contrast agent, and to estimate the influence of the T1 relaxivity of the contrast agent on the first-pass response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Renal cortical perfusion was measured quantitatively in six patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis using a rapid gradient double-echo sequence in combination with an intravenous bolus injection of NC100150 Injection, an intravascular contrast agent based on iron-oxide nanoparticles. The influence of T1 relaxivity was measured by comparing perfusion results based on single- and double-echo data. RESULTS: The mean values of cortical blood flow, cortical blood volume, and mean transit time in the normal kidneys were measured to 339+/-60 ml/min/100 g, 41+/-8 ml/100 g, and 7.3+/-1.0 s, respectively, based on double-echo data. The corresponding results based on single-echo data, which are not compensated for the T1 relaxivity, were 254+/-47 ml/min/100 g, 27+/-3 ml/100 g, and 6+/-1.2 s, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of a double-echo sequence enabled elimination of confounding T1 effects and consequent systematic underestimation of the perfusion.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Research subject
Radiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-103263 (URN)10.1080/02841850802227139 (DOI)000260046200017 ()18615336 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-05-18 Created: 2009-05-18 Last updated: 2012-08-01Bibliographically approved
Bjørnerud, A., Johansson, L. O., Briley-Sæbø, K. & Ahlström, H. K. (2002). Assessment of T1 and T2* effects in vivo and ex vivo using iron oxide nanoparticles in steady state: dependence on blood volume and water exchange. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 47(3), 461-471
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of T1 and T2* effects in vivo and ex vivo using iron oxide nanoparticles in steady state: dependence on blood volume and water exchange
2002 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 461-471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate knowledge of the relationship between contrast agent concentration and tissue relaxation is a critical requirement for quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion using contrast-enhanced MRI. In the present study, using a pig model, the relationship between steady-state blood concentration levels of an iron oxide nanoparticle with a hydrated diameter of 12 nm (NC100150 Injection) and changes in the transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates (1/T2* and 1/T1, respectively) in blood, muscle, and renal cortex was investigated at 1.5 T. Ex vivo measurements of 1/T2* and 1/T1 were additionally performed in whole pig blood spiked with different concentrations of the iron oxide nanoparticle. In renal cortex and muscle, 1/T2* increased linearly with contrast agent concentration with slopes of 101 +/-22 s(-1)mM(-1) and 6.5 +/-0.9 s(-1)mM(-1) (mean +/- SD), respectively. In blood, 1/T2* increased as a quadratic function of contrast agent concentration, with different quadratic terms in the ex vivo vs. the in vivo experiments. In vivo, 1/T1 in blood increased linearly with contrast agent concentration, with a slope (T1-relaxivity) of 13.9 +/- 0.9 s(-1)mM(-1). The achievable increase in 1/T1 in renal cortex and muscle was limited by the rate of water exchange between the intra- and extravascular compartments and the 1/T1-curves were well described by a two-compartment water exchange limited relaxation model.

Keywords
Animals, Blood Volume, Body Water/metabolism, Contrast Media/*pharmacokinetics, Image Processing; Computer-Assisted, Iron/*pharmacokinetics, Kidney Cortex/*anatomy & histology, Magnetic Resonance Imaging/*methods, Muscles/*anatomy & histology, Nanotechnology, Oxides/*pharmacokinetics, Particle Size, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Swine
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-73117 (URN)10.1002/mrm.10066 (DOI)11870832 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-03-14 Created: 2007-03-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Johansson, L., Bjerner, T., Bjornerud, A., Ahlström, H., Tarlo, K. S. & Lorenz, C. H. (2002). Utility of NC100150 injection in cardiac MRI. Academic Radiology, 9(Suppl 1), S79-S81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utility of NC100150 injection in cardiac MRI
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2002 (English)In: Academic Radiology, ISSN 1076-6332, E-ISSN 1878-4046, Vol. 9, no Suppl 1, p. S79-S81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Animals, Contrast Media, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Arteriosclerosis/*diagnosis, Coronary Circulation, Iron/*diagnostic use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Oxides/*diagnostic use, Swine
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-72813 (URN)10.1016/S1076-6332(03)80404-X (DOI)12019903 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-03-14 Created: 2007-03-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
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