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Jayasinghe, S., Lind, L., Salihovic, S., Larsson, A. & Lind, P. M. (2019). DDT and its metabolites could contribute to the aetiology of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) and more studies are a priority. Science of the Total Environment, 649, 1638-1639
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DDT and its metabolites could contribute to the aetiology of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) and more studies are a priority
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 649, p. 1638-1639Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Chronic kidney disease, DDE, DDT
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363386 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.116 (DOI)000446076500155 ()30227991 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Manukyan, L., Dunder, L., Lind, P. M., Bergsten, P. & Lejonklou, M. H. (2019). Developmental exposure to a very low dose of bisphenol A induces persistent islet insulin hypersecretion in Fischer 344 rat offspring. Environmental Research, 172, 127-136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental exposure to a very low dose of bisphenol A induces persistent islet insulin hypersecretion in Fischer 344 rat offspring
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 172, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In children with obesity, accentuated insulin secretion has been coupled with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical with endocrine- and metabolism-disrupting properties which can be measured in a majority of the population. Exposure to BPA has been associated with the development of metabolic diseases including T2DM.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if exposure early in life to an environmentally relevant low dose of BPA causes insulin hypersecretion in rat offspring.

Methods: Pregnant Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.5 (BPA0.5) or 50 (BPA50) jig BPA/kg BW/day via drinking water from gestational day 3.5 until postnatal day 22. Pancreata from dams and 5- and 52-week-old offspring were procured and islets were isolated by collagenase digestion. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in the islets were determined by ELISA.

Results: Basal (5.5 mM glucose) islet insulin secretion was not affected by BPA exposure. However, stimulated (11 mM glucose) insulin secretion was enhanced by about 50% in islets isolated from BPA0.5-exposed 5- and 52 week-old female and male offspring and by 80% in islets from dams, compared with control. In contrast, the higher dose, BPA50, reduced stimulated insulin secretion by 40% in both 5- and 52-week-old female and male offspring and dams, compared with control.

Conclusion: A BPA intake 8 times lower than the European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA's) current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 4 mu g/kg BW/day of BPA delivered via drinking water during gestation and early development causes islet insulin hypersecretion in rat offspring up to one year after exposure. The effects of BPA exposure on the endocrine pancreas may promote the development of metabolic disease including T2DM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019
Keywords
Bisphenol A, Endocrine disruptor, Fischer 344 rats, Insulin hypersecretion, Islets of Langerhans
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387967 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2019.02.009 (DOI)000468377500014 ()30782532 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2012-475Swedish Diabetes Association, DIA 2016-146Ernfors Foundation, 170504
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Fall, T., Ganna, A., Broeckling, C. D., Prenni, J. E., Hyötyläinen, T., . . . Lind, L. (2019). Identification of metabolic profiles associated with human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances.. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 29(2), 196-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of metabolic profiles associated with human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be associated with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic phenotypes. To gain further insights regarding PFASs exposure in humans, we here aimed to characterize the associations between different PFASs and the metabolome. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 965 individuals from Sweden (all aged 70 years, 50% women) sampled in 2001-2004. PFASs were analyzed in plasma using isotope-dilution ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Non-target metabolomics profiling was performed in plasma using UPLC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS) operated in positive electrospray mode. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between circulating levels of PFASs and metabolites. In total, 15 metabolites, predominantly from lipid pathways, were associated with levels of PFASs following adjustment for sex, smoking, exercise habits, education, energy, and alcohol intake, after correction for multiple testing. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were strongly associated with multiple glycerophosphocholines and fatty acids including docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We also found that the different PFASs evaluated were associated with distinctive metabolic profiles, suggesting potentially different biochemical pathways in humans.

Keywords
Epidemiology, Metabolomics, PFOA, PFOS, Perfluoroalkyl substances, XCMS
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366082 (URN)10.1038/s41370-018-0060-y (DOI)000459048700007 ()30185940 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
Stubleski, J., Kukucka, P., Salihovic, S., Lind, P. M., Lind, L. & Kärrman, A. (2018). A method for analysis of marker persistent organic pollutants in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction. Journal of Chromatography A, 1546, 18-27, Article ID S0021-9673(18)30253-X.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for analysis of marker persistent organic pollutants in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1546, p. 18-27, article id S0021-9673(18)30253-XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 96-well plate solid phase extraction method for analysis of 23 lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-volume plasma and serum samples which is applicable for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies. The analysis of selected markers for internal exposure: 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and polybrominated diphenylether 47 (BDE 47) was evaluated by comparing two SPE sorbents and GC-HRMS or GC-MS/MS detection. The final method extracted 23 POPs from 150 μL of serum and plasma using a 96-well extraction plate containing 60 mg Oasis HLB sorbent per well prior to GC-HRMS magnetic sector analysis. The extraction method was applied to 40 plasma samples collected for an epidemiological study. The recovery of selected POPs ranged from 31% to 63% (n = 48), and detection limits ranged from 2.2 to 45 pg/mL for PCBs, 4.2 to 167 pg/mL for OCPs, 7.8 pg/mL for OCDD and 6.1 pg/mL for BDE 47. This method showed good precision with relative standard deviations of selected POP concentrations in quality control samples (n = 48) ranging from 11% to 25%. The trueness was determined with standard reference material serum (n = 48) and the deviation from certified values ranged from 1 to 27%. Of the 23 POPs analyzed, 18 were detected in 43% to 100% of plasma samples collected for the epidemiological study. The method showed good robustness with low inter-well plate variation (11-31%) determined by twelve 96-well plate extractions, and can extract 96 samples, including quality controls and procedural blanks in 2-3 days. Comparison with GC-MS/MS analysis showed that similar concentrations (within 0.5% to 30%) of most POPs could be obtained with GC-APCI-MS/MS. Larger deviations were observed for PCB 194 (60%) and trans-nonachlor (43%). The developed method produces accurate concentrations of low-level marker POPs in plasma and serum, providing a suitable high-throughput sample preparation procedure for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies involving large sample size and limited sample volume. GC-HRMS was chosen over GC-MS/MS, however the latter showed promising results, and could be used as an alternative to GC-HRMS analysis for most POPs.

Keywords
APCI-MS/MS, GC-HRMS, High-throughput SPE, Persistent organic pollutants
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348564 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2018.02.057 (DOI)000430766800003 ()29510870 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2013-478
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Stubleski, J., Kärrman, A., Larsson, A., Fall, T., Lind, L. & Lind, P. M. (2018). Changes in markers of liver function in relation to changes in perfluoroalkyl substances - A longitudinal study. Environment International, 117, 196-203
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in markers of liver function in relation to changes in perfluoroalkyl substances - A longitudinal study
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2018 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 117, p. 196-203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: While it is known that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) induce liver toxicity in experimental studies, the evidence of an association in humans is inconsistent.

Objective: The main aim of the present study was to examine the association of PFAS concentrations and markers of liver function using panel data.

Methods: We investigated 1002 individuals from Sweden (50% women) at ages 70, 75 and 80 in 2001-2014. Eight PFASs were measured in plasma using isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Bilirubin and hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were determined in serum using an immunoassay methodology. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the changes in markers of liver function and changes in PFAS levels.

Results: The changes in majority of PFAS concentrations were positively associated with the changes in activity of ALT, ALP, and GGT and inversely associated with the changes in circulating bilirubin after adjustment for gender and the time-updated covariates LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides, BMI, statin use, smoking, fasting glucose levels and correction for multiple testing. For example, changes in perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were associated with the changes liver function markers beta(BILIRUBIN) = -1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.93 to -1.19, beta(ALT)= 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.06, and beta(ALP)= 0.11, 95% CI 0.06-0.15.

Conclusion: Our longitudinal assessment established associations between changes in markers of liver function and changes in plasma PFAS concentrations. These findings suggest a relationship between low-dose background PFAS exposure and altered liver function in the general population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Epidemiology, Liver function markers, PFAS, ALT, Bilirubin, PFNA
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361035 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2018.04.052 (DOI)000436573400023 ()29754000 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2007-2047Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-478Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-756
Available from: 2018-09-21 Created: 2018-09-21 Last updated: 2018-09-21Bibliographically approved
Lind, P. M., Salihovic, S., Stubleski, J., Kärrman, A. & Lind, L. (2018). Changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years - a longitudinal study. Environmental health, 17, Article ID 59.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years - a longitudinal study
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2018 (English)In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 17, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: It has previously been reported that the environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are linked to atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies. Since cross-sectional studies could be subject to reverse causation, the purpose of this study was to analyze if the longitudinal changes in PFASs during a 10-year follow-up were related to the change in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, ultrasound) during the same period.

Methods: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, 1016 individuals were investigated at age 70; 826 of them were reinvestigated at age 75 and 602 at age 80 years. Eight different PFASs were measured in plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and IMT was measured at all three time points. Random-effects mixed regression models were used to examine the associations over time.

Results: IMT increased 0.058 mm during the 10-year period (p <0.0001). Following adjustment for baseline values of PFASs (age 70) and sex, the changes in plasma levels of 6 of the 8 measured PFASs were significantly related to the change in IMT over the 10-year follow-up period in a positive fashion (p <0.0062 using Bonferroni correction for 8 tests). Further adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (HDL and LDL cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, statin use, fasting glucose and serum triglycerides) affected these relationships only marginally.

Conclusion: The change in plasma levels of several PFASs during 10 years was positively related to increase in IMT seen during the same period, giving prospective evidence that PFASs might interfere with the atherosclerotic process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2018
Keywords
Atherosclerosis, Longitudinal, Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), Elderly, Epidemiology, IMT
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360187 (URN)10.1186/s12940-018-0403-0 (DOI)000437299700002 ()29970113 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2007-2047
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Mobacke, I., Lind, L., Dunder, L., Salihovic, S. & Lind, P. M. (2018). Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and left ventricular geometry of the heart in the elderly.. Environment International, 115, 295-300
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and left ventricular geometry of the heart in the elderly.
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2018 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 115, p. 295-300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: Some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to interfere with myocardial function and geometry. We therefore investigated if also another group of POPs: per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were associated with alterations in left ventricular geometry.

METHODS: 801 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in a cross-sectional study within the scope of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Eight PFASs were detected in >75% of participants´ plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry. Left ventricular geometry was determined by echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the associations between PFASs and left ventricular geometry of the heart after exclusion of subjects with previous myocardial infarction (n = 72).

RESULTS: When adjusting for multiple comparisons, none of the eight PFASs evaluated were significantly related to left ventricular mass. However, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were related to relative wall thickness (RWT) in a negative fashion (p < 0.0021). Besides being inversely related to RWT, PFNA was also positively related to left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDD) (p < 0.0021). These analyses were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study, several of the PFASs evaluated, especially PFNA, were related to myocardial geometry: a reduction in relative wall thickness and an increase in left ventricular diameter following adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a role for PFASs in cardiac remodeling.

Keywords
Elderly, Environmental contaminants, Heart, Left ventricular geometry, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348565 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2018.03.033 (DOI)000432523500032 ()29621717 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2007-2047
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Lind, P. M. & Lind, L. (2018). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and risk of diabetes: an evidence-based review. Diabetologia, 61(7), 1495-1502
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and risk of diabetes: an evidence-based review
2018 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1495-1502Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to review the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking background exposure to a selection of environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism. The review summarises the literature on both cross-sectional and prospective studies in humans, as well as experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. The findings were subjected to evidence grading according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification. We found > 40 cross-sectional and seven prospective studies regarding EDCs and risk of diabetes. Taken together, there is moderate evidence for a relationship between exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and diabetes development. Regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), it is likely that the rodent models used are not appropriate, and therefore the evidence is poorer than for p,p'-DDE. For other EDCs, such as bisphenol A, phthalates and perfluorinated chemicals, the evidence is scarce, since very few prospective studies exist. Brominated flame retardants do not seem to be associated with a disturbed glucose tolerance. Thus, evidence is accumulating that EDCs might be involved in diabetes development. Best evidence exists for p,p'-DDE. For other chemicals, both prospective studies and supporting animal data are still lacking.

Keywords
Bisphenol A, BPA, Chemicals, DDE, DDT, Diabetes, EDCs, Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Pesticides, Review
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365120 (URN)10.1007/s00125-018-4621-3 (DOI)000434250500001 ()29744538 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Lind, P. M., Salihovic, S. & Lind, L. (2018). High plasma organochlorine pesticide levels are related to increased biological age as calculated by DNA methylation analysis. Environment International, 113, 109-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High plasma organochlorine pesticide levels are related to increased biological age as calculated by DNA methylation analysis
2018 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 109-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been shown in the experimental setting to alter DNA methylation. Since DNA methylation changes during the life-span, formulas have been presented to calculate "DNA methylation age" as a measure of biological age.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate if circulating levels of three OCPs were related to increased DNA methylation age METHODS: 71CpG DNA methylation age (Hannum formula) was calculated based on data from the Illumina 450 k Bead Methylation chip in 1000 subjects in the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70 years at the examination). The difference between DNA methylation age and chronological age was calculated (DiffAge). 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and transnonachlor (TNC) levels were measured in plasma by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS).

RESULTS: Increased p,p'-DDE and TNC, but not HCB, levels were related to increased DiffAge both in sex and BMI-adjusted models, as well as in multiple adjusted models (sex, education level, exercise habits, smoking, energy and alcohol consumption and BMI) (p = 0.0051 and p = 0.011, respectively). No significant interactions between the OCPs and sex or BMI regarding DiffAge were found.

CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study, increased levels of two out of three OCPs were related to increased DNA methylation age, further suggesting negative health effects in humans of these widespread environmental contaminants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biological age, Epidemiology, Methylation, Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Transnonachlor, p, p′-DDE
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348563 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2018.01.019 (DOI)000428976700013 ()29421399 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2007-2047 942-2015-756 216-2013-478
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
Jayasinghe, S., Lind, L., Salihovic, S., Larsson, A. & Lind, P. M. (2018). High serum levels of p,p'-DDE are associated with an accelerated decline in GFR during 10 years follow-up.. Science of the Total Environment, 644, 371-374
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High serum levels of p,p'-DDE are associated with an accelerated decline in GFR during 10 years follow-up.
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 644, p. 371-374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the past 20 years, the global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been increasing and organochlorine pesticides (such as DDT) is a suspected etiological factor. The present study examines the associations between low level background exposure to p,p'-DDE (1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), the main DDT metabolite, and kidney function during a 10-year follow-up. Data was analysed from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (n = 1016, 50% women, all aged 70 years). Serum levels of p,p'-DDE was measured by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) at baseline (i.e. age of 70 years). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using serum creatinine and cystatin C at 70, 75 and 80 years of age. A significant decline in GFR was seen during the 10-year follow-up (-24 ml/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). A significant negative interaction was seen between baseline p,p'-DDE levels and change in GFR over time (p < 0.0001) following adjustment for sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, BMI, smoking and education level at age 70. Subjects with the lowest levels of p,p'-DDE levels at age 70 showed the lowest decline in GFR over 10 years, while subjects with the highest p,p'-DDE levels showed the greatest decline. Baseline levels of p,p'-DDE were related to an accelerated reduction in GFR over 10 years suggesting a nephrotoxic effect of DDT/p,p'-DDE. These findings support a potential role for DDT in the epidemic of CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu) in agricultural communities of Sri Lanka and Central America where DDT was previously used.

Keywords
DDE, DDT, Kidney function, Organochlorine pesticides
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363388 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.020 (DOI)000445164000038 ()29981985 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2007-2047
Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8949-3555

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