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Rask-Andersen, Helge
Publications (10 of 135) Show all publications
Helpard, L., Li, H., Rask-Andersen, H., Ladak, H. M. & Agrawal, S. K. (2020). Characterization of the human helicotrema: implications for cochlear duct length and frequency mapping. Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, 49, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the human helicotrema: implications for cochlear duct length and frequency mapping
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, ISSN 1802-3908, E-ISSN 1916-0216, Vol. 49, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite significant anatomical variation amongst patients, cochlear implant frequency-mapping has traditionally followed a patient-independent approach. Basilar membrane (BM) length is required for patient-specific frequency-mapping, however cochlear duct length (CDL) measurements generally extend to the apical tip of the entire cochlea or have no clearly defined end-point. By characterizing the length between the end of the BM and the apical tip of the entire cochlea (helicotrema length), current CDL models can be corrected to obtain the appropriate BM length. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging has made this analysis possible due to the soft-tissue contrast through the entire cochlear apex.

Methods: Helicotrema linear length and helicotrema angular length measurements were performed on synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging data of 14 cadaveric human cochleae. On a sub-set of six samples, the CDL to the apical tip of the entire cochlea (CDLTIP) and the BM length (CDLBM) were determined. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between CDLTIP and CDLBM.

Results: The mean helicotrema linear length and helicotrema angular length values were 1.6 +/- 0.9 mm and 67.8 +/- 37.9 degrees, respectively. Regression analysis revealed the following relationship between CDLTIP and CDLBM: CDLBM = 0.88(CDLTIP) + 3.71 (R-2 = 0.995).

Conclusion: This is the first known study to characterize the length of the helicotrema in the context of CDL measurements. It was determined that the distance between the end of the BM and the tip of the entire cochlea is clinically consequential. A relationship was determined that can predict the BM length of an individual patient based on their respective CDL measured to the apical tip of the cochlea.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2020
Keywords
Helicotrema, Helicotrema size, Cochlear duct length, Basilar membrane, Cochlear apex, Cochlear implant, Frequency mapping, Synchrotron radiation
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-407291 (URN)10.1186/s40463-019-0398-8 (DOI)000513796100001 ()31907040 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-25 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved
Chacko, L. J., Sergi, C., Eberharter, T., Dudas, J., Rask-Andersen, H., Hoermann, R., . . . Schrott-Fischer, A. (2020). Early appearance of key transcription factors influence the spatiotemporal development of the human inner ear. Cell and Tissue Research, 379(3), 459-471
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early appearance of key transcription factors influence the spatiotemporal development of the human inner ear
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2020 (English)In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 379, no 3, p. 459-471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Expression patterns of transcription factors leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) in the developing human fetal inner ear were studied between the gestation weeks 9 and 12. Further development of cochlear apex between gestational weeks 11 and 16 (GW11 and GW16) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. LGR5 was evident in the apical poles of the sensory epithelium of the cochlear duct and the vestibular end organs at GW11. Immunostaining was limited to hair cells of the organ of Corti by GW12. TAK1 was immune positive in inner hair cells of the organ of Corti by GW12 and colocalized with p75 neurotrophic receptor expression. Expression for SOX2 was confined primarily to the supporting cells of utricle at the earliest stage examined at GW9. Intense expression for GATA3 was presented in the cochlear sensory epithelium and spiral ganglia at GW9. Expression of GATA3 was present along the midline of both the utricle and saccule in the zone corresponding to the striolar reversal zone where the hair cell phenotype switches from type I to type II. The spatiotemporal gradient of the development of the organ of Corti was also evident with the apex of the cochlea forming by GW16. It seems that highly specific staining patterns of several transcriptions factors are critical in guiding the genesis of the inner ear over development. Our findings suggest that the spatiotemporal gradient in cochlear development extends at least until gestational week 16.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2020
Keywords
Inner ear, Human, Transcription factors, Immunohistochemistry, SOX2, TAK1, GATA3, Electron microscopy
National Category
Cell Biology Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-408225 (URN)10.1007/s00441-019-03115-6 (DOI)000501409600003 ()31788757 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
Kämpfe Nordström, C., Danckwardt-Lillieström, N., Liu, W. & Rask-Andersen, H. (2020). "Reversed polarization" of Na/K-ATPase — a sign of inverted transport in the human endolymphatic sac: a super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) study. Cell and Tissue Research, 379(3), 445-457
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Reversed polarization" of Na/K-ATPase — a sign of inverted transport in the human endolymphatic sac: a super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) study
2020 (English)In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 379, no 3, p. 445-457Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is believed to regulate inner ear fluid homeostasis and to be associated with Meniere's disease (MD). We analyzed the ion transport protein sodium/potassium-ATPase (Na/K-ATPase) and its isoforms in the human ES using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM). Human vestibular aqueducts were collected during trans-labyrinthine vestibular schwannoma surgery after obtaining ethical permission. Antibodies against various isoforms of Na/K-ATPase and additional solute-transporting proteins, believed to be essential for ion and fluid transport, were used for immunohistochemistry. A population of epithelial cells of the human ES strongly expressed Na/K-ATPase α1, β1, and β3 subunit isoforms in either the lateral/basolateral or apical plasma membrane domains. The β1 isoform was expressed in the lateral/basolateral plasma membranes in mostly large cylindrical cells, while β3 and α1 both were expressed with "reversed polarity" in the apical cell membrane in lower epithelial cells. The heterogeneous expression of Na/K-ATPase subunits substantiates earlier notions that the ES is a dynamic structure where epithelial cells show inverted epithelial transport. Dual absorption and secretion processes may regulate and maintain inner ear fluid homeostasis. These findings may shed new light on the etiology of endolymphatic hydrops and MD.

Keywords
Endolymphatic sac, Human, Na/K-ATPase, Reversed polarity, SIM
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-406751 (URN)10.1007/s00441-019-03106-7 (DOI)000495969500003 ()31713726 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-04-15Bibliographically approved
Li, H., Schart-Moren, N., Rohani, S. A., Ladak, H. M., Rask-Andersen, H. & Agrawal, S. (2020). Synchrotron Radiation-Based Reconstruction of the Human Spiral Ganglion: Implications for Cochlear Implantation. Ear and Hearing, 41(1), 173-181
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synchrotron Radiation-Based Reconstruction of the Human Spiral Ganglion: Implications for Cochlear Implantation
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2020 (English)In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To three-dimensionally reconstruct Rosenthal's canal (RC) housing the human spiral ganglion (SG) using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI). Straight cochlear implant electrode arrays were inserted to better comprehend the electro-cochlear interface in cochlear implantation (CI).

Design: SR-PCI was used to reconstruct the human cochlea with and without cadaveric CI. Twenty-eight cochleae were volume rendered, of which 12 underwent cadaveric CI with a straight electrode via the round window (RW). Data were input into the 3D Slicer software program and anatomical structures were modeled using a threshold paint tool.

Results: The human RC and SG were reproduced three-dimensionally with artefact-free imaging of electrode arrays. The anatomy of the SG and its relationship to the sensory organ (Corti) and soft and bony structures were assessed.

Conclusions: SR-PCI and computer-based three-dimensional reconstructions demonstrated the relationships among implanted electrodes, angular insertion depths, and the SG for the first time in intact, unstained, and nondecalcified specimens. This information can be used to assess stimulation strategies and future electrode designs, as well as create place-frequency maps of the SG for optimal stimulation strategies of the human auditory nerve in CI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020
Keywords
Cochlea, Human, Rosenthal's canal, Spiral ganglion, Synchrotron imaging
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404700 (URN)10.1097/AUD.0000000000000738 (DOI)000507327400018 ()31008733 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03801
Available from: 2020-02-27 Created: 2020-02-27 Last updated: 2020-02-27Bibliographically approved
Schart-Moren, N., Agrawal, S. K., Ladak, H. M., Li, H. & Rask-Andersen, H. (2019). Effects of Various Trajectories on Tissue Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery: A Micro-Computed Tomography and Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Imaging Study. Ear and Hearing, 40(2), 393-400
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Various Trajectories on Tissue Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery: A Micro-Computed Tomography and Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Imaging Study
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2019 (English)In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 393-400Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and potential damage to the hook region of the human cochlea following various trajectories at cochlear implantation (CI). The goal was to determine which of the approaches can avoid lesions to the soft tissues, including the basilar membrane and its suspension to the lateral wall. Currently, there is increased emphasis on conservation of inner ear structures, even in nonhearing preservation CI surgery.

DESIGN:

Micro-computed tomography and various CI approaches were made in an archival collection of macerated and freshly fixed human temporal bones. Furthermore, synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging was used to reproduce the soft tissues. The 3D anatomy was investigated using bony and soft tissue algorithms, and influences on inner ear structures were examined.

RESULTS:

Micro-computed tomography with 3D rendering demonstrated the topography of the round window (RW) and osseous spiral laminae, while synchrotron imaging allowed reproduction of soft tissues such as the basilar membrane and its suspension around the RW membrane. Anterior cochleostomies and anteroinferior cochleostomies invariably damaged the intracochlear soft tissues while inferior cochleostomies sporadically left inner ear structures unaffected.

CONCLUSIONS:

Results suggest that cochleostomy approaches often traumatize the soft tissues at the hook region at CI surgery. For optimal structural preservation, the RW approach is, therefore, recommended.

National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373492 (URN)10.1097/AUD.0000000000000624 (DOI)000459769700016 ()29952804 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Liu, W., Luque, M., Glueckert, R., Danckwardt-Lillieström, N., Kämpfe Nordström, C., Schrott-Fischer, A. & Rask-Andersen, H. (2019). Expression of Na/K-ATPase subunits in the human cochlea: a confocal and super-resolution microscopy study with special reference to auditory nerve excitation and cochlear implantation. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 124(3), 168-179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of Na/K-ATPase subunits in the human cochlea: a confocal and super-resolution microscopy study with special reference to auditory nerve excitation and cochlear implantation
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2019 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 168-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: For the first time the expression of the ion transport protein sodium/potassium-ATPase and its isoforms was analyzed in the human cochlea using light- and confocal microscopy as well as super-resolution structured illumination microscopy. It may increase our understanding of its role in the propagation and processing of action potentials in the human auditory nerve and how electric nerve responses are elicited from auditory prostheses.

Material and methods: Archival human cochlear sections were obtained from trans-cochlear surgeries. Antibodies against the Na/K-ATPase beta 1 isoform together with alpha 1 and alpha 3 were used for immunohistochemistry. An algorithm was applied to assess the expression in various domains.

Results: Na/K ATPase beta 1 subunit was expressed, mostly combined with the alpha 1 isoform. Neurons expressed the beta 1 subunit combined with alpha 3, while satellite glial cells expressed the alpha 1 isoform without recognized association with beta 1. Types I and II spiral ganglion neurons and efferent fibers expressed the Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit. Inner hair cells, nerve fibers underneath, and efferent and afferent fibers in the organ of Corti also expressed alpha 1. The highest activity of Na/K-ATPase beta 1 was at the inner hair cell/nerve junction and spiral prominence.

Conclusion: The human auditory nerve displays distinct morphologic features represented in its molecular expression. It was found that electric signals generated via hair cells may not go uninterrupted across the spiral ganglion, but are locally processed. This may be related to particular filtering properties in the human acoustic pathway.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Auditory nerve, cochlea, human, Na, K-ATPase, structured illumination microscopy
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396105 (URN)10.1080/03009734.2019.1653408 (DOI)000484398600001 ()31460814 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-01 Created: 2019-11-01 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved
Liu, W., Kämpfe Nordström, C., Danckwardt-Lillieström, N. & Rask-Andersen, H. (2019). Human Inner Ear Immune Activity: A Super-Resolution Immunohistochemistry Study. Frontiers in Neurology, 10, Article ID 728.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Inner Ear Immune Activity: A Super-Resolution Immunohistochemistry Study
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Neurology, ISSN 1664-2295, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 10, article id 728Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Like the brain, the human inner ear was long thought to be devoid of immune activity. Only the endolymphatic sac (ES) was known to be endowed with white blood cells that could process antigens and serve as an immunologic defense organ for the entire inner ear. Unexpectedly, the cochlear and vestibular organs, including the eighth cranial nerve, were recently shown to contain macrophages whose functions and implication in ear disease are somewhat undefined. Here, we review recent inner ear findings in man and extend the analyses to the vestibular nerve using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM).

Materials and Methods: Human ESs and cochleae were collected during surgery to treat patients with vestibular schwannoma and life-threatening petro-clival meningioma compressing the brainstem. The ESs and cochleae were placed in fixative, decalcified, and rapidly frozen and cryostat sectioned. Antibodies against ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-expressing cells (IBA1 cells), laminin beta 2 and type IV collagen TUJ1, cytokine fractalkine (CX3CL1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD68, CD11b, CD4, CD8, the major histocompatibility complex type II (MHCII), and the microglial marker TEME119 were used.

Results: IBA1-positive cells were present in the ESs, the cochlea, central and peripheral axons of the cochlear nerve, and the vestibular nerve trunk. IBA1 cells were found in the cochlear lateral wall, spiral limbus, and spiral ganglion. Notable variants of IBA1 cells adhered to neurons with "synapse-like" specializations and cytoplasmic projections. Slender IBA1 cells occasionally protracted into the basal lamina of the Schwann cells and had intimate contact with surrounding axons.

Discussion: The human eighth nerve may be under the control of a well-developed macrophage cell system. A small number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were found in the ES and occasionally in the cochlea, mostly located in the peripheral region of Rosenthal's canal. A neuro-immunologic axis may exist in the human inner ear that could play a role in the protection of the auditory nerve. The implication of the macrophage system during disease, surgical interventions, and cell-based transplantation should be further explored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019
Keywords
human, inner ear, IBA1, macrophages, structured illumination microscopy
National Category
Neurosciences Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390794 (URN)10.3389/fneur.2019.00728 (DOI)000474785100001 ()31354608 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Enghag, S., Strömbäck, K., Li, H., Rohani, S. A., Ladak, H. M., Rask-Andersen, H. & Agrawal, S. (2019). Incus Necrosis and Blood Supply: A Micro-CT and Synchrotron Imaging Study. Otology and Neurotology, 40(7), E713-E722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incus Necrosis and Blood Supply: A Micro-CT and Synchrotron Imaging Study
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2019 (English)In: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 40, no 7, p. E713-E722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Incus necrosis is a common complication following stapes surgery and is associated with impaired microcirculation. The objective of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the human incus by using light microscopy, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and synchrotron phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) for a novel three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the middle ear, mucosal folds, major vascular pathways, and intraosseous vascular bone channels. Methods: One-hundred-and-fifty temporal bones from the Uppsala collection were analyzed under light microscopy. Twenty temporal bones underwent high-resolution micro-CT scanning, and an additional seven specimens underwent SR-PCI at the Canadian Lightsource in Saskatoon, Canada. One of these specimens was from an individual who had undergone stapes surgery. Data were processed with volume-rendering software to create 3D reconstructions using scalar opacity mapping for bone transparency, cropping, and soft tissue analyses. Results: Micro-CT and SR-PCI with 3D rendering revealed the extensive vascular plexus within the un-decalcified incus bone communicating with the exterior surface. The relationship between the vessels, lenticular process, and incudostape-dial joint were clearly observed. SR-PCI allowed for histologic-level detail while preserving the specimen and its 3D relationships. Conclusion: SR-PCI with 3D reconstructions confirmed the main vascular supply to the lenticular process along the intraosseous lenticular vessels. This is the first synchrotron analysis of a patient having undergone stapes surgery, and it suggests that incus necrosis associated with stapes surgery may be caused by a disruption of the lenticular blood flow induced by the prosthesis loop, and not by strangulation of mucosal vessels as has been previously described.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2019
Keywords
Incus necrosis, Micro-CT, Otosclerosis, Stapes surgery, Synchrotron imaging
National Category
Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393628 (URN)10.1097/MAO.0000000000002292 (DOI)000480683500008 ()31135670 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Kämpfe Nordström, C., Danckwardt-Lillieström, N., Laurell, G., Liu, W. & Rask-Andersen, H. (2019). The Human Endolymphatic Sac and Inner Ear Immunity: Macrophage Interaction and Molecular Expression. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, Article ID 3181.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Human Endolymphatic Sac and Inner Ear Immunity: Macrophage Interaction and Molecular Expression
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 3181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The endolymphatic sac (ES) is endowed with a multitude of white blood cells that may trap and process antigens that reach the inner ear from nearby infection-prone areas, it thus serves as an immunologic defense organ. The human ES, and unexpectedly the rest of the inner ear, has been recently shown to contain numerous resident macrophages. In this paper, we describe ES macrophages using super-resolution structured fluorescence microscopy (SR-SIM) and speculate on these macrophages' roles in human inner ear defense.

Material and Methods: After ethical permission was obtained, human vestibular aqueducts were collected during trans-labyrinthine surgery for acoustic neuroma removal. Tissues were placed in fixative before being decalcified, rapidly frozen, and cryostat sectioned. Antibodies against IBA1, cytokine fractalkine (CX3CL1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cluster of differentiation (CD) 68, CD11b, CD4, CD8, and the major histocompatibility complex type II (MHCII) were used for immunohistochemistry.

Results: A large number of IBA1-positive cells with different morphologies were found to reside in the ES; the cells populated surrounding connective tissue and the epithelium. Macrophages interacted with other cells, showed migrant behavior, and expressed immune cell markers, all of which suggest their active role in the innate and adaptive inner ear defense and tolerance.

Discussion: High-resolution immunohistochemistry shows that antigens reaching the ear may be trapped and processed by an immune cell machinery located in the ES. Thereby inflammatory activity may be evaded near the vulnerable inner ear sensory structures. We speculate on the immune defensive link between the ES and the rest of the inner ear.

Keywords
human, cochlea, macrophages, IBA1, structured illumination microscopy
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377333 (URN)10.3389/fimmu.2018.03181 (DOI)000457362000001 ()30774637 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-25 Created: 2019-02-25 Last updated: 2020-03-13Bibliographically approved
Mei, X., Schart-Moren, N., Li, H., Ladak, H. M., Agrawal, S., Behr, R. & Rask-Andersen, H. (2019). Three-dimensional imaging of the human internal acoustic canal and arachnoid cistern: a synchrotron study with clinical implications. Journal of Anatomy, 234(3), 316-326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-dimensional imaging of the human internal acoustic canal and arachnoid cistern: a synchrotron study with clinical implications
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 234, no 3, p. 316-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A thorough knowledge of the gross and micro-anatomy of the human internal acoustic canal (IAC) is essential in vestibular schwannoma removal, cochlear implantation (CI) surgery, vestibular nerve section, and decompression procedures. Here, we analyzed the acoustic-facial cistern of the human IAC, including nerves and anastomoses using synchrotron phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI). A total of 26 fresh human temporal bones underwent SR-PCI. Data were processed using volume-rendering software to create three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions allowing soft tissue analyses, orthogonal sectioning, and cropping. A scalar opacity mapping tool was used to enhance tissue surface borders, and anatomical structures were color-labeled for improved 3D comprehension of the soft tissues. SR-PCI reproduced, for the first time, the variable 3D anatomy of the human IAC, including cranial nerve complexes, anastomoses, and arachnoid membrane invagination (acoustic-facial cistern; an extension of the cerebellopontine cistern) in unprocessed, un-decalcified specimens. An unrecognized system of arachnoid pillars and trabeculae was found to extend between the arachnoid and cranial nerves. We confirmed earlier findings that intra-meatal vestibular schwannoma may grow unseparated from adjacent nerves without duplication of the arachnoid layers. The arachnoid pillars may support and stabilize cranial nerves in the IAC and could also play a role in local fluid hydrodynamics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
human, micro-computerized tomography, synchrotron phase contrast imaging, temporal bone, Uppsala collection
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378632 (URN)10.1111/joa.12926 (DOI)000458542900003 ()30565214 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03801
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
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