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Johanson, Jan
Publications (10 of 128) Show all publications
Vahlne, J.-E. & Johanson, J. (2017). From internationalization to evolution: The Uppsala model at 40 years. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(9), 1087-1102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From internationalization to evolution: The Uppsala model at 40 years
2017 (English)In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1087-1102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The original Uppsala model that was published in 1977 explains the internationalization process of firms. We have further developed the model several times in the intervening years. The present article is our latest effort: a general model of the evolution of the multinational business enterprise ( MBE), from early steps abroad to being a global firm. The updated, augmented model explains MBE evolution in general, not only characteristics of the internationalization process in a narrow sense. We believe that the newest iteration, anchored in process ontology, will be useful in conducting longitudinal empirical studies.

Keyword
process ontology, MBE evolution, heterogeneity, network, uncertainty, knowledge development, commitments
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340332 (URN)10.1057/s41267-017-0107-7 (DOI)000419131200004 ()
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-01-30Bibliographically approved
Johanson, M. & Johanson, J. (2016). From anonymity to identity: Network transformation in economies and industries in transition from plan to market. In: Peter Thilenius, Cecilia Pahlberg, Virpi Havila (Ed.), Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms (pp. 41-66). London: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From anonymity to identity: Network transformation in economies and industries in transition from plan to market
2016 (English)In: Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms / [ed] Peter Thilenius, Cecilia Pahlberg, Virpi Havila, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 41-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Perhaps the most striking institutional change over the last 30 years is the transition from some kind of state-governed and planned economy to a more open economic system governed by the market. This development has occurred or is currently occurring in countries that are often labelled transition economies or emerging markets. Included among these countries are China, India and Russia, as well as most other countries in the ‘communist bloc’ in the former Soviet Union, as well as Central and Eastern Europe. Within the market economies of Europe, similar, although less dramatic, changes in the mix between planned and market exchange have been implemented. Industrial sectors, for instance telecom, air transport and energy, have been transformed from plan governance to open market governance through an institutional deregulation. The plans and the associated authorities in planned economies are being abolished, prices are being liberalised and the countries, or the industrial sectors, are moving towards increasingly open market economies. The relative merits and problems of the two modes of coordination of economic life have been analysed and discussed in a number of studies. Coase (1937), Hayek (1945) and Williamson (1975) are examples of scholars who have analysed the plan (hierarchy) versus the market mechanism of economic coordination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310291 (URN)10.1057/978-1-137-53765-2_3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978333067 (Scopus ID)9781137537652 (ISBN)9781137537638 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2016-12-14Bibliographically approved
Hohenthal, J., Johanson, J. & Johanson, M. (2014). Network knowledge and business-relationship value in the foreign market. International Business Review, 23(1), 4-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network knowledge and business-relationship value in the foreign market
2014 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on the key assumptions that firms are opportunity seeking and that they gain critical knowledge operating in a network of relationships, this paper focuses on early expansion in foreign market networks. In particular, the paper examines the relation between experience and business-relationship value in a foreign market. While experience and experiential knowledge are central concepts in international business, little has been written about their effects on the value of business relationships. The paper formulates a set of interrelated hypotheses on the effects of international experience, experiential network knowledge and importance of customer and competitor knowledge on the value of business relationships in a foreign market. They are combined in a structural model, which is tested on a sample through LISREL. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that experiential network knowledge and knowledge about the importance of customers and competitors in the network influence the value of business relationships in a foreign market in different ways.

Keyword
Business relationship value, Experiential network knowledge, International experience, Knowledge about competitors, Knowledge about customers, Network
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212718 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.08.002 (DOI)000329419600002 ()
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Vahlne, J.-E. & Johanson, J. (2013). The Uppsala model on evolution of the multinational business enterprise: from internalization to coordination of networks. International Marketing Review, 30(3), 189-210
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Uppsala model on evolution of the multinational business enterprise: from internalization to coordination of networks
2013 (English)In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 189-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - This paper seeks to offer a model on the evolution of the multinational business enterprise (MBE). It is meant to be an alternative to the eclectic paradigm, the preeminent theoretical tool applied in studies of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and foreign direct investment. The label MBE aims at moving focus from structure of production to change processes in business relations and entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach - While the eclectic paradigm is grounded in neo-classical economics meant primarily to be applied in studies of macroeconomic interest and is based on assumptions not applicable in studies of individual firms, the model of the MBE is meant to be used in studies at the micro-level. It is rooted in assumptions consistent with behavioural theory consequently being more realistic. The model is based on the Uppsala model with input from studies on dynamic capabilities, entrepreneurship research and research on management under uncertainty. Findings - The realistic assumptions of the model imply that it is relevant for understanding the dynamics of strategy and management of the MBE. Research limitations/implications - As the model aims at enriching our understanding of the dynamics of the MBE the paper recommends empirical longitudinal studies of firms. Originality/value - Realistic and relevant assumptions imply that the model differs in critical respects from received theory in international business.

Keyword
Internationalization process, Multinational business enterprise, Dynamic capabilities, Uncertainty, Uppsala model, International business, Macroeconomics
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-203692 (URN)10.1108/02651331311321963 (DOI)000319853800002 ()
Available from: 2013-07-17 Created: 2013-07-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Choi, S.-G. -. & Johanson, J. (2012). Knowledge translation through expatriates in international knowledge transfer. International Business Review, 21(6), 1148-1157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge translation through expatriates in international knowledge transfer
2012 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1148-1157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of international knowledge transfer usually focus on the transfer of knowledge without loss between organizational units. However, this research has frequently been inconclusive because of the tacit nature of knowledge and the difficulties of measuring the results of knowledge transfer. Therefore, we suggest a paradigmatic shift of research from knowledge transfer without loss, to knowledge translation as a matter of modification of knowledge when transferred from one context to an other. According to this perspective, the knowledge transfer between the MNE HQ and foreign subsidiaries is a socio-cultural process in which expatriates can be expected to play an important role.In this paper, we study the impact of expatriates in knowledge translation from MNE HQ to foreign subsidiaries. Through an empirical analysis, we examine how the characteristics of expatriates influence the usefulness of knowledge transferred internationally. An important result of the study is that the expatriation experience and, in particular, the relationship development capability has significant positive effects on the international knowledge translation process. However, we did not find any statistical evidence that an expatriate's experience of the particular industry or the particular country has a significant effect.

Keyword
International knowledge transfer, Knowledge translation, Role of expatriate
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-184891 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2012.01.002 (DOI)000311984300014 ()
Available from: 2012-11-20 Created: 2012-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Vahlne, J.-E., Schweizer, R. & Johanson, J. (2012). Overcoming the Liability of Outsidership: The Challenge of HQ of the Global Firm. Journal of International Management, 18(3), 224-232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming the Liability of Outsidership: The Challenge of HQ of the Global Firm
2012 (English)In: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 224-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We conceptualize the global firm as being a loosely coupled network of far-flung subsidiaries with hierarchically acting headquarters (HQ) that design a global organization to ensure support of its global strategic agenda. We argue that the process of HQ management in the global firm is a process characterized by uncertainty. Drawing on the Uppsala model for managing under uncertainty, we suggest that the source of uncertainty is a liability of outsidership derived from the fact that HQ is often not knowledgeable about the networks and actions of its subsidiaries. We then offer various actions that need to be taken by HQs to resolve that liability to improve on the efficiency of the coordination and management of the global firm.

Keyword
Global firm, HQ, Uncertainty, Liability of outsidership, Uppsala model, Tight and loose couplings, HQ management
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179899 (URN)10.1016/j.intman.2012.04.002 (DOI)000306737200002 ()
Available from: 2012-08-28 Created: 2012-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Johanson, J. & Vahlne, J.-E. (2011). Markets as networks: implications for strategy-making. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(4), 484-491
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Markets as networks: implications for strategy-making
2011 (English)In: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, ISSN 0092-0703, E-ISSN 1552-7824, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 484-491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on empirical studies of firm exchangeactivities in business markets, this paper outlines a businessnetwork view of the firm-market relationship, which differsfundamentally from the view assumed by neo-classicaleconomic theory. We define business networks as sets of connected business relationships. Thus business relationships and connections between relationships are the critical elements in the business network view. It is assumed, as suggested by the Uppsala internationalization process model, that an interplay between knowledge and commitment development is the mechanism that drives the relationship and network development process. Against this background the paper discusses how strategic change is analyzed in literature on alliances and networks. In conclusion the paper presents a set of propositions about strategy-making in business network settings.

Keyword
Business networks, Business relationships, Learning, Commitment, Strategic change, Strategy-making
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141565 (URN)10.1007/s11747-010-0235-0 (DOI)000293710600002 ()
Available from: 2011-01-12 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Figueira-de-Lemos, F., Johanson, J. & Vahlne, J.-E. (2011). Risk Management in the internationalization process of the firm: A note on the Uppsala model. Journal of world business (Print), 46(2), 143-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk Management in the internationalization process of the firm: A note on the Uppsala model
2011 (English)In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 143-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analytically and graphically examines the Uppsala model's risk formula (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977) in its two variables: commitment and uncertainty. The graphical treatment of the variables demonstrates the internationalization mechanism's consistency with the risk formula. In particular, commitment manipulation develops a risk management perspective to the model, wherein contingent uncertainty is a central concept. The main contribution consists in the composition of a set of hypotheses on the effects of risk contingencies on a firm's commitment behavior in different internationalization phases. A pertinent remark that emerges from this analytical exercise is the Uppsala model's contingent nature, which explains the differences in the pattern and pace of the internationalization process, as well as potential leapfrogging and market-exit moves.

Keyword
Commitment, Contingency, Contingent uncertainty, Internationalization, Internationalization process, Knowledge, Risk, Risk management, Uncertainty, Uppsala model
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141635 (URN)10.1016/j.jwb.2010.05.008 (DOI)000289012300002 ()
Available from: 2011-01-12 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Vahlne, J.-E., Ivarsson, I. & Johanson, J. (2011). The tortuous road to globalization for Volvo's heavy truck business: Extending the scope of the Uppsala model. International Business Review, 20(1), 1-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The tortuous road to globalization for Volvo's heavy truck business: Extending the scope of the Uppsala model
2011 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The globalization of a firm is a time-consuming and incremental process similar in nature to the internationalization process. We adapt the Uppsala Internationalization Process Model ([Johanson and Vahlne, 1977] and [Johanson and Vahlne, 2009]) to explain the globalization process. We define globalization as an effort to optimize a business in terms of its configuration and coordination systems. Hence the globalization process is about making changes in these two aspects of firms. Globalization, like the internationalization process, is characterized by the management of complexities and uncertainties and that requires learning and commitment building. We “test” a globalization process variant of the Uppsala model on the globalization of Volvo's heavy truck business. We find support for our model, and find that the globalization process is indeed tortuous, and certainly not as easily managed as sometimes suggested by economists and management gurus.

Keyword
Configuration, Coordination, Globalization, Globalization process
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-132557 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2010.05.003 (DOI)000286784300001 ()
Available from: 2010-10-21 Created: 2010-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Forsgren, M. & Johanson, J. (2010). A dialogue about the Uppsala model of internationalization. In: Andersson, Ulf och Holm, Ulf (Ed.), Managing the Contemporary Multinational: The role of headquarters (pp. 283-304). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A dialogue about the Uppsala model of internationalization
2010 (English)In: Managing the Contemporary Multinational: The role of headquarters / [ed] Andersson, Ulf och Holm, Ulf, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. , 2010, p. 283-304Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2010
Series
New Horizons in International Business
Keyword
headquarters, managing multinationals
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122364 (URN)978-1-84844-807-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2010-08-05Bibliographically approved
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