uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Poom, Leo
Publications (10 of 28) Show all publications
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2017). Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety. Cognition, 159, 156-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety
2017 (English)In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 159, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA.

Keywords
Numerical cognition, Approximate Number System, Math anxiety
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310372 (URN)10.1016/j.cognition.2016.11.014 (DOI)000392787600014 ()27960118 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Van den Berg, R., Lindskog, M., Poom, L. & Winman, A. (2017). Recent Is More: A Negative Time-Order Effect in Nonsymbolic Numerical Judgment.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(6), 1084-1097
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent Is More: A Negative Time-Order Effect in Nonsymbolic Numerical Judgment.
2017 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523Print, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1084-1097Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Humans as well as some nonhuman animals can estimate object numerosities—such as the number of sheep in a flock—without explicit counting. Here, we report on a negative time-order effect (TOE) in this type of judgment: When nonsymbolic numerical stimuli are presented sequentially, the second stimulus is overestimated compared to the first. We examined this “recent is more” effect in two comparative judgment tasks: larger–smaller discrimination and same–different discrimination. Ideal-observer modeling revealed evidence for a TOE in 88.2% of the individual data sets. Despite large individual differences in effect size, there was strong consistency in effect direction: 87.3% of the identified TOEs were negative. The average effect size was largely independent of task but did strongly depend on both stimulus magnitude and interstimulus interval. Finally, we used an estimation task to obtain insight into the origin of the effect. We found that subjects tend to overestimate both stimuli but the second one more strongly than the first one. Overall, our findings are highly consistent with findings from studies on TOEs in nonnumerical judgments, which suggests a common underlying mechanism.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317321 (URN)10.1037/xhp0000387 (DOI)000402759300004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-08-30Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2016). Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article ID 1634.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to support non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes in humans. Recently much debate has focused on the causal direction for an observed relation between ANS acuity and arithmetic fluency. Here we investigate if arithmetic training can improve ANS acuity. We show with an experimental training study consisting of six 45-min training sessions that although feedback during arithmetic training improves arithmetic performance substantially, it does not influence ANS acuity. Hence, we find no support for a causal link where symbolic arithmetic training influences ANS acuity. Further, although short-term number memory is likely involved in arithmetic tasks we did not find that short-term memory capacity for numbers, measured by a digit-span test, was effected by arithmetic training. This suggests that the improvement in arithmetic fluency may have occurred independent of short-term memory efficiency, but rather due to long-term memory processes and/or mental calculation strategy development. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords
approximate number system, arithmetic fluency, training, short-term memory, numbers
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308638 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01634 (DOI)000386097000001 ()27826270 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
af Wahlberg, A. E. & Poom, L. (2015). An Empirical Test of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 37(6), 336-347
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Empirical Test of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys
2015 (English)In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 336-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In surveys, nonresponse is considered a source of possible bias, which increases with the size of the nonresponding group. Nonresponse bias was investigated in 3 samples of offending drivers who were required to respond to an online questionnaire before taking a driver improvement course, creating an initial 100% response rate. The next 2 questionnaire waves were voluntary, and response rates were much lower. Results (means, internal consistency, correlations, etc.) in the first wave were compared between those who responded twice or thrice and those who responded only to the first wave. No substantial differences were found. Compared to common method variance, the effects of nonresponse are very small.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-269793 (URN)10.1080/01973533.2015.1111212 (DOI)000365589300003 ()
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Wiberg, H., Nilsson, E., Linden, P., Svanberg, B. & Poom, L. (2015). Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions. Biological Psychology, 108, 115-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 108, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems.

Keywords
Mental load, Workload, Physiology, Field conditions, Car driving, Multivariate models
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255265 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.03.017 (DOI)000353996100013 ()25857673 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-22 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2014). Can approximate number system acuity improve with arithmetic training?. In: : . Paper presented at The 36th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci) — Quebec City, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can approximate number system acuity improve with arithmetic training?
2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247663 (URN)
Conference
The 36th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci) — Quebec City, Canada
Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2015-03-23
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2014). While waiting for the dots: The influence of short-term memory in tasks indexing the Approximate Number System?. In: : . Paper presented at The 56th annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society (Psychonomics) — Long Beach, CA, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>While waiting for the dots: The influence of short-term memory in tasks indexing the Approximate Number System?
2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247661 (URN)
Conference
The 56th annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society (Psychonomics) — Long Beach, CA, USA
Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2015-03-23
Lindskog, M., Winman, A., Juslin, P. & Poom, L. (2013). Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 510
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure
2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 510-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity.

Keywords
approximate number system, adaptive measure, validity, reliability, ZEST
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209391 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00510 (DOI)000331193400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2013-10-18 Created: 2013-10-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Poom, L. (2012). Memory of Gender and Gait Direction From Biological Motion: Gender Fades Away But Directions Stay. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(5), 1091-1097
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Memory of Gender and Gait Direction From Biological Motion: Gender Fades Away But Directions Stay
2012 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1091-1097Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The delayed discrimination methodology has been used to demonstrate a high-fidelity nondecaying visual short-term memory (VSTM) for so-called preattentive basic features. In the current Study, I show that the nondecaying high VSTM precision is not restricted to basic features by using the same method to measure memory precision for gait direction and gender-stereotypical gait patterns from high-level point-light walkers. Nondecaying VSTM of direction was found for delays up to 9 s whereas memory for gender decayed. For both tasks, reaction times (RTs) increased with the delay, but only gender RT took longer when the two walkers faced different directions to the line of sight as compared to when they faced the same direction. The results may reflect differences between local and global processes, or an ecologically valid strategy where VSTM resources focus on variables that change, such as tracking people's movements, rather than variables that are constant during short timescales, such as gender.

Keywords
perception, vision, memory, motion, Perception, syn, minne, rörelse
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183105 (URN)10.1037/a0028503 (DOI)000309371300004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2012-10-25 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Poom, L. (2011). Motion and color generate coactivation at postgrouping identification stages. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 73(6), 1833-1842
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motion and color generate coactivation at postgrouping identification stages
2011 (English)In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 1833-1842Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Response times (RTs) were measured in a postgrouping visual identification task. Shapes composed of multiple elements were distinguished by color, motion, orientation, and spatial frequency alone or in pairwise conjunctions. The largest amount of redundancy gain, requiring coactivation as revealed by a race model analysis, was obtained with color-motion conjunctions. In contrast, RTs for a pregrouping detection task using the same target shape as in the identification task, distinguished by color, motion, or a conjunction of these features, showed no evidence for coactivation. The results provide psychophysical evidence for coactivation of color and motion signals in cortical regions specialized for grouping and object identification, as opposed to separate processing of these features in cortical area V1, believed to limit performance in visual search and pregrouping detection.

Keywords
Race model, Identification, Feature integration, Response time, Grouping
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158321 (URN)10.3758/s13414-011-0132-8 (DOI)000293706000016 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2012-10-25 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications