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Harper, D. A. T., Popov, L. E. & Holmer, L. E. (2017). Brachiopods: origin and early history. Palaeontology, 60(5), 609-631.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brachiopods: origin and early history
2017 (English)In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 60, no 5, 609-631 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite many major advances in recent years, three key challenges remain in bringing clarity to the early history of the phylum: (1) identifying the origin, morphology and life modes of the first brachiopods; (2) understanding the relationships of the major groups to each other and higher sister taxa; and (3) unravelling the roles of the Cambrian and Ordovician radiations that set the agenda for much of subsequent brachiopod evolution. Since some 95% of all brachiopod taxa are extinct, the fossil record is the primary source of data to frame and test models for the evolution of the phylum. The acquisition of new, and the redescription of existing faunas, in precise spatial and temporal frameworks, using new and well-established analytical and investigative techniques, are as important as ever.

Keyword
brachiopod, Cambrian, Ordovician, phylogeny, diversity
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-325928 (URN)10.1111/pala.12307 (DOI)000408773000001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2012-1658The Wenner-Gren Foundation
Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Topper, T. P., Strotz, L. C., Skovsted, C. B. & Holmer, L. E. (2017). Do brachiopods show substrate-related phenotypic variation?: A case study from the Burgess Shale. Palaeontology, 60(2), 269-279.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do brachiopods show substrate-related phenotypic variation?: A case study from the Burgess Shale
2017 (English)In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 60, no 2, 269-279 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As sessile, benthic filter feeders, brachiopods share an intimate relationship with their chosen substrate. Individuals of Micromitra burgessensis in the Burgess Shale Formation are preserved in life position, attached to a range of hard substrates, including skeletal debris, conspecific brachiopods, sponges and enigmatic tubes. Here we investigate the phenotypic variability of M.burgessensis associated with differing substrate attachments. We apply geometric morphometrics to test for variation by plotting landmarks on the exterior of ventral and dorsal valves of M.burgessensis specimens that are preserved attached to different substrates. Using principal component, canonical variate analyses and anova, we determine that there is some variation in shape related to substrate. Canonical variate analyses, for ventral valves and dorsal valves, indicate that specimens attached to the same substrate are recognizable in shape from specimens attached to other substrate types. The strength of differentiation however, is not robust and combined with our discriminate analysis of separate populations suggests that there is the potential for substrates to exercise only weak control over the morphology of Brachiopoda.

Keyword
substrate, brachiopod, phenotypic variation, geometric morphometrics, Burgess Shale, morphology
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315497 (URN)10.1111/pala.12281 (DOI)000394993300010 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2009-4395 2012-1658
Available from: 2017-02-15 Created: 2017-02-15 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
Holmer, L. E., Ghobadi Pour, M., Popov, L. E., Zhang, Z. & Zhang, Z. (2017). Ecology, biofacies, biogeography and systematics of micromorphic lingulate brachiopods from the Ordovician (Darriwilian–Sandbian) of south-central China. Papers in Palaeontology, 3(3), 317-361.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecology, biofacies, biogeography and systematics of micromorphic lingulate brachiopods from the Ordovician (Darriwilian–Sandbian) of south-central China
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2017 (English)In: Papers in Palaeontology, ISSN 2056-2802, Vol. 3, no 3, 317-361 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ordovician (Darriwilian to Sandbian) micromorphic linguliform lingulate brachiopods are described from the Guniutan Formation at the Fenxiang section in Hubei province, and the Maocaopu and Cili sections in Hunan province of south-central China, situated on the Yangtze Platform. A total of 7560 specimens from 155 limestone samples (within the interval of Lenodus variabilis – Pygodus anserinus biozones) are assigned to 22 species, representing a low taxonomic diversity and low abundance fauna. The fauna is dominated by the Acrotretoidea, mainly species of the Torynelasmatidae, with Torynelasma the most abundant (more than 40% of total number of specimens), along with the Eoconulidae and Eoconulus (18% of total) representing the second most common forms. Species of the Ephippelasmatidae are also common (16% of total) diverse, and include representatives of Myotreta and Numericoma, as well as Ephippelasma, whereas species of the Scaphelasmatidae are somewhat less common (13% of total). All three investigated sections represent outer shelf environments, but the Maocaopu section is situated in a relatively deeper position, in proximity of the south-eastern outer margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform, close to its boundary with the Jiangnan Slope. A quantitative analysis of the relative abundance data was carried out in order to investigate the biofacies distribution of the micromorphic brachiopod communities across the Yangtze Platform, something that has not been attempted before with Palaeozoic linguliforms. Six lingulate microbrachiopod communities could be recognized in the sections. The major biofacies shift, which occurred in the Cili section in the upper part of the Microzarkodina ozarkodella Zone, at the time of the onset and initial rise of the Mid Darriwilian Carbon Isotope Excursion (MDICE) suggests that these biofacies may have been depth controlled.

Keyword
Ordovician, Linguliformea, brachiopod, China, ecology, biogeography
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318598 (URN)10.1002/spp2.1077 (DOI)000406695100001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1658; 2009-4395
Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Altenburger, A., Martinez, P., Budd, G. E. & Holmer, L. E. (2017). Gene Expression Patterns in Brachiopod Larvae Refute the "€œBrachiopod-Fold"€ Hypothesis. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 5, 1-3, Article ID 74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene Expression Patterns in Brachiopod Larvae Refute the "€œBrachiopod-Fold"€ Hypothesis
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Vol. 5, 1-3 p., 74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Brachiopoda, body plan, evolution, brachiopod fold, gene expression, ontogeny
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328337 (URN)10.3389/fcell.2017.00074 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1658
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-22Bibliographically approved
Holmer, L. E. (2017). Kambrosiluren i Västergötland – en geologisk resa genom tid och rum. In: Christer Ask (Ed.), Sten - en tidsresa: . Västergötlands Fornminnesförening.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kambrosiluren i Västergötland – en geologisk resa genom tid och rum
2017 (Swedish)In: Sten - en tidsresa / [ed] Christer Ask, Västergötlands Fornminnesförening , 2017Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västergötlands Fornminnesförening, 2017
Series
Västergötlands fornminnesförenings tidskrift, ISSN 0347-4402 ; 2015-2016
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321524 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-07 Created: 2017-05-07 Last updated: 2017-05-09Bibliographically approved
Jin, J. & Holmer, L. E. (2017). Pentameroid brachiopod Karlsorus new genus from the upper Wenlock (Silurian) Slite Beds, Gotland, Sweden. Journal of Paleontology, 91(5), 911-918.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pentameroid brachiopod Karlsorus new genus from the upper Wenlock (Silurian) Slite Beds, Gotland, Sweden
2017 (English)In: Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 91, no 5, 911-918 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Karlsorus n. gen. is proposed in this study as a large, smooth-shelled pentameride brachiopod of thefamily Pentameridae, based on Pentamerus gothlandicus Lebedev, 1892, from the Wenlock (Silurian) Slite bedsof Gotland, Sweden. This species is transferred from Pentamerus to the new genus because of the combination of aPentamerus-like shell shape and the development of a brachiophorium through fusion of the outer hinge plates in themiddle portion, like a dorso-ventrally inversed cruralium. The first appearance of brachiophorium in pentamerids isin the late Wenlock, known also in Brooksina, Pentamerifera, and other related pentamerid genera, marking asignificant stage in morphological transformation of dorsal internal structures, as part of the Silurian pentameridediversification in both level-bottom and reefal depositional environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2017
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328028 (URN)10.1017/jpa.2017.46 (DOI)000409050200005 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1658
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-01-04Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z., Holmer, L. E. & Chen, F. (2017). Post-metamorphic allometry in the earliest acrotretoid brachiopods from the lower Cambrian (Series 2) of South China, and its implications. Palaeontology.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-metamorphic allometry in the earliest acrotretoid brachiopods from the lower Cambrian (Series 2) of South China, and its implications
2017 (English)In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The earliest growth of post-metamorphic (post-larval) shells in two species of Eohadrotreta is described from the Cambrian Shuijingtuo Formation of South China. Two different growth patterns can be observed by quantifying developmental variations in size and shape of successive stages of post-metamorphic shell growth (including the pedicle foramen forming stage, pedicle foramen enclosing stage and intertrough increasing stage) of Eohadrotreta zhenbaensis and Eohadrotreta? zhujiahensis. The pedicle foramen is never enclosed within the metamorphic shell of E. zhenbaensis, while the enclosed pedicle foramen of E.? zhujiahensis is located directly outside the metamorphic shell after the pedicle foramen enclosing stage. A strongly allometric growth pattern of E. zhenbaensis is demonstrated by the early enclosure of the pedicle foramen; an accelerated lengthening of the ventral intertrough is associated with the development of a more complex dorsal median septum during the intertrough increasing stage. By contrast, E.? zhujiahensis demonstrates possible paedomorphic development by delayed enclosure of pedicle foramen and an associated decreased lengthening of ventral intertrough during the intertrough increasing stage. This ontogenetic developmental sequence represents the marginal accretionary formation and growth of the pedicle foramen, which resembles that of linguloid brachiopods. Furthermore, the developmental process of the pedicle foramen of Eohadrotreta seems to recapitulate the likely evolutionary transition from the Botsfordiidae, with open delthyrium, to the Acrotheloidea, with an enclosed foramen. This study provides a unique opportunity to obtain a complete understanding of the ontogenetic development of the earliest acrotretoids, and casts new light on the phylogeny of lingulate brachiopods.

Keyword
ontogeny, allometry, acrotretoid brachiopods, Eohadrotreta, heterochrony, lower Cambrian
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333370 (URN)10.1111/pala.12333 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1658
Available from: 2017-11-12 Created: 2017-11-12 Last updated: 2017-11-16Bibliographically approved
Holmer, L. E., Popov, L. E., Ghobadi Pour, M., Zhang, Z. & Zhang, Z. (2017). Unusual pitted Ordovician brachiopods from the East Baltic: the significance of coarsely pitted ornamentations in linguliforms. Papers in Palaeontology, 3(3), 387-399.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unusual pitted Ordovician brachiopods from the East Baltic: the significance of coarsely pitted ornamentations in linguliforms
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2017 (English)In: Papers in Palaeontology, ISSN 2056-2802, Vol. 3, no 3, 387-399 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A characteristic coarsely pitted ornamentation (with pits larger than 0.015 mm across) can be found on some very enigmatic and rare Lower Ordovician phosphatic-shelled linguliform brachiopods, including the paterinid Lacunites balaschovae Gorjansky and the obolid Foveola maarduensis Gorjansky. Both of these species are poorly understood and known from only a few specimens from the Floian of the East Baltic. Here we describe the Ordovician species Lacunites ivantsovi sp. nov. from the lower Darriwilian of the St Petersburg region and Foveola ivari sp. nov. from the Sandbian of Estonia, representing the last known survivors of these genera in the area. The new Darriwilian species of Lacunites is also one of the last members of the Class Paterinata, which most importantly includes some of the earliest known brachiopods from the early Cambrian. The coarsely pitted ornamentation of Foveola ivari is associated with the formation of asymmetrical so-called terrace lines in the umbonal area. The latter may indicate a burrowing life style. The pits in Lacunites and Foveola are directly comparable to the more or less identical coarse pits in the discinoid Trematis. Unlike the microscopic pits found in many fossil linguliforms, it is most likely that the coarse pits were empty in life; the minute surface ornamentation of irregular wrinkles in the outer primary layer continues across the bottom of the depressions in Foveola and Trematis; in the latter the cementing attachment discs of an attached phosphatic tubular Byronia-like organism also extend down into the pits.

Keyword
Brachiopoda, Paterinidae, Obolidae, Ordovician, Darriwilian, Sandbian
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321806 (URN)10.1002/spp2.1080 (DOI)000406695100004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1658
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Holmer, L. E., Popov, L. E., Lehnert, O. & Ghobadi Pour, M. (2016). Ordovician (Darriwilian–Sandbian) linguliform brachiopods from the southern Cuyania Terrane of west-central Argentina. Australasian Palaeontological Memoirs, 49, 31-50.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ordovician (Darriwilian–Sandbian) linguliform brachiopods from the southern Cuyania Terrane of west-central Argentina
2016 (English)In: Australasian Palaeontological Memoirs, ISSN 0810-8889, Vol. 49, 31-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first Ordovician micromorphic linguliform brachiopods are described from the Province of Mendoza of west-central Argentina. The focus of the study is on carbonate successions exposed in the San Rafael Block, south of the famous Precordillera of San Juan, La Rioja and Mendoza representing the largest area of the so-called Cuyania Terrane. In the San Rafael region, the lingulate brachiopod faunas occur in two successive assemblages. The older assemblage was recovered from the uppermost part of the Ponon Trehue Formation (Lenodus variabilis Biozone; Darriwilian), and is dominated by Numericoma rowelli sp. nov. It has an affinity to contemporaneous faunas from the Antelope Valley Limestone (Whiterockian) at Meiklejohn Peak in central Nevada. The second, younger assemblage was recovered from the lower Lindero Formation (upper Darriwilian-basal Sandbian; Pygodus serra and P. anserinus Biozones) and is mainly dominated by the new genus Mendozotreta, with its type species M. devota (Krause & Rowell), and Conotreta cf. multisinuata Cooper, Rhysotreta corrugata Cooper, Scaphelasma septatum Cooper, Ephippelasma minutum Cooper and Biernatia minor Cooper. In addition, the fauna includes Elliptoglossa sylvanica Cooper, Rowellella margarita Krause & Rowell and Paterula cf. perfecta Cooper. This second lingulate microbrachiopod assemblage is closely comparable to the coeval microbrachiopod fauna from the Pratt Ferry Formation of Alabama.

National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299883 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658)
Available from: 2016-07-29 Created: 2016-07-29 Last updated: 2016-08-01Bibliographically approved
Holmer, L. E., Popov, L. E., Klishevich, I. & Ghobadi Pour, M. (2016). Reassessment of the early Triassic lingulid brachiopod ‘Lingula’ borealis Bittner, 1899 and related problems of lingulid taxonomy. GFF, 138(4), 519-525.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reassessment of the early Triassic lingulid brachiopod ‘Lingula’ borealis Bittner, 1899 and related problems of lingulid taxonomy
2016 (English)In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 138, no 4, 519-525 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Early Triassic (late Induan to early Olenekian) Lingula borealis Bittner, from the Russkii Island on the Pacific cost of south-eastern Russia is revised, based on re-examination of the type material. Although this species, like most described Triassic lingulids, has remained very poorly understood due to the lack of information on important characters, such as musculature and mantle canals, it has been commonly recorded in subsequent studies and included in attempts at understanding the patterns of extinction and recovery at around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Linguliform brachiopods are some of the notable survivors of this significant mass extinction event. Lingula borealis has previously been referred to Lingularia and provisionally synonymised with Lingularia similis Biernat & Emig. Here, it is shown that it differs from Lingularia similis mainly in characters of mantle canals, musculature and most importantly in details of the pedicle nerve impression. In Lingularia borealis, the impression of the pedicle nerve is symmetrical and goes almost straight between the individual ventral umbonal muscle scars, whereas in Lingularia similis it is asymmetrically positioned towards the smaller left component of the ventral umbonal muscle scar. Shell structures and details of preserved ontogenies have also proven to be important for the discrimination of lingulid taxa, but cannot be provided from the types of Lingularia borealis.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281284 (URN)10.1080/11035897.2016.1149216 (DOI)000386159900006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658
Available from: 2016-03-22 Created: 2016-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3629-0049

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