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Brändström, Helena
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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Grundberg, E., Brändström, H., Lam, K. C. L., Gurd, S., Ge, B., Harmsen, E., . . . Pastinen, T. (2008). Systematic assessment of the human osteoblast transcriptome in resting and induced primary cells. Physiological Genomics, 33(3), 301-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematic assessment of the human osteoblast transcriptome in resting and induced primary cells
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2008 (English)In: Physiological Genomics, ISSN 1094-8341, E-ISSN 1531-2267, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 301-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Osteoblasts are key players in bone remodeling. The accessibility of human primary osteoblast-like cells (HObs) from bone explants makes them a lucrative model for studying molecular physiology of bone turnover, for discovering novel anabolic therapeutics, and for mesenchymal cell biology in general. Relatively little is known about resting and dynamic expression profiles of HObs, and to date no studies have been conducted to systematically assess the osteoblast transcriptome. The aim of this study was to characterize HObs and investigate signaling cascades and gene networks with genomewide expression profiling in resting and bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2- and dexamethasone-induced cells. In addition, we compared HOb gene expression with publicly available samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Our data show a vast number of genes and networks expressed predominantly in HObs compared with closely related cells such as fibroblasts or chondrocytes. For instance, genes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway were enriched in HObs (P = 0.003) and included the binding proteins (IGFBP-1, -2, -5) and IGF-II and its receptor. Another HOb-specific expression pattern included leptin and its receptor (P < 10(-8)). Furthermore, after stimulation of HObs with BMP-2 or dexamethasone, the expression of several interesting genes and pathways was observed. For instance, our data support the role of peripheral leptin signaling in bone cell function. In conclusion, we provide the landscape of tissue-specific and dynamic gene expression in HObs. This resource will allow utilization of osteoblasts as a model to study specific gene networks and gene families related to human bone physiology and diseases.

Keywords
Adult, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/pharmacology, Cells; Cultured, Circadian Rhythm/drug effects/genetics, Cluster Analysis, Dexamethasone/pharmacology, Female, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects, Glucocorticoids/pharmacology, Humans, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics, Leptin/genetics, Male, Middle Aged, Osteoblasts/chemistry/drug effects/*metabolism, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Signal Transduction/drug effects, Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17500 (URN)10.1152/physiolgenomics.00028.2008 (DOI)000256819100001 ()18334548 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-06-25 Created: 2009-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Wright, D., Kerje, S., Brändström, H., Schütz, K., Kindmark, A., Andersson, L., . . . Pizzari, T. (2008). The genetic architecture of a female sexual ornament. Evolution, 62(1), 86-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The genetic architecture of a female sexual ornament
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2008 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding the evolution of sexual ornaments, and particularly that of female sexual ornaments, is an enduring challenge in evolutionary biology. Key to this challenge are establishing the relationship between ornament expression and female reproductive investment, and determining the genetic basis underpinning such relationship. Advances in genomics provide unprecedented opportunities to study the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments in model species. Here, we present a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a female sexual ornament, the comb of the fowl, Gallus gallus, using a large-scale intercross between red junglefowl and a domestic line, selected for egg production. First, we demonstrate that female somatic investment in comb reflects female reproductive investment. Despite a trade-off between reproductive and skeletal investment mediated by the mobilization of skeletal minerals for egg production, females with proportionally large combs also had relatively high skeletal investment. Second, we identify a major QTL for bisexual expression of comb mass and several QTL specific to female comb mass. Importantly, QTL for comb mass were nonrandomly clustered with QTL for female reproductive and skeletal investment on chromosomes one and three. Together, these results shed light onto the physiological and genetic architecture of a female ornament.

Keywords
Female ornaments, genetic quality, male mate choice, QTL, sexual selection
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14716 (URN)10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00281.x (DOI)000252108700008 ()18053076 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-31 Created: 2008-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Rubin, C.-J., Brändström, H., Wright, D., Kerje, S., Gunnarsson, U., Schütz, K., . . . Kindmark, A. (2007). Quantitative Trait Loci for BMD and Bone Strength in an Intercross Between Domestic and Wildtype Chickens. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 22(3), 375-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative Trait Loci for BMD and Bone Strength in an Intercross Between Domestic and Wildtype Chickens
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 375-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With chicken used as a model species, we used QTL analysis to examine the genetic contribution to bone traits. We report the identification of four QTLs for femoral traits: one for bone strength, one for endosteal circumference, and two affecting mineral density of noncortical bone. Introduction: BMD is a highly heritable phenotype, governed by elements at numerous loci. In studies examining the genetic contribution to bone traits, many loci have been identified in humans and in other species. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling BMD and bone strength in an intercross between wildtype and domestic chickens. Materials and Methods: A set of 164 markers, covering 30 chromosomes (chr.), were used to genotype 337 F 2-individuals from an intercross of domesticated white Leghorn and wildtype red junglefowl chicken. DXA and pQCT were used to measure BMD and bone structure. Three-point bending tests and torsional strength tests were performed to determine the biomechanical strength of the bone. QTLs were mapped using forward selection for loci with significant marginal effects. Results: Four QTLs for femoral bone traits were identified in QTL analysis with body weight included as a covariate. A QTL on chr. 1 affected female noncortical BMD (LOD 4.6) and is syntenic to human 12q21-12q23. Also located on chr. 1, a locus with synteny to human 12q 13-1.4 affected endosteal circumference (LOD 4.6). On chr. 2, a QTL corresponding to human 5p13-p15, 7p12, 18q12, 18q21, and 9q22-9q31 affected BMD in females; noncortical (LOD 4.0) and metaphyseal (LOD 7.0) BMD by pQCT and BMD by DXA (LOD 5.9). A QTL located on chr. 20 (LOD 5.2) affected bone biomechanical strength and had sex-dependent effects. In addition to the significant QTLs, 10 further loci with suggestive linkage to bone traits were identified. Conclusions: Four QTLs were identified: two for noncortical BMD, one for endosteal circumference, and one affecting bone biomechanical strength. The future identification of genes responsible for these QTLs will increase the understanding of vertebrate skeletal biology.

Keywords
chicken, quantitative trait loci, BMD, biomechanics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96811 (URN)10.1359/jbmr.061203 (DOI)000244619400005 ()17181401 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-03-06 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Grundberg, E., Åkesson, K., Kindmark, A., Gerdhem, P., Holmberg, A., Mellström, D., . . . Brändström, H. (2007). The impact of estradiol on bone mineral density is modulated by the specific estrogen receptor-alpha cofactor retinoblastoma-interacting zinc finger protein-1 insertion/deletion polymorphism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(6), 2300-2306
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of estradiol on bone mineral density is modulated by the specific estrogen receptor-alpha cofactor retinoblastoma-interacting zinc finger protein-1 insertion/deletion polymorphism
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 2300-2306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Estrogens regulate bone mass by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER)-α as well as ER-β. The specific ERα cofactor retinoblastoma-interacting zinc finger protein (RIZ)-1 enhances ERα function in the presence of estrogen. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether a RIZ P704 insertion (+)/deletion (-) (indel) polymorphism modulates the impact of estradiol on bone mineral density (BMD) and study the association between the polymorphism and BMD in elderly subjects. Design: This was a population-based, prospective, and crosssectional study, the Swedish MrOS Study, and the Malmö OPRA Study, respectively. Setting: The study was conducted at three academic medical centers: Sahlgrenska Academy in Gothenburg, Malmö University Hospital, and Uppsala University Hospital. Participants: In total, 4058 men and women, aged 69-81 yr, were randomly selected from population registries. Main Outcome Measures: BMD(grams per square centimeter) was measured at femoral neck, trochanter, lumbar spine, and total body. Results: The RIZ P704+/+ genotype was associated with low BMD in both women (femoral neck, P < 0.001; trochanter, P < 0.01; lumbar spine, P < 0.05; total body, P < 0.01) and men (lumbar spine, P < 0.05). However, the association between the polymorphism and BMD was dependent on estradiol status. The positive correlation between serum estradiol and BMD was significantly modulated by the genotype with a stronger correlation in the P704+/+ group than the P704-/- group (r = 0.19 vs. r = 0.08, P < 0.05). Conclusions: These large-scale studies of elderly men and women indicate that the ERα cofactor RIZ gene has a prominent effect on BMD, and the P704 genotype modulates the impact of estradiol on BMD. Further studies are required to determine whether this polymorphism modulates the estrogenic response to estradiol treatment.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14700 (URN)10.1210/jc.2006-1572 (DOI)000247061700050 ()17356055 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-31 Created: 2008-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Grundberg, E., Lau, E. M. C., Pastinen, T., Kindmark, A., Nilsson, O., Ljunggren, Ö., . . . Brändström, H. (2007). Vitamin D receptor 3' haplotypes are unequally expressed in primary human bone cells and associated with increased fracture risk: the MrOS Study in Sweden and Hong Kong. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 22(6), 832-840
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vitamin D receptor 3' haplotypes are unequally expressed in primary human bone cells and associated with increased fracture risk: the MrOS Study in Sweden and Hong Kong
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 832-840Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The VDR is a prime candidate gene for osteoporosis. Here, we studied three common VDR haplotypes in relation to bone phenotypes in 5014 participants of the global MrOS Study. We also studied the relative expression of the haplotypes in human bone cells. One haplotype was associated with increased fracture risk and differently expressed in primary human bone cells. Introduction: Vitamin D plays an essential role in skeletal metabolism by binding to its nuclear steroid receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The heritability of BMD is well established, and the VDR gene is considered a prime candidate suggested to partially account for genetically controlled BMD variance in the population. Materials and Methods: Here, we reconstructed common haplotypes in the VDR 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and studied the association to BMD and risk of vertebral fractures in elderly men from Sweden (n = 3014) and Hong Kong (n = 2000), all participants of the global MrOS Study. To assess any functional implications of the VDR polymorphisms, we studied allele-specific expressions of the different VDR 3′ UTR haplotypes in the normal chromosomal context of 70 unrelated human trabecular bone samples. This was performed by quantitative genotyping of coding polymorphisms in RNA samples and in corresponding DNA samples isolated from the bone samples. Results: Three major haplotypes were reconstructed and in agreement with the previously well-defined baT, BAt, and bAT haplotypes, herein denoted Hap1, Hap2, and Hap3. The Hap1 haplotype was independently associated with increased risk of vertebral fractures in Swedish men (OR, 1.655; 95% CI, 1.146-2.391; p < 0.01) and with lower lumbar spine BMD in elderly men from Sweden (p < 0.01) and Hong Kong (p < 0.05). The VDR gene was also shown to exhibit a 3′ UTR haplotype dependent allelic imbalance, indicating that the VDR Hap1 allele was overexpressed in human trabecular bone samples. Conclusions: The results indicate that the relatively overexpressed VDR Hap1 haplotype could be considered a risk allele for osteoporosis regardless of ethnicity.

Keywords
3′ untranslated region, Allelic imbalance, BMD, Fracture risk, Haplotypes, Vitamin D receptor
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14696 (URN)10.1359/jbmr.070317 (DOI)000246678300008 ()17371163 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-31 Created: 2008-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Grundberg, E., Ribom, E. L., Brändström, H., Ljunggren, O., Mallmin, H. & Kindmark, A. (2005). A TA-repeat polymorphism in the gene for the estrogen receptor alpha does not correlate with muscle strength or body composition in young adult Swedish women.. Maturitas, 50(3), 153-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A TA-repeat polymorphism in the gene for the estrogen receptor alpha does not correlate with muscle strength or body composition in young adult Swedish women.
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2005 (English)In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 153-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: There are conflicting data in the literature whether estrogens affect muscle strength. Prospective studies with hormone replacement therapy have not been able to convincingly demonstrate a muscular effect and the putative role of estrogen in the development of lean body mass is not established. Both lean mass and fat mass are known to be under strong genetic control and therefore we have investigated the relation between a TA-repeat in the gene for the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and muscle strength and body composition. METHODS: 175 healthy Swedish women, aged 20-39 were randomly selected from the population registry and included in the study. Body mass measurements (lean mass, fat mass, body weight and BMI) and muscle strength (quadriceps, hamstring and grip strength) were evaluated. The TA-repeat in the ERalpha gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Alleles with a TA-repeat length of 16 repeats or shorter were denoted short (e), and repeat length of 17 repeats or longer were denoted long (E). Women homozygous for the short and long genotype were denoted ee (31%) and EE (21%), respectively, while heterozygous individuals were denoted Ee (48%). The frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No associations were found between ERalpha genotypes and muscle strength or body composition. CONCLUSION: The TA-repeat in the human ERalpha gene does not correlate with muscle strength or body mass measurements, indicating that body composition is not as sensitive to genetic variation in this receptor as other target organs for estrogen.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-69694 (URN)15734595 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2006-06-26 Created: 2006-06-26 Last updated: 2011-01-12
Jensen, P., Keeling, L., Schutz, K., Andersson, L., Mormede, P., Brändström, H., . . . Kindmark, A. (2005). Feather pecking in chickens is genetically related to behavioural and developmental traits. Physiology and Behavior, 86(1-2), 52-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feather pecking in chickens is genetically related to behavioural and developmental traits
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2005 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 86, no 1-2, p. 52-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behaviour in chickens, which is performed by only some individuals in a flock. FP was studied in 54 red junglefowl (ancestor of domestic chickens), 36 White Leghorn laying hens, and 762 birds from an F(2)-intercross between these two lines. From all F(2)-birds, growth and feed consumption were measured. Age at sexual maturity and egg production in females, and corticosterone levels in males were also measured. From 333 F(2)-birds of both sexes, and 20 parental birds, body composition with respect to bone mineral content, muscle and fat was obtained by post-mortem examinations using Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). In femurs of the same birds, the bone density and structure were analysed using DXA and Peripheral Quantitative Computerized Tomography (pQCT), and a biomechanical analysis of bone strength was performed. Furthermore, plumage condition was determined in all birds as a measure of being exposed to feather pecking. Using 105 DNA-markers in all F(2)-birds, a genome-wide scan for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), associated with the behaviour in the F(2)-generation was performed. FP was at least as frequent in the red junglefowl as in the White Leghorn strain studied here, and significantly more common among females both in the parental strains and in the F(2)-generation. In the F(2)-birds, FP was phenotypically linked to early sexual maturation, fast growth, weak bones, and, in males, also high fat accumulation, indicating that feather peckers have a different resource allocation pattern. Behaviourally, F(2) feather peckers were more active in an open field test, in a novel food/novel object test, and in a restraint test, indicating that feather pecking might be genetically linked to a proactive coping strategy. Only one suggestive QTL with a low explanatory value was found on chromosome 3, showing that many genes, each with a small effect, are probably involved in the causation of feather pecking. There were significant effects of sire and dam on the risk of being a victim of feather pecking, and victims grew faster pre- and post-hatching, had lower corticosterone levels and were less active in a restraint test. Hence, a wide array of behavioural and developmental traits were genetically linked to FP.

Keywords
Chicken, Feather-pecking, Behaviour, Resource-allocation, Growth, QTL
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-74303 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.06.029 (DOI)16098546 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2006-05-05 Created: 2006-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Grundberg, E., Carling, T., Brändström, H., Huang, S., Ribom, E. L., Ljunggren, O., . . . Kindmark, A. (2004). A deletion polymorphism in the RIZ gene, a female sex steroid hormone receptor coactivator, exhibits decreased response to estrogen in vitro and associates with low bone mineral density in young Swedish women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89(12), 6173-6178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A deletion polymorphism in the RIZ gene, a female sex steroid hormone receptor coactivator, exhibits decreased response to estrogen in vitro and associates with low bone mineral density in young Swedish women
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2004 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 89, no 12, p. 6173-6178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, and the trait is under genetic control by a large number of genes. It is recognized that estrogen plays an important role in the maintenance of bone mass by binding to estrogen receptor a (ERa). RIZ1 has previously been shown to be a specific ERa coactivator and strongly enhances its function both in vivo and in vitro. We performed in vitro studies comparing the abilities of RIZ1 P704 polymorphic variants (homozygous presence, P704+; absence, P704-; heterozygosity P704+/- of a proline at position 704) to coactivate the ERa and also examined the polymorphism associated to BMD of 343 Swedish women, aged 20-39 yr. The expression vector containing P704- RIZ1 showed an impaired response in coactivating ERa in a ligand- and dose-dependent manner compared with P704+ RIZ (P < 0.0001). The genotype frequencies were 19% (P704+), 32% (P704-), and 49% (P704+/-) and were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. BMD at the heel was higher in the P704+ genotype group than in the P704+/- group (P = 0.02), which was evident also after corrections for fat and lean mass (P = 0.03). We conclude that RIZ1 may be a new candidate gene for involvement in the variation seen in BMD.

Keywords
Adult, Bone Density/*genetics, Cohort Studies, DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics, Estrogen Receptor alpha/*metabolism, Female, Gene Deletion, Genotype, Humans, Nuclear Proteins/*genetics, Polymorphism; Genetic, Random Allocation, Sweden, Transcription Factors/*genetics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14741 (URN)10.1210/jc.2004-0403 (DOI)15579774 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-31 Created: 2008-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Brändström, H., Stiger, F., Kahan, T., Melhus, H., Nyström, F., Öhman, K. P., . . . Kindmark, A. (2004). A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the osteoprotegerin gene is related to intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in hypertensive patients: The Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation vs Atenolol (SILVHIA). Blood Pressure, 13(3), 152-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the osteoprotegerin gene is related to intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in hypertensive patients: The Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation vs Atenolol (SILVHIA)
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2004 (English)In: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 152-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, and in previous studies has been shown to regulate osteoclast activity and differentiation. Ablation of the OPG gene in mice results in calcification of the aorta and renal arteries. We have previously reported an association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of OPG and vascular morphology and function in healthy humans. The objective with this study was to confirm our previous results in a larger population, and in addition, to study subjects with hypertension. The OPG genotype was determined by restriction fragment length and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery was measured by ultrasound in 100 patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, and 75 healthy normotensive control subjects. In the hypertensive group subjects with the CC genotype (n=24) showed a significantly increased IMT compared to those with the TC (n=52, p=0.007) and TT (n=24, p=0.009) genotype, in the hypertensive group only (mean +/- SD for TT=0.88 +/- 0.21 mm, TC=0.90 +/- 0.16 mm, CC=1.05 +/- 0.31 mm). The allele distribution did not differ between hypertensive and control individuals. The present study confirms our previous finding and shows that polymorphism in the promoter region of OPG is associated with vascular morphology in hypertensive subjects.

Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use, Adult, Atenolol/therapeutic use, Carotid Arteries/*pathology, Female, Genotype, Glycoproteins/*genetics, Humans, Hypertension/drug therapy/*genetics/*pathology, Hypertrophy; Left Ventricular/drug therapy/genetics/pathology, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism; Single Nucleotide, Promoter Regions (Genetics), Receptors; Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*genetics, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Sweden
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-67227 (URN)10.1080/08037050410035563 (DOI)15223723 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-03-14 Created: 2007-03-14 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Pastinen, T., Sladek, R., Gurd, S., Sammak, A., Ge, B., Lepage, P., . . . Hudson, T. J. (2004). A survey of genetic and epigenetic variation affecting human gene expression.. Physiol Genomics, 16(2), 184-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A survey of genetic and epigenetic variation affecting human gene expression.
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2004 (English)In: Physiol Genomics, ISSN 1531-2267, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 184-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Allelic Imbalance, Cell Line, Dosage Compensation (Genetics), Female, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Haplotypes, Humans, Male, Pedigree, Polymorphism; Single Nucleotide, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Sequence Analysis; DNA, Transcription; Genetic, Variation (Genetics)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-69840 (URN)14583597 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2005-04-11 Created: 2005-04-11 Last updated: 2011-01-12
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