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Hadjikhani, Amjad
Publications (10 of 125) Show all publications
Alimadadi, S., Bengtson, A. & Hadjikhani, A. (2018). How does uncertainty impact opportunity development in internationalization?. International Business Review, 27(1), 161-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does uncertainty impact opportunity development in internationalization?
2018 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 161-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The features of the internationalization of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs) create a laboratory for extending theory. In this paper, we argue that a high level of asymmetry between prior knowledge and a non-incremental commitment, such as an acquisition, lies at the core of understanding these types of internationalization processes. Our proposed theoretical view is that while some uncertainties in opportunity development are known to the firms and can be managed by available knowledge, disruptive commitments can result in complexes of unstable and unilineal dynamics that bring about unexpected and hence unforeseeable uncertainties. These uncertainties may be a source of future unintended consequences that will have an impact on the firm as the internationalization process unfolds. This view is used for analysis of a longitudinal case study concerning the acquisition of a Swedish firm, Vargon Alloys, by the Turkish corporation Yildirim Group, focusing on the opportunity discovery and exploitation period between 2008 and 2013. By dividing uncertainty into two types (foreseeable and unforeseeable) and analysing the hidden problems that emerged after the sudden fusion of the two networks, the study nuances understanding of the emergent and non-orderly nature of the internationalization process as it unfolds. From a process point of view, the study may aid deeper understanding of complications when discovering and exploiting opportunities.

Keywords
Internationalization process, Opportunity development, Unforeseeable uncertainty, Unintended consequences, Turkey, Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341479 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2017.06.002 (DOI)000419410600014 ()
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved
R. Leite, E., Pahlberg, C. & Hadjikhani, A. (2017). A Network View on Business-Political Interaction for Sustainable Development: The Cases of ICT Projects in Brazil. In: Proceedings of the 59th annual meeting of the Academy of International Business: The Contribution of MNEs to Building Sustainable Societies. Paper presented at AIB (Academy of International Business) 2017 Annual Meeting, July 2-5 2017, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Network View on Business-Political Interaction for Sustainable Development: The Cases of ICT Projects in Brazil
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 59th annual meeting of the Academy of International Business: The Contribution of MNEs to Building Sustainable Societies, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Series
Academy of International Business. Annual Meeting. Proceedings, ISSN 2078-0435
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338341 (URN)
Conference
AIB (Academy of International Business) 2017 Annual Meeting, July 2-5 2017, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Leite, E., Pahlberg, C. & Hadjikhani, A. (2017). Public-Private Cooperation for Social Innovation: The Case of MNEs Involvement  in the Development of the Smart City Concept in Brazil. In: : . Paper presented at EIBA Milan 2017, 43rd European International Business Academy Conference,December 14-16, 2017, Milan, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public-Private Cooperation for Social Innovation: The Case of MNEs Involvement  in the Development of the Smart City Concept in Brazil
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338345 (URN)
Conference
EIBA Milan 2017, 43rd European International Business Academy Conference,December 14-16, 2017, Milan, Italy
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A., Lee, J. W. & Park, S. (2016). Corporate social responsibility as a marketing strategy in foreign markets: The case of Korean MNCs in the Chinese electronics market. International Marketing Review, 33(4), 530-554
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corporate social responsibility as a marketing strategy in foreign markets: The case of Korean MNCs in the Chinese electronics market
2016 (English)In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 530-554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The authors are witnessing the increasing extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance as strategic behaviour specifically in emerging markets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how multinational companies (MNCs) manage CSR activities in emerging markets to aid their core business activities. In line with this question, the paper aims to develop a theoretical view for deeper understanding of the strategy in CSR practices aiding internationalization. The view is based on a business network perspective highlighting the four concepts of learning, commitment, legitimacy and trust. Design/methodology/approach - The methodology employed is qualitative, based on interviews with involved parties. The case study is about the experiences of a Korean MNC's CSR strategy when entering into the Chinese electronics industry. Findings - The case illustrates how the Korean MNC committed resources to gain trust and legitimacy that improved their market position. It further manifests that the firm's CSR strategy was proactive because of the large commitment in several long-and short-term projects towards the society. Investment in social issues like education, environmental problems and communities aided the firm's entry. Research limitations/implications - The study has a qualitative and in-depth nature. Future research is needed in order to generalize the proposed theoretical frame. Practical implications - The study manifests how a MNC employs CSR strategy for internationalization in a foreign market. It shows how managers can undertake different practical CSR measures to enter and expand in foreign markets. Social implications - While internationalization of firms is mainly based on their business commitment towards counterparts or business firms, the study shows how CSR strategy and activities towards the society support their businesses. Originality/value - While internationalization of firms is mainly based on their business commitment towards counterparts or business firms, the study shows how CSR strategy and activities towards the society support their businesses. The study investigates CSR strategy and enlightens activities like education and environmental problems. The study further develops the business network view and includes social aspects. The theoretical view holding the four relationship elements of trust, knowledge, legitimacy and commitment permits deeper understanding of the MNC's proactive CSR behaviour in new markets.

Keywords
China, Emerging markets, South Korea, Commitment, Business network, CSR marketing strategy, Legitimacy, trust and knowledge, Samsung Electronics
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300591 (URN)10.1108/IMR-03-2014-0104 (DOI)000379779300002 ()
Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A. & Thilenius, P. (2016). 'Tic-Toc-Tic-Toc': Thoughts on The Tempo of Business Network Extension. In: Peter Thilenius, Cecilia Pahlberg and Virpi Havila (Ed.), Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms (pp. 359-375). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'Tic-Toc-Tic-Toc': Thoughts on The Tempo of Business Network Extension
2016 (English)In: Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms / [ed] Peter Thilenius, Cecilia Pahlberg and Virpi Havila, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 359-375Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

‘Tic-Toc-Tic-Toc’… a long time has passed for the business network approach. The main aim of this chapter is to discuss the history of boundary extension in business networks, starting in the old times and ending in the new times. Many researchers believe in the existence of the ‘business network’ to some degree. This chapter takes the perception of the business network as a point of departure, working from the perspective that its boundary depends on the intention of the observer. This perspective allows us to present a developmental journey of how the business network approach, over time and in different tempos, has gained its identity, whilst both implicitly and explicitly extended its boundary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306546 (URN)10.1057/978-1-137-53765-2_20 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978336696 (Scopus ID)978-1-137-53763-8 (ISBN)978-1-137-53765-2 (ISBN)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-28 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved
Yilmaz, G., Bengtson, A. & Hadjikhani, A. (2015). Internationalization of firms from new emerging markets in other new emerging markets: Opportunity development of a Turkish Firm in Romania. In: Sener, S; Saridogan, E; Staub, S (Ed.), World Conference On Technology, Innovation And Entrepreneurship: . Paper presented at World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, MAY 28-30, 2015, Istanbul, TURKEY (pp. 982-992).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internationalization of firms from new emerging markets in other new emerging markets: Opportunity development of a Turkish Firm in Romania
2015 (English)In: World Conference On Technology, Innovation And Entrepreneurship / [ed] Sener, S; Saridogan, E; Staub, S, 2015, p. 982-992Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The arena of entrepreneurial behavior of MNCs from new emerging markets and how they develop opportunities in other new emerging markets is almost untouched. This paper tries to answer how firms from new emerging markets manage their entrepreneurships in other new emerging markets. Unlike the internationalization of Western firms, firms from new emerging markets often lack sufficient knowledge and therefore internationalize quickly by acquisitions. This entrepreneurial behavior is contaminated with high risk. How these firms manage the process of opportunity discovery and exploitation becomes an interesting topic for research. The study aims to develop a theoretical frame for analysis of the firms' entrepreneurial behavior when developing new opportunity. It employs business network view for deeper understanding of opportunity development in the process before and after an acquisition. The process view in this construction grasps the two internationalization elements of knowledge and resource commitment. Network approach is used to analyze the empirical case study of a Turkish firm's international opportunity discovery in Romania during the period of 1998-2014. The study aims to promote new knowledge on how firms from new emerging markets manage such opportunity when acquiring a firm from another new emerging market.

Keywords
Opportunity Development, Turkey, Kastamonu Entegre, Romania, Commitment, Knowledge
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309760 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.480 (DOI)000380509900117 ()
Conference
World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, MAY 28-30, 2015, Istanbul, TURKEY
Available from: 2016-12-07 Created: 2016-12-07 Last updated: 2016-12-07Bibliographically approved
Engwall, L. & Hadjikhani, A. (2014). Internationalization of Financial Services in Turbulent Markets. International Business Review, 23(6), 1035-1039
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internationalization of Financial Services in Turbulent Markets
2014 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1035-1039Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two significant features during the post-war period have been an increasing internationalization of ecohomic activities and a growing role for financial services in the world economy. Considerable attention has been devoted to both these features separately, while attention to the internationalization of financial service firms has been more limited. Even more limited have been the efforts to combine this work with studies of the influence of market turbulence on financial service firms. The present special issue is an attempt to provide a remedy to this state of affairs. In this introduction we first provide a background to the topic. We then give a brief summary of the characteristics of financial services as well as a short review of extant literature, before presenting the six papers that make up the issue and providing some conclusions.

National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-236113 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.06.008 (DOI)000343391300001 ()
Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Figueira de Lemos, F. & Hadjikhani, A. (2014). Internationalization Processes in Stable and Unstable Market Conditions: Towards a model of commitment decisions in dynamic environments. Journal of world business (Print), 49(3), 332-349
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internationalization Processes in Stable and Unstable Market Conditions: Towards a model of commitment decisions in dynamic environments
2014 (English)In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article proposes a managerial decision framework to deal with internationalization whether in stable or dynamic environments. While displaying the effects of unstable and stable environmental settings on commitment decisions, the framework is the result of an inferential abductive approach that merges the risk management model with empirical data collected from a 32-year longitudinal case study on nine Swedish MNCs. The longitudinal analysis shows that when environmental changes are perceived as detrimental, firms tend to decrease their tangible assets and commit in a more intangible way. On the opposite, when changes to the environment are perceived as beneficial, firms follow an incremental path of commitment, preferably in tangible kind. The findings contribute new knowledge to understand such diversities in commitment decisions as divestment, wait-and-see, market-exit and re-entry.

National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196202 (URN)10.1016/j.jwb.2013.07.003 (DOI)000338613100005 ()
Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hadjikhani, A. & Pahlberg, C. (2014). Multinational Firms and Political Actors: The Issue of Corruption and Transparency. International Journal of Business Environment, 6(3), 284-299
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multinational Firms and Political Actors: The Issue of Corruption and Transparency
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Business Environment, ISSN 1740-0589, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 284-299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218864 (URN)
Available from: 2014-02-18 Created: 2014-02-18 Last updated: 2014-11-13
Hadjikhani, A., Hadjikhani, A. I. & Thilenius, P. (2014). The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour. International Business Review, 23(1), 155-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour
2014 (English)In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commitment in the internationalization process model (IP-model) is challenged by the search for knowledge through experience and interactions. Critics opposing this logic even forced the founder of the model to call for the need for integration of other elements in order to understand irregular behaviour like rapid internationalization, loss of commitment and market exit. Aligned with this call, the paper raises the question of how the IP-model can be applied to analyse both regular/incremental and irregular/non-incremental behaviour of the firms. To reach an answer, the paper proposes a theoretical view by adding expectation and unknown uncertainty to the IP-model and examines this in a case study. The contribution is a further development of the IP-model by merging these two concepts that provide tools for understanding irregular behaviour. The paper analyses a Swedish firm's internationalization in different foreign markets for the period of 1995–2009. Conclusions support the understanding of how the model can describe regular incremental and irregular non-incremental commitment behaviour.

National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197229 (URN)10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.03.005 (DOI)000329419600015 ()
Available from: 2013-03-19 Created: 2013-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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