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Blomström-Lundqvist, CarinaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2806-3903
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Publications (10 of 266) Show all publications
Ostrowska, B., Lind, L. & Blomström-Lundqvist, C. (2024). An association between heart rate variability and incident heart failure in an elderly cohort. Clinical Cardiology, 47(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An association between heart rate variability and incident heart failure in an elderly cohort
2024 (English)In: Clinical Cardiology, ISSN 0160-9289, E-ISSN 1932-8737, Vol. 47, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

  Background

Early identification of individuals at risk of developing heart failure (HF) may improve poor prognosis. A dominant sympathetic activity is common in HF and associated with worse outcomes; however, less is known about the autonomic balance before HF.

Hypothesis

A low frequency/high frequency (L-F/H-F) ratio, index of heart rate variability, and marker of the autonomic balance predict the development of HF and may improve the performance of the HF prediction model when added to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.

Methods

Individuals in the PIVUS (Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors) study (n = 1016, all aged 70 years) were included. Exclusion criteria were prevalent HF, electrocardiographic QRS duration ≥130 millisecond, major arrhythmias, or conduction blocks at baseline. The association between the L-F/H-F ratio and incident HF was assessed using Cox proportional hazard analysis. The C-statistic evaluated whether adding the L-F/H-F-ratio to traditional CV risk factors improved the discrimination of incident HF.

Results

HF developed in 107/836 study participants during 15 years of follow-up. A nonlinear, inverse association between the L-F/H-F ratio and incident HF was mainly driven by an L-F/H-F ratio of <30. The association curve was flat for higher values (hazard ratio, HR for the total curve = 0.78 [95% confidence interval, CI: 0.69−0.88, p < .001]; HR = 2 for L-F/H-F ratio = 10). The traditional prediction model improved by 3.3% (p < .03) when the L-F/H-F ratio was added.

Conclusions

An L-F/H-F ratio of <30 was related to incident HF and improved HF prediction when added to traditional CV risk factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Cardiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-523878 (URN)10.1002/clc.24241 (DOI)001177137700001 ()38402572 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-02-25 Created: 2024-02-25 Last updated: 2024-04-12Bibliographically approved
Hindricks, G., Theuns, D. A., Bar-Lev, D., Anguera, I., Ayala Paredes, F. A., Arnold, M., . . . Bollmann, A. (2023). Ability to remotely monitor atrial high-rate episodes using a single-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with a floating atrial sensing dipole. Europace, 25(5), Article ID euad061.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ability to remotely monitor atrial high-rate episodes using a single-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with a floating atrial sensing dipole
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2023 (English)In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 25, no 5, article id euad061Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims To allow timely initiation of anticoagulation therapy for the prevention of stroke, the European guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF) recommend remote monitoring (RM) of device-detected atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) and progression of arrhythmia duration along pre-specified strata (6 min...<1h, 1 h...<24 h, >= 24h). We used the MATRIX registry data to assess the capability of a single-lead implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) with atrial sensing dipole (DX ICD system) to follow this recommendation in patients with standard indication for single-chamber ICD. Methods and results In 1841 DX ICD patients with daily automatic RM transmissions, electrograms of first device-detected AHREs per patient in each duration stratum were adjudicated, and the corresponding positive predictive values (PPVs) for the detections to be true atrial arrhythmia were calculated. Moreover, the incidence and progression of new-onset AF was assessed in 1451 patients with no AF history. A total of 610 AHREs >= 6min were adjudicated. The PPV was 95.1% (271 of 285) for episodes 6min...<1h, 99.6% (253/254) for episodes 1 h...<24h, 100% (71/71) for episodes >= 24h, or 97.5% for all episodes (595/610). The incidence of new-onset AF was 8.2% (119/1451), and in 31.1% of them (37/119), new-onset AF progressed to a higher duration stratum. Nearly 80% of new-onset AF patients had high CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc stroke risk, and 70% were not on anticoagulation therapy. Age was the only significant predictor of new-onset AF. Conclusion A 99.7% detection accuracy for AHRE >= 1h in patients with DX ICD systems in combination with daily RM allows a reliable guideline-recommended screening for subclinical AF and monitoring of AF-duration progression. [Graphics] .

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
Single-lead ICD with atrial sensing, DX ICD, Atrial fibrillation, AHRE, Remote monitoring, Risk of stroke
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-519152 (URN)10.1093/europace/euad061 (DOI)001091593400019 ()37038759 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Saglietto, A., Gaita, F., Blomström-Lundqvist, C., Arbelo, E., Dagres, N., Brugada, J., . . . Anselmino, M. (2023). AFA-Recur: an ESC EORP AFA-LT registry machine-learning web calculator predicting atrial fibrillation recurrence after ablation. Europace, 25(1), 92-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AFA-Recur: an ESC EORP AFA-LT registry machine-learning web calculator predicting atrial fibrillation recurrence after ablation
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2023 (English)In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 92-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence during the first year after catheter ablation remains common. Patient-specific prediction of arrhythmic recurrence would improve patient selection, and, potentially, avoid futile interventions. Available prediction algorithms, however, achieve unsatisfactory performance. Aim of the present study was to derive from ESC-EHRA Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term Registry (AFA-LT) a machine-learning scoring system based on pre-procedural, easily accessible clinical variables to predict the probability of 1-year arrhythmic recurrence after catheter ablation.

Methods and results: Patients were randomly split into a training (80%) and a testing cohort (20%). Four different supervised machine-learning models (decision tree, random forest, AdaBoost, and k-nearest neighbour) were developed on the training cohort and hyperparameters were tuned using 10-fold cross validation. The model with the best discriminative performance on the testing cohort (area under the curve-AUC) was selected and underwent further optimization, including re-calibration. A total of 3128 patients were included. The random forest model showed the best performance on the testing cohort; a 19-variable version achieved good discriminative performance [AUC 0.721, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.680-0.764], outperforming existing scores (e.g. APPLE score: AUC 0.557, 95% CI 0.506-0.607). Platt scaling was used to calibrate the model. The final calibrated model was implemented in a web calculator, freely available at http://afarec.hpc4ai.unito.ti/.

Conclusion: AFA-Recur, a machine-learning-based probability score predicting 1-year risk of recurrent atrial arrhythmia after AF ablation, achieved good predictive performance, significantly better than currently available tools. The calculator, freely available online, allows patient-specific predictions, favouring tailored therapeutic approaches for the individual patient.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
Atrial fibrillation, Transcatheter ablation, Recurrence, Predictors, Machine learning
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-520164 (URN)10.1093/europace/euac145 (DOI)000844326500001 ()36006664 (PubMedID)
Funder
AstraZenecaEli Lilly and Company
Available from: 2024-01-12 Created: 2024-01-12 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Atar, D., Auricchio, A. & Blomström-Lundqvist, C. (2023). Cardiac device infection: removing barriers to timely and adequate treatment. European Heart Journal, 44(35), 3323-3326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiac device infection: removing barriers to timely and adequate treatment
2023 (English)In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 44, no 35, p. 3323-3326Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-521486 (URN)10.1093/eurheartj/ehad490 (DOI)001041421400001 ()37529893 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-01-29 Created: 2024-01-29 Last updated: 2024-01-29Bibliographically approved
Lloyd, M. S., Brisben, A. J., Reddy, V. Y., Blomström-Lundqvist, C., Boersma, L. V. A., Bongiorni, M. G., . . . Knops, R. E. (2023). Design and rationale of the MODULAR ATP global clinical trial: A novel intercommunicative leadless pacing system and the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. HEART RHYTHM O2, 4(7), 448-456
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and rationale of the MODULAR ATP global clinical trial: A novel intercommunicative leadless pacing system and the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
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2023 (English)In: HEART RHYTHM O2, ISSN 2666-5018, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 448-456Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) has demonstrated safety and efficacy for the treatment of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. However, a limitation of the S-ICD lies in the inability to either pace-terminate ventricular tachycardia or provide prolonged bradycardia pacing support.

OBJECTIVE: The rationale and design of a prospective, single-arm, multinational trial of an intercommunicative leadless pacing system integrated with the S-ICD will be presented.

METHODS: A technical description of the modular cardiac rhythm management (mCRM) system (EMPOWER leadless pacemaker and EMBLEM S-ICD) and the implantation procedure is provided. MODULAR ATP (Effectiveness of the EMPOWER (TM) Modular Pacing System and EMBLEM (TM) Subcutaneous ICD to Communicate Antitachycardia Pacing) is amulticenter, international trial enrolling up to 300 patients at risk of sudden cardiac death at up to 60 centers trial design. The safety endpoint of freedom from major complications related to the mCRM system or implantation procedure at 6 months and 2 years are significantly higher than 86% and 81%, respectively, and all-cause survival is significantly.85% at 2 years.

RESULTS: Efficacy endpoints are that at 6 months mCRM communication success is significantly higher than 88% and the percentage of subjects with low and stable thresholds is significantly higher than 80%. Substudies to evaluate rate-responsive features and performance of the pacing module are also described.

CONCLUSION: The MODULAR ATP global clinical trial will prospectively test the safety and efficacy of the first intercommunicating leadless pacing system with the S-ICD. This trial will allow for robust validation of device-device communication, pacing performance, rate responsiveness, and system safety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Leadless pacemaker, Subcutaneous ICD, Defibrillator, Transcatheter pacemaker, Antitachycardia pacing
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-511156 (URN)10.1016/j.hroo.2023.05.004 (DOI)001050060900001 ()37520021 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-11 Last updated: 2023-09-11Bibliographically approved
Singh, J. P., Blomström-Lundqvist, C., Turakhia, M. P., Camm, A. J., Fazeli, M. S., Kreidieh, B., . . . Kowey, P. R. (2023). Dronedarone versus sotalol in patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic literature review and network meta-analysis. Clinical Cardiology, 46(6), 589-597
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dronedarone versus sotalol in patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic literature review and network meta-analysis
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2023 (English)In: Clinical Cardiology, ISSN 0160-9289, E-ISSN 1932-8737, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 589-597Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundThere are limited comparative data on safety and efficacy within commonly used Vaughan-Williams (VW) class III antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) for maintenance of sinus rhythm in adults with atrial fibrillation (AF). HypothesisWe hypothesized that dronedarone and sotalol, two commonly prescribed VW class III AADs with class II properties, have different safety and efficacy effects in patients with nonpermanent AF. MethodsA systematic literature review was conducted searching MEDLINE (R), Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to June 15, 2021 (NCT05279833). Clinical trials and observational studies that evaluated safety and efficacy of dronedarone or sotalol in adults with AF were included. Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA) was used to quantify comparative safety and efficacy. Where feasible, we performed sensitivity analyses by including only randomized controlled trials (RCTs). ResultsOf 3581 records identified through database searches, 37 unique studies (23 RCTs, 13 observational studies, and 1 nonrandomized trial) were included in the NMA. Dronedarone was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of all-cause death versus sotalol (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.38 [95% credible interval, CrI: 0.19, 0.74]). The association was numerically similar in the sensitivity analysis (HR = 0.46 [95% CrI: 0.21, 1.02]). AF recurrence and cardiovascular death results were not significantly different between dronedarone and sotalol in all-studies and sensitivity analyses. ConclusionThe NMA findings indicate that, across all clinical trials and observational studies included, dronedarone compared with sotalol was associated with a lower risk of all-cause death, but with no difference in AF recurrence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
antiarrhythmia agents, atrial fibrillation, dronedarone, network meta-analysis, sotalol, systematic review
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-513050 (URN)10.1002/clc.24011 (DOI)000963825400001 ()37025083 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2023-10-17Bibliographically approved
Lakkireddy, D. R., Segar, D. S., Sood, A., Wu, M., Rao, A., Sohail, R., . . . Granger, C. B. (2023). Early Lead Extraction for Infected Implanted Cardiac Electronic Devices JACC Review Topic of the Week. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 81(13), 1283-1295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Lead Extraction for Infected Implanted Cardiac Electronic Devices JACC Review Topic of the Week
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2023 (English)In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 81, no 13, p. 1283-1295Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Infection remains a serious complication associated with the cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), leading to substantial clinical and economic burden globally. This review assesses the burden of cardiac implantable electronic device infection (CIED-I), evidence for treatment recommendations, barriers to early diagnosis and appropriate therapy, and potential solutions. Multiple clinical practice guidelines recommended complete system and lead removal for CIED-I when appropriate. CIED extraction for infection has been consistently reported with high success, low complication, and very low mortality rates. Complete and early extraction was associated with significantly better clinical and economic outcome compared with no or late extraction. However, significant gaps in knowledge and poor recommendation compliance have been reported. Barriers to optimal management may include diagnostic delay, knowledge gaps, and limited access to expertise. A multipronged approach, including education of all stakeholders, a CIED-I alert system, and improving access to experts, could help bring paradigm shift in the treatment of this serious condition. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2023;81:1283-1295)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
CIED, barriers, extraction, infection, structured literature review, treatment guidelines
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-501538 (URN)10.1016/j.jacc.2023.01.038 (DOI)000966675800001 ()36990548 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-05-09 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Blomström-Lundqvist, C., Naccarelli, G. V., McKindley, D. S., Bigot, G., Wieloch, M. & Hohnloser, S. H. (2023). Effect of dronedarone vs. placebo on atrial fibrillation progression: a post hoc analysis from ATHENA trial. Europace, 25(3), 845-854
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of dronedarone vs. placebo on atrial fibrillation progression: a post hoc analysis from ATHENA trial
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2023 (English)In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 845-854Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: This post hoc analysis of the ATHENA trial (NCT00174785) assessed the effect of dronedarone on the estimated burden of atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial flutter (AFL) progression to presumed permanent AF/AFL, and regression to sinus rhythm (SR), compared with placebo.

Methods and results: The burden of AF/AFL was estimated by a modified Rosendaal method using available electrocardiograms (ECG). Cumulative incidence of permanent AF/AFL (defined as >= 6 months of AF/AFL until end of study) or permanent SR (defined as >= 6 months of SR until end of study) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. A log-rank test was used to assess statistical significance. Hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model, adjusted for treatment group. Of the 4439 patients included in this analysis, 2208 received dronedarone, and 2231 placebo. Baseline and clinical characteristics were well balanced between groups. Overall, 304 (13.8%) dronedarone-treated patients progressed to permanent AF/AFL compared with 455 (20.4%) treated with placebo (P < 0.0001). Compared with those receiving placebo, patients receiving dronedarone had a lower cumulative incidence of permanent AF/AFL (log-rank P < 0.001; HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.56-0.75), a higher cumulative incidence of permanent SR (log-rank P < 0.001; HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.09-1.29), and a lower estimated AF/AFL burden over time (P < 0.01 from Day 14 to Month 21).

Conclusion: These results suggest that dronedarone could be a useful antiarrhythmic drug for early rhythm control due to less AF/AFL progression and more regression to SR vs. placebo, potentially reflecting reverse remodeling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
Antiarrhythmic drug, Atrial fibrillation, Cardiovascular outcomes, Dronedarone, Progression
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-512590 (URN)10.1093/europace/euad023 (DOI)000930617800001 ()36758013 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-09-27 Created: 2023-09-27 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
Kommata, V., Sciaraffia, E. & Blomström-Lundqvist, C. (2023). Epicardial conduction abnormalities in patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and mutation positive healthy family members – a study using electrocardiographic imaging. PLOS ONE, 18(1), Article ID e0280111.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epicardial conduction abnormalities in patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and mutation positive healthy family members – a study using electrocardiographic imaging
2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 1, article id e0280111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in early stages is challenging. The aim was therefore to study whether electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) can detect epicardial depolarization changes in ARVC patients and healthy mutation-carriers (M-carriers).

Method: Twelve ARVC patients, 20 M-carriers and 8 controls underwent 12-lead ECG, signal-averaged ECG, 2-dimensional echocardiography, 24-hours Holter monitoring and ECGI (body surface mapping and computer tomography with offline analysis of reconstructed epicardial signals). Total and Right Ventricular Activation Time (tVAT and RVAT respectively), area of Ventricular Activation during the terminal 20 milliseconds (aVAte20) and the activation patterns were compared between groups.

Results: In ARVC patients the locations of aVAte20 were scattered or limited to smaller RV parts versus in controls, in whom aVAte20 was confined to RVOT and LV base (+/- RV base). ARVC patients had smaller aVAte20 (35cm2 vs 87cm2, p<0.05), longer tVAT (99msec vs 58msec, p<0.05) and longer RVAT (66msec vs 43msec, p<0.05) versus controls. In 50% of M-carriers, the locations of aVAte20 were also eccentric. This sub-group presented smaller aVAte20 (53cm2 vs 87cm2, p= 0.009), longer RVAT (55msec vs 48msec, p=0.043), but similar tVAT (65msec vs 60msec, p=0.529) compared with the M-carriers with normal activation pattern.

Conclusions: The observation of localized delayed epicardial conduction in the RV in M-carriers suggests an early stage of ARVC and may be a useful diagnostic marker enhancing an early detection of the disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
Keywords
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, diagnosis, gene carriers, electrocardiographic imaging
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Cardiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-473210 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0280111 (DOI)000945431500001 ()36603020 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-04-22 Created: 2022-04-22 Last updated: 2023-04-03Bibliographically approved
Deering, T. F., Piccini, J. P., Graf, M., Chou, J. W., Wilson, R., Land, N., . . . Blomström-Lundqvist, C. (2023). Expert Consensus on Comprehensive Early Rhythm Control in Addition to Guideline-Based Care for Atrial Fibrillation: A Modified Delphi Survey. American Journal of Cardiology, 207, 328-335
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expert Consensus on Comprehensive Early Rhythm Control in Addition to Guideline-Based Care for Atrial Fibrillation: A Modified Delphi Survey
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2023 (English)In: American Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0002-9149, E-ISSN 1879-1913, Vol. 207, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Atrial fibrillation (AF) practice guidelines recommend a rhythm-control strategy to improve symptoms and quality of life, noting the side effects of antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablation. Emerging evidence indicates that comprehensive early rhythm control with antiarrhythmic drugs or catheter ablation is associated with a lower risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes versus the usual care. Using an online modified Delphi survey approach, perspectives and expert consensus among electrophysiologists were examined through a series of ranking and likelihood questions around treatment decision-making on (1) the use of comprehensive early rhythm-control strategies in patients with AF based on guidelines and emerging research and (2) treatment selection factors. A panel of 17 electrophysiologists reached a consensus on using early rhythm control (median 90, interquartile range 14) based on the view that early intervention improved cardiovascular outcomes (mean rank 1.6 of 3, 82% within 1 SD) and symptoms (1.8 of 3, 41%). AF-related symptoms were identified as the most important in making a treat-ment initiation decision (1.1 of 7, 88%), followed by AF type (2.5 of 7, 82%). Participants were most likely to initiate treatment at AF symptom onset (median 80; interquartile range 6). In making treatment selection decisions, participants ranked short-term/long-term safety (1.9 of 7, 88%) and efficacy (1.8 of 7, 53%) as the top 2 considerations. In conclusion, experts were in favor of early rhythm control; however, additional research is needed to address the role that early rhythm-control strategies play in current AF treatment management algorithms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
atrial fibrillation, early rhythm control, treatment management, Delphi method
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-518477 (URN)10.1016/j.amjcard.2023.08.004 (DOI)001086077500001 ()37774474 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-12-19 Created: 2023-12-19 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2806-3903

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