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Lymeus, F., Lindberg, P. & Hartig, T. (2018). Building mindfulness bottom-up: Meditation in natural settings supports open monitoring and attention restoration. Consciousness and Cognition, 59, 40-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building mindfulness bottom-up: Meditation in natural settings supports open monitoring and attention restoration
2018 (English)In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 59, p. 40-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 Mindfulness courses conventionally use effortful, focused meditation to train attention. In contrast, natural settings can effortlessly support state mindfulness and restore depleted attention resources, which could facilitate meditation. We performed two studies that compared conventional training with restoration skills training (ReST) that taught low-effort open monitoring meditation in a garden over five weeks. Assessments before and after meditation on multiple occasions showed that ReST meditation increasingly enhanced attention performance. Conventional meditation enhanced attention initially but increasingly incurred effort, reflected in performance decrements toward the course end. With both courses, attentional improvements generalized in the first weeks of training. Against established accounts, the generalized improvements thus occurred before any effort was incurred by the conventional exercises. We propose that restoration rather than attention training can account for early attentional improvements with meditation. ReST holds promise as an undemanding introduction to mindfulness and as a method to enhance restoration in nature contacts.

Keywords
Attention, Mindfulness, Meditation, Restoration, Training
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341717 (URN)10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.008 (DOI)000427810400005 ()
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Arnold, O., Kibbe, A., Hartig, T. & Kaiser, F. G. (2018). Capturing the Environmental Impact of Individual Lifestyles: Evidence of the Criterion Validity of the General Ecological Behavior Scale. Environment and Behavior, 50(3), 350-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing the Environmental Impact of Individual Lifestyles: Evidence of the Criterion Validity of the General Ecological Behavior Scale
2018 (English)In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 350-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Do behavioral measures of ecological lifestyles reflect actual environmental impact? Three convenience samples of German adults (N = 881) completed such a measure, the General Ecological Behavior (GEB) scale. Their household electricity consumption was self-reported (Study 1), assessed by a smart-meter (Study 2), or reported by the power company (Study 3). The latter two studies controlled for income, which can boost consumption just as it opens possibilities for behaving ecologically. Within and across studies, analyses revealed a negative association between self-reported ecological behavior and electricity consumption (-.18 rs -.22), even with adjustment for income. Furthermore, customers in a green electricity program reported more ecological engagement and consumed one third less electricity than did regular customers. These results indicate the criterion validity of the GEB scale for a highly practically relevant criterion and encourage the use of generic behavior measures in efforts to understand and foster more ecological lifestyles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018
Keywords
behavioral assessment, conservation (ecological behavior), test validity, affluence, energy consumption
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352706 (URN)10.1177/0013916517701796 (DOI)000429795200005 ()
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Williams, K. J. H., Lee, K. E., Hartig, T., Sargent, L. D., Williams, N. S. G. & Johnson, K. A. (2018). Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 59, 36-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 59, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accumulating evidence indicates that time spent in natural environments promotes creativity, but few researchers have considered how this occurs. We evaluate two candidate mechanisms, attention restoration and mind wandering. We compare the accounts in terms of attentional focus, brain network activation, cognitive effects, and the temporal progression of these processes across the stages of creativity. Based on this analysis, we propose that (1) gentle shifts between externally oriented soft fascination and internally oriented mind wandering can occur during nature experience; (2) this provides the basis for mutually reinforcing pathways that enhance attention control following nature experience; and (3) mind wandering might support additional benefits for creativity, including flexibility and new associations of ideas. We propose research to test the proposed pathways, including the conditions under which environments influence creativity, the ebb and flow of attention orientation during environmental experience, and the links between attentional focus, brain network activation and creativity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369112 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2018.08.005 (DOI)000447571700005 ()
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Williams, K. J. .., Lee, K. E., Hartig, T., Sargent, L. D., Williams, N. S. .. & Johnson, K. A. (2018). Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 59, 36-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 59, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accumulating evidence indicates that time spent in natural environments promotes creativity, but few researchers have considered how this occurs. We evaluate two candidate mechanisms, attention restoration and mind wandering. We compare the accounts in terms of attentional focus, brain network activation, cognitive effects, and the temporal progression of these processes across the stages of creativity. Based on this analysis, we propose that (1) gentle shifts between externally oriented soft fascination and internally oriented mind wandering can occur during nature experience; (2) this provides the basis for mutually reinforcing pathways that enhance attention control following nature experience; and (3) mind wandering might support additional benefits for creativity, including flexibility and new associations of ideas. We propose research to test the proposed pathways, including the conditions under which environments influence creativity, the ebb and flow of attention orientation during environmental experience, and the links between attentional focus, brain network activation and creativity.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369248 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2018.08.005 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Korpela, K. M., Pasanen, T., Repo, V., Hartig, T., Staats, H., Mason, M., . . . Thompson, C. W. (2018). Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 562.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

Keywords
affect regulation, natural places, urban places, perceived efficacy, life satisfaction, perceived health, emotional well-being, coping strategy
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354117 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00562 (DOI)000430350700001 ()
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Dzhambov, A. M., Markevych, I., Hartig, T., Tilov, B., Arabadzhiev, Z., Stoyanov, D., . . . Dimitrova, D. D. (2018). Multiple pathways link urban green- and bluespace to mental health in young adults. Environmental Research, 166, 223-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple pathways link urban green- and bluespace to mental health in young adults
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A growing body of scientific literature indicates that urban green- and bluespace support mental health; however, little research has attempted to address the complexities in likely interrelations among the pathways through which benefits plausibly are realized. Objectives: The present study examines how different plausible pathways between green/bluespace and mental health can work together. Both objective and perceived measures of green- and bluespace are used in these models. Methods: We sampled 720 students from the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Residential greenspace was measured in terms of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tree cover density, percentage of green areas, and Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Bluespace was measured in terms of its presence in the neighborhood and the Euclidean distance to the nearest bluespace. Mental health was measured with the 12-item form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The following mediators were considered: perceived neighborhood green/bluespace, restorative quality of the neighborhood, social cohesion, physical activity, noise and air pollution, and environmental annoyance. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to analyze the data. Results: Higher NDVI within a 300 m buffer around the residence was associated with better mental health through higher perceived greenspace; through higher perceived greenspace, leading to increased restorative quality, and subsequently to increased physical activity (i.e., serial mediation); through lower noise exposure, which in turn was associated with lower annoyance; and through higher perceived greenspace, which was associated with lower annoyance. Presence of bluespace within a 300 m buffer did not have a straightforward association with mental health owing to competitive indirect paths: one supporting mental health through higher perceived bluespace, restorative quality, and physical activity; and another engendering mental ill-health through higher noise exposure and annoyance. Conclusions: We found evidence that having more greenspace near the residence supported mental health through several indirect pathways with serial components. Conversely, bluespace was not clearly associated with mental health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Air pollution, Annoyance, Greenness, Physical activity, Restoration, Social cohesion, Traffic noise, Water
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363415 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.004 (DOI)000445318200025 ()29890427 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
Hartig, T. (2018). Multiple pathways link urban green- and bluespace to mental health in young adults.. Environmental Research, 166, 223-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple pathways link urban green- and bluespace to mental health in young adults.
2018 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371461 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2018-12-20
Hartig, T. (2018). Special Issue: Housing and Social Theory Introduction. Housing, Theory and Society, 35(2), 161-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special Issue: Housing and Social Theory Introduction
2018 (English)In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 161-162Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358139 (URN)10.1080/14036096.2018.1439332 (DOI)000432162200001 ()
Available from: 2018-08-24 Created: 2018-08-24 Last updated: 2018-08-24Bibliographically approved
Dzhambov, A., Hartig, T., Markevych, I., Tilov, B. & Dimitrova, D. (2018). Urban residential greenspace and mental health in youth: Different approaches to testing multiple pathways yield different conclusions. Environmental Research, 160, 47-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban residential greenspace and mental health in youth: Different approaches to testing multiple pathways yield different conclusions
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 160, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Urban greenspace can benefit mental health through multiple mechanisms. They may work together, but previous studies have treated them as independent.

Objectives: We aimed to compare single and parallel mediation models, which estimate the independent contributions of different paths, to several models that posit serial mediation components in the pathway from greenspace to mental health.

Methods: We collected cross-sectional survey data from 399 participants (15-25 years of age) in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Objective "exposure" to urban residential greenspace was defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, tree cover density within the 500-m buffer, and Euclidean distance to the nearest urban greenspace. Self-reported measures of availability, access, quality, and usage of greenspace were also used. Mental health was measured with the General Health Questionnaire. The following potential mediators were considered in single and parallel mediation models: restorative quality of the neighborhood, neighborhood social cohesion, commuting and leisure time physical activity, road traffic noise annoyance, and perceived air pollution. Four models were tested with the following serial mediation components: (1) restorative quality -> social cohesion; (2) restorative quality -> physical activity; (3) perceived traffic pollution -> restorative quality; (4) and noise annoyance -> physical activity.

Results: There was no direct association between objectively-measured greenspace and mental health. For the 500-m buffer, the tests of the single mediator models suggested that restorative quality mediated the relationship between NDVI and mental health. Tests of parallel mediation models did not find any significant indirect effects. In line with theory, tests of the serial mediation models showed that higher restorative quality was associated with more physical activity and more social cohesion, and in turn with better mental health. As for self-reported greenspace measures, single mediation through restorative quality was significant only for time in greenspace, and there was no mediation though restorative quality in the parallel mediation models; however, serial mediation through restorative quality and social cohesion/physical activity was indicated for all self-reported measures except for greenspace quality.

Conclusions: Statistical models should adequately address the theoretically indicated interdependencies between mechanisms underlying association between greenspace and mental health. If such causal relationships hold, testing mediators alone or in parallel may lead to incorrect inferences about the relative contribution of specific paths, and thus to inappropriate intervention strategies.

Keywords
Air pollution, Greenness, Green space, Mediation analysis, Noise, Physical activity, Restoration, Social cohesion, Stress
National Category
Environmental Sciences Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345052 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2017.09.015 (DOI)000417548600007 ()28961469 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
Lymeus, F., Lundgren, T. & Hartig, T. (2017). Attentional Effort of Beginning Mindfulness Training Is Offset With Practice Directed Toward Images of Natural Scenery. Environment and Behavior, 49(5), 536-559
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attentional Effort of Beginning Mindfulness Training Is Offset With Practice Directed Toward Images of Natural Scenery
2017 (English)In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 536-559Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mindfulness involves curious and detached attention to present experience. Long-term mindfulness practice can improve attentional control capabilities, but practice sessions may initially deplete attentional resources as beginners struggle to learn skills and manage distractions. Without using skills or effort, people can have mindful experiences in pleasant natural environments; natural scenery may therefore facilitate mindfulness practice. Twenty-seven participants completed an 8-week mindfulness course; 14 served as waiting-list controls. We tested participants’ attention every other week before and after 15-min sessions of conventional mindfulness practice, mindfulness practice with nature images, or rest with nature images (controls). Mindfulness practice incurred attentional effort; it hampered performance gains seen in controls during practice/rest sessions, and attentionally weak participants completed fewer course exercises. Viewing nature images during practice increasingly offset the effort of mindfulness practice across the 8 weeks. Bringing skill-based and nature-based approaches together offers additional possibilities for understanding and facilitating mindfulness and restorative states.

Keywords
mindfulness, nature, attention, restoration, environment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313822 (URN)10.1177/0013916516657390 (DOI)000401162600003 ()
Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2017-01-24 Last updated: 2017-11-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9970-9164

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