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Publications (10 of 94) Show all publications
Lymeus, F., Lundgren, T. & Hartig, T. (2017). Attentional Effort of Beginning Mindfulness Training Is Offset With Practice Directed Toward Images of Natural Scenery. Environment and Behavior, 49(5), 536-559.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attentional Effort of Beginning Mindfulness Training Is Offset With Practice Directed Toward Images of Natural Scenery
2017 (English)In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 49, no 5, 536-559 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mindfulness involves curious and detached attention to present experience. Long-term mindfulness practice can improve attentional control capabilities, but practice sessions may initially deplete attentional resources as beginners struggle to learn skills and manage distractions. Without using skills or effort, people can have mindful experiences in pleasant natural environments; natural scenery may therefore facilitate mindfulness practice. Twenty-seven participants completed an 8-week mindfulness course; 14 served as waiting-list controls. We tested participants’ attention every other week before and after 15-min sessions of conventional mindfulness practice, mindfulness practice with nature images, or rest with nature images (controls). Mindfulness practice incurred attentional effort; it hampered performance gains seen in controls during practice/rest sessions, and attentionally weak participants completed fewer course exercises. Viewing nature images during practice increasingly offset the effort of mindfulness practice across the 8 weeks. Bringing skill-based and nature-based approaches together offers additional possibilities for understanding and facilitating mindfulness and restorative states.

Keyword
mindfulness, nature, attention, restoration, environment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313822 (URN)10.1177/0013916516657390 (DOI)000401162600003 ()
Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2017-01-24 Last updated: 2017-11-07Bibliographically approved
Markevych, I., Schoierer, J., Hartig, T., Chudnovsky, A., Hystad, P., Dzhambov, A. M., . . . Fuertes, E. (2017). Exploring pathways linking greenspace to health: theoretical and methodological guidance. Environmental Research, 158, 301-317.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring pathways linking greenspace to health: theoretical and methodological guidance
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 158, 301-317 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In a rapidly urbanizing world, many people have little contact with natural environments, which may affect health and well-being. Existing reviews generally conclude that residential greenspace is beneficial to health. However, the processes generating these benefits and how they can be best promoted remain unclear.

Objectives: During an Expert Workshop held in September 2016, the evidence linking greenspace and health was reviewed from a transdisciplinary standpoint, with a particular focus on potential underlying biopsychosocial pathways and how these can be explored and organized to support policy-relevant population health research.

Discussions: Potential pathways linking greenspace to health are here presented in three domains, which emphasize three general functions of greenspace: reducing harm (e.g. reducing exposure to air pollution, noise and heat), restoring capacities (e.g. attention restoration and physiological stress recovery) and building capacities (e.g. encouraging physical activity and facilitating social cohesion). Interrelations between among the three domains are also noted. Among several recommendations, future studies should: use greenspace and behavioural measures that are relevant to hypothesized pathways; include assessment of presence, access and use of greenspace; use longitudinal, interventional and (quasi)experimental study designs to assess causation; and include low and middle income countries given their absence in the existing literature. Cultural, climatic, geographic and other contextual factors also need further consideration.

Conclusions: While the existing evidence affirms beneficial impacts of greenspace on health, much remains to be learned about the specific pathways and functional form of such relationships, and how these may vary by context, population groups and health outcomes. This Report provides guidance for further epidemiological research with the goal of creating new evidence upon which to develop policy recommendations.

Keyword
Greenness, Green spaces, Greenspace, Pathways, Mediation analysis
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335011 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2017.06.028 (DOI)000408184700033 ()28672128 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Collado, S., Staats, H., Corraliza, J. A. & Hartig, T. (2017). Restorativeenvironments and health. In: G. Fleury-Bahi, E. Pol., & O. Navarro (Ed.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology and Quality of Life Research: (pp. 127-148). Heidelberg: Springer.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Restorativeenvironments and health
2017 (English)In: Handbook of Environmental Psychology and Quality of Life Research / [ed] G. Fleury-Bahi, E. Pol., & O. Navarro, Heidelberg: Springer, 2017, 127-148 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer, 2017
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-325568 (URN)
Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2017-06-26
Dahlkvist, E., Hartig, T., Nilsson, A., Högberg, H., Skovdahl, K. & Engström, M. (2016). Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: a multi-level cross-sectional study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(9), 2065-2076.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: a multi-level cross-sectional study
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 9, 2065-2076 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims. To test the relationship between greenery in gardens at residential facilities for older people and the self-perceived health of residents, mediated by experiences of being away and fascination when in the garden and the frequency of visitation there. To examine how these indirect effects vary with the number of physical barriers to visiting the garden. Background. Many older people in residential facilities suffer from complex health problems. Access to a green outdoor environment may enable psychological distance, engage effortless attention, encourage more frequent visitation and promote resident health. Design. A multi-level, cross-sectional, correlational design. Methods. Questionnaires were administered June–August, 2011 to convenience samples of residents at 72 facilities for older people with complex healthcare needs. One to 10 eligible residents were sampled during self-motivated garden visits at each facility (n = 290). They reported on their garden experiences and health. Facility staff reported on objective garden characteristics and barriers to access. A serial mediation model was tested with multiple linear regression analysis. Results. The total indirect effect of greenery on self-perceived health was positive and significant. Garden greenery appears to affect health by enhancing a sense of being away, affording possibilities to experience the outdoor environment as interesting and encouraging visitation. Among residents in homes with multiple barriers, only fascination mediated the relationship between greenery and selfperceived health. Conclusion. Ample greenery in outdoor space at residential facilities for older people appears to promote experiences of being away and fascination, more frequent visitation and better health.

Keyword
health, nurses, nursing, outdoor environment, residential facilities, serial mediation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Nursing
Research subject
Caring Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283036 (URN)10.1111/jan.12968 (DOI)000383625800009 ()27028976 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Hartig, T. & Kahn, P. H. . (2016). Living in cities, naturally. Science, 352(6288), 938-940.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living in cities, naturally
2016 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 352, no 6288, 938-940 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas.

National Category
Psychology Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298164 (URN)10.1126/science.aaf3759 (DOI)000376147800034 ()27199417 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-30 Created: 2016-06-30 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Von Lindern, E., Hartig, T. & Lercher, P. (2016). Traffic-related exposures, constrained restoration, and health in the residential context. Health and Place, 39, 92-100.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic-related exposures, constrained restoration, and health in the residential context
2016 (English)In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 39, 92-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traffic-related exposures may undermine the restorative character of the home, and this may in turn undermine health and residential satisfaction. We addressed this possibility with data for adults residing in a large valley near Innsbruck, Austria (N=572). We joined objective measures of traffic-related sound and air pollutants with reports from door-to-door surveys concerning perceived disturbance from traffic-related exposures, restorative qualities of the living environment, self-perceived health and residential satisfaction. We analyzed these data with successive tests of nested structural equation models, with and without the restorative quality variables. The results suggest that the negative impact of traffic-related exposures on self-perceived health and satisfaction with the living environment involves the constraint of restorative qualities of the living environment, over and above the share traditionally attributed to such exposures viewed as stressors. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the distinction between environmental stressors and constraints on restoration.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298166 (URN)10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.12.003 (DOI)000376515600012 ()26995669 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-30 Created: 2016-06-30 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Staats, H., Jahncke, H., Herzog, T. R. & Hartig, T. (2016). Urban Options for Psychological Restoration: Common Strategies in Everyday Situations. PLoS ONE, 11(1), Article ID e0146213.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban Options for Psychological Restoration: Common Strategies in Everyday Situations
2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, e0146213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives Given the need for knowledge on the restorative potential of urban settings, we sought to estimate the effects of personal and contextual factors on preferences and restoration likelihood assessments for different urban activities-in-environments. We also sought to study the generality of these effects across different countries. Methods We conducted a true experiment with convenience samples of university students in the Netherlands (n = 80), Sweden (n = 100), and the USA (n = 316). In each country, the experiment had a mixed design with activities-in-environments (sitting in a park, sitting in a cafe, walking in a shopping mall, walking along a busy street) manipulated within-subjects and the need for restoration (attentional fatigue, no attentional fatigue) and immediate social context (in company, alone) manipulated between-subjects. The manipulations relied on previously tested scenarios describing everyday situations that participants were instructed to remember and imagine themselves being in. For each imagined situation (activity-in-environment with antecedent fatigue condition and immediate social context), subjects provided two criterion measures: general preference and the likelihood of achieving psychological restoration. Results The settings received different preference and restoration likelihood ratings as expected, affirming that a busy street, often used in comparisons with natural settings, is not representative of the restorative potential of urban settings. Being with a close friend and attentional fatigue both moderated ratings for specific settings. Findings of additional moderation by country of residence caution against broad generalizations regarding preferences for and the expected restorative effects of different urban settings. Conclusions Preferences and restoration likelihood ratings for urban activity-environment combinations are subject to multiple personal and contextual determinants, including level of attentional fatigue, being alone versus in company, and broader aspects of the urban context that vary across cities and countries. Claims regarding a lack of restorative quality in urban environments are problematic.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-276822 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0146213 (DOI)000367801400117 ()26731272 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-16 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Gemmill, A., Falconi, A., Karasek, D., Hartig, T., Anderson, E. & Catalano, R. (2015). Do macroeconomic contractions induce or 'harvest' suicides?: A test of competing hypotheses. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69(11), 1071-1076.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do macroeconomic contractions induce or 'harvest' suicides?: A test of competing hypotheses
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 69, no 11, 1071-1076 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Researchers often invoke a mortality displacement or 'harvesting' mechanism to explain mortality patterns, such that those with underlying health vulnerabilities die sooner than expected in response to environmental phenomena, such as heat waves, cold spells and air pollution. It is unclear if this displacement mechanism might also explain observed increases in suicide following economic contraction, or if suicides are induced in persons otherwise unlikely to engage in self-destructive behaviour. Here, we test two competing hypotheses explaining an observed increase in suicides following unemployment-induction or displacement. Methods We apply time series methods to monthly suicide and unemployment data from Sweden for the years 2000-2011. Tests are conducted separately for working age (20-64 years old) men and women as well as older (aged 65 years and older) men and women. Results Displacement appeared among older men and women; an unexpected rise in unemployment predicted an increase in suicides 6 months later, followed by a significant decrease 8 months later. Induction appeared among working age men, but not among working age women; an unexpected rise in unemployment predicted an increase in suicides 4-6 months later. Conclusions Displacement and induction both appear to have operated following unexpected labour market contractions in Sweden, though with different population segments.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-271035 (URN)10.1136/jech-2015-205489 (DOI)000364995100010 ()26188057 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Lindal, P. J. & Hartig, T. (2015). Effects of urban street vegetation on judgments of restoration likelihood. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14(2), 200-209.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of urban street vegetation on judgments of restoration likelihood
2015 (English)In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 14, no 2, 200-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of how to increase the restorative quality of residential streetscapes may help to offset problems entailed by urban densification. The present study considered the effects of trees, grass, and flower beds on ratings of restoration likelihood for streetscapes. We used digital-imaging techniques to systematically vary these natural elements in images of residential streets with different architectural characteristics. Using a web-based procedure, 103 images were rated by independent groups of Icelandic adults (N=188) on either restoration likelihood, preference, being away, or fascination. Group mean scores on the psychological variables were calculated for each image, and the images were then used as the units of analysis in regression analyses. Ratings of restoration likelihood increased with increase in the number of street trees and the presence of flower beds. These effects were apparently mediated by perceptions of being away and fascination. The architectural characteristics of buildings along the streets had a strong independent effect on restoration likelihood ratings, but they did not moderate the positive effects of vegetation on restoration likelihood ratings. The results provide guidance for the design of more psychologically sustainable urban residential environments.

Keyword
Architectural complexity, Environmental preference, Psychological restoration, Restorative environments, Urbanization
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259183 (URN)10.1016/j.ufug.2015.02.001 (DOI)000357146400002 ()
Available from: 2015-07-29 Created: 2015-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Buhrman, M., Syk, M., Burvall, O., Hartig, T., Gordh, T. & Andersson, G. (2015). Individualized Guided Internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Chronic Pain Patients with Comorbid Depression and Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 31(6), 504-516.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individualized Guided Internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Chronic Pain Patients with Comorbid Depression and Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial
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2015 (English)In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 6, 504-516 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Depression and anxiety are commonly seen in patients with chronic pain which affects the patient´s daily life functioning. Although considerable attention has been devoted to explain why depression and anxiety are frequent comorbid with chronic pain, little empirical work has been conducted on interventions that target depression and anxiety and chronic pain. The present study was designed to test an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment delivered through the internet for persons with chronic pain and emotional distress. A total of 52 patients with chronic pain and depression were included and randomized to either treatment for 8 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant decreases regarding depressive symptoms and pain disability in the treatment group. Results on the primary outcomes of depression and anxiety were in favour of the treatment group. Reductions were also found on pain catastrophizing. One year follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an individualized guided internet-delivered treatment based on cognitive behaviour therapy can be effective for persons with chronic pain comorbid emotional distress.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238808 (URN)10.1097/AJP.0000000000000176 (DOI)000354103300004 ()25380222 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-12-16 Created: 2014-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9970-9164

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