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Engvall, Johan
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Engvall, J. (2015). The State as Investment Market: A Framework for Interpreting the Post-Soviet State in Eurasia. Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, 28(1), 25-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The State as Investment Market: A Framework for Interpreting the Post-Soviet State in Eurasia
2015 (English)In: Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, ISSN 0952-1895, E-ISSN 1468-0491, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

What type of state has emerged in post-Soviet Eurasia, and what kind of theoretical framework can help us understand its behavior and performance? This article argues that we can usefully understand the logic of political and administrative organization in terms of a kind of “investment market.” Access to the state is frequently determined by actual financial payment. Would-be officials invest in offices to obtain access to a stream of income associated with an office. This framework represents a novel perspective on the post-Soviet state, which has hitherto either been premised on modernization theory or emphasized a robustly personalistic logic of political organization.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212988 (URN)10.1111/gove.12064 (DOI)000346913600003 ()
Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2014). Why are public offices sold in Kyrgyzstan?. Post-Soviet Affairs, 30(1), 67-85
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why are public offices sold in Kyrgyzstan?
2014 (English)In: Post-Soviet Affairs, ISSN 1060-586X, E-ISSN 1938-2855, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 67-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Why are public offices for sale in Kyrgyzstan? To address this question, this article attempts to set out a new logic for understanding the motives, nature, and consequences of corruption in the country. Rather than securing access to a single favor through bribery, officials invest in political and administrative posts in order to obtain access to stream of rents associated with an office. Political and administrative corruption is organically linked in this system, and corruption stems not so much from weak monitoring as from being a franchise-like arrangement, where officials are required to pay continuous fees to their bosses. The key is to be the public official influencing the redistribution of rents as well as participating in the informal market where public goods are privatized and exchanged for informal payments. Thus, instead of control over the pure economic assets of the state, influence over the state's institutional and organizational framework is the dominant strategy for earning and investing in the country.

Keywords
corruption, Kyrgyzstan, rent-seeking, political economy, franchises, state capture, state weakness, tax farming, informal market
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218553 (URN)10.1080/1060586X.2013.818785 (DOI)000329603800004 ()
Available from: 2014-02-12 Created: 2014-02-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2013). The Political Sources of Kyrgyzstan’s Recent Unrest. Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Political Sources of Kyrgyzstan’s Recent Unrest
2013 (English)In: Central Asia-Caucasus AnalystArticle in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent protests in Issyk-Kul and Jalal-Abad regions demanding the nationalization of Kumtor gold mine and the release of jailed members of parliament have demonstrated the limited ability of Kyrgyzstan’s central government to enforce law and order throughout the country. There are political sources of this social and economic instability, notably, Kyrgyzstan’s transformation to a semi-parliamentary system of government in 2010 has rooted out corrupt one-family rule but instituted a system of coalition-based corruption, where the country’s major economic, political and territorial assets are divided among political parties with a detrimental impact on their ability to govern the country.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: Johns Hopkins University, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, Silk Road Studies Program, 2013
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221496 (URN)
Available from: 2014-03-31 Created: 2014-03-31 Last updated: 2014-04-08Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2013). Государство как инвестиционный рынок: Осмысленние коррупции в Кыргызстане. Bishkek: Altyn Print
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Государство как инвестиционный рынок: Осмысленние коррупции в Кыргызстане
2013 (Russian)Book (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
State as the investment market : examination of corruption in Kyrgyzstan
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bishkek: Altyn Print, 2013. p. 154
Keywords
economics, business, commerce, criminology and social pathology
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221426 (URN)9789967084025 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-03-31 Created: 2014-03-31 Last updated: 2014-04-08Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2012). Against the Grain: How Georgia Fought Corruption and What It Means. Washington, D.C. & Stockholm: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Against the Grain: How Georgia Fought Corruption and What It Means
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, D.C. & Stockholm: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program, 2012. p. 61
Series
Silk Road Paper ; September 2012
Keywords
anti-corruption, Georgia, Rose Revolution
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196155 (URN)978-91-86635-44-2 (ISBN)
Note

Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, Silk Road Studies Program

Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2012). Has the Fight against Corruption Started in Kyrgyzstan?. Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Has the Fight against Corruption Started in Kyrgyzstan?
2012 (English)In: Central Asia-Caucasus AnalystArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, D.C.: Nitze School of Advanced International Studies Johns Hopkins University, 2012
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196156 (URN)
Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2015-06-26Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2011). Flirting with State Failure: Power and Politics in Kyrgyzstan since Independence. Stockholm: Institute for Security and Development Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flirting with State Failure: Power and Politics in Kyrgyzstan since Independence
2011 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institute for Security and Development Policy, 2011. p. 101
Series
Silk Road paper
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-164782 (URN)978-91-86635-12-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2011-12-27 Created: 2011-12-27 Last updated: 2015-06-29Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2011). När korruption är normen. Upsala Nya Tidning (2011-12-24), pp. 7-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>När korruption är normen
2011 (Swedish)In: Upsala Nya Tidning, ISSN 1104-0173, no 2011-12-24, p. 7-7Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: AB Upsala Nya Tidning, 2011
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-164783 (URN)
Note

Del 1

Available from: 2011-12-27 Created: 2011-12-27 Last updated: 2013-08-05Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2011). The State as Investment Market: An Analytical Framework for Interpreting Politics and Bureaucracy in Kyrgyzstan. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Department of Government, Uppsala University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The State as Investment Market: An Analytical Framework for Interpreting Politics and Bureaucracy in Kyrgyzstan
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

What type of state has emerged in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, and what kind of theoretical framework must we develop to understand its behavior and performance? This study argues that the logic of political and bureaucratic organization follows that of an investment market in which public offices are purchased with the expectation of yielding a favorable return. This theory represents a novel perspective on the post-communist state which has hitherto either been premised on modernization theory or emphasized a robustly personalistic logic of political organization.

There is a serial of linkages to this argument. First, the decisive factor for public employment is unofficial financial payments rather than merits or personal ties. The sums involved in the exchange are far greater than conventional “bribery.” The market for public offices, intimately connected from top to bottom in the state hierarchy, pertains to a much more unified system than the one found in the literature which treats political and administrative, high and low level corruption as distinct and unrelated forms. Second, individuals invest in public offices in order to convert the rights, assets and powers connected to officialdom into private capital. In this political economy, alternative markets for enrichment are subordinated to the state and poorly functioning. Third, the abundance of pecuniary corruption in Kyrgyzstan is standardized, entrenched and predictable norms of behavior in this type of state. The key to success on this market is the ability to control the supply of “public” goods and services in exchange for unofficial payments.

Finally, the risk for systemic instability increases when more reasonably inclusive personal connections and money is no longer sufficient and access to the state for earning and investing is manipulated by narrow personalistic ties. This creates pressure for returning to a more competitive market as opposed to a monopolistic order.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Government, Uppsala University, 2011. p. 271
Keywords
Kyrgyzstan, state, investment market, sale of public offices, corruption, politics, bureaucracy
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159378 (URN)978-91-506-2238-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-19, Brusewitzsalen, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Gamla Torget 6, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-23 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2012-10-10Bibliographically approved
Engvall, J. (2008). Efter "transitionen": Kirgizistans postsovjetiska system. Nordisk Østforum, 22(3-4), 247-269
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efter "transitionen": Kirgizistans postsovjetiska system
2008 (Swedish)In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 247-269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, 2008
Keywords
Kyrgyzstan, transition, state-building, multiple equilibriums, taxation, protection, legislation, influence games
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98858 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
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