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Ahnesjö, Anders
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Publications (10 of 55) Show all publications
Grönlund, E., Johansson, S., Montelius, A. & Ahnesjö, A. (2019). Corrigendum to ‘‘Dose painting by numbers based on retrospectively determined recurrence probabilities”: [Radiother Oncol 122 (2017)236–241]. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 131, 243-243
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrigendum to ‘‘Dose painting by numbers based on retrospectively determined recurrence probabilities”: [Radiother Oncol 122 (2017)236–241]
2019 (English)In: Radiotherapy and Oncology, ISSN 0167-8140, E-ISSN 1879-0887, Vol. 131, p. 243-243Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Medical Radiophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395141 (URN)10.1016/j.radonc.2018.11.004 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 130632
Note

Corrigendum for "Dose painting by numbers based on retrospectively determined recurrence probabilities” https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2016.09.007

Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-11-04Bibliographically approved
Källman, H.-E., Traneus, E. & Ahnesjö, A. (2019). Toward automated and personalized organ dose determination in CT examinations: A comparison of two tissue characterization models for Monte Carlo organ dose calculation with a Therapy Planning System. Medical physics (Lancaster), 46(2), 1012-1023
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward automated and personalized organ dose determination in CT examinations: A comparison of two tissue characterization models for Monte Carlo organ dose calculation with a Therapy Planning System
2019 (English)In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 1012-1023Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) is a versatile tool in diagnostic radiology with rapidly increasing number of examinations per year globally. Routine adaption of the exposure level for patient anatomy and examination protocol cause the patients' exposures to become diversified and harder to predict by simple methods. To facilitate individualized organ dose estimates, we explore the possibility to automate organ dose calculations using a radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS). In particular, the mapping of CT number to elemental composition for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations is investigated.

Methods: Organ dose calculations were done for a female thorax examination test case with a TPS (Raystation, Raysearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm, Sweden) utilizing a MC dose engine with a CT source model presented in a previous study. The TPS's inherent tissue characterization model for mapping of CT number to elemental composition of the tissues was calibrated using a phantom with known elemental compositions and validated through comparison of MC calculated dose with dose measured with Thermo Luminescence Dosimeters (TLD) in an anthropomorphic phantom. Given the segmentation tools of the TPS, organ segmentation strategies suitable for automation were analyzed for high contrast organs, utilizing CT number thresholding and model-based segmentation, and for low contrast organs utilizing water replacements in larger tissue volumes. Organ doses calculated with a selection of organ segmentation methods in combination with mapping of CT numbers to elemental composition (RT model), normally used in radiotherapy, were compared to a tissue characterization model with organ segmentation and elemental compositions defined by replacement materials [International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model], frequently favored in imaging dosimetry.

Results: The results of the validation with the anthropomorphic phantom yielded mean deviations from the dose to water calculated with the RT and ICRP model as measured with TLD of 1.1% and 1.5% with maximum deviations of 6.1% and 8.7% respectively over all locations in the phantom. A strategy for automated organ segmentation was evaluated for two different risk organ groups, that is, low contrast soft organs and high contrast organs. The relative deviation between organ doses calculated with the RT model and with the ICRP model varied between 0% and 20% for the thorax/upper abdomen risk organs.

Conclusions: After calibration, the RT model in the TPS provides accurate MC dose results as compared to measurements with TLD and the ICRP model. Dosimetric feasible segmentation of the risk organs for a female thorax demonstrates a possibility for automation using the segmentation tool available in a TPS for high contrast organs. Low contrast soft organs can be represented by water volumes, but organ dose to the esophagus and thyroid must be determined using standardized organ shapes. The uncertainties of the organ doses are small compared to the overall uncertainty, at least an order of magnitude larger, in the estimates of lifetime attributable risk (LAR) based on organ doses. Large-scale and automated individual organ dose calculations could provide an improvement in cancer incidence estimates from epidemiological studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
radiation exposure [N06, 850, 460, 350, 850], radiation oncology [H02, 403, 740, 650], tomography, x-ray computed [E01, 370, 700, 810, 810], Monte Carlo method [N05, 715, 360, 750, 540], risk management [N04, 452, 871]
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379276 (URN)10.1002/mp.13357 (DOI)000459616200056 ()30582891 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-18 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Almhagen, E., Boersma, D. J., Nyström, H. & Ahnesjö, A. (2018). A beam model for focused proton pencil beams. Physica medica (Testo stampato), 52, 27-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A beam model for focused proton pencil beams
2018 (English)In: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 52, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: We present a beam model for Monte Carlo simulations of the IBA pencil beam scanning dedicated nozzle installed at the Skandion Clinic. Within the nozzle, apart from entrance and exit windows and the two ion chambers, the beam traverses vacuum, allowing for a beam that is convergent downstream of the nozzle exit. Materials and methods: We model the angular, spatial and energy distributions of the beam phase space at the nozzle exit with single Gaussians, controlled by seven energy dependent parameters. The parameters were determined from measured profiles and depth dose distributions. Verification of the beam model was done by comparing measured and GATE acquired relative dose distributions, using plan specific log files from the machine to specify beam spot positions and energy. Results: GATE-based simulations with the acquired beam model could accurately reproduce the measured data. The gamma index analysis comparing simulated and measured dose distributions resulted in > 95% global gamma index pass rates (3%/2 mm) for all depths. Conclusion: The developed beam model was found to be sufficiently accurate for use with GATE e.g. for applications in quality assurance (QA) or patient motion studies with the IBA pencil beam scanning dedicated nozzles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Proton therapy, Monte Carlo, Beam model
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364002 (URN)10.1016/j.ejmp.2018.06.007 (DOI)000442110000004 ()30139606 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Childhood Cancer FoundationSwedish Radiation Safety Authority
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Johansson, S., Nyholm, T., Thellenberg, C. & Ahnesjö, A. (2018). Dose painting of prostate cancer based on Gleason score correlations with apparent diffusion coefficients. Acta Oncologica, 57(5), 574-581
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dose painting of prostate cancer based on Gleason score correlations with apparent diffusion coefficients
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2018 (English)In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 574-581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Gleason scores for prostate cancer correlates with an increased recurrence risk after radiotherapy (RT). Furthermore, higher Gleason scores correlates with decreasing apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data from diffusion weighted MRI (DWI-MRI). Based on these observations, we present a formalism for dose painting prescriptions of prostate volumes based on ADC images mapped to Gleason score driven dose-responses.Methods: The Gleason score driven dose-responses were derived from a learning data set consisting of pre-RT biopsy data and post-RT outcomes for 122 patients treated with a homogeneous dose to the prostate. For a test data set of 18 prostate cancer patients with pre-RT ADC images, we mapped the ADC data to the Gleason driven dose-responses by using probability distributions constructed from published Gleason score correlations with ADC data. We used the Gleason driven dose-responses to optimize dose painting prescriptions that maximize the tumor control probability (TCP) with equal average dose as for the learning sets homogeneous treatment dose.Results: The dose painting prescriptions increased the estimated TCP compared to the homogeneous dose by 0-51% for the learning set and by 4-30% for the test set. The potential for individual TCP gains with dose painting correlated with increasing Gleason score spread and larger prostate volumes. The TCP gains were also found to be larger for patients with a low expected TCP for the homogeneous dose prescription.Conclusions: We have from retrospective treatment data demonstrated a formalism that yield ADC driven dose painting prescriptions for prostate volumes that potentially can yield significant TCP increases without increasing dose burdens as compared to a homogeneous treatment dose. This motivates further development of the approach to consider more accurate ADC to Gleason mappings, issues with delivery robustness of heterogeneous dose distributions, and patient selection criteria for design of clinical trials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
National Category
Urology and Nephrology Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-353194 (URN)10.1080/0284186X.2017.1415457 (DOI)000430114000002 ()29260950 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 130632
Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, K. M., Dahlgren, C. V., Reizenstein, J., Cao, Y., Ahnesjö, A. & Thunberg, P. (2018). Evaluation of two commercial CT metal artifact reduction algorithms for use in proton radiotherapy treatment planning in the head and neck area. Medical physics (Lancaster), 45(10), 4329-4344
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of two commercial CT metal artifact reduction algorithms for use in proton radiotherapy treatment planning in the head and neck area
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2018 (English)In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 4329-4344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To evaluate two commercial CT metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms for use in proton treatment planning in the head and neck (H&N) area.

Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with removable metallic implants (dental fillings or neck implant) was CT-scanned to evaluate the O-MAR (Philips) and the iMAR (Siemens) algorithms. Reference images were acquired without any metallic implants in place. Water equivalent thickness (WET) was calculated for different path directions and compared between image sets. Images were also evaluated for use in proton treatment planning for parotid, tonsil, tongue base, and neck node targets. The beams were arranged so as to not traverse any metal prior to the target, enabling evaluation of the impact on dose calculation accuracy from artifacts surrounding the metal volume. Plans were compared based on analysis (1 mm distance-to-agreement/1% difference in local dose) and dose volume histogram metrics for targets and organs at risk (OARs). Visual grading evaluation of 30 dental implant patient MAR images was performed by three radiation oncologists.

Results: In the dental fillings images, WET along a low-density streak was reduced from -17.0 to -4.3 mm with O-MAR and from -16.1 mm to -2.3 mm with iMAR, while for other directions the deviations were increased or approximately unchanged when the MAR algorithms were used. For the neck implant images, WET was generally reduced with MAR but residual deviations remained (of up to -2.3 mm with O-MAR and of up to -1.5 mm with iMAR). The analysis comparing proton dose distributions for uncorrected/MAR plans and corresponding reference plans showed passing rates >98% of the voxels for all phantom plans. However, substantial dose differences were seen in areas of most severe artifacts ( passing rates of down to 89% for some cases). MAR reduced the deviations in some cases, but not for all plans. For a single patient case dosimetrically evaluated, minor dose differences were seen between the uncorrected and MAR plans ( passing rate approximately 97%). The visual grading of patient images showed that MAR significantly improved image quality (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: O-MAR and iMAR significantly improved image quality in terms of anatomical visualization for target and OAR delineation in dental implant patient images. WET calculations along several directions, all outside the metallic regions, showed that both uncorrected and MAR images contained metal artifacts which could potentially lead to unacceptable errors in proton treatment planning. WET was reduced by MAR in some areas, while increased or unchanged deviations were seen for other path directions. The proton treatment plans created for the phantom images showed overall acceptable dose distributions differences when compared to the reference cases, both for the uncorrected and MAR images. However, substantial dose distribution differences in the areas of most severe artifacts were seen for some plans, which were reduced by MAR in some cases but not all. In conclusion, MAR could be beneficial to use for proton treatment planning; however, case-by-case evaluations of the metal artifact-degraded images are always recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
computed tomography, dose calculation, metal artifacts, proton therapy, radiotherapy
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368456 (URN)10.1002/mp.13115 (DOI)000446995000017 ()30076784 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Wikström, K., Isacsson, U., Nilsson, K. & Ahnesjö, A. (2018). Reproducibility of heart and thoracic wall positionin repeated deep inspiration breath holds forradiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer patients. Acta Oncologica, 57(10), 1318-1324
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reproducibility of heart and thoracic wall positionin repeated deep inspiration breath holds forradiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer patients
2018 (English)In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 10, p. 1318-1324Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer patientscan effectively move the heart away from the target and reduce the heart dose compared to treatmentsin free breathing. This study aims to investigate the positional reproducibility of heart edge(HE) and thoracic wall (TW) during repeated DIBHs.

Material and methods: At three occasions, 11 left-sided breast cancer patients were CT imaged during6 minutes of repeated DIBHs with 60 cine CT series. The series were evenly distributed over threebed positions and for each bed position, the heart edge associated maximum heart distance (MHD)and thoracic wall-associated maximum lung distance (MLD) from a reference line were retrospectivelyanalyzed. The high temporal resolution of the CT series enabled intrinsic heart movements to beresolved from breath hold variations. A body surface laser scanning system continuously extracted thethorax height and displayed it in a pair of goggles for patient feedback. To check for ‘fake-breathing’movements, e.g. that the patient lifts its back from the couch to reach DIBH, the couch-to-spine distancewas also measured in all CT series.

Results: The analysis was done for 1432 cine CTs captured during 292 breath holds. The DIBH movedthe heart on average 15mm in medial direction compared with free breathing. For the three bed positionsstudied, the mean value of the max range, across all patients, was between 11–13mm for theMHD and 4–8mm for the MLD. The MHD variation due to breath hold variation was twice as large asthe MHD variation due to intrinsic heart movement. The couch-to-spine distance varied less than3mm for all fractions, i.e., no fake-breathing was discovered.

Conclusions: The heart edge and thoracic wall reproducibility was high in relation to the medial heartdisplacement induced by the DIBH.

Keywords
Radiotherapy, Deep Inspiration Breath Hold, Breast Cancer
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358938 (URN)10.1080/0284186X.2018.1490027 (DOI)000448595500006 ()30074438 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Villegas, F., Tilly, N. & Ahnesjö, A. (2018). Target size variation in microdosimetric distributions and its impact on the linear-quadratic parameterization of cell survival.. Radiation Research, 190, 504-512
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Target size variation in microdosimetric distributions and its impact on the linear-quadratic parameterization of cell survival.
2018 (English)In: Radiation Research, ISSN 0033-7587, E-ISSN 1938-5404, Vol. 190, p. 504-512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The linear-quadratic (LQ) parameterization of survival fraction SF(D) inherently assumes that all cells in a population get the same dose D, albeit the distribution of specific energy z over the individual cells f(z,D) can be very wide. From these microdosimetric distributions, which are target size dependent, we estimate the size of the cellular sensitive volume by analysing its influence on the LQ parameterization of cell survival. A Monte Carlo track structure code was used to simulate detailed tracks from a 60Co source as well as proton and carbon ions of various energies. From these tracks, f(z,D) distributions were calculated for spherical targets with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 12 µm. A cell survival function based on f(z,D) was fitted to published experimental LQ α values, revealing an intrinsic limitation that target size imposes on the usage of f(z,D) to describe the linear term of the LQ parameterization. The results indicate that such threshold volume arises naturally from the relationship between the particle´s probability of no-hit and the probability of cell survival. Further analysis led to the proposal of a radiobiological property yf,MID, defined as the mean lineal energy corresponding to the target size that allows equivalence between the mean inactivation dose (MID) and the mean specific energy z1.  The fact that z1 is an increasing continuous function of target size within the range of biological targets of interest in radiobiology, ensures the uniqueness of yf,MID for any radiation quality, thus, its potential usefulness in modelling. In conclusion, an accurate estimation of such threshold volumes may be useful for improving modelling of cell survival curves.

National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Medical Radiophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279210 (URN)10.1667/RR15089.1 (DOI)000452084900006 ()
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), p2011144
Available from: 2016-02-29 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Ahnesjö, A., van Veelen, B. & Tedgren, A. C. (2017). Collapsed cone dose calculations for heterogeneous tissues in brachytherapy using primary and scatter separation source data. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 139, 17-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collapsed cone dose calculations for heterogeneous tissues in brachytherapy using primary and scatter separation source data
2017 (English)In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, ISSN 0169-2607, E-ISSN 1872-7565, Vol. 139, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Objective: Brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy using sealed radiation sources inserted within or in the vicinity of the tumor of, e.g., gynecological, prostate or head and neck cancers. Accurate dose calculation is a crucial part of the treatment planning. Several reviews have called for clinical software with model-based algorithms that better take into account the effects of patient individual distribution of tissues, source-channel and shielding attenuation than the commonly employed TG-43 formalism which simply map homogeneous water dose distributions onto the patient. In this paper we give a comprehensive and thorough derivation of such an algorithm based on collapsed cone point-kernel superposition, and describe details of its implementation into a commercial treatment planning system for clinical use. Methods: A brachytherapy version of the collapsed-cone algorithm using analytical raytraces of the primary photon radiation followed by successive scattering dose calculation for once and multiply scattered photons is described in detail, including derivation of the corresponding set of recursive equations for energy transport along cone axes/transport lines and the coupling to clinical source modeling. Specific implementation issues for setting up of the calculation grid, handling of intravoxel gradients and voxels partly containing non patient applicator material are given. Results: Sample runs for two clinical cases are shown, one being a gynecological application with a tungsten-shielded applicator and one a breast implant. These two cases demonstrate the impact of improved dose calculation versus TG-43 formalism. Conclusions: Use of model-based dose calculation algorithms for brachytherapy taking the three-dimensional treatment geometry into account increases the dosimetric accuracy in planning and follow up of treatments. The comprehensive description and derivations provided gives a rigid background for further clinical, educational and research applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2017
Keywords
Brachytherapy, Radiotherapy treatment planning, Model-based dose calculation, Advanced collapsed cone engine, Point kernel superposition
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320707 (URN)10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.10.022 (DOI)000395223200003 ()28187887 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2015/618
Available from: 2017-04-24 Created: 2017-04-24 Last updated: 2017-04-24Bibliographically approved
Tilly, D., van de Schoot, A. J., Grusell, E., Bel, A. & Ahnesjö, A. (2017). Dose coverage calculation using a statistical shape model: applied to cervical cancer radiotherapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 62(10), 4140-4159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dose coverage calculation using a statistical shape model: applied to cervical cancer radiotherapy
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2017 (English)In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 62, no 10, p. 4140-4159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A comprehensive methodology for treatment simulation and evaluation of dose coverage probabilities is presented where a population based statistical shape model (SSM) provide samples of fraction specific patient geometry deformations.The learning data consists of vector fields from deformable image registration of repeated imaging giving intra-patient deformations which are mapped to an average patient serving as a common frame of reference. The SSM is created by extracting the most dominating eigenmodes through principal component analysis of the deformations from all patients. The sampling of a deformation is thus reduced to sampling weights for enough of the most dominating eigenmodes that describe the deformations.For the cervical cancer patient datasets in this work, we found seven eigenmodes to be sufficient to capture 90% of the variance in the deformations of the, and only three eigenmodes for stability in the simulated dose coverage probabilities. The normality assumption of the eigenmode weights was tested and found relevant for the 20 most dominating eigenmodes except for the first. Individualization of the SSM is demonstrated to be improved using two deformation samples from a new patient. The probabilistic evaluation provided additional information about the trade-offs compared to the conventional single dataset treatment planning.

Keywords
Radiotherapy, probabilistic, statistical shape model, principal component analysis, deformable image registration, cervix
National Category
Other Medical Engineering
Research subject
Medical Radiophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304979 (URN)10.1088/1361-6560/aa64ef (DOI)000425818300003 ()28266348 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-11 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Grönlund, E., Johansson, S., Montelius, A. & Ahnesjö, A. (2017). Dose painting by numbers based on retrospectively determined recurrence probabilities. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 122(2), 236-241
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dose painting by numbers based on retrospectively determined recurrence probabilities
2017 (English)In: Radiotherapy and Oncology, ISSN 0167-8140, E-ISSN 1879-0887, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 236-241Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and purpose: The aim of this study is to derive "dose painting by numbers" prescriptions from retrospectively observed recurrence volumes in a patient group treated with conventional radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: The spatial relation between retrospectively observed recurrence volumes and pre-treatment standardized uptake values (SUV) from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging was determined. Based on this information we derived SUV driven dose-response functions and used these to optimize ideal dose redistributions under the constraint of equal average dose to the tumor volumes as for a conventional treatment. The response functions were also implemented into a treatment planning system for realistic dose optimization. Results: The calculated tumor control probabilities (TCP) increased between 0.1-14.6% by the ideal dose redistributions for all included patients, where patients with larger and more heterogeneous tumors got greater increases than smaller and more homogeneous tumors. Conclusions: Dose painting prescriptions can be derived from retrospectively observed recurrence volumes spatial relation to pre-treatment FDG-PET image data. The ideal dose redistributions could significantly increase the TCP for patients with large tumor volumes and large spread in SUV from FDG-PET. The results yield a basis for prospective studies to determine the clinical value for dose painting of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2017
Keywords
Dose painting, Dose painting by numbers, Dose painting optimization, Head and neck cancer, FDG-PET/CT
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320782 (URN)10.1016/j.radonc.2016.09.007 (DOI)000395607300011 ()27707505 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 130632
Note

Correction in: RADIOTHERAPY AND ONCOLOGY, Volume: 131, Pages: 243-243, DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2018.11.004

Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
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