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Langhamer, Olivia
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Langhamer, O. (2016). The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages. International Journal of Marine Energy, 16, 174-180.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Marine Energy, ISSN 2214-1669, Vol. 16, 174-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With large-scale development of offshore wave power conversion, artificial structures become more common in the open sea. To examine how wave power devices may be colonized by epifaunal organisms, 21 concrete foundations used for anchoring wave power generators were studied during two years, 2007 and 2008. The foundations were placed in two different clusters, located north and south within the Lysekil test site at the Swedish west coast. The degree to which early recruits covered the foundations and the succession of epibenthic communities were documented during two years. A succession in colonization over time was observed, with a higher degree of cover in the northern location. Furthermore, the northern location showed an increase in number of individuals, number of species and in Shannon-Wiener diversity in 2008. Dominant organisms on the foundations were the serpulid tubeworms (Pomatoceros triqueter) and barnacles (Balanus sp.). This comprehensive large-scale study about succession and colonization patterns on wave power foundations suggests that the location of wave energy devices affects colonization patterns. This gives indications on settlement patterns on already operating and planned offshore wave power parks further off the coasts.

Keyword
Artificial reefs, Colonization, Epibenthos, Renewable energy, Wave power, Sweden
National Category
Marine Engineering Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107221 (URN)10.1016/j.ijome.2016.07.007 (DOI)000390812600013 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyVattenfall ABGöran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of Technology
Note

Manuscript version is part of thesis http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:228184

Available from: 2009-07-29 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Langhamer, O. (2010). Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden). Marine Environmental Research, 69(5), 374-381.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden)
2010 (English)In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 69, no 5, 374-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (20042008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances.

Keyword
Disturbance, Diversity, Environmental impact, Macrobenthos, Renewable energy, Soft-sediment, Sweden, Wave power
National Category
Ecology Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107220 (URN)10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.01.002 (DOI)000278641600011 ()
Available from: 2009-07-29 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Langhamer, O., Haikonen, K. & Sundberg, J. (2010). Wave power - sustainable energy or environmentally costly?: A review with special emphasis on linear wave energy converters. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 14(4), 1329-1335.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wave power - sustainable energy or environmentally costly?: A review with special emphasis on linear wave energy converters
2010 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 4, 1329-1335 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Generating electricity from waves is predicted to be a new source of renewable energy conversion expanding significantly, with a global potential in the range of wind and hydropower. Several wave power techniques are on the merge of commercialisation, and thus evoke questions of environmental concern. Conservation matters are to some extent valid independent of technique but we mainly focus on point absorbing linear generators. By giving examples from the Lysekil project, run by Uppsala University and situated on the Swedish west coast, we demonstrate ongoing and future environmental studies to be performed along with technical research and development. We describe general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects; issues also likely to appear in Environmental Impact Assessment studies. Colonisation patterns and biofouling are discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. A purposeful artificial reef design to specially cater for economically important or threatened species is also discussed. Questions related to fish, fishery and marine mammals are other examples of topics where, e.g. no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields are important areas. In this review we point out areas in which studies likely will be needed, as ventures out in the oceans also will give ample opportunities for marine environmental research in general and in areas not previously studied. Marine environmental and ecological aspects appear to be unavoidable for application processes and in post-deployment studies concerning renewable energy extraction. Still, all large-scale renewable energy conversion will cause some impact mainly by being area demanding. An early incorporation of multidisciplinary and high quality research might be a key for new ocean-based techniques.

Keyword
Artificial reef, Biofouling, Environmental impact, Offshore renewable energy, Sweden, Wave energy converters
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107222 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2009.11.016 (DOI)000275997200017 ()
Available from: 2009-07-29 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Andersen, K., Chapman, A., Hareide, N. R., Folkestad, A. O., Sparrevik, E. & Langhamer, O. (2009). Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site off the Island of Runde, Western Norway: Planning and Design. In: : . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 8th European wave and tidal energy conference, EWTEC09. Uppsala, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site off the Island of Runde, Western Norway: Planning and Design
Show others...
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper provides a general description of theenvironmental monitoring programme currentlyongoing at Vattenfall’s/Tussa’s wave power testsite "Maren", on the Norwegian west coast. Thepurpose of the environmental monitoring istwofold: (i) to monitor the potential impact of theMaren installation on the environment, therebyfulfilling the consent requirements of theNorwegian authorities, (ii) more generally, to gainexperiences about the design and management ofan environmental monitoring programme and testa variety of monitoring methodologies andequipment. The primary environmentalparameters assessed in the monitoring programmeinclude fish, benthos and seabird communities.Observations on marine mammals are includedmarginally and underwater noise measurementsare scheduled to be included at a later stage. Therationale for choosing the specific components ofthe monitoring programme is elucidated in thecontext of site specific environmental features, aswell as project-specific technical characteristics.Generally, the monitoring strategy follows amodified so-called BACI (Before-After, Control-Impact) design, i.e. takes place before and afterdeployment of the wave power devices and duringoperation over a period of approximately 3 years.A communication plan accompanies theprogramme and is considered an essentialprerequisite for transparency and publicacceptance of the programme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala, Sweden: , 2009
Keyword
environmental monitoring, wave power, test site, marine ecological communities, Maren
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-113260 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 8th European wave and tidal energy conference, EWTEC09
Available from: 2010-01-26 Created: 2010-01-26 Last updated: 2016-04-14Bibliographically approved
Langhamer, O. (2009). Wave energy conversion and the marine environment: Colonization patterns and habitat dynamics. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wave energy conversion and the marine environment: Colonization patterns and habitat dynamics
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A wave energy park has been established on the Swedish west coast outside Lysekil and pioneer work about its interactions with the marine environment has been conducted. So far, little is known about the effects of offshore energy installations on the marine environment, and this thesis assists in minimizing environmental risks as well as in enhancing potential positive effects on the marine environment. The Lysekil research site is situated about two kilometres offshore and has been under development since 2005. During this time 26 “environmental devices”, without generators, consisting of a steel buoy attached via a wire to a foundation on 25 m depth have been placed out for ecological studies on macrofauna in surrounding sediments and on colonization of the foundations and the buoys. Sediment samples to examine macrofauna in the seabed have been taken during five seasons. Biomass, abundance and diversity of infauna in the test site were generally low, but higher than in a nearby control site. The species composition was typical for the area and depth.

In addition to sediment analysis, the effect of wave power concrete foundations on the marine environment has been investigated by scuba diving. The surface orientation and its effect on colonization by sessile organisms was examined on the first five foundations, placed out in 2005, and observations of habitat use by fish and crustaceans were made. The results show a succession of colonization over time (three years of investigation) with a higher cover by sessile organisms on vertical surfaces. Mobile fauna abundance on and around the foundations was generally low.

Three months after the deployment of the 21 new foundations in 2007, assemblages of mobile organisms were examined visually. Also here, mobile species exhibit a low density, but still higher than on surrounding soft bottoms. The edible crab used artificial holes in the foundations frequently. The foundations were placed in two different clusters, north and south, and the degree to which early recruits covered the foundations and the succession of epibenthic communities were documented during two years. Sessile organisms colonized the northern foundations more rapidly, producing a higher diversity which suggests that the placement of wave energy devices affects colonization patterns.

Biofouling on buoys was examined and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, dominated with a cover about 90%. Wave exposed buoys were particularly favoured by M. edulis which there had a higher biomass and larger shells compared to those on sheltered buoys. Biofouling on wave power buoys, independent whether these had a cylindrical or toroidal shape, was insufficient to markedly affect their energy production.

Finally, the thesis incorporates a review describing wave power projects in general pointing out the need of future research on for instance no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields. The main conclusions are that large-scale renewable wave energy conversion will cause ecological impact primarily by adding new hard substrate to an area but not by harming organisms or decreasing biodiversity within wave power parks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 50 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 663
Keyword
artificial reefs, benthos, biodiversity, biofouling, colonization, environmental impact, fish, shellfish, Mytilus edulis, renewable energy, wave power
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107193 (URN)978-91-554-7581-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-02, Friessalen, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-03 Created: 2009-07-27 Last updated: 2016-05-02Bibliographically approved
Langhamer, O. & Wilhelmsson, D. (2007). Wave power devices as artificial reefs. In: : . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 7th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wave power devices as artificial reefs
2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14173 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 7th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference
Available from: 2008-04-25 Created: 2008-04-25 Last updated: 2016-04-11Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, J. & Langhamer, O. (2005). Environmental questions related to point-absorbing linear wave-generators: Impact, effects and fouling. In: 6th EWTEC Conference, Glasgow. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental questions related to point-absorbing linear wave-generators: Impact, effects and fouling
2005 (English)In: 6th EWTEC Conference, Glasgow, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other scientific)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-75782 (URN)
Available from: 2006-02-24 Created: 2006-02-24
Langhamer, O. (2005). Man-made offshore installations: Are marine colonisers a problem or an advantage?. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Man-made offshore installations: Are marine colonisers a problem or an advantage?
2005 (English)Report (Other scientific)
Publisher
26 sid p.
Series
Introductory Research Essay, ISSN 1404-4919 ; 89
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-75971 (URN)
Available from: 2006-03-02 Created: 2006-03-02
Langhamer, O. Colonization of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on offshore wave power installations on the Swedish west coast. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colonization of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on offshore wave power installations on the Swedish west coast
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The use of offshore energy conversion is predicted to expand significantly throughout estuarine and marine environments, with a global potential comparable to that of wind and hydro power. Therefore, it is important to study the interactions of offshore wave power devices with the marine environment. The Lysekil Project is a test park for wave power located about 100 km north of Gothenburg at the Swedish west coast. The concept is based on a linear wave power generator placed on the seabed, and connected via a wire to a buoy acting as point absorbers on the surface. Biofouling on offshore wave energy devices is an issue of concern for the operation or survival of the components. On the other side, these structures may provide habitats for marine organisms and thus increase biodiversity and form artificial reefs. In this chapter, size distribution and biomass of blue mussels on sheltered and exposed marking buoys are examined. Further, these results are used for calculating a worst case scenario of mussel growth on the lifting force of a specially designed toroidal buoy. The results show that more wave-exposed buoys were particularly favourable for blue mussel colonization, but that the hydrodynamic forces of the toroidal buoy were not significantly affected by mussel growth. Thus, biofouling is not necessarily negative for the wave energy absorbance of the wave power buoys.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107219 (URN)
Note
bokkapitelAvailable from: 2009-07-29 Created: 2009-07-29 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
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