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Hjalmarsson, Anders
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Publications (10 of 143) Show all publications
Sias, G., Cecconello, M., Klimek, I., Wodniak, I., Yadykin, D., Andersson Sundén, E., . . . Zychor, I. (2019). A locked mode indicator for disruption prediction on JET and ASDEX upgrade. Fusion engineering and design, 138, 254-266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A locked mode indicator for disruption prediction on JET and ASDEX upgrade
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2019 (English)In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 138, p. 254-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to present a signal processing algorithm that, applied to the raw Locked Mode signal, allows us to obtain a disruption indicator in principle exploitable on different tokamaks. A common definition of such an indicator for different machines would facilitate the development of portable systems for disruption prediction, which is becoming of increasingly importance for the next tokamak generations. Moreover, the indicator allows us to overcome some intrinsic problems in the diagnostic system such as drift and offset. The behavior of the proposed indicator as disruption predictor, based on crossing optimized thresholds of the signal amplitude, has been analyzed using data of both JET and ASDEX Upgrade experiments. A thorough analysis of the disruption prediction performance shows how the indicator is able to recover some missed and tardy detections of the raw signal. Moreover, it intervenes and corrects premature or even wrong alarms due to, e.g., drifts and/or offsets.

Keywords
Tokamak, Disruption prediction, Locked mode signal, Disruption indicators, Feature extraction
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377710 (URN)10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.11.021 (DOI)000457663100032 ()
Note

For complete list of authors see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.11.021

Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Marcinkevicius, B., Andersson Sundén, E., Conroy, S., Ericsson, G. & Hjalmarsson, A. (2019). A Thin-foil Proton Recoil spectrometer for DT neutrons using annular silicon detectors. Journal of Instrumentation, 14, Article ID P03007.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Thin-foil Proton Recoil spectrometer for DT neutrons using annular silicon detectors
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id P03007Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of Thin-foil Proton Recoil (TPR) spectrometers to measure neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fusion plasma has been studied previously and is a well established technique for neutron spectrometry. The study presented here focuses on the optimisation of the TPR spectrometer configurations consisting of Delta E and E silicon detectors. In addition an investigation of the spectrometer's ability to determine fuel ion temperature and fuel ion density ratio in ITER like DT plasmas has been performed. A Python code was developed for the purpose of calculating detection efficiency and energy resolution as a function of several spectrometer geometrical parameters. An optimisation of detection efficiency for selected values of resolution was performed regarding the geometrical spectrometer parameters using a multi-objective optimisation, a.k.a. Pareto plot analysis. Moreover, the influence of detector segmentation on spectrometer energy resolution and efficiency was investigated. The code also produced response functions for the two selected spectrometer configurations. The SPEC code was used to simulate the spectrometer's performance in determining the fuel ion temperature and fuel ion density ratio n(t)/n(d). The results presented include the selected spectrometer configuration with calculated energy resolution and efficiency. For a selected spectrometer resolution of 5% a maximum efficiency of around 0.003% was achieved. Moreover, the detector segmentation allows for a 20% increase in spectrometer efficiency for an energy resolution of 4.3%. The ITER requirements for a 20% accuracy on the n(t)/n(d) ratio determination and 10% on the temperature determination within a 100 ms sampling window can be achieved using a combination of several TPR's of same type, in order to boost efficiency.

Keywords
Neutron detectors (cold, thermal, fast neutrons), Spectrometers, Nuclear instruments and methods for hot plasma diagnostics
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379926 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/14/03/P03007 (DOI)000460721500004 ()
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Ström, P., Petersson, P., Rubel, M. J., Fortuna-Zaleśna, E., Widdowson, A. & Sergienko, G. (2019). Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, 202-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 516, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inconel-600 blocks and stainless steel covers for quartz microbalance crystals from remote corners in the JET-ILW divertor were studied with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and nuclear reaction analysis to obtain information about the areal densities and depth profiles of elements present in deposited material layers. Surface morphology and the composition of dust particles were examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The analysed components were present in JET during three ITER-like wall campaigns between 2010 and 2017. Deposited layers had a stratified structure, primarily made up of beryllium, carbon and oxygen with varying atomic fractions of deuterium, up to more than 20%. The range of carbon transport from the ribs of the divertor carrier was limited to a few centimeters, and carbon/deuterium co-deposition was indicated on the Inconel blocks. High atomic fractions of deuterium were also found in almost carbon-free layers on the quartz microbalance covers. Layer thicknesses up to more than 1 mu m were indicated, but typical values were on the order of a few hundred nm. Chromium, iron and nickel fractions were less than or around 1% at layer surfaces while increasing close to the layer-substrate interface. The tungsten fraction depended on the proximity of the plasma strike point to the divertor corners. Particles of tungsten, molybdenum and copper with sizes less than or around 1 mu m were found. Nitrogen, argon and neon were present after plasma edge cooling and disruption mitigation. Oxygen-18 was found on component surfaces after injection, indicating in-vessel oxidation. Compensation of elastic recoil detection data for detection efficiency and ion-induced release of deuterium during the measurement gave quantitative agreement with nuclear reaction analysis, which strengthens the validity of the results.

Keywords
Fusion, Tokamak, Plasma-wall interactions, ToF-ERDA, NRA, SEM
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379019 (URN)10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.11.027 (DOI)000458897100020 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0053Swedish Research Council, 821-2012-5144Swedish Research Council, 2015-04884Swedish Research Council, 2017-00643
Note

Authors listed as Contributor / bidragsgivare above are part of EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, UK.

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Drenik, A., Andersson Sundén, E., Binda, F., Cecconello, M., Conroy, S., Dzysiuk, N., . . . Zychor, I. (2019). Analysis of the outer divertor hot spot activity in the protection video camera recordings at JET. Fusion engineering and design, 139, 115-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the outer divertor hot spot activity in the protection video camera recordings at JET
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2019 (English)In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 139, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hot spots on the divertor tiles at JET result in overestimation of the tile surface temperature which causes unnecessary termination of pulses. However, the appearance of hot spots can also indicate the condition of the divertor tile surfaces. To analyse the behaviour of the hot spots in the outer divertor tiles of JET, a simple image processing algorithm is developed. The algorithm isolates areas of bright pixels in the camera image and compares them to previously identified hot spots. The activity of the hot spots is then linked to values of other signals and parameters in the same time intervals. The operation of the detection algorithm was studied in a limited pulse range with high hot spot activity on the divertor tiles 5, 6 and 7. This allowed us to optimise the values of the controlling parameters. Then, the wider applicability of the method has been demonstrated by the analysis of the hot spot behaviour in a whole experimental campaign.

Keywords
JET, ITER-like wall, Plasma-wall interaction, Image analysis
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378736 (URN)10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.12.079 (DOI)000458939100016 ()
Note

For complete list of authors see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.12.079

Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Scholz, M., Hjalmarsson, A., Hajduk, L., Ericsson, G., Kotula, J., Woznicka, U., . . . Wojcik-Gargula, A. (2019). Conceptual design of the high resolution neutron spectrometer for ITER. Nuclear Fusion, 59(6), Article ID 065001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual design of the high resolution neutron spectrometer for ITER
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 6, article id 065001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A high resolution neutron spectrometer (HRNS) system has been designed as a neutron diagnostic tool for ITER. The HRNS is dedicated to measurements of time resolved neutron energy spectra for both deuterium and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. The main function of the HRNS is to determine the fuel ion ratio n(t)/n(d) in the plasma core with 20% uncertainty and a time resolution of 100ms for a range of ITER operating scenarios from 0.5 MW to 500 MW in fusion power. Moreover, neutron spectroscopy measurements should also be possible in the initial deuterium phase of ITER experiments. A supplementary function of the HRNS is to provide information on the fuel ion temperature. Furthermore, the HRNS can be used as an additional line-of-sight (LOS) for the radial neutron camera. To meet these requirements, a set of four spectrometers positioned after each other along a single LOS has been designed. The detector techniques employed include a thin foil proton recoil spectrometer (TPR), a neutron diamond detector (NDD), a back-scattering time-of-flight system (bToF) and a forward timeof-flight system (fToF). The TPR system, positioned closest to the plasma, provides data at high fusion powers. For plasma conditions producing intermediate fusion power two neutron spectrometers are installed: NDD and bToF. The NDD is installed as the second instrument along the HRNS LOS after the TPR. The fToF spectrometer is dedicated for low tritium densities and pure deuterium operation. The paper summarizes the current state of the art of neutron spectroscopy useful in plasma diagnostics and the possibility of installing a dedicated HRNS for ITER in the designated diagnostic port. We conclude that the proposed HRNS system can fulfil the ITER measurement requirements over a broad range of plasma operational scenarios, including full power DT, start-up, ramp-down and pure D operations.

Keywords
thermonuclear fusion, ITER, neutron diagnostics, high resolution neutron spectrometry, fuel ion ratio
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384063 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/abOdc1 (DOI)000466720800001 ()
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Neverov, V. S., Andersson Sundén, E., Binda, F., Cecconello, M., Conroy, S., Dzysiuk, N., . . . Zychor, I. (2019). Determination of isotope ratio in the divertor of JET-ILW by high-resolution H alpha spectroscopy: H-D experiment and implications for D-T experiment. Nuclear Fusion, 59(4), Article ID 046011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of isotope ratio in the divertor of JET-ILW by high-resolution H alpha spectroscopy: H-D experiment and implications for D-T experiment
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 4, article id 046011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The data of the H alpha high-resolution spectroscopy, collected on the multiple lines of sight, which cover the entire divertor space in poloidal cross-section, during the recent hydrogen-deuterium experiments in JET-ILW (ITER-like wall), are processed. A strong spatial inhomogeneity of the hydrogen concentration, H/(H + D), in divertor is found in many pulses. Namely, the H/(H + D) ratio may be lower in the inner divertor than that in the outer divertor by the values of 0.15-0.35, depending on the conditions of gas puffing and plasma heating. This effect suggests the necessity of spatially-resolved measurements of isotope ratio in the divertor in the upcoming deuterium-tritium experiments. Also, separation of the overlapped T alpha and D alpha spectral lines is shown to be a challenging task especially when the local Doppler-broadened (Gaussian) line shapes are noticeably distorted by the net inward flux of fast non-Maxwellian neutral atoms. We use the respective, formerly developed model of an asymmetric spectral line shape, while analysing the data of the first deuterium-tritium experiment in JET-C (carbon wall), and test the model via comparing the isotope ratio results with another diagnostic's measurements. This model is shown to increase the accuracy of tritium concentration measurements in the divertor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
tokamak diagnostics, spectral line shapes, inverse problems, isotope ratio
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378618 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab0000 (DOI)000458371300001 ()
Note

For complete list of authors see http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab0000

Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Biel, W., Albanese, R., Ambrosino, R., Ariola, M., Berkel, M. ,., Bolshakova, I., . . . Zohm, H. (2019). Diagnostics for plasma control -: From ITER to DEMO. Paper presented at 30th Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT), SEP 16-21, 2018, Messina, ITALY. Fusion engineering and design, 146(A), 465-472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnostics for plasma control -: From ITER to DEMO
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2019 (English)In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 146, no A, p. 465-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The plasma diagnostic and control (D&C) system for a future tokamak demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) will have to provide reliable operation near technical and physics limits, while its front-end components will be subject to strong adverse effects within the nuclear and high temperature plasma environment. The ongoing developments for the ITER D&C system represent an important starting point for progressing towards DEMO. Requirements for detailed exploration of physics are however pushing the ITER diagnostic design towards using sophisticated methods and aiming for large spatial coverage and high signal intensities, so that many front-end components have to be mounted in forward positions. In many cases this results in a rapid aging of diagnostic components, so that additional measures like protection shutters, plasma based mirror cleaning or modular approaches for frequent maintenance and exchange are being developed. Under the even stronger fluences of plasma particles, neutron/gamma and radiation loads on DEMO, durable and reliable signals for plasma control can only be obtained by selecting diagnostic methods with regard to their robustness, and retracting vulnerable front-end components into protected locations. Based on this approach, an initial DEMO D&C concept is presented, which covers all major control issues by signals to be derived from at least two different diagnostic methods (risk mitigation).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
Keywords
ITER, DEMO, Tokamak, Plasma control, Plasma diagnostics
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396638 (URN)10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.12.092 (DOI)000488307400104 ()
Conference
30th Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT), SEP 16-21, 2018, Messina, ITALY
Available from: 2019-11-07 Created: 2019-11-07 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Marcinkevicius, B., Andersson Sundén, E. & Hjalmarsson, A. (2019). Estimates of TPR spectrometer instrumental signal-to-background ratios and count rate limits for ITER like plasmas. Paper presented at 3rd European Conference on Plasma Diagnostics (ECPD), MAY 06-10, 2019, Lisbon, PORTUGAL. Journal of Instrumentation, 14, Article ID C09008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimates of TPR spectrometer instrumental signal-to-background ratios and count rate limits for ITER like plasmas
2019 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id C09008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The work presented is a realistic simulation of the response function for a detection efficiency optimized Thin-foil proton recoil (TPR) neutron spectrometer. The TPR spectrometer consists of a thin foil acting as neutron-to-proton converter followed by Delta E-E detectors operating in coincidence mode. In this work, two different spectrometer designs were considered using segmented silicon detectors. Design 1 has slightly better resolution while design 2 is more compact and has higher efficiency. The TPR spectrometer response functions were simulated in the energy range 8-18 MeV in steps of 40 keV for the two designs using the dedicated Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The resulting simulated response functions were broadened using experimentally determined energy resolutions of the detectors, in order to produce more realistic response functions. Using these broadened response functions together with an ITER like neutron spectrum and neutron induced background simulations Delta E/E energy deposition plots were created. The energy-cuts, for 14 MeV neutron signal identification, were applied to the Delta E-E plots leading to an estimate of the expected signal-to-background ratio. In addition, pile-up fraction and maximum expected count rates were estimated. Results show that the Delta E-E energy cuts show a great prospect of increasing the signal-to background ratio for the TPR spectrometer. In addition the TPR spectrometer has energy resolution (FWHM/E) of around 5% for 14 MeV neutrons for both investigated designs. The spectrometer can cope with maximum count rate expected and have a sufficient signal-to-background ratio in the neutron energy range of interest to perform fuel ion ratio measurements. However an increase of acquisition channels would be beneficial to limit the pile-up rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
Detector modelling and simulations I (interaction of radiation with matter, interaction of photons with matter, interaction of hadrons with matter, etc), Neutron detectors (cold, thermal, fast neutrons), Nuclear instruments and methods for hot plasma diagnostics, Solid state detectors
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395548 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/14/09/C09008 (DOI)000486989800008 ()
Conference
3rd European Conference on Plasma Diagnostics (ECPD), MAY 06-10, 2019, Lisbon, PORTUGAL
Available from: 2019-10-23 Created: 2019-10-23 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Vasilopoulou, T., Andersson Sundén, E., Binda, F., Cecconello, M., Conroy, S., Dzysiuk, N., . . . Zychor, I. (2019). Improved neutron activation dosimetry for fusion. Fusion engineering and design, 139, 109-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved neutron activation dosimetry for fusion
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2019 (English)In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 139, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neutron activation technique has been widely used for the monitoring of neutron fluence at the Joint European Torus (JET) whereas it is foreseen to be employed at future fusion plants, such as ITER and DEMO. Neutron activation provides a robust tool for the measurement of neutron fluence in the complex environment encountered in a tokamak. However, activation experiments previously performed at JET showed that the activation foils used need to be calibrated in a real fusion environment in order to provide accurate neutron fluence data. Triggered by this challenge, an improved neutron activation method for the evaluation of neutron fluence at fusion devices has been developed. Activation assemblies similar to those used at JET were irradiated under 14 MeV neutrons at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) reference neutron field. The data obtained from the calibration experiment were applied for the analysis of activation foil measurements performed during the implemented JET Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) campaign. The activation results were compared against thermoluminescence measurements and a satisfactory agreement was observed. The proposed method provides confidence on the use of activation technique for the precise estimation of neutron fluence at fusion devices and enables its successful implementation in the forthcoming JET Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) campaign.

Keywords
Neutron activation, Neutron dosimetry, JET, Fusion
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378735 (URN)10.1016/j.fusengdes.2019.01.002 (DOI)000458939100015 ()
Note

For complete list of authors see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2019.01.002

Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J., Hellesen, C., Binda, F., Cecconello, M., Conroy, S., Ericsson, G., . . . Tardocchi, M. (2019). Measuring fast ions in fusion plasmas with neutron diagnostics at JET. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 61(1), Article ID 014027.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring fast ions in fusion plasmas with neutron diagnostics at JET
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2019 (English)In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 1, article id 014027Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast ions in fusion plasmas often leave characteristic signatures in the neutron emission from the plasma. In this paper, we show how neutron measurements can be used to study fast ions and give examples of physics results obtained on present day tokamaks. The focus is on measurements with dedicated neutron spectrometers and with compact neutron detectors used in each channel of neutron profile monitors. A measured neutron spectrum can be analyzed in several different ways, depending on the physics scenario under consideration. Gross features of a fast ion energy distribution can be studied by applying suitably chosen thresholds to the measured spectrum, thus probing ions with different energies. With this technique it is possible to study the interaction between fast ions and MHD activity, such as toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and sawtooth instabilities. Quantitative comparisons with modeling can be performed by a direct computation of the neutron emission expected from a given fast ion distribution. Within this framework it is also possible to determine physics parameters, such as the supra-thermal fraction of the neutron emission, by fitting model parameters to the data. A detailed, model-independent estimate of the fast ion distribution can be obtained by analyzing the data in terms of velocity space weight functions. Using this method, fast ion distributions can be resolved in both energy and pitch by combining neutron and gamma-ray measurements obtained along several different sightlines. Fast ion measurements of the type described in this paper will also be possible at ITER, provided that the spectrometers have the dynamic range required to resolve the fast ion spectral features in the presence of the dominating thermonuclear neutron emission. A dedicated high-resolution neutron spectrometer has been designed for this purpose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
fast ions, tokamaks, neutron diagnostics, plasma heating, MHD instabilities
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371109 (URN)10.1088/1361-6587/aad8a6 (DOI)000450981300009 ()
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
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