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Hagforsen, Eva
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Landegren, N., Pourmousa Lindberg, M., Skov, J., Hallgren, Å., Eriksson, D., Lisberg Toft-Bertelsen, T., . . . Kämpe, O. (2016). Autoantibodies Targeting a Collecting Duct-Specific Water Channel in Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 27(10), 3220-3228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autoantibodies Targeting a Collecting Duct-Specific Water Channel in Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.
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2016 (English)In: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, ISSN 1046-6673, E-ISSN 1533-3450, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 3220-3228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a common cause of kidney failure and may have diverse etiologies. This form of nephritis is sometimes associated with autoimmune disease, but the role of autoimmune mechanisms in disease development is not well understood. Here, we present the cases of three patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 who developed tubulointerstitial nephritis and ESRD in association with autoantibodies against kidney collecting duct cells. One of the patients developed autoantibodies targeting the collecting duct-specific water channel aquaporin 2, whereas autoantibodies of the two other patients reacted against the HOXB7 or NFAT5 transcription factors, which regulate the aquaporin 2 promoter. Our findings suggest that tubulointerstitial nephritis developed in these patients as a result of an autoimmune insult on the kidney collecting duct cells.

National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300411 (URN)10.1681/ASN.2015101126 (DOI)000384628500030 ()26984885 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasSwedish Rheumatism AssociationNovo NordiskTorsten Söderbergs stiftelseRagnar Söderbergs stiftelse
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Hagforsen, E., Paivandy, A., Lampinen, M., Weström, S., Calounova, G., Melo, F. R., . . . Pejler, G. (2015). Ablation of human skin mast cells in situ by lysosomotropic agents. Experimental dermatology, 24(7), 516-521
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ablation of human skin mast cells in situ by lysosomotropic agents
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2015 (English)In: Experimental dermatology, ISSN 0906-6705, E-ISSN 1600-0625, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 516-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mast cells are known to have a detrimental impact on numerous types of inflammatory skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, atopic eczema and cutaneous mastocytosis. Regimens that dampen skin mast cell-mediated activities can thus offer an attractive therapeutic option under such circumstances. As mast cells are known to secrete a large array of potentially pathogenic compounds, both from preformed stores in secretory lysosomes (granules) and after de novo synthesis, mere inhibition of degranulation or interference with individual mast cell mediators may not be sufficient to provide an effective blockade of harmful mast cell activities. An alternative strategy may therefore be to locally reduce skin mast cell numbers. Here, we explored the possibility of using lysosomotropic agents for this purpose, appreciating the fact that mast cell granules contain bioactive compounds prone to trigger apoptosis if released into the cytosolic compartment. Based on this principle, we show that incubation of human skin punch biopsies with the lysosomotropic agents siramesine or Leu-Leu methyl ester preferably ablated the mast cell population, without causing any gross adverse effects on the skin morphology. Subsequent analysis revealed that mast cells treated with lysosomotropic agents predominantly underwent apoptotic rather than necrotic cell death. In summary, this study raises the possibility of using lysosomotropic agents as a novel approach to targeting deleterious mast cell populations in cutaneous mastocytosis and other skin disorders negatively influenced by mast cells.

Keywords
apoptosis, LLME, lysosomotropic agents, mast cells, siramesine
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258753 (URN)10.1111/exd.12699 (DOI)000356693000009 ()25808581 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Cancer SocietySwedish Heart Lung Foundation
Available from: 2015-07-21 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Gillbro, J. M., Merinville, E., Cattley, K., Al-Bader, T., Hagforsen, E., Nilsson, M. & Mavon, A. (2015). In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 37, 41-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Cosmetic Science, ISSN 0142-5463, E-ISSN 1468-2494, Vol. 37, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Synopsis ObjectiveAcetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins invivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. MethodTwo separate double-blind vehicle-controlled invivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. ResultsTwelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin-firming active ingredient. ConclusionIn this study, we showed the invivo efficacy of 1% A-A-A both on a protein level (fibrillin and collagen IV) and on a clinical end point, specifically skin firmness, providing proof that, acetyl aspartic acid has a strong potential as an anti-ageing cosmeceutical' ingredient answering the needs of our key consumer base. Resume ObjectifL'acide aspartique acetyle (A-A-A) a ete identifie en utilisant la technologie de puces a ADN combine a une analyse en connectivity mapping' (Cmap), pour ces potentielles proprietes anti-age. A-A-A a la capacite d'augmenter la regeneration cellulaire et d'inhiber l'expression des MMP, ainsi que reduire la rigidite des fibroblastes en depolymerisant le reseau d'actine. Les etudes d'absorption cutanee ont montre une tres bonne biodisponibilite tant dans l'epiderme que le derme et les etudes de securite on confirme une tres bonne tolerance cutanee de A-A-A. Dans cette etude, nous avons cherche a demontrer que A-A-A pouvait stimuler la synthese des proteines de la matrice extra-cellulaire ainsi qu'ameliorer les proprietes viscoelastiques de la peau humaine en procedant a une double etude clinique, par immunohistochimie et biophysique sur volontaires. MethodesLes deux etudes on ete realisees en double aveugle contre placebo avec une emulsion H/E contenant 1% A-A-A. L'etude histologique a ete realisee sur 16 femmes volontaires (>55ans) presentant des signes de photoveillissement sur l'avant-bras durant une periode de 12 jours sur l'expression du collagene IV (COLIV) et de la fibrilline-1. Dans la seconde etude, les proprietes biomecaniques de la peau ont ete evaluees dans un panel de 16 femmes (>45ans) utilisant le Cutometre MPA580 et en mesurant le parametre F4, valeur representant specifiquement la fermete de la peau, apres l'application topique de produits durant pour 28 jours. Pour cette etude A-A-A (1%) a ete compare, en plus du placebo, a une formulation contenant 0.1% de retinol. ResultatsApres 12 jours d'application topique de 1% A-A-A, nous avons pu demontre une augmentation significative de l'expression de COLIV et de la fibrilline respectivement 13% et 6% par rapport au placebo. L'application de 1% A-A-A et 0,1% de retinol ont permis de pour reduire significativement F4 apres 28 jours de traitement respectivement de 15.8% et 14.7%. Aucune difference significative n'a ete trouvee entre le retinol et A-A-A. Cependant, seul A-A-A presentait une ameloration significative sur la fermete de la peau, ce qui confime le benefice apporte par A-A-A comme actif stimulant le raffermissement de la peau. ConclusionDans cette etude, nous avons montre l'efficacite de 1% A-A-A a la fois invivo sur l'expression des proteines (fibrilline et collagene IV) et sur un parametre clinique specifiquement lie a la fermete de la peau. Ces deux etudes confirment que l'acide acetyl-aspartique a un fort potentiel en tant qu' agent anti-age pouvant aussi etre considere comme un ingredient cosmeceutique' repondant aux besoins des consommateurs en demande de produits cosmetiques a efficacite prouvee.

Keywords
ageing, collagen IV, cosmeceutical, Cutometer, extracellular matrix, fibrillin-1, photoageing
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264032 (URN)10.1111/ics.12250 (DOI)000360922300008 ()26132508 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-10-07 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Ronnberg, E., Calounova, G., Sutton, V. R., Trapani, J. A., Rollman, O., Hagforsen, E. & Pejler, G. (2014). Granzyme H Is a Novel Protease Expressed by Human Mast Cells. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 165(1), 68-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Granzyme H Is a Novel Protease Expressed by Human Mast Cells
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2014 (English)In: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 165, no 1, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Many of the functions attributed to mast cells depend on the various pro-inflammatory mediators that are secreted upon mast cell activation. These include a panel of mast cell-specific proteases. In addition, recent studies have indicated that murine mast cells also express granzyme D, a protease previously thought to be confined to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Here, we address the human relevance of the latter findings by investigating whether human mast cells express granzyme H, the granzyme that may represent the functional counterpart to murine granzyme D. Methods: Cord blood-derived mast cells, LAD2 cells and skin mast cells in situ were evaluated for their expression of granzymes using quantitative PCR, Western blot analysis and immunostaining. Mast cells were activated by either calcium ionophore stimulation or IgE receptor cross-linking. Results: Cord blood-derived mast cells and LAD2 cells were shown to express granzyme H and B mRNA, while granzyme A, K and M expression was undetectable. Mast cell activation by either calcium ionophore or IgE receptor cross-linking caused down-regulated expression of granzyme H. In contrast, granzyme B expression was up-regulated by the same stimuli. Granzyme H expression was also confirmed at the protein level, as shown by both Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. Further, we show that granzyme H is expressed by human skin mast cells in situ. Conclusions: The present findings implicate granzyme H as a novel protease expressed by human mast cells and support earlier findings obtained in natural killer cells suggesting that granzymes B and H are reciprocally regulated.

National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239716 (URN)10.1159/000368403 (DOI)000344462700009 ()25342632 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-12-30 Created: 2014-12-30 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Hagforsen, E., Pihl-Lundin, I., Michaëlsson, K. & Michaëlsson, G. (2012). Calcium homeostasis and body composition in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis: a case-control study. British Journal of Dermatology, 166(1), 74-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calcium homeostasis and body composition in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis: a case-control study
2012 (English)In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 166, no 1, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a common disease strongly associated with smoking, autoimmune comorbidities and a deranged calcium homeostasis. It is unclear whether these changes in calcium homeostasis are a consequence of vitamin D status, abnormal dermal vitamin D synthesis or whether they are substantiated in effects on bone mineral density (BMD).

Objectives

To study the vitamin D status and BMD in patients with PPP.

Methods

In comparisons with two sets of controls (n = 101 for serum analyses and n = 5123 for BMD analyses), we therefore aimed to investigate whether PPP (59 cases) was associated with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, whether patients with PPP had decreased BMD and finally if the dermal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) -1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were affected in PPP skin lesions.

Results

We found no differences in mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between cases and controls, whereas PPP cases displayed 17·8 pmol L(-1) lower (P = 0·04) values in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BMD at the hip, lumbar spine or of total body did not differ substantially between cases and controls. Finally, patients with PPP had lower dermal expression of CYP27B1 and VDR in affected skin lesions.

Conclusions

The increase in serum calcium levels and suppressed parathyroid hormone in patients with PPP were not attributable to derangements in vitamin D status and these patients did not have lower BMD.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-164693 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10622.x (DOI)000300695900042 ()21916886 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-12-22 Created: 2011-12-22 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Murakami, M., Hagforsen, E., Morhenn, V., Ishida-Yamamoto, A. & Iizuka, H. (2011). Patients with palmoplantar pustulosis have increased IL-17 and IL-22 levels both in the lesion and serum. Experimental dermatology, 20(10), 845-847
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients with palmoplantar pustulosis have increased IL-17 and IL-22 levels both in the lesion and serum
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2011 (English)In: Experimental dermatology, ISSN 0906-6705, E-ISSN 1600-0625, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 845-847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent findings about the pathogenesis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP), also known as palmoplantar pustulosis, suggest that IL-17 expression in the acrosyringium as well as infiltration of IL-17 positive cells, e. g. Langerhans cells may play important roles. However, to date, it has not been established whether circulating IL-17 related cytokines are involved in PPP. We studied the circulating IL-17 related cytokines as well as the mRNA levels in lesional skin. IL-17 related cytokine mRNAs were increased in the PPP lesions compared with the control tissues (five patients vs five controls). The serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-gamma also were significantly increased in PPP, but not IL-23 and IL-8 (48 patients vs 20 controls). Our findings document that not only the serum IL-17 but also tissue IL-17 are elevated in PPP and may be in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

Keywords
IL-17, IL-22, lesion tissue, palmoplantar pustulosis, serum
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Dermatology and Venerology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160129 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01325.x (DOI)000295012600037 ()
Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Hagforsen, E., Michaëlsson, G. & Stridsberg, M. (2011). Somatostatin receptors are strongly expresssed in palmoplantar sweat glands and ducts: studies of normal and palmoplantar pustulosis skin. Clincal and Experimental Dermatology, 36(5), 521-527
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Somatostatin receptors are strongly expresssed in palmoplantar sweat glands and ducts: studies of normal and palmoplantar pustulosis skin
2011 (English)In: Clincal and Experimental Dermatology, ISSN 0307-6938, E-ISSN 1365-2230, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 521-527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The acrosyringium is the target for inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat-gland apparatus seems to be an immunocompetent structure that probably contributes to skin defence. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ.

Aim

To obtain further information about the neuroendocrine properties of the sweat-gland apparatus by examining expression of the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) 1-5 in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin.

Methods

Biopsy specimens were taken from 25 patients with PPP and 25 healthy controls. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to investigate expression of SSTRs 1-5.

Results

SSTRs 1-5 were expressed in both epidermal and endothelial structures. The staining intensity of the sweat-gland apparatus was more pronounced than that of the epidermis. Expression differed significantly between lesional PPP and normal plantar skin, with increased expression of SSTRs 3 and 4 in ducts in epidermis, and decreased expression of SSTR 1 in ducts in both papillary and reticular dermis. In specimens with pronounced inflammation, numerous dendritic cells with strong expression of SSTRs 1.. 2 and 4 were seen, especially in the papillary dermis.

Conclusions

The presence of SSTRs in palmoplantar skin, and specifically at high density in the sweat glands and ducts, might be of particular importance in skin neuroimmunoendocrinology. Although the relevance of the changes in SSTR expression in PPP skin compared with normal skin is unclear, our hypothesis is that these differences might influence the function of both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunological properties of palmoplantar skin, especially in the sweat-gland apparatus.

National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156673 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2230.2010.03993.x (DOI)000292659600015 ()
Projects
Inflammation in palmoplantar pustulosis
Available from: 2011-08-09 Created: 2011-08-07 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Hagforsen, E., Michaëlsson, G. & Stridsberg, M. (2010). Normal and PPP-affected palmoplantar sweat gland express neuroendocrine markers chromogranins and synaptophysin differently. Archives of Dermatological Research, 302(9), 685-693
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normal and PPP-affected palmoplantar sweat gland express neuroendocrine markers chromogranins and synaptophysin differently
2010 (English)In: Archives of Dermatological Research, ISSN 0340-3696, E-ISSN 1432-069X, Vol. 302, no 9, p. 685-693Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Earlier findings indicate the acrosyringium as the target for the inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat gland apparatus seems to be an immune-competent structure that probably contributes to the defence of the skin. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ because it expresses cholineacetyl-transferase and acetylcholinesterase, nicotinic receptors, beta-adrenergic and angiotensin receptors.

The aim of this study was to obtain further information about neuroendocrine properties of the sweat gland apparatus by examining the expression of common neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranins A and B in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin.

Synaptophysin and chromogranins were expressed in the sweat glands and ducts with some variation in the pattern and intensity of the expression. In PPP skin the expression differed, being higher and lower, depending on the part of the sweat duct. Chromogranins were further expressed in the epidermis, endothelium and inflammatory cells, but its intensity was weaker in epidermis than in the sweat gland apparatus. In most cases, chromogranins in epidermis in involved PPP were weakly expressed compared to healthy controls. The presence of synaptophysin and chromogranins in palmoplantar skin may have marked neuroendocrine effects, and the palmoplantar skin is likely to have important neuroimmuno-endocrine properties. Moreover, the altered chromogranin expression in PPP skin might influence both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunologic properties of palmoplantar skin in these patients. These results indicate important neuroendocrine properties of the palmoplantar skin.

Keywords
Palmoplantar pustulosis, chromogranin, acrosyringium
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Research subject
Dermatology and Venerology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-130802 (URN)10.1007/s00403-010-1070-3 (DOI)000282426100008 ()20640434 (PubMedID)
Projects
Inflammation in PPP
Available from: 2010-09-13 Created: 2010-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Michaëlsson, G., Kristjánsson, G. A., Pihl Lundin, I. & Hagforsen, E. (2007). Palmoplantar pustulosis and gluten sensitivity: A study of serum antibodies against gliadin and tissue transglutaminase, the duodenal mucosa and effects of gluten-free diet. British Journal of Dermatology, 156(4), 659-666
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Palmoplantar pustulosis and gluten sensitivity: A study of serum antibodies against gliadin and tissue transglutaminase, the duodenal mucosa and effects of gluten-free diet
2007 (English)In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 156, no 4, p. 659-666Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting mainly smoking women. Some patients also have psoriasis. A subgroup of patients with psoriasis has been shown to have silent gluten sensitivity with relevance for their psoriasis. Nothing is known about gluten sensitivity in PPP. Objectives: To find out whether any patients with PPP are gluten-sensitive and whether this might be relevant for the PPP activity. Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty-three patients (113 women) with PPP participated. Screening for IgA antibodies against gliadin and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) was performed, the duodenal mucosa in patients with and without these antibodies was studied and the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) was followed up. Results: Twenty-two patients (18%) had IgA antibodies against gliadin and nine of 94 (10%) against tTG. Twelve patients with antibodies and 11 without underwent gastro-duodenoscopy. Four displayed villous atrophy, whereas all other specimens were judged as essentially normal at routine staining. However, with immunohistochemistry, the numbers of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the epithelium were found to be increased in patients with any type of antibody, although they were most numerous in those with both types of antibodies. Seven of 123 patients (6%) had coeliac disease (three previously diagnosed). Patients with antibodies who adhered to the GFD displayed total or nearly total clearance of the skin lesions and normalization of the antibody levels. Conclusions: Patients with PPP should be screened for antibodies against gliadin and tTG. Those with antibodies can be much improved on a GFD regardless of the degree of mucosal abnormalities.

Keywords
coeliac disease, psoriasis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-12271 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07725.x (DOI)000245099400008 ()17263812 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-12-10 Created: 2007-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Hagforsen, E., Sunnerberg, K., Michaëlsson, G., Kämpe, O. & Hedstrand, H. (2007). Psoriasis autoantigens in normal scalp skin: Identification by expression cloning [Letter to the editor]. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 127(9), 2276-2280
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psoriasis autoantigens in normal scalp skin: Identification by expression cloning
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN 0022-202X, E-ISSN 1523-1747, Vol. 127, no 9, p. 2276-2280Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-12269 (URN)10.1038/sj.jid.5700848 (DOI)000248994000038 ()17476296 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-12-10 Created: 2007-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
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