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Bose, S., Cunha, J. M., Borme, J., Chen, W.-C., Shariati Nilsson, N., Teixeira, J. P., . . . Salome, P. M. (2019). A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Paper presented at European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE. Thin Solid Films, 671, 77-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 671, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of introducing a passivation layer at the rear of ultrathin Copper Indium Gallium di-Selenide Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is studied. Point contact structures have been created on 25 nm Al2O3 layer using e-beam lithography. Reference solar cells with ultrathin CIGS layers provide devices with average values of light to power conversion efficiency of 8.1% while for passivated cells values reached 9.5%. Electronic properties of passivated cells have been studied before, but the influence of growing the CIGS on Al2O3 with point contacts was still unknown from a structural and morphological point of view. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed. These measurements revealed no significant morphological or structural differences in the CIGS layer for the passivated samples compared with reference samples. These results are in agreement with the similar values of carrier density (~8 x 1016 cm-3) and depletion region (~160 nm) extracted using electrical measurements. A detailed comparison between both sample types in terms of current-voltage, external quantum efficiency and photoluminescence measurements show very different optoelectronic behaviour which is indicative of a successful passivation. SCAPS simulations are done to explain the observed results in view of passivation of the rear interface.

Keywords
Passivation, Copper indium gallium di-selenide, Solar cells, Ultrathin, Absorber, Thin film
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375804 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2018.12.028 (DOI)000455998000013 ()
Conference
European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Keller, J., Primetzhofer, D., Riekehr, L., Edoff, M. & Törndahl, T. (2019). Atomic layer deposition of amorphous tin-gallium oxide films. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 37(3), Article ID 030906.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atomic layer deposition of amorphous tin-gallium oxide films
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 030906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wide range of applications benefit from transparent semiconducting oxides with tunable electronic properties, for example, electron transport layers in solar cell devices, where the electron affinity is a key parameter. Presently, a few different ternary oxides are used for this purpose, but the attainable electron affinity range is typically limited. In this study, the authors develop a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to grow amorphous Sn1-xGaxOy thin films from dimethylamino-metal complexes and water. This oxide is predicted to provide a wide selection of possible electron affinity values, from around 3 eV for pure Ga2O3 to 4.5 eV for pure SnO2. The ALD process is evaluated for deposition temperatures in the range of 105-195 degrees C by in situ quartz crystal microbalance and with ex situ film characterization. The growth exhibits an ideal-like behavior at 175 degrees C, where the film composition can be predicted by a simple rule of mixture. Depending on film composition, the growth per cycle varies in the range of 0.6-0.8 angstrom at this temperature. Furthermore, the film composition for a given process appears insensitive to the deposition temperature. From material characterization, it is shown that the deposited films are highly resistive, fully amorphous, and homogeneous, with moderate levels of impurities (carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen). By tailoring the metal cation ratio in films grown at 175 degrees C, the optical bandgap can be varied in the range from 2.7 eV for SnO2 to above 4.2 eV for Ga2O3. The bandgap also varies significantly as a function of deposition temperature. This control of properties indicates that Sn1-xGaxOy is a promising candidate for an electron transport layer material in a wide electron affinity range. Published by the AVS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
A V S AMER INST PHYSICS, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390540 (URN)10.1116/1.5092877 (DOI)000472182400033 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2017-004796Swedish Research Council, 2017-00646 9Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0053
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Igalson, M., Maciaszek, M., Macielak, K., Czudek, A., Edoff, M. & Barreau, N. (2019). Concentration of defects responsible for persistent photoconductivity in Cu (In,Ga)Se-2: Dependence on material composition. Paper presented at European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE. Thin Solid Films, 669, 600-604
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration of defects responsible for persistent photoconductivity in Cu (In,Ga)Se-2: Dependence on material composition
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, p. 600-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 films is discussed within a model of relaxing defects acting as donors or acceptors depending on their configurational and charge state. The aim of this work is to identify the factors related to technological processes which affect the magnitude of PPC. We established a method of evaluation of the concentration of metastable defects in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 films relating it to the position of the Fermi level in thermodynamic equilibrium and used it to compare and discuss the impact of preparation details on the PPC value. The main result is that deviation from Cu/(Ga + In) stoichiometry does not change the concentration of metastable defects. Post deposition annealing in selenium affects the PPC depending on the presence of sodium during the treatment, while the impact of sodium itself on the metastable defect concentration apparently depends on whether it is present during the Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 deposition process or whether it is supplied during post-deposition treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
Keywords
Photoconductivity, Copper indium gallium selenide, Thin films, Defects, Metastability
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372876 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2018.11.038 (DOI)000453405600087 ()
Conference
European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Cunha, J. M. ., Lopes, T. S., Bose, S., Hultqvist, A., Chen, W.-C., Donzel-Gargand, O., . . . Salome, P. M. P. (2019). Decoupling of Optical and Electrical Properties of Rear Contact CIGS Solar Cells. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 9(6), 1857-1862
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decoupling of Optical and Electrical Properties of Rear Contact CIGS Solar Cells
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1857-1862Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel architecture that comprises rear interface passivation and increased rear optical reflection is presented with the following advantages: i) enhanced optical reflection is achieved by the deposition of a metallic layer over the Mo rear contact; ii) improved interface qualitywithCIGS by adding a sputteredAl 2O 3 layer over the metallic layer; and, iii) optimal ohmic electrical contact ensured by rear-openings refilling with a second layer of Mo as generally observed from the growth of CIGS on Mo. Hence, a decoupling between the electrical function and the optical purpose of the rear substrate is achieved. We present in detail the manufacturing procedure of such type of architecture together with its benefits and caveats. A preliminary analysis showing an architecture proof-of-concept is presented and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS), passivation, semiconductors, ultrathin
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400095 (URN)10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2933357 (DOI)000504310400054 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Keller, J., Bilousov, O. V., Wallin, E., Lundberg, O., Neerken, J., Heise, S., . . . Platzer-Björkman, C. (2019). Effect of Cu content on post‐sulfurization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and corresponding solar cell performance. Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, 216(20), Article ID 1900472.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Cu content on post‐sulfurization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films and corresponding solar cell performance
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2019 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 216, no 20, article id 1900472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Herein, the effect of the initial copper content of co‐evaporated Cu(In1−x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) absorber films on the impact of a post‐annealing step in elemental sulfur atmosphere is studied. The Cu concentration is varied over a wide range ([Cu]/[III] = CGI = 0.57–1.23), allowing to identify composition‐dependent trends in phase formation, chemical rearrangements, and solar cell performance after sulfurization. For all samples, a ternary CuInS2 layer forms at the surface. In addition, sulfur 1) is incorporated in randomly distributed CuIn(S,Se)2 mixed crystals underneath CuInS2; 2) diffuses into multidimensional defects (e.g., dislocations and grain boundaries); and 3) is bound in Na–In–S surface plates. It is found that Cu‐poor absorber composition (CGI ≤ 0.82) favors CuInS2 growth as compared with close‐stoichiometric CIGS films, driven by a faster diffusion of Cu toward the surface. For Cu‐rich absorbers (CGI > 1), Se—S exchange is significantly accelerated, presumably by the presence of Cu2−xSe phases reacting to Cu2−xS and eventually catalyzing CuInS2 formation. Finally, open‐circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) of corresponding solar cells increase after sulfurization with increasing CGI until stoichiometry is reached. The result is explained by a mitigated Cu depletion of the absorber bulk after sulfurization for close‐stoichiometric CIGS.

Keywords
[Cu], [III] = CGI, Cu(In1-x, Ga-x)Se-2, ordered vacancy compound, sulfurization, V-OC increase
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393049 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201900472 (DOI)000480823400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA15-0030
Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-13 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Ledinek, D., Keller, J., Hägglund, C., Chen, W.-C. & Edoff, M. (2019). Effect of NaF pre-cursor on alumina and hafnia rear contact passivation layers in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Thin Solid Films, 683, 156-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of NaF pre-cursor on alumina and hafnia rear contact passivation layers in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 683, p. 156-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we evaluate the effect of NaF layers on the properties of Al2O3 and HfO2 rear contact passivation layers in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. The 6 nm thin passivation layers were deposited by atomic layer deposition and neither intentionally opened nor nano-patterned in any extra-fabrication step. NaF layers, 7.5 or 15 nm thin, were deposited as precursors prior to CIGS absorber co-evaporation. The 215 nm thick absorbers were co-evaporated with constant evaporation rates for all elements. Directly thereafter, a 70 nm thick cadmium sulfide layer was deposited. Photoluminescence measurements indicate a strongly reduced recombination at the rear contact for all passivated samples compared to an unpassivated reference. Although the sample with Al2O3 passivation and a 15 nm NaF precursor layer luminesces by far the least of the passivated samples, solar cells made from this sample show the highest efficiency (8.6% compared with 5.6% for the reference with no passivation). The current-voltage curves of the solar cells fabricated from the sample with 7.5 nm NaF on top of the Al2O3 layer and both samples with HfO2 exhibit blocking behavior to various degrees, but a high photoluminescence response. We conclude that NaF precursor layers increase conduction through the Al2O3 layer, but also reduce its effectiveness as a passivation layer. In contrast, conduction through the HfO2 passivation layers seem to not be influenced by NaF precursor layers, and thus requires nano-patterning or thinning for conduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
Keywords
Alkali, Alumina, Copper indium gallium diselenide, Hafnia, Passivation, Sodium fluoride, Ultra-thin
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387716 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2019.05.024 (DOI)000469854700020 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council, 621-2014-5599StandUp
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2020-02-05Bibliographically approved
Teixeira, J. P., Salome, P. M., Alves, B., Edoff, M. & Leitao, J. P. (2019). Evidence of Limiting Effects of Fluctuating Potentials on V-OC of Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 Thin-Film Solar Cells. Physical Review Applied, 11(5), Article ID 054013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of Limiting Effects of Fluctuating Potentials on V-OC of Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 Thin-Film Solar Cells
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2019 (English)In: Physical Review Applied, E-ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 054013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a consistent theoretical approach and an extensive experimental study of Cu(In, Ga)Se-2- (CIGS-)based solar cells to investigate the influence of fluctuating potentials on the limitations of solar-cell performance. The absorptance is calculated for extensions to the Shockley-Queisser model involving the description of tail states under the Urbach-rule, optimal-fluctuation-theory, and bandgap-fluctuation models, as well as the expected values for the saturation current density, short-circuit current density, and open-circuit voltage (V-OC). Three CIGS-based solar cells with [Cu]/([Ga]+[In]) ratios of 0.53, 0.71, and 0.84 are grown to intentionally have sufficiently different amplitudes of fluctuating potentials. We show both theoretically and experimentally the role played by fluctuating potentials, in particular in the V-OC losses. We provide evidence for a higher degree of correlation of electrostatic fluctuating potentials with V-OC losses in comparison with band-gap fluctuations. Additionally, our results show the influence of fluctuating potentials not just at low temperature but also at room temperature.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384073 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.054013 (DOI)000467407600002 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Kovacic, M., Krc, J., Lipovsek, B., Chen, W.-C., Edoff, M., Bolt, P. J., . . . Topic, M. (2019). Light management design in ultra-thin chalcopyrite photovoltaic devices by employing optical modelling. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 200, Article ID 109933.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light management design in ultra-thin chalcopyrite photovoltaic devices by employing optical modelling
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2019 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 200, article id 109933Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In ultra-thin chalcopyrite solar cells and photovoltaic modules, efficient light management is required to increase the photocurrent and to gain in conversion efficiency. In this work we employ optical modelling to investigate different optical approaches and quantify their potential improvements in the short-circuit current density of Cu (In, Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) devices. For structures with an ultra-thin (500 nm) CIGS absorber, we study the improvements related to the introduction of (i) highly reflective metal back reflectors, (ii) internal nano-textures applied to the substrate and (iii) external micro-textures by using a light management foil. In the analysis we use CIGS devices in a PV module configuration, thus, solar cell structure including encapsulation and front glass. A thin Al2O3 layer was considered in the structure at the rear side of CIGS for passivation and diffusion barrier for metal reflectors. We show that not any individual aforementioned approach is sufficient to compensate for the short circuit drop related to ultra-thin absorber, but a combination of a highly reflective back contact and textures (internal or external) is needed to obtain and also exceed the short-circuit current density of a thick (1800 nm) CIGS absorber.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2019
Keywords
Ultra-thin chalcopyrite solar cells, Light management, Reflector, Textures, Optical modelling
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394192 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2019.109933 (DOI)000483633400124 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887 - H2020 NMBP-2016-2017
Available from: 2019-10-08 Created: 2019-10-08 Last updated: 2019-10-08Bibliographically approved
Kovacic, M., Krc, J., Lipovsec, B., Chen, W.-C., Edoff, M., Bolt, P. J., . . . Topic, M. (2019). Light Management in Ultra-Thin Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Photovoltaic Devices. In: Proceedings of 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition: . Paper presented at 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (pp. 654-660). , Article ID 3BV.1.9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light Management in Ultra-Thin Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Photovoltaic Devices
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 2019, p. 654-660, article id 3BV.1.9Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells exhibit high conversion efficiencies, with a recent record of 23.35 % on the cell level. However, an absorber thickness >1.8 m is required for efficient absorption of long-wavelength light. In order to minimize the material consumption (In, Ga and other elements) and to accelerate the fabrication process, further thinning down of CIGS absorber layer is important. One of the main challenges of ultra-thin absorber devices is to increase light absorption and consequently the photocurrent. We employ advanced optical simulations of ultra-thin (500 nm) CIGS devices in a PV module configuration, thus solar cell structure including encapsulation and front glass. Using simulations, we design and investigate different solutions for increased short circuit current, in particular (i) highly reflective back reflectors (BR), (ii) internal nano-textures and (iii) external textures by applying a light management foil. We show that any single solution (i, ii, iii) is not enough to compensate for the lower photocurrent, when thinning down (1800 nm -> 500 nm) the absorber layer. A combination of properly optimized internal or external textures and highly reflective back reflector is needed to reach, or even exceed (by ~3-5 %), the short circuit current of a standard thick (1800 nm) CIGS module structure.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401418 (URN)10.4229/EUPVSEC20192019-3BV.1.9 (DOI)3-936338-60-4 (ISBN)
Conference
36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2020-01-07 Created: 2020-01-07 Last updated: 2020-01-08
Aboulfadl, H., Keller, J., Larsen, J. K., Thuvander, M., Riekehr, L., Edoff, M. & Platzer Björkman, C. (2019). Microstructural Characterization of Sulfurization Effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Film Solar Cells. Paper presented at Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy (APT and M) Conference, JUN 10-15, 2018, Gaithersburg, MD. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 25(2), 532-538
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural Characterization of Sulfurization Effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Film Solar Cells
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2019 (English)In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 532-538Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface sulfurization of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGSe) absorbers is a commonly applied technique to improve the conversion efficiency of the corresponding solar cells, via increasing the bandgap towards the heterojunction. However, the resulting device performance is understood to be highly dependent on the thermodynamic stability of the chalcogenide structure at the upper region of the absorber. The present investigation provides a high-resolution chemical analysis, using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and laser-pulsed atom probe tomography, to determine the sulfur incorporation and chemical re-distribution in the absorber material. The post-sulfurization treatment was performed by exposing the CIGSe surface to elemental sulfur vapor for 20 min at 500 degrees C. Two distinct sulfur-rich phases were found at the surface of the absorber exhibiting a layered structure showing In-rich and Ga-rich zones, respectively. Furthermore, sulfur atoms were found to segregate at the absorber grain boundaries showing concentrations up to similar to 7 at% with traces of diffusion outwards into the grain interior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2019
Keywords
atom probe, Cu(In, Ga)Se-2, solar cells, surface treatment, thin films
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385571 (URN)10.1017/S1431927619000151 (DOI)000466756600030 ()30853031 (PubMedID)
Conference
Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy (APT and M) Conference, JUN 10-15, 2018, Gaithersburg, MD
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA15-0030
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Projects
ARCIGS-M; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics (Closed down 2019-12-31); Publications
Bose, S., Cunha, J. M., Borme, J., Chen, W.-C., Shariati Nilsson, N., Teixeira, J. P., . . . Salome, P. M. (2019). A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Paper presented at European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE. Thin Solid Films, 671, 77-84Kovacic, M., Krc, J., Lipovsec, B., Chen, W.-C., Edoff, M., Bolt, P. J., . . . Topic, M. (2019). Light Management in Ultra-Thin Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Photovoltaic Devices. In: Proceedings of 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition: . Paper presented at 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (pp. 654-660). , Article ID 3BV.1.9. Edoff, M., Chen, W.-C., Gordon, I., Vermang, B., Bolt, P. J., van Deelen, J., . . . Salomé, P. (2019). Ultrathin CIGS Solar Cells with Passivated and Highly Reflective Back Contacts – Results from the ARCIGS-M Consortium. In: Proceedings of 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition: . Paper presented at 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (pp. 597-600). , Article ID 3AO.8.1. Cunha, J. M. V., Rocha, C., Vinhais, C., Fernandes, P. A. & Salomé, P. M. .. (2019). Understanding the AC Equivalent Circuit Response of Ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 9(5), 1442-1448Donzel-Gargand, O., Thersleff, T., Keller, J., Törndahl, T., Larsson, F., Wallin, E., . . . Edoff, M. (2018). Deep surface Cu depletion induced by K in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell absorbers. Progress in Photovoltaics, 26(9), 730-739Ledinek, D., Donzel-Gargand, O., Sköld, M., Keller, J. & Edoff, M. (2018). Effect of different Na supply methods on thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with Al2O3 rear passivation layers. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 187(1), 160-169Cunha, J. M., Fernandes, P. A., Hultqvist, A., Teixeira, J. P., Bose, S., Vermang, B., . . . Salome, P. M. (2018). Insulator Materials for Interface Passivation of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Films. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 8(5), 1313-1319Bose, S., Cunha, J. M. ., Suresh, S., De Wild, J., Lopes, T. S., Barbosa, J. R. S., . . . Salome, P. M. P. (2018). Optical Lithography Patterning of SiO2 Layers for Interface Passivation of Thin Film Solar Cells. SOLAR RRL, 2(12), Article ID 1800212. Salome, P. M. P., Vermang, B., Ribeiro-Andrade, R., Teixeira, J. P., Cunha, J. M. V., Mendes, M. J., . . . Sadewasser, S. (2018). Passivation of Interfaces in Thin Film Solar Cells: Understanding the Effects of a Nanostructured Rear Point Contact Layer. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 5(2), Article ID 1701101. Kotipalli, R., Poncelet, O., Li, G., Zeng, Y., Francis, L., Vermang, B. & Flandre, D. (2017). Addressing the impact of rear surface passivation mechanisms on ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell performances using SCAPS 1-D model. Solar Energy, 157, 603-613, Article ID 1708055.
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4111-4613

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