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Bose, S., Cunha, J. M., Borme, J., Chen, W.-C., Shariati Nilsson, N., Teixeira, J. P., . . . Salome, P. M. (2019). A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Paper presented at European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE. Thin Solid Films, 671, 77-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 671, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of introducing a passivation layer at the rear of ultrathin Copper Indium Gallium di-Selenide Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is studied. Point contact structures have been created on 25 nm Al2O3 layer using e-beam lithography. Reference solar cells with ultrathin CIGS layers provide devices with average values of light to power conversion efficiency of 8.1% while for passivated cells values reached 9.5%. Electronic properties of passivated cells have been studied before, but the influence of growing the CIGS on Al2O3 with point contacts was still unknown from a structural and morphological point of view. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed. These measurements revealed no significant morphological or structural differences in the CIGS layer for the passivated samples compared with reference samples. These results are in agreement with the similar values of carrier density (~8 x 1016 cm-3) and depletion region (~160 nm) extracted using electrical measurements. A detailed comparison between both sample types in terms of current-voltage, external quantum efficiency and photoluminescence measurements show very different optoelectronic behaviour which is indicative of a successful passivation. SCAPS simulations are done to explain the observed results in view of passivation of the rear interface.

Keywords
Passivation, Copper indium gallium di-selenide, Solar cells, Ultrathin, Absorber, Thin film
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375804 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2018.12.028 (DOI)000455998000013 ()
Conference
European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Keller, J., Primetzhofer, D., Riekehr, L., Edoff, M. & Törndahl, T. (2019). Atomic layer deposition of amorphous tin-gallium oxide films. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 37(3), Article ID 030906.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atomic layer deposition of amorphous tin-gallium oxide films
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 030906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wide range of applications benefit from transparent semiconducting oxides with tunable electronic properties, for example, electron transport layers in solar cell devices, where the electron affinity is a key parameter. Presently, a few different ternary oxides are used for this purpose, but the attainable electron affinity range is typically limited. In this study, the authors develop a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to grow amorphous Sn1-xGaxOy thin films from dimethylamino-metal complexes and water. This oxide is predicted to provide a wide selection of possible electron affinity values, from around 3 eV for pure Ga2O3 to 4.5 eV for pure SnO2. The ALD process is evaluated for deposition temperatures in the range of 105-195 degrees C by in situ quartz crystal microbalance and with ex situ film characterization. The growth exhibits an ideal-like behavior at 175 degrees C, where the film composition can be predicted by a simple rule of mixture. Depending on film composition, the growth per cycle varies in the range of 0.6-0.8 angstrom at this temperature. Furthermore, the film composition for a given process appears insensitive to the deposition temperature. From material characterization, it is shown that the deposited films are highly resistive, fully amorphous, and homogeneous, with moderate levels of impurities (carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen). By tailoring the metal cation ratio in films grown at 175 degrees C, the optical bandgap can be varied in the range from 2.7 eV for SnO2 to above 4.2 eV for Ga2O3. The bandgap also varies significantly as a function of deposition temperature. This control of properties indicates that Sn1-xGaxOy is a promising candidate for an electron transport layer material in a wide electron affinity range. Published by the AVS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
A V S AMER INST PHYSICS, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390540 (URN)10.1116/1.5092877 (DOI)000472182400033 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2017-004796Swedish Research Council, 2017-00646 9Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0053
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Igalson, M., Maciaszek, M., Macielak, K., Czudek, A., Edoff, M. & Barreau, N. (2019). Concentration of defects responsible for persistent photoconductivity in Cu (In,Ga)Se-2: Dependence on material composition. Paper presented at European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE. Thin Solid Films, 669, 600-604
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration of defects responsible for persistent photoconductivity in Cu (In,Ga)Se-2: Dependence on material composition
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, p. 600-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 films is discussed within a model of relaxing defects acting as donors or acceptors depending on their configurational and charge state. The aim of this work is to identify the factors related to technological processes which affect the magnitude of PPC. We established a method of evaluation of the concentration of metastable defects in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 films relating it to the position of the Fermi level in thermodynamic equilibrium and used it to compare and discuss the impact of preparation details on the PPC value. The main result is that deviation from Cu/(Ga + In) stoichiometry does not change the concentration of metastable defects. Post deposition annealing in selenium affects the PPC depending on the presence of sodium during the treatment, while the impact of sodium itself on the metastable defect concentration apparently depends on whether it is present during the Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 deposition process or whether it is supplied during post-deposition treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
Keywords
Photoconductivity, Copper indium gallium selenide, Thin films, Defects, Metastability
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372876 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2018.11.038 (DOI)000453405600087 ()
Conference
European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Ledinek, D., Keller, J., Hägglund, C., Chen, W.-C. & Edoff, M. (2019). Effect of NaF pre-cursor on alumina and hafnia rear contact passivation layers in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Thin Solid Films, 683, 156-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of NaF pre-cursor on alumina and hafnia rear contact passivation layers in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 683, p. 156-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we evaluate the effect of NaF layers on the properties of Al2O3 and HfO2 rear contact passivation layers in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. The 6 nm thin passivation layers were deposited by atomic layer deposition and neither intentionally opened nor nano-patterned in any extra-fabrication step. NaF layers, 7.5 or 15 nm thin, were deposited as precursors prior to CIGS absorber co-evaporation. The 215 nm thick absorbers were co-evaporated with constant evaporation rates for all elements. Directly thereafter, a 70 nm thick cadmium sulfide layer was deposited. Photoluminescence measurements indicate a strongly reduced recombination at the rear contact for all passivated samples compared to an unpassivated reference. Although the sample with Al2O3 passivation and a 15 nm NaF precursor layer luminesces by far the least of the passivated samples, solar cells made from this sample show the highest efficiency (8.6% compared with 5.6% for the reference with no passivation). The current-voltage curves of the solar cells fabricated from the sample with 7.5 nm NaF on top of the Al2O3 layer and both samples with HfO2 exhibit blocking behavior to various degrees, but a high photoluminescence response. We conclude that NaF precursor layers increase conduction through the Al2O3 layer, but also reduce its effectiveness as a passivation layer. In contrast, conduction through the HfO2 passivation layers seem to not be influenced by NaF precursor layers, and thus requires nano-patterning or thinning for conduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
Keywords
Alkali, Alumina, Copper indium gallium diselenide, Hafnia, Passivation, Sodium fluoride, Ultra-thin
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387716 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2019.05.024 (DOI)000469854700020 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council, 621-2014-5599StandUp
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-08-08
Teixeira, J. P., Salome, P. M., Alves, B., Edoff, M. & Leitao, J. P. (2019). Evidence of Limiting Effects of Fluctuating Potentials on V-OC of Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 Thin-Film Solar Cells. Physical Review Applied, 11(5), Article ID 054013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of Limiting Effects of Fluctuating Potentials on V-OC of Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 Thin-Film Solar Cells
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2019 (English)In: Physical Review Applied, E-ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 054013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a consistent theoretical approach and an extensive experimental study of Cu(In, Ga)Se-2- (CIGS-)based solar cells to investigate the influence of fluctuating potentials on the limitations of solar-cell performance. The absorptance is calculated for extensions to the Shockley-Queisser model involving the description of tail states under the Urbach-rule, optimal-fluctuation-theory, and bandgap-fluctuation models, as well as the expected values for the saturation current density, short-circuit current density, and open-circuit voltage (V-OC). Three CIGS-based solar cells with [Cu]/([Ga]+[In]) ratios of 0.53, 0.71, and 0.84 are grown to intentionally have sufficiently different amplitudes of fluctuating potentials. We show both theoretically and experimentally the role played by fluctuating potentials, in particular in the V-OC losses. We provide evidence for a higher degree of correlation of electrostatic fluctuating potentials with V-OC losses in comparison with band-gap fluctuations. Additionally, our results show the influence of fluctuating potentials not just at low temperature but also at room temperature.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384073 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.054013 (DOI)000467407600002 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Aboulfadl, H., Keller, J., Larsen, J. K., Thuvander, M., Riekehr, L., Edoff, M. & Platzer Björkman, C. (2019). Microstructural Characterization of Sulfurization Effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Film Solar Cells. Paper presented at Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy (APT and M) Conference, JUN 10-15, 2018, Gaithersburg, MD. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 25(2), 532-538
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural Characterization of Sulfurization Effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Film Solar Cells
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2019 (English)In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 532-538Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface sulfurization of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGSe) absorbers is a commonly applied technique to improve the conversion efficiency of the corresponding solar cells, via increasing the bandgap towards the heterojunction. However, the resulting device performance is understood to be highly dependent on the thermodynamic stability of the chalcogenide structure at the upper region of the absorber. The present investigation provides a high-resolution chemical analysis, using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and laser-pulsed atom probe tomography, to determine the sulfur incorporation and chemical re-distribution in the absorber material. The post-sulfurization treatment was performed by exposing the CIGSe surface to elemental sulfur vapor for 20 min at 500 degrees C. Two distinct sulfur-rich phases were found at the surface of the absorber exhibiting a layered structure showing In-rich and Ga-rich zones, respectively. Furthermore, sulfur atoms were found to segregate at the absorber grain boundaries showing concentrations up to similar to 7 at% with traces of diffusion outwards into the grain interior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2019
Keywords
atom probe, Cu(In, Ga)Se-2, solar cells, surface treatment, thin films
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385571 (URN)10.1017/S1431927619000151 (DOI)000466756600030 ()30853031 (PubMedID)
Conference
Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy (APT and M) Conference, JUN 10-15, 2018, Gaithersburg, MD
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA15-0030
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Donzel-Gargand, O., Larsson, F., Törndahl, T., Stolt, L. & Edoff, M. (2019). Secondary phase formation and surface modification from a high dose KF-post deposition treatment of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se-2 solar cell absorbers. Progress in Photovoltaics, 27(3), 220-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary phase formation and surface modification from a high dose KF-post deposition treatment of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se-2 solar cell absorbers
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2019 (English)In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we assessed the potential of KF-post deposition treatment (PDT) performed on a silver-alloyed Cu (In,Ga)Se-2 (ACIGS) solar absorber. ACIGS absorbers with Ag/Ag + Cu ratio (Ag/I) close to 20% were co-evaporated on a Mo-coated glass substrate and exposed to in-situ KF-PDT of various intensities. The current-voltage characteristics indicated that an optimized PDT can be beneficial, increasing in our study the median V-oc and efficiency values by +48 mV and + 0.9%(abs) (from 728 mV and 16.1% efficiency measured for the sample without PDT), respectively. However, an increased KF-flux during PDT resulted in a net deterioration of the performance leading to median V-oc and efficiency values as low as 503 mV and 4.7%. The chemical composition analysis showed that while the reference absorber without any post deposition treatment (PDT) was homogeneous, the KF-PDT induced a clear change within the first 10 nm from the surface. Here, the surface layer composition was richer in K and In with an increased Ag/I ratio, and its thickness seemed to follow the KF exposure intensity. Additionally, high-dose KF-PDT resulted in substantial formation of secondary phases for the ACIGS. The secondary phase precipitates were also richer in Ag, K, and In, and electron and X-ray diffraction data match with the monoclinic C 1 2/c 1 space group adopted by the Ag-alloyed KInSe2 phase. It could not be concluded whether the performance loss for the solar cell devices originated from the thicker surface layer or the presence of secondary phases, or both for the high-dose KF-PDT sample.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379027 (URN)10.1002/pip.3080 (DOI)000459179000003 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P43238-1Swedish Research Council, P43523-1Swedish Energy Agency, P43238-1
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Larsson, F., Donzel-Gargand, O., Keller, J., Edoff, M. & Törndahl, T. (2018). Atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) buffer layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 solar cells with KF post-deposition treatment. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 183, 8-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) buffer layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 solar cells with KF post-deposition treatment
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2018 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 183, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate the possibility to combine Zn(O,S) buffer layers grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with KF post-deposition treated Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS-KF) in solar cells. It is shown that the beneficial effect on open-circuit voltage from the post-deposition treatment is essentially independent of buffer layer material. However, a wet chemical surface treatment is required prior to ALD in order to achieve competitive fill factor values. A water rinse is sufficient to create an absorber surface similar to the one formed during a conventional CdS chemical bath deposition process. However, it is observed that CIGS-KF/Zn(O,S) devices made with water-rinsed absorbers systematically result in lower fill factor values than for the corresponding CIGS-KF/CdS references. This effect can be mitigated by decreasing the H2S:H2O precursor ratio during ALD initiation, indicating that the fill factor limitation is linked to the initial Zn(O,S) growth on the modified CIGS-KF surface. The best CIGS-KF/Zn (O,S) devices were fabricated by etching away the KF-modified surface layer prior to ALD, followed by a low temperature anneal. The thermal treatment step is needed to increase the open-circuit voltage close to the value of the CdS devices. The results presented in this contribution indicate that the main beneficial effects from KFPDT in our devices are neither associated with the CdS CBD process nor due to the formation of a K-In-Serich phase on the CIGS surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
CIGS, KF-PDT, Zinc oxysulfide, Buffer layers, Interfaces
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358259 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2018.03.045 (DOI)000435624400002 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2017-004796
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Keller, J., Chen, W.-C., Riekehr, L., Kubart, T., Törndahl, T. & Edoff, M. (2018). Bifacial Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using hydrogen‐doped In2O3 films as a transparent back contact. Progress in Photovoltaics, 26(10), 846-858
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bifacial Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using hydrogen‐doped In2O3 films as a transparent back contact
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2018 (English)In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 846-858Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen‐doped In2O3 (IOH) films are used as a transparent back contact in bifacial Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. The effect of the IOH thickness and the impact of the sodium incorporation technique on the photovoltaic parameters are studied, and clear correlations are observed. It is shown that a loss in short circuit current density (JSC) is the major limitation at back side illumination. The introduction of a thin Al2O3 layer on top of the IOH significantly increases the collection efficiency (ϕ(x)) for electrons generated close to the back contact. In this way, the JSC loss can be mitigated to only ~ 25% as compared with front side illumination. The Al2O3 film potentially reduces the interface defect density or, alternatively, creates a field effect passivation. In addition, it prevents the excessive formation of Ga2O3 at the CIGS/IOH interface, which is found otherwise when a NaF layer is added before absorber deposition. Consequently, detrimental redistributions in Ga and In close to the back contact can be avoided. Finally, a bifacial CIGS solar cell with an efficiency (η) of η = 11.0% at front and η = 6.0% at back side illumination could be processed. The large potential for further improvements is discussed.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363288 (URN)10.1002/pip.3025 (DOI)000443696500008 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2016-008376Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA15-0030
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-11-02Bibliographically approved
Donzel-Gargand, O., Thersleff, T., Keller, J., Törndahl, T., Larsson, F., Wallin, E., . . . Edoff, M. (2018). Deep surface Cu depletion induced by K in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell absorbers. Progress in Photovoltaics, 26(9), 730-739
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep surface Cu depletion induced by K in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell absorbers
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2018 (English)In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 730-739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we used K‐rich glass substrates to provide potassium during the coevaporation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers. Subsequently, we applied a postdeposition treatment (PDT) using KF or RbF to some of the grown absorbers. It was found that the presence of K during the growth of the CIGS layer led to cell effi- ciencies beyond 17%, and the addition of a PDT pushed it beyond 18%. The major finding of this work is the observation of discontinuous 100‐ to 200‐nm‐deep Cu‐ depleted patches in the vicinity of the CdS buffer layer, correlated with the presence of K during the growth of the absorber layer. The PDT had no influence on the forma- tion of these patches. A second finding concerns the composition of the Cu‐depleted areas, where an anticorrelation between Cu and both In and K was measured using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, a steeper Ga/(In+Ga) ratio gradient was measured for the absorbers grown with the presence of K, suggesting that K hinders the group III element interdiffusion. Finally, no Cd in‐diffusion to the CIGS layer could be detected. This indicates that if CdCu substitution occurs, either their concentration is below our instrumental detection limit or its presence is contained within the first 6 nm from the CdS/CIGS interface.

Keywords
CIGS, Cu depletion, EELS, OVC, Raman, solar cell, TEM
National Category
Other Materials Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357120 (URN)10.1002/pip.3010 (DOI)000442501000004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyEU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2018-08-12 Created: 2018-08-12 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Projects
ARCIGS-M; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics; Publications
Bose, S., Cunha, J. M., Borme, J., Chen, W.-C., Shariati Nilsson, N., Teixeira, J. P., . . . Salome, P. M. (2019). A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Paper presented at European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE. Thin Solid Films, 671, 77-84Donzel-Gargand, O., Thersleff, T., Keller, J., Törndahl, T., Larsson, F., Wallin, E., . . . Edoff, M. (2018). Deep surface Cu depletion induced by K in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell absorbers. Progress in Photovoltaics, 26(9), 730-739Ledinek, D., Donzel-Gargand, O., Sköld, M., Keller, J. & Edoff, M. (2018). Effect of different Na supply methods on thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with Al2O3 rear passivation layers. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 187(1), 160-169Cunha, J. M., Fernandes, P. A., Hultqvist, A., Teixeira, J. P., Bose, S., Vermang, B., . . . Salome, P. M. (2018). Insulator Materials for Interface Passivation of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Films. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 8(5), 1313-1319Bose, S., Cunha, J. M. ., Suresh, S., De Wild, J., Lopes, T. S., Barbosa, J. R. S., . . . Salome, P. M. P. (2018). Optical Lithography Patterning of SiO2 Layers for Interface Passivation of Thin Film Solar Cells. SOLAR RRL, 2(12), Article ID 1800212. Salome, P. M. P., Vermang, B., Ribeiro-Andrade, R., Teixeira, J. P., Cunha, J. M. V., Mendes, M. J., . . . Sadewasser, S. (2018). Passivation of Interfaces in Thin Film Solar Cells: Understanding the Effects of a Nanostructured Rear Point Contact Layer. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 5(2), Article ID 1701101. Kotipalli, R., Poncelet, O., Li, G., Zeng, Y., Francis, L., Vermang, B. & Flandre, D. (2017). Addressing the impact of rear surface passivation mechanisms on ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell performances using SCAPS 1-D model. Solar Energy, 157, 603-613, Article ID 1708055. Goffard, J., Colin, C., Mollica, F., Cattoni, A., Sauvan, C., Lalanne, P., . . . Collin, S. (2017). Light Trapping in Ultrathin CIGS Solar Cells withNanostructured Back Mirrors. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 7(5), 1433-1441Poncelet, O., Kotipalli, R., Vermang, B., Macleod, A., Francis, L. A. & Flandre, D. (2017). Optimisation of rear reflectance in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells towards>20% efficiency. Solar Energy, 146, 443-452Ledinek, D., Vermang, B. & Edoff, M. (2014). Thickness and Ga content variations in co-evaporated CIGS solar cells with a flat Ga profile: an electrical characteriyation. In: EU PVSEC 2014 Proceedings Papers: . Paper presented at 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam (pp. 1832-1836). Munchen
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4111-4613

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