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Björneholm, Olle
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 106) Show all publications
Blanco, Y. S., Topel, O., Bajnoczi, E. G., Werner, J., Björneholm, O. & Persson, I. (2019). Chemical equilibria of aqueous ammonium-carboxylate systems in aqueous bulk, close to and at the water-air interface. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 21(23), 12434-12445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical equilibria of aqueous ammonium-carboxylate systems in aqueous bulk, close to and at the water-air interface
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2019 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 23, p. 12434-12445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have shown that the water-air interface and a number of water molecule layers just below it, the surface region, have significantly different physico-chemical properties, such as lower relative permittivity and density, than bulk water. The properties in the surface region of water favor weakly hydrated species as neutral molecules, while ions requiring strong hydration and shielding of their charge are disfavored. In this study the equilibria NH4+(aq) + RCOO-(aq) reversible arrow NH3(aq) + RCOOH(aq) are investigated for R = CnH2n+1, n = 0-8, as open systems, where ammonia and small carboxylic acids in the gas phase above the water surface are removed from the system by a gentle controlled flow of nitrogen to mimic the transport of volatile compounds from water droplets into air. It is shown that this non-equilibrium transport of chemicals can be sufficiently large to cause a change of the chemical content of the aqueous bulk. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to determine the relative concentration of alkyl carboxylic acids and their conjugated alkyl carboxylates in aqueous surfaces using a micro-jet. These studies confirm that neutral alkyl carboxylic acids are accumulated in the surface region, while charged species, as alkyl carboxylates, are depleted. The XPS studies show also that the hydrophobic alkyl chains are oriented upwards into regions with lower relative permittivity and density, thus perpendicular to the aqueous surface. These combined results show that there are several chemical equilibria between the aqueous bulk and the surface region. The analytical studies show that the release of mainly ammonia is dependent on its concentration in the surface region, as long as the solubility of the carboxylic acid in the surface region is sufficiently high to avoid a precipitation in/on the water-air interface. However, for n-octyl- and n-nonylcarboxylic acid the solubility is sufficiently low to cause precipitation. The combined analytical and surface speciation studies in this work show that the equilibria involving the surface region are fast. The results from this study increase the knowledge about the distribution of chemical species in the surface region at and close to the water-air interface, and the transport of chemicals from water to air in open systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2019
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393008 (URN)10.1039/c9cp02449b (DOI)000478994100037 ()31143906 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Carravetta, V., de Abreu Gomes, A. H., Monti, S., Mocellin, A., Marinho, R. R. T., Björneholm, O., . . . de Brito, A. N. (2019). pH-dependent X-ray Photoelectron Chemical Shifts and Surface Distribution of Cysteine in Aqueous Solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 123(17), 3776-3785
Open this publication in new window or tab >>pH-dependent X-ray Photoelectron Chemical Shifts and Surface Distribution of Cysteine in Aqueous Solution
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 123, no 17, p. 3776-3785Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The distribution and protonation states of amino acids in water droplets are of considerable concern in studies on the formation of clouds in the atmosphere as well as in many biological contexts. In the present work we use the amino acid cysteine as a prototypical example and explore the protonation states of this molecule in aqueous solution, which are strongly affected by the acidity of the environment and also can show different distributions between surface and bulk. We use a combination of X-ray photoelectron chemical shift measurements, density functional theory calculations of the shifts, and reactive force field molecular dynamics simulations of the underlying structural dynamics. We explore how the photoelectron spectra distinctly reflect the different protonation states that are generated by variation of the solution acidity and how the distribution of these protonation states can differ between bulk and surface regions. At specific pH values, we find that the distribution of the cysteine species at the surface is quite different from that in bulk, in particular, for the appearance in the surface region of species which do not exist in bulk. Some ramifications of this finding are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383835 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b00866 (DOI)000466989000025 ()30964991 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 6212012-3347
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Saak, C.-M., Unger, I., Brena, B., Caleman, C. & Björneholm, O. (2019). Site-specific X-ray induced dynamics in liquid methanol. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 21(28), 15478-15486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Site-specific X-ray induced dynamics in liquid methanol
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2019 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 28, p. 15478-15486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391082 (URN)10.1039/C9CP02063B (DOI)000476603700022 ()31259327 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2017-04162Swedish Research Council, VR 2018-00740Swedish Research Council, VR 2013-03940
Available from: 2019-08-18 Created: 2019-08-18 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Tchaplyguine, M., Wright, C., Shavorskiy, A., Zhu, S., Mikkela, M.-H., Zhang, C., . . . Wallenberg, L. R. (2019). Tin-oxide nanoparticles deposited from a beam: what happens to the composition?. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 21(11), 6287-6295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tin-oxide nanoparticles deposited from a beam: what happens to the composition?
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2019 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 6287-6295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The debate around the oxidation states occurring in laboratory-prepared tin-oxide samples has been for a long time an obstacle for an unambiguous assignment of characterization studies performed on such samples. In particular the changes in the Sn core-level energies caused by oxidation - i.e. the chemical shifts - as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) have been under discussion. The assignment problem is especially pronounced for nanoscale structures, which are important for photovoltaics, electronics, catalysis, and gas sensing. The reasons for the difficulties lie both in the natural properties of tin oxides, which can have substantial deficiencies of oxygen and tin in the lattice, and in the shortcomings of the fabrication and PES-characterization procedures themselves. Our recent PES study on tin-oxide nanoparticles fabricated by vapour-aggregation gave a chemical shift two times larger than earlier reported for Sn(iv) oxide for the Sn 4d level. The implemented fabrication technique forms an in-vacuum beam of particles whose composition can be both controlled and characterized by PES. In the present work SnO and SnO2 nanoparticles fabricated this way were deposited from the beam and probed by PES directly, as well as after exposure to air. The deposited nanoparticle films were also imaged by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The effects of the deposition process and exposure to air on the chemical composition were studied. The PES study of deposited SnO2 nanoparticles in the Sn 4d and Sn 3d core-level regions revealed the same core level shift as for unsupported nanoparticles, indicating that the chemical composition is preserved in the deposition process. The TEM study demonstrated a crystalline structure of separate SnO2 particles with lattice constants close to the macroscopic Sn(iv)-oxide. The PES study on the particles exposed to air showed changes in the composition. For the film of initially SnO particles a higher intermediate oxide was created. For the SnO2 nanoparticle film a lower, but strong, intermediate oxide was observed, likely at the surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382460 (URN)10.1039/c8cp06168h (DOI)000462659300042 ()30834904 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Tchaplyguine, M., Zhang, C., Andersson, T. & Björneholm, O. (2018). Ag-Cu oxide nanoparticles with high oxidation states: towards new high T-c materials. Dalton Transactions, 47(46), 16660-16667
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ag-Cu oxide nanoparticles with high oxidation states: towards new high T-c materials
2018 (English)In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 47, no 46, p. 16660-16667Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Ag-Cu oxides possible to fabricate so far, superconductivity has not been detected, but high conductivity was. In the quest for superconductivity the demand is to create a high and peculiar copper-oxygen coordination. Such coordination makes it non-trivial to determine Cu oxidation states, which may be several and co-existing. Another reason for uncertainty is in oxygen deficiency typical for superconducting crystals. Finally, Cu oxidation is influenced by the other metals in the substance. For chemical fabrication the difficulty is to tune the relative abundances of elements in a fine way. Ag-Cu oxides have been also produced by reactive co-sputtering of Cu and Ag, but the composition with high Cu oxidation states necessary for high conductivity has not been realized. In the present work we have fabricated Ag-Cu-oxide nanoparticles containing Cu and Ag in high oxidation states actual for superconductivity. The fabrication includes reactive sputtering of Ag and Cu metals, their vapour oxidation and aggregation into nanoparticles. The ability to create different and high oxidation states, also co-existing, is demonstrated. The fabrication approach also allows overcoming the poor miscibility of Cu and Ag. The nanoparticle composition and the oxidation states could be determined due to an experimental arrangement in which photoelectron spectroscopy is applied to free nanoparticles in a beam in vacuum, what allows avoiding any contact of the particles to a substrate or atmosphere. The combination of the fabrication and characterization methods has proven to be a powerful approach when fine composition tuning and control are desirable.

National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372754 (URN)10.1039/c8dt04118k (DOI)000451657900034 ()30426128 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Ekholm, V., Vazdar, M., Mason, P. E., Bialik, E., Walz, M.-M., Ohrwall, G., . . . Björneholm, O. (2018). Anomalous surface behavior of hydrated guanidinium ions due to ion pairing. Journal of Chemical Physics, 148(14), Article ID 144508.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anomalous surface behavior of hydrated guanidinium ions due to ion pairing
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, no 14, article id 144508Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface affinity of aqueous guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) is compared to that of aqueous tetrapropylammonium chloride (TPACl) upon addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) or disodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The experimental results have been acquired using the surface sensitive technique X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid jet. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to produce radial distribution functions and surface density plots. The surface affinities of both TPA(+) and Gdm(+) increase upon adding NaCl to the solution. With the addition of Na2SO4, the surface affinity of TPA(+) increases, while that of Gdm(+) decreases. From the results of MD simulations it is seen that Gdm(+) and SO42- ions form pairs. This finding can be used to explain the decreased surface affinity of Gdm(+) when co-dissolved with SO42- ions. Since SO42- ions avoid the surface due to the double charge and strong water interaction, the Gdm(+)-SO42- ion pair resides deeper in the solutions' bulk than the Gdm(+) ions. Since TPA(+) does not form ion pairs with SO42-, the TPA(+) ions are instead enriched at the surface.

National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-353201 (URN)10.1063/1.5024348 (DOI)000430128600034 ()29655316 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2018-09-02Bibliographically approved
Richter, C., Hollas, D., Saak, C.-M., Foerstel, M., Miteva, T., Mucke, M., . . . Hergenhahn, U. (2018). Competition between proton transfer and intermolecular Coulombic decay in water. Nature Communications, 9, Article ID 4988.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competition between proton transfer and intermolecular Coulombic decay in water
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2018 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4988Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) is a ubiquitous relaxation channel of electronically excited states in weakly bound systems, ranging from dimers to liquids. As it is driven by electron correlation, it was assumed that it will dominate over more established energy loss mechanisms, for example fluorescence. Here, we use electron-electron coincidence spectroscopy to determine the efficiency of the ICD process after 2a(1) ionization in water clusters. We show that this efficiency is surprisingly low for small water clusters and that it gradually increases to 40-50% for clusters with hundreds of water units. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal that proton transfer between neighboring water molecules proceeds on the same timescale as ICD and leads to a configuration in which the ICD channel is closed. This conclusion is further supported by experimental results from deuterated water. Combining experiment and theory, we infer an intrinsic ICD lifetime of 12-52 fs for small water clusters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Physical Chemistry Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372335 (URN)10.1038/s41467-018-07501-6 (DOI)000451176100013 ()30478319 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 705515The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-08-18Bibliographically approved
Werner, J., Persson, I., Björneholm, O., Kawecki, D., Saak, C.-M., Walz, M.-M., . . . Prisle, N. L. (2018). Shifted Equilibria of Organic Acids and Bases in the Aqueous Surface Region. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 20(36), 23281-23293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shifted Equilibria of Organic Acids and Bases in the Aqueous Surface Region
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2018 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, no 36, p. 23281-23293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Acid-base equilibria of carboxylic acids and alkyl amines in the aqueous surface region were studied using surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Solutions of these organic compounds were examined as a function of pH, concentration and chain length to investigate the distribution of acid and base form in the surface region as compared to the aqueous bulk. Results from these experiments show that the neutral forms of the studied acid-base pairs are strongly enriched in the aqueous surface region. Moreover, we show that for species with at least four carbon atoms in their alkyl-chain, their charged forms are also found to be abundant in the surface region. Using a combination of XPS and MD results, a model is proposed that effectively describes the surface composition. Resulting absolute surface concentration estimations show clearly that the total organic mole fractions in the surface region change drastically as a function of solution pH. The origin of the observed surface phenomena, hydronium/hydroxide concentrations in the aqueous surface region and why standard chemical equations, used to describe equilibria in dilute bulk solution are not valid in the aqueous surface region, are discussed in detail. The reported results are of considerable importance especially for the detailed understanding of properties of small aqueous droplets that can be found in the atmosphere.

National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341965 (URN)10.1039/c8cp01898g (DOI)000447370600011 ()30191936 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-3940EU, Horizon 2020, 717022
Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Ekholm, V., Caleman, C., Bjärnhall Prytz, N., Walz, M.-M., Werner, J., Öhrwall, G., . . . Björneholm, O. (2018). Strong Enrichment of Atmospherically Relevant Organic Ions at the Aqueous Interface: The Role of Ion Pairing and Cooperative Effects. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 20(42), 27185-27191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong Enrichment of Atmospherically Relevant Organic Ions at the Aqueous Interface: The Role of Ion Pairing and Cooperative Effects
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2018 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, no 42, p. 27185-27191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface affinity, orientation and ion pairing are investigated in mixed and single solute systems of aqueous sodium hexanoate and hexylammonium chloride. The surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique has been used to acquire the experimental results, while the computational data have been calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. By comparing the single solute solutions with the mixed one, we observe a non-linear surface enrichment and reorientation of the organic ions with their alkyl chains pointing out of the aqueous surface. We ascribe this effect to ion paring between the charged functional groups on the respective organic ion and hydrophobic expulsion of the alkyl chains from the surface in combination with van der Waals interactions between the alkyl chains. These cooperative effects lead to a substantial surface enrichment of organic ions, with consequences for aerosol surface properties.

National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357368 (URN)10.1039/c8cp04525a (DOI)000451351500042 ()30339167 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-3940Swedish Research Council, 2014-04518Carl Tryggers foundation
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Pokapanich, W., Björneholm, O., Öhrwall, G. & Tchaplyguine, M. (2017). Core level photoelectron spectroscopy probed heterogeneous xenon/neon clusters. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 135, 45-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core level photoelectron spectroscopy probed heterogeneous xenon/neon clusters
2017 (English)In: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, ISSN 0969-806X, E-ISSN 1879-0895, Vol. 135, p. 45-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Binary rare gas clusters; xenon and neon which have a significant contrariety between sizes, produced by a co-expansion set up and have been studied using synchrotron radiation based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concentration ratios of the heterogeneous clusters; 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% were controlled. The core level spectra were used to determine structure of the mixed cluster and analyzed by considering screening mechanisms. Furthermore, electron binding energy shift calculations demonstrated cluster aggregation models which may occur in such process. The results showed that in the case of low mixing ratios of 3% and 5% of xenon in neon, the geometric structures exhibit xenon in the center and xenon/neon interfaced in the outer shells. However, neon cluster vanished when the concentration of xenon was increased to 10%.

Keywords
Synchrotron, Rare gas, Mixed clusters, Geometric structure, Co-expansion
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-322515 (URN)10.1016/j.radphyschem.2017.02.056 (DOI)000399846700008 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilGöran Gustafsson Foundation for Research in Natural Sciences and MedicineKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationThe Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2017-05-30 Created: 2017-05-30 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved
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