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Publications (10 of 109) Show all publications
Unger, I., Saak, C.-M., Salter, M., Zieger, P., Patanen, M. & Björneholm, O. (2020). Influence of Organic Acids on the Surface Composition of Sea Spray Aerosol. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 124(2), 422-429
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Organic Acids on the Surface Composition of Sea Spray Aerosol
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 422-429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent studies on sea spray aerosol indicate an enrichment of Ca2+ in small particles, which are often thought to originate from the very surface of a water body when bubbles burst. One model to explain this observation is the formation of ion pairs between Ca2+(aq) and surface-active organic species. In this study, we have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe aqueous salt solutions and artificial sea spray aerosol to study whether ion pairing in the liquid environment also affects the surface composition of dry aerosol. Carboxylic acids were added to the sample solutions to mimic some of the organic compounds present in natural seawater. Our results show that the formation of a core-shell structure governs the surface composition of the aerosol. The core-shell structure contrasts previous observations of the dry sea spray aerosol on substrates. As such, this may indicate that substrates can impact the morphology of the dried aerosol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2020
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-406189 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpca.9b09710 (DOI)000508468500018 ()31833771 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-05100Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016.0024
Available from: 2020-03-06 Created: 2020-03-06 Last updated: 2020-03-06Bibliographically approved
Saak, C.-M., Richter, C., Unger, I., Mucke, M., Nicolas, C., Hergenhahn, U., . . . Björneholm, O. (2020). Proton dynamics in molecular solvent clusters as an indicator for hydrogen bond network strength in confined geometries. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 22(6), 3264-3272
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proton dynamics in molecular solvent clusters as an indicator for hydrogen bond network strength in confined geometries
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2020 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 3264-3272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen bonding leads to the formation of strong, extended intermolecular networks in molecular liquids such as water. However, it is less well-known how robust the network is to environments in which surface formation or confinement effects become prominent, such as in clusters or droplets. Such systems provide a useful way to probe the robustness of the network, since the degree of confinement can be tuned by altering the cluster size, changing both the surface-to-volume ratio and the radius of curvature. To explore the formation of hydrogen bond networks in confined geometries, here we present O 1s Auger spectra of small and large clusters of water, methanol, and dimethyl ether, as well as their deuterated equivalents. The Auger spectra of the clusters and the corresponding macroscopic liquids are compared and evaluated for an isotope effect, which is due to proton dynamics within the lifetime of the core hole (proton-transfer-mediated charge-separation, PTM-CS), and can be linked to the formation of a hydrogen bond network in the system. An isotope effect is observed in water and methanol but not for dimethyl ether, which cannot donate a hydrogen bond at its oxygen site. The isotope effect, and therefore the strength of the hydrogen bond network, is more pronounced in water than in methanol. Its value depends on the average size of the cluster, indicating that confinement effects change proton dynamics in the core ionised excited state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2020
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-408101 (URN)10.1039/c9cp06661f (DOI)000518683800011 ()31998901 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2018-00740German Research Foundation (DFG), Forschergruppe FOR1789Academy of FinlandThe Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)
Available from: 2020-04-05 Created: 2020-04-05 Last updated: 2020-04-05Bibliographically approved
Blanco, Y. S., Topel, O., Bajnoczi, E. G., Werner, J., Björneholm, O. & Persson, I. (2019). Chemical equilibria of aqueous ammonium-carboxylate systems in aqueous bulk, close to and at the water-air interface. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 21(23), 12434-12445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical equilibria of aqueous ammonium-carboxylate systems in aqueous bulk, close to and at the water-air interface
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2019 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 23, p. 12434-12445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have shown that the water-air interface and a number of water molecule layers just below it, the surface region, have significantly different physico-chemical properties, such as lower relative permittivity and density, than bulk water. The properties in the surface region of water favor weakly hydrated species as neutral molecules, while ions requiring strong hydration and shielding of their charge are disfavored. In this study the equilibria NH4+(aq) + RCOO-(aq) reversible arrow NH3(aq) + RCOOH(aq) are investigated for R = CnH2n+1, n = 0-8, as open systems, where ammonia and small carboxylic acids in the gas phase above the water surface are removed from the system by a gentle controlled flow of nitrogen to mimic the transport of volatile compounds from water droplets into air. It is shown that this non-equilibrium transport of chemicals can be sufficiently large to cause a change of the chemical content of the aqueous bulk. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to determine the relative concentration of alkyl carboxylic acids and their conjugated alkyl carboxylates in aqueous surfaces using a micro-jet. These studies confirm that neutral alkyl carboxylic acids are accumulated in the surface region, while charged species, as alkyl carboxylates, are depleted. The XPS studies show also that the hydrophobic alkyl chains are oriented upwards into regions with lower relative permittivity and density, thus perpendicular to the aqueous surface. These combined results show that there are several chemical equilibria between the aqueous bulk and the surface region. The analytical studies show that the release of mainly ammonia is dependent on its concentration in the surface region, as long as the solubility of the carboxylic acid in the surface region is sufficiently high to avoid a precipitation in/on the water-air interface. However, for n-octyl- and n-nonylcarboxylic acid the solubility is sufficiently low to cause precipitation. The combined analytical and surface speciation studies in this work show that the equilibria involving the surface region are fast. The results from this study increase the knowledge about the distribution of chemical species in the surface region at and close to the water-air interface, and the transport of chemicals from water to air in open systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2019
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393008 (URN)10.1039/c9cp02449b (DOI)000478994100037 ()31143906 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Carravetta, V., de Abreu Gomes, A. H., Monti, S., Mocellin, A., Marinho, R. R. T., Björneholm, O., . . . de Brito, A. N. (2019). pH-dependent X-ray Photoelectron Chemical Shifts and Surface Distribution of Cysteine in Aqueous Solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 123(17), 3776-3785
Open this publication in new window or tab >>pH-dependent X-ray Photoelectron Chemical Shifts and Surface Distribution of Cysteine in Aqueous Solution
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 123, no 17, p. 3776-3785Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The distribution and protonation states of amino acids in water droplets are of considerable concern in studies on the formation of clouds in the atmosphere as well as in many biological contexts. In the present work we use the amino acid cysteine as a prototypical example and explore the protonation states of this molecule in aqueous solution, which are strongly affected by the acidity of the environment and also can show different distributions between surface and bulk. We use a combination of X-ray photoelectron chemical shift measurements, density functional theory calculations of the shifts, and reactive force field molecular dynamics simulations of the underlying structural dynamics. We explore how the photoelectron spectra distinctly reflect the different protonation states that are generated by variation of the solution acidity and how the distribution of these protonation states can differ between bulk and surface regions. At specific pH values, we find that the distribution of the cysteine species at the surface is quite different from that in bulk, in particular, for the appearance in the surface region of species which do not exist in bulk. Some ramifications of this finding are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383835 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b00866 (DOI)000466989000025 ()30964991 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 6212012-3347
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Saak, C.-M., Unger, I., Brena, B., Caleman, C. & Björneholm, O. (2019). Site-specific X-ray induced dynamics in liquid methanol. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 21(28), 15478-15486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Site-specific X-ray induced dynamics in liquid methanol
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2019 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 28, p. 15478-15486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391082 (URN)10.1039/C9CP02063B (DOI)000476603700022 ()31259327 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2017-04162Swedish Research Council, VR 2018-00740Swedish Research Council, VR 2013-03940
Available from: 2019-08-18 Created: 2019-08-18 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Tchaplyguine, M., Wright, C., Shavorskiy, A., Zhu, S., Mikkela, M.-H., Zhang, C., . . . Wallenberg, L. R. (2019). Tin-oxide nanoparticles deposited from a beam: what happens to the composition?. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 21(11), 6287-6295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tin-oxide nanoparticles deposited from a beam: what happens to the composition?
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2019 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 6287-6295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The debate around the oxidation states occurring in laboratory-prepared tin-oxide samples has been for a long time an obstacle for an unambiguous assignment of characterization studies performed on such samples. In particular the changes in the Sn core-level energies caused by oxidation - i.e. the chemical shifts - as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) have been under discussion. The assignment problem is especially pronounced for nanoscale structures, which are important for photovoltaics, electronics, catalysis, and gas sensing. The reasons for the difficulties lie both in the natural properties of tin oxides, which can have substantial deficiencies of oxygen and tin in the lattice, and in the shortcomings of the fabrication and PES-characterization procedures themselves. Our recent PES study on tin-oxide nanoparticles fabricated by vapour-aggregation gave a chemical shift two times larger than earlier reported for Sn(iv) oxide for the Sn 4d level. The implemented fabrication technique forms an in-vacuum beam of particles whose composition can be both controlled and characterized by PES. In the present work SnO and SnO2 nanoparticles fabricated this way were deposited from the beam and probed by PES directly, as well as after exposure to air. The deposited nanoparticle films were also imaged by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The effects of the deposition process and exposure to air on the chemical composition were studied. The PES study of deposited SnO2 nanoparticles in the Sn 4d and Sn 3d core-level regions revealed the same core level shift as for unsupported nanoparticles, indicating that the chemical composition is preserved in the deposition process. The TEM study demonstrated a crystalline structure of separate SnO2 particles with lattice constants close to the macroscopic Sn(iv)-oxide. The PES study on the particles exposed to air showed changes in the composition. For the film of initially SnO particles a higher intermediate oxide was created. For the SnO2 nanoparticle film a lower, but strong, intermediate oxide was observed, likely at the surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382460 (URN)10.1039/c8cp06168h (DOI)000462659300042 ()30834904 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Silva, J. L., Unger, I., Matias, T. A., Franco, L. ., Damas, G., Costa, L. T., . . . Araujo, C. M. (2019). X‑ray Photoelectron Fingerprints of High-Valence Ruthenium−Oxo Complexes along the Oxidation Reaction Pathway in an Aqueous Environment. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 10(24), 7636-7643
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X‑ray Photoelectron Fingerprints of High-Valence Ruthenium−Oxo Complexes along the Oxidation Reaction Pathway in an Aqueous Environment
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2019 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 10, no 24, p. 7636-7643Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent advances in operando-synchrotron-based X-ray techniques are making it possible to address fundamental questions related to complex proton-coupled electron transfer reactions, for instance, the electrocatalytic water splitting process. However, it is still a grand challenge to assess the ability of the different techniques to characterize the relevant intermediates, with minimal interference on the reaction mechanism. To this end, we have developed a novel methodology employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in connection with the liquid-jet approach to probe the electrochemical properties of a model electrocatalyst, [RuII(bpy)2(py)-(OH2)]2+, in an aqueous environment. There is a unique fingerprint of the extremely important higher-valence ruthenium−oxo species in the XPS spectra along the oxidation reaction pathway. Furthermore, a sequential method combining quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics is used to illuminate the underlying physical chemistry of such systems. This study provides the basis for the future development of in-operando XPS techniques for water oxidation reactions.

National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-398067 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02756 (DOI)000503919300014 ()31747290 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-01 Created: 2019-12-01 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Tchaplyguine, M., Zhang, C., Andersson, T. & Björneholm, O. (2018). Ag-Cu oxide nanoparticles with high oxidation states: towards new high T-c materials. Dalton Transactions, 47(46), 16660-16667
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ag-Cu oxide nanoparticles with high oxidation states: towards new high T-c materials
2018 (English)In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 47, no 46, p. 16660-16667Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Ag-Cu oxides possible to fabricate so far, superconductivity has not been detected, but high conductivity was. In the quest for superconductivity the demand is to create a high and peculiar copper-oxygen coordination. Such coordination makes it non-trivial to determine Cu oxidation states, which may be several and co-existing. Another reason for uncertainty is in oxygen deficiency typical for superconducting crystals. Finally, Cu oxidation is influenced by the other metals in the substance. For chemical fabrication the difficulty is to tune the relative abundances of elements in a fine way. Ag-Cu oxides have been also produced by reactive co-sputtering of Cu and Ag, but the composition with high Cu oxidation states necessary for high conductivity has not been realized. In the present work we have fabricated Ag-Cu-oxide nanoparticles containing Cu and Ag in high oxidation states actual for superconductivity. The fabrication includes reactive sputtering of Ag and Cu metals, their vapour oxidation and aggregation into nanoparticles. The ability to create different and high oxidation states, also co-existing, is demonstrated. The fabrication approach also allows overcoming the poor miscibility of Cu and Ag. The nanoparticle composition and the oxidation states could be determined due to an experimental arrangement in which photoelectron spectroscopy is applied to free nanoparticles in a beam in vacuum, what allows avoiding any contact of the particles to a substrate or atmosphere. The combination of the fabrication and characterization methods has proven to be a powerful approach when fine composition tuning and control are desirable.

National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372754 (URN)10.1039/c8dt04118k (DOI)000451657900034 ()30426128 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Ekholm, V., Vazdar, M., Mason, P. E., Bialik, E., Walz, M.-M., Ohrwall, G., . . . Björneholm, O. (2018). Anomalous surface behavior of hydrated guanidinium ions due to ion pairing. Journal of Chemical Physics, 148(14), Article ID 144508.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anomalous surface behavior of hydrated guanidinium ions due to ion pairing
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, no 14, article id 144508Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface affinity of aqueous guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) is compared to that of aqueous tetrapropylammonium chloride (TPACl) upon addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) or disodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The experimental results have been acquired using the surface sensitive technique X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid jet. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to produce radial distribution functions and surface density plots. The surface affinities of both TPA(+) and Gdm(+) increase upon adding NaCl to the solution. With the addition of Na2SO4, the surface affinity of TPA(+) increases, while that of Gdm(+) decreases. From the results of MD simulations it is seen that Gdm(+) and SO42- ions form pairs. This finding can be used to explain the decreased surface affinity of Gdm(+) when co-dissolved with SO42- ions. Since SO42- ions avoid the surface due to the double charge and strong water interaction, the Gdm(+)-SO42- ion pair resides deeper in the solutions' bulk than the Gdm(+) ions. Since TPA(+) does not form ion pairs with SO42-, the TPA(+) ions are instead enriched at the surface.

National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-353201 (URN)10.1063/1.5024348 (DOI)000430128600034 ()29655316 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2018-09-02Bibliographically approved
Richter, C., Hollas, D., Saak, C.-M., Foerstel, M., Miteva, T., Mucke, M., . . . Hergenhahn, U. (2018). Competition between proton transfer and intermolecular Coulombic decay in water. Nature Communications, 9, Article ID 4988.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competition between proton transfer and intermolecular Coulombic decay in water
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2018 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4988Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) is a ubiquitous relaxation channel of electronically excited states in weakly bound systems, ranging from dimers to liquids. As it is driven by electron correlation, it was assumed that it will dominate over more established energy loss mechanisms, for example fluorescence. Here, we use electron-electron coincidence spectroscopy to determine the efficiency of the ICD process after 2a(1) ionization in water clusters. We show that this efficiency is surprisingly low for small water clusters and that it gradually increases to 40-50% for clusters with hundreds of water units. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal that proton transfer between neighboring water molecules proceeds on the same timescale as ICD and leads to a configuration in which the ICD channel is closed. This conclusion is further supported by experimental results from deuterated water. Combining experiment and theory, we infer an intrinsic ICD lifetime of 12-52 fs for small water clusters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Physical Chemistry Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372335 (URN)10.1038/s41467-018-07501-6 (DOI)000451176100013 ()30478319 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 705515The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-08-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7307-5404

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