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Gustafsson, Torbjörn
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 144) Show all publications
Liu, C., Rehnlund, D., Brant, W. R., Zhu, J., Gustafsson, T. & Younesi, R. (2017). Growth of NaO2 in Highly Efficient Na–O2 Batteries Revealed by Synchrotron In Operando X-ray Diffraction [Letter to the editor]. ACS Energy Letters, 2, 2440-2444.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth of NaO2 in Highly Efficient Na–O2 Batteries Revealed by Synchrotron In Operando X-ray Diffraction
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2017 (English)In: ACS Energy Letters, E-ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 2, 2440-2444 p.Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330766 (URN)10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00768 (DOI)
Projects
Na-air batteries
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2018-01-02Bibliographically approved
Liu, J., Ma, Y., Roberts, M., Gustafsson, T., Edström, K. & Zhu, J. (2017). Highly efficient Ru/MnO2 nano-catalysts for Li-O2 batteries: Quantitative analysis of catalytic Li2O2 decomposition by operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Journal of Power Sources, 352, 208-215.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly efficient Ru/MnO2 nano-catalysts for Li-O2 batteries: Quantitative analysis of catalytic Li2O2 decomposition by operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 352, 208-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In-situ or operando quantitative analysis is very important for Li-O2 batteries, in order to properly, accurately and comprehensively evaluate electrocatalysts and characterize Li-O2 electrochemistry in real-time. Synchrotron XRD can provide much higher X-ray intensity and time resolution than traditional in-house diffractometers, and therefore can contribute to quantitative analysis for Li-O2 batteries. Here, operando synchrotron XRD is further developed to quantitatively study Li-O2 batteries with nano catalysts, Ru/MnO2. The time-resolved oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics for Li-O2 cells with Ru/MNT was systematically investigated using operando synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD). Li2O2 decomposition in the electrodes with Ru/MNT catalysts during galvanostatic and potentiostatic charge processes followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and showed ideal Coulombic efficiency (close to 100%). Furthermore, it was found that the OER kinetics for a cell with 2 wt% Ru/MNT charged at a constant potential of 4.3 V was even faster than that for a cell with the same amount of pure Ru nanoparticles, which have been considered as a highly active catalyst for Li-O2 batteries. These results indicated that Ru/MNT with a special nanostructure represented a very efficient electrocatalyst for promoting the OER in Li-O2 batteries. We also demonstrate that synchrotron radiation XRD can "highlight" a way to quantitative analysis for Li-O2 batteries.

Keyword
Ru nanoparticle, MnO2 nanotube, Li-O-2 battery, Electrocatalyst, Oxygen evolution reaction, Operando synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD)
National Category
Materials Chemistry Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324237 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.03.127 (DOI)000401206100024 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-4681Swedish Energy Agency, 2010-000414StandUp
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2017-12-30
Blidberg, A., Sobkowiak, A., Tengstedt, C., Valvo, M., Gustafsson, T. & Björefors, F. (2017). Identifying the Electrochemical Processes in LiFeSO4F Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries. Chemelectrochem, 4(8), 1896-1907.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying the Electrochemical Processes in LiFeSO4F Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries
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2017 (English)In: Chemelectrochem, Vol. 4, no 8, 1896-1907 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The electrochemical performance of tavorite LiFeSO4F can be considerably improved by coating the material with a conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene); PEDOT). Herein, the mechanisms behind the improved performance are studied systematically by careful electrochemical analysis. It is shown that the PEDOT coating improves the surface reaction kinetics for the Li-ion insertion into LiFeSO4F. For such coated materials no kinetic limitations remain, and a transition from solid state to solution-based diffusion control was observed at 0.6 mA cm−2 (circa C/2). Additionally, the quantity of PEDOT is optimized to balance the weight added by the polymer and the improved electrochemical function. Post mortem analysis shows excellent stability for the LiFeSO4F-PEDOT composite, and maintaining the electronic wiring is the most important factor for stable electrochemical cycling of LiFeSO4F. The insights and the methodology used to determine the rate-controlling steps are readily transferable to other ion-insertion-based electrodes, and the findings are important for the development of improved battery electrodes.

Keyword
Batteries; conducting polymers; electrochemistry; kinetics; lithium
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317003 (URN)10.1002/celc.201700192 (DOI)000410498700015 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , EM11-0028VINNOVASwedish Research Council Formas, 245-2014-668
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Xu, C., Renault, S., Ebadi, M., Wang, Z., Björklund, E., Guyomard, D., . . . Gustafsson, T. (2017). LiTDI: A Highly Efficient Additive for Electrolyte Stabilization in Lithium-Ion Batteries. Chemistry of Materials, 29(5), 2254-2263.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LiTDI: A Highly Efficient Additive for Electrolyte Stabilization in Lithium-Ion Batteries
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2017 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 29, no 5, 2254-2263 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The poor stability of LiPF6-based electrolytes has always been a bottleneck for conventional lithium-ion batteries. The presence of inevitable trace amounts of moisture and the operation of batteries at elevated temperatures are particularly detrimental to electrolyte stability. Here, lithium 2trifluoromethy1-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) is investigated as a moisture-scavenging electrolyte additive and can sufficiently suppress the hydrolysis of LiPF6. With 2 wt % LiTDI, no LiPF6 degradation can be detected after storage for 35 days, even though the water level in the electrolyte is enriched by 2000 ppm. An improved thermal stability is also obtained by employing the LiTDI additive, and the moisture-scavenging mechanism is discussed. The beneficial effects of the LiTDI additive on battery performance are demonstrated by the enhanced capacity retention of both the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC)/Li and NMC/graphite cells at 55 degrees C. In particular, the increase in cell voltage hysteresis is greatly hindered when LiTDI is presented in the electrolyte. Further development of the LiTDI additive may allow the improvement of elevated-temperature batteries, as well as energy savings by reducing the amount of effort necessary for dehydration of battery components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319530 (URN)10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b05247 (DOI)000396639400040 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 34191-1 39036-1Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Carl Tryggers foundation StandUp
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-30
Mindemark, J., Sobkowiak, A., Oltean, G., Brandell, D. & Gustafsson, T. (2017). Mechanical Stabilization of Solid Polymer Electrolytes through Gamma Irradiation. Electrochimica Acta, 230, 189-195.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Stabilization of Solid Polymer Electrolytes through Gamma Irradiation
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2017 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 230, 189-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Attaining sufficient mechanical stability is a challenge for high-performance solid polymer electrolytes, particularly at elevated temperatures. We have here characterized the viscoelastic properties of the nonpolyether host material poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-trimethylene carbonate) with and without incorporated LiTFSI salt. While this electrolyte material performs well at room temperature, at 80 degrees C the material is prone to viscous flow. Through gamma-irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy, the material stabilizes such that it behaves as a rubbery solid even at low rates of deformation while retaining a high ionic conductivity necessary for use in solid-state Li batteries. The performance of the irradiated electrolyte was investigated in Li polymer half-cells (Li vs. LiFePO4) at both 80 degrees C and room temperature. In Contrast with the notably stable battery performance at low temperatures using the non-irradiated material, during cycling of the irradiated electrolytes detrimental instabilities were noted at both 80 degrees C and room temperature. The possible effects of both radiation damage to the electrolyte and impaired interfacial contacts due to the crosslinking indicate that a different procedure may be necessary in order to stabilize these electrolytes for use in battery cells capable of stable long-term operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keyword
polymer electrolytes, crosslinking, lithium batteries, mechanical properties, gamma irradiation
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320250 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2017.02.008 (DOI)000395599900021 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 37722-1Swedish Research Council, 20123837
Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2017-04-19Bibliographically approved
Edström, K., Gustafsson, T., Aktekin, B., Nordh, T., Lacey, M. & Liivat, A. (2017). Reach MAX: Reach maximum volymetric capacity for lithium batteries with high voltage cathodes. In: : . Paper presented at Energirelaterad fordonsforskning 2017, Enrgimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency). .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reach MAX: Reach maximum volymetric capacity for lithium batteries with high voltage cathodes
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338172 (URN)
Conference
Energirelaterad fordonsforskning 2017, Enrgimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency)
Projects
ReachMAX
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Renman, V., Ojwang, D., Valvo, M., Pay Gómez, C., Gustafsson, T. & Svensson, G. (2017). Structural-electrochemical relations in the aqueous copper hexacyanoferrate-zinc system examined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Journal of Power Sources, 146-153.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural-electrochemical relations in the aqueous copper hexacyanoferrate-zinc system examined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, 146-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The storage process of Zn2+ in the Prussian blue analogue (PBA) copper hexacyanoferrate (Cu[Fe(CN)6]2/3·nH2O - CuHCF) framework structure in a context of rechargeable aqueous batteries is examined by means of in operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Via sequential unit-cell parameter refinements of time-resolved diffraction data, it is revealed that the step-profile of the cell output voltage curves during repeated electrochemical insertion and removal of Zn2+ in the CuHCF host structure is associated with a non-linear contraction and expansion of the unit-cell in the range 0.36 < x < 1.32 for Znx/3Cu[Fe(CN)6]2/3·nH2O. For a high insertion cation content there is no apparent change in the unit-cell contraction. Furthermore, a structural analysis with respect to the occupancies of possible Zn2+ sites suggests that the Fe(CN)6 vacancies within the CuHCF framework play an important role in the structural-electrochemical behavior of this particular system. More specifically, it is observed that Zn2+ swaps position during electrochemical cycling, hopping between cavity sites to vacant ferricyanide sites

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry Materials Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337946 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.09.079 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-01-05 Created: 2018-01-05 Last updated: 2018-01-08
Liu, C., Brant, W., Younesi, R., Dong, Y., Edström, K., Gustafsson, T. & Zhu, J. (2017). Towards an Understanding of Li2O2 Evolution in Li-O2 Batteries: An In-operando Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study. ChemSusChem, 10(7), 1592-1599.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards an Understanding of Li2O2 Evolution in Li-O2 Batteries: An In-operando Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study
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2017 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, no 7, 1592-1599 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the major challenges in developing high-performance Li-O-2 batteries is to understand the Li2O2 formation and decomposition during battery cycling. In this study, this issue was investigated by synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction. The evolution of Li2O2 morphology and structure was observed under actual electrochemical conditions of battery operation. By quantitatively tracking Li2O2 during discharge and charge, a two-step process was suggested for both growth and oxidation of Li2O2 owing to different mechanisms during two stages of both oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction. From an observation of the anisotropic broadening of Li2O2 in XRD patterns, it was inferred that disc-like Li2O2 grains are formed rapidly in the first step of discharge. These grains can stack together so that they facilitate the nucleation and growth of toroidal Li2O2 particles with a LiO2-like surface, which could cause parasitic reactions and hinder the formation of Li2O2. During the charge process, Li2O2 is firstly oxidized from the surface, followed by a delithiation process with a faster oxidation of the bulk by stripping the interlayer Li atoms to form an off-stoichiometric intermediate. This fundamental insight brings new information on the working mechanism of Li-O-2 batteries.

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313451 (URN)10.1002/cssc.201601718 (DOI)000398838600037 ()28247542 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)StandUp
Available from: 2017-01-19 Created: 2017-01-19 Last updated: 2018-01-03
Liu, C., Younesi, R., Tai, C.-W., Valvo, M., Edström, K., Gustafsson, T. & Zhu, J. (2016). 3-D binder-free graphene foam as cathode for high capacity Li-O2 batteries. Paper presented at Inorganic Days, Visby, June 15 - 17, 2015. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4(25), 9767-9773.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3-D binder-free graphene foam as cathode for high capacity Li-O2 batteries
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 25, 9767-9773 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

To provide energy densities higher than those of conventional Li-ion batteries, a Li–O2 battery requires a cathode with high surface area to host large amounts of discharge product Li2O2. Therefore, reversible formation of discharge products needs to be investigated in Li–O2 cells containing high surface area cathodes. In this study, a binder-free oxygen electrode consisting of a 3-D graphene structure on aluminum foam, with a high defect level (ID/IG = 1.38), was directly used as the oxygen electrode in Li– O2 batteries, delivering a high capacity of about 9 *104 mA h g-1 (based on the weight of graphene) at the first full discharge using a current density of 100 mA ggraphene-1 . This performance is attributed to the 3-D porous structure of graphene foam providing both an abundance of available space for the deposition of discharge products and a high density of reactive sites for Li–O2 reactions. Furthermore, the formation of discharge products with different morphologies and their decomposition upon charge were observed by SEM. Some nanoscaled LiOH particles embedded in the toroidal Li2O2 were detected by XRD and visualized by TEM. The amount of Li2O2 formed at the end of discharge was revealed by a titration method combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis. 

National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-291383 (URN)10.1039/C5TA10690G (DOI)000378716900008 ()
Conference
Inorganic Days, Visby, June 15 - 17, 2015
Projects
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyÅngpanneföreningen’s Foundation for Research and DevelopmentJ. Gust. Richert FoundationState Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals (KF1413)China Scholarship Council
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-4681; 2011-6512Swedish Energy AgencyÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)
Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, F., Xu, C., Maibach, J., Andersson, A. M., Marcinek, M., Niedzicki, L., . . . Edström, K. (2016). A hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the solid electrolyte interphase of a lithium 4,5-dicyano-2- (trifluoromethyl)imidazolide based electrolyte for Si-electrodes. Journal of Power Sources, 301, 105-112.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the solid electrolyte interphase of a lithium 4,5-dicyano-2- (trifluoromethyl)imidazolide based electrolyte for Si-electrodes
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 301, 105-112 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This report focuses on the relatively new salt, lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI), and its functionality together with a silicon based composite electrode in a half-cell lithium ion battery context. LiTDI is a promising alternative to the commonly used LiPF6 salt because it does not form HF which can decompose the oxide layer on Si. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) as well as the development of the active Si-particles are investigated during the first electrochemical lithiation and de-lithiation. Characterizations are carried out at different state of charge with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) at two different photon energies. This enables a depth resolved picture of the reaction processes and gives an idea of the chemical buildup of the SEI. The SEI is formed by solvent and LiTDI decomposition products and its composition is similar to SEI formed by other carbonate based electrolytes. The LiTDI salt or its decomposition products are not in itself reactive towards the active Si-material and no unwanted side reactions occurs with the active Si-particles. Despite some decomposition of the LiTDI salt, it is a promising alternative for electrolytes aimed towards Si-based electrodes.

Keyword
Lithium 4, 5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl); imidazolide; Silicon negative electrode; Solid electrolyte interphase; Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261159 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.09.112 (DOI)000365060500014 ()
Funder
VINNOVA, P37446-1EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeEU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
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