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Klimkowska, A., Goldstein, K., Wyszomirski, T., Kozub, L., Wilk, M., Aggenbach, C., . . . Kotowski, W. (2019). Are we restoring functional fens?: The outcomes of restoration projects in fens re-analysed with plant functional traits. PLoS ONE, 14(4), Article ID e0215645.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are we restoring functional fens?: The outcomes of restoration projects in fens re-analysed with plant functional traits
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0215645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In peatland restoration we often lack an information whether re-established ecosystems are functionally similar to non-degraded ones. We re-analysed the long-term outcomes of restoration on vegetation and plant functional traits in 38 European fens restored by rewetting (18 sites) and topsoil removal (20 sites). We used traits related to nutrient acquisition strategies, competitiveness, seed traits, and used single- and multi-trait metrics. A separate set of vegetation records from near-natural fens with diverse plant communities was used to generate reference values to aid the comparisons. We found that both restoration methods enhanced the similarity of species composition to non-degraded systems but trait analysis revealed differences between the two approaches. Traits linked to nutrient acquisition strategies indicated that topsoil removal was more effective than rewetting. After topsoil removal competitive species in plant communities had decreased, while stress-tolerant species had increased. A substantial reduction in nutrient availability ruled out the effect of initial disturbance. An ability to survive and grow in anoxic conditions was enhanced after restoration, but the reference values were not achieved. Rewetting was more effective than topsoil removal in restricting variation in traits values permitted in re-developing vegetation. We found no indication of a shift towards reference in seed traits, which suggested that dispersal constraint and colonization deficit can be a widespread phenomena. Two functional diversity indices: functional richness and functional dispersion showed response to restoration and shifted values towards reference mires and away from the degraded systems. We concluded that targeting only one type of environmental stressor does not lead to a recovery of fens, as it provides insufficient level of stress to restore a functional ecosystem. In general, restoration efforts do not ensure the re-establishment and long-term persistence of fens. Restoration efforts result in recovery of fen ecosystems, confirmed with our functional trait analysis, although more rigid actions are needed for restoring fully functional mires, by achieving high and constant levels of anoxia and nutrient stresses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019
National Category
Ecology Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383856 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0215645 (DOI)000465375400055 ()31017976 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Singer, D., Mitchell, E. A. D., Payne, R. J., Blandenier, Q., Duckert, C., Fernandez, L. D., . . . Lara, E. (2019). Dispersal limitations and historical factors determine the biogeography of specialized terrestrial protists. Molecular Ecology, 28(12), 3089-3100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dispersal limitations and historical factors determine the biogeography of specialized terrestrial protists
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2019 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 3089-3100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent studies show that soil eukaryotic diversity is immense and dominated by micro-organisms. However, it is unclear to what extent the processes that shape the distribution of diversity in plants and animals also apply to micro-organisms. Major diversification events in multicellular organisms have often been attributed to long-term climatic and geological processes, but the impact of such processes on protist diversity has received much less attention as their distribution has often been believed to be largely cosmopolitan. Here, we quantified phylogeographical patterns in Hyalosphenia papilio, a large testate amoeba restricted to Holarctic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, to test if the current distribution of its genetic diversity can be explained by historical factors or by the current distribution of suitable habitats. Phylogenetic diversity was higher in Western North America, corresponding to the inferred geographical origin of the H. papilio complex, and was lower in Eurasia despite extensive suitable habitats. These results suggest that patterns of phylogenetic diversity and distribution can be explained by the history of Holarctic Sphagnum peatland range expansions and contractions in response to Quaternary glaciations that promoted cladogenetic range evolution, rather than the contemporary distribution of suitable habitats. Species distributions were positively correlated with climatic niche breadth, suggesting that climatic tolerance is key to dispersal ability in H. papilio. This implies that, at least for large and specialized terrestrial micro-organisms, propagule dispersal is slow enough that historical processes may contribute to their diversification and phylogeographical patterns and may partly explain their very high overall diversity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
distribution, Holarctic, Hyalosphenia papilio, phylogeography, protists, Sphagnum peatland
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390788 (URN)10.1111/mec.15117 (DOI)000475147100001 ()31055860 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-05174
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Mazziotta, A., Granath, G., Rydin, H., Bengtsson, F. & Norberg, J. (2019). Scaling functional traits to ecosystem processes: Towards a mechanistic understanding in peat mosses. Journal of Ecology, 107(2), 843-859
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scaling functional traits to ecosystem processes: Towards a mechanistic understanding in peat mosses
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 843-859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of trait trade-offs and environmental filtering in explaining the variability in functional traits and ecosystem processes has received considerable attention for vascular plants but less so for bryophytes. Thus, we do not know whether the same forces also shape the phenotypic variability of bryophytes. Here, we assess how environmental gradients and trade-offs shape functional traits and subsequently ecosystem processes for peat mosses (Sphagnum), a globally important plant genus for carbon accumulation. We used piecewise Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to understand how environmental gradients influence vital processes across levels of biological organization. We gathered data on functional traits for 15 globally important Sphagnum species covering a wide range of ecological preferences. Phenotypes lie along well-established axes of the plant economic spectrum characterizing trade-offs between vital physiological functions. Using SEM, we clarified the mechanisms of trait covariation and scaling to ecosystem processes. We tested whether peat mosses, like vascular plants, constrain trait variability between a fast turnover strategy based on resource acquisition via fast traits and processes, and a strategy of resource conservation, via slow traits and processes. We parameterized a process-based model estimating ecosystem processes linking environmental drivers with architectural and functional traits. In our SEM approach the amount of variance explained varied substantially (0.29 <= R-2 <= 0.82) among traits and processes in Sphagnum, and the model could predict some of them with high to intermediate accuracy for an independent dataset. R-2 variability was mainly explained by traits and species identity, and poorly by environmental filtering. Some Sphagnum species avoid the stress caused by periodic desiccation in hollows via resource acquisition based on fast photosynthesis and growth, while other species are adapted to grow high above the water-table on hummocks by slow physiological traits and processes to conserve resources. Synthesis.We contribute to a unified theory generating individual fitness, canopy dynamics and ecosystem processes from trait variation. As for vascular plants, the functional traits in the Sphagnum economic spectrum are linked into an integrated phenotypic network partly filtered by the environment and shaped by trade-offs in resource acquisition and conservation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
bryophytes, ecosystem processes, peatlands, piecewise SEM, plant development and life-history traits, plant economic spectrum, Sphagnum, Structural Equation Modeling
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378633 (URN)10.1111/1365-2745.13110 (DOI)000458616400029 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Lou, Y., Liu, Y., Tang, Z., Jiang, M., Lu, X. & Rydin, H. (2019). Testing unidimensional species distribution models to forecast and hindcast changes in marsh vegetation over 40 years. Ecological Indicators, 104, 341-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing unidimensional species distribution models to forecast and hindcast changes in marsh vegetation over 40 years
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2019 (English)In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 104, p. 341-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Species distribution models (SDM) predicting changes in species occurrences and abundance are increasingly being used as a tool in biogeography and conservation biology. However, we have little information on their predictive performance. Here we used archive-recorded predictor and field-observational verifier data associated with water level to evaluate the performance of response curves over 40 years for marsh plant species in Northeast China. A consensus approach (AUC: area-under-curve) was used as the test measure for internal evaluation and external evaluation (forecast and hindcast). Our results demonstrated that there is no significant differences between internal and external evaluation, and they both showed reasonable accuracy (AUC=0.73, respectively). There was considerable variation across species and projection direction in model accuracy, and accuracy of model fitting in internal evaluation and restricting the environmental range of data in different time periods may impact the performance of model projection over time. The performance of generalized additive models (GAM) is similar with that of extended Huisman-Olff-Fresco models (eHOF). Cover model is a little better than presence/absence models in prediction over time. Our findings provide some guidelines for the use of SDM for predictions under environmental change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Environmental change, Extended Huisman-Olff-Fresco models (eHOF), Generalized additive models (GAM), Herbaceous marsh, Model evaluation, Prediction, Water depth, Wetlands
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387711 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.05.024 (DOI)000470966000035 ()
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Campbell, C. & Rydin, H. (2019). The effects of winter stress on Sphagnum specieswith contrasting macro- and microdistributions. Journal of Bryology, 41(3), 205-217
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of winter stress on Sphagnum specieswith contrasting macro- and microdistributions
2019 (English)In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 205-217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Sphagnum L. forms much of the ground cover in northern peatlands. Different species show affinities for bioclimatic regions in Europe (oceanic/continental; northern/southern) and species-specific tolerance of winter conditions can be a factor explaining their distribution.

Methods: We focussed on low temperature in a series of experiments and tested (1) the innate ability of a selection of Sphagnum species to tolerate low temperature in relation to their micro-topographic (wetness) and geographical (climate) distribution; (2) the rate of cold tolerance acquisition; and (3) the ability of species to survive a range of low temperature once cold hardened.

Key results: Our experiments showed that maximal PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, chlorophyll fluorescence), growth rates and survival were all negatively affected by sub-zero temperatures. Environmental conditions associated with the onset of winter (colder nights and shorter days) triggered the acquisition of cold tolerance in Sphagnum.

Conclusions: The results were not unequivocal, but species associated with colder climates were generally more tolerant of sub-zero conditions. Species associated with the wettest and driest ends of the wetness gradient were more consistent in their responses than those in between, with wetter-dwelling species being less sensitive to sub-zero temperature than species found in drier microhabitats. Overall, our results suggest that adaptation to winter conditions contribute to the current distribution patterns of Sphagnum species.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Chlorophyll fluorescence, cold tolerance, species distribution, Sphagnum, winter
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387429 (URN)10.1080/03736687.2019.1626167 (DOI)000473871600001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-05174
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-10-30Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, F., Rydin, H. & Hajek, T. (2018). Biochemical determinants of litter quality in 15 species of Sphagnum. Plant and Soil, 425(1-2), 161-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biochemical determinants of litter quality in 15 species of Sphagnum
2018 (English)In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 425, no 1-2, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims Sphagnum mosses are ecosystem engineers that create and maintain boreal peatlands. With unique biochemistry, waterlogging and acidifying capacities, they build up meters-thick layers of peat, reducing competition and impeding decomposition. We quantify within-genus differences in biochemical composition to make inferences about decay rates, related to hummock-hollow and fen-bog gradients and to phylogeny. Methods We sampled litter from 15 Sphagnum species, abundant over the whole northern hemisphere. We used regression and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to evaluate general relationships between litter quality parameters and decay rates measured under laboratory and field conditions. Results Both concentrations of the polysaccharide sphagnan and the soluble phenolics were positively correlated with intrinsic decay resistance, however, so were the previously understudied lignin-like phenolics. More resistant litter had more of all the important metabolites; consequently, PC1 scores were related to lab mass loss (R-2 = 0.57). There was no such relationship with field mass loss, which is also affected by the environment. PCA also revealed that metabolites clearly group Sphagnum sections (subgenera). Conclusions We suggest that the commonly stated growth-decomposition trade-off is largely due to litter quality. We show a strong phylogenetic control on Sphagnum metabolites, but their effects on decay are affected by nutrient availability in the habitat.

Keywords
Peatland, Decay resistance, Sphagnan, Phenolics, Lignin, Hummock-hollow
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354249 (URN)10.1007/s11104-018-3579-8 (DOI)000430992300011 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Note

Correction in: PLANT AND SOIL, Volume: 439, Issue: 1-2, Pages: 569-572, Special Issue: SI, DOI: 10.1007/s11104-019-04046-5

Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Emsens, W.-J., Aggenbach, C. J. S., Rydin, H., Smolders, A. J. P. & van Diggelen, R. (2018). Competition for light as a bottleneck for endangered fen species: An introduction experiment. Biological Conservation, 220, 76-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competition for light as a bottleneck for endangered fen species: An introduction experiment
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2018 (English)In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 220, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many endangered plant species remain absent in rewetted, previously drained fens. We performed a 3-year introduction experiment with endangered fen species (9 Carex- and 6 bryophyte species) in 4 hydrologically restored fens to investigate which factors hamper establishment and survival. Carex species were introduced as adults and seedlings, mosses as gametophytes. Introductions were done on (initially) bare soil, which allowed us to exclude excessive competition for light during the first year. First year survival of the transplants was high in all fens (mean survival = 96%), indicating that there were no direct abiotic constraints on establishment. However, survival analysis revealed that a decrease in relative light intensity (RLI) at the soil surface during consecutive years (indicating an increase in biotic competition for light) drove high mortality rates in most species. As a result, overall final survival was lowest in the two most productive (low light) fens (mean survival = 38%), while most transplants persisted in the two less productive (high light) fens (mean survival = 79%). Taller and faster-growing Carex species were able to outgrow light limitation near the soil surface, and thus had a higher overall survivability than smaller and slower-growing species. Light limitation also drove the loss of 5 out of 6 bryophyte species. We conclude that both dispersal limitation and asymmetric competition for light may explain the lack and loss of small and endangered plant species in rewetted fens. A minimum empirical threshold of c. 30% relative light intensity near the soil surface is required for successful introduction.

Keywords
Biodiversity, Competition, Dispersal limitation, Fen restoration, Light availability
National Category
Botany Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354252 (URN)10.1016/j.biocon.2018.02.002 (DOI)000429765000009 ()
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Granath, G., Rydin, H., Baltzer, J. L., Bengtsson, F., Boncek, N., Bragazza, L., . . . Rice, S. K. (2018). Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges. Biogeosciences, 15(16), 5189-5202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges
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2018 (English)In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364191 (URN)10.5194/bg-15-5189-2018 (DOI)000443077000002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-05174
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Lou, Y., Gao, C., Pan, Y., Xue, Z., Liu, Y., Tang, Z., . . . Rydin, H. (2018). Niche modelling of marsh plants based on occurrence and abundance data. Science of the Total Environment, 616-617, 198-207
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Niche modelling of marsh plants based on occurrence and abundance data
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The information of species' response (optimum or critical limits along environmental gradients) is a key to understanding ecological questions and to design management plans. A large number of plots (762) from 70 transects of 13 wetland sites in Northeast China were sampled along flooding gradient from marsh to wet meadow. Species response (abundance and occurrence) to flooding were modelled with Generalized Additive Models for 21 dominant plant species. We found that 20 of 21 species showed a significant response to flooding for the occurrence and abundance models, and four types of response were found: monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, skewed unimodal and symmetric unimodal. The species with monotonically increasing response have the deepest flooding optimum and widest niche width, followed by those with unimodal curve, and the monotonically decreasing ones have the smallest values. The optima and niche width (whether based on occurrence or abundance models) both significantly correlated with the frequency, but not with mean abundance. Abundance models outperformed occurrence models based on goodness of fit. The abundance models predicted a rather sharp shift from dominance of helophytes (Carex pseudo-curaica and C. lasiocarpa) to wet meadow species (Calamagrostis angustifolia and Carex appendiculata) if water levels drop from about 10 cm above soil surface to below the surface. The defined optima and niche width based on the abundance models can be applied to better instruct restoration management. Given the time required to collect abundance data, an efficient strategy could be to monitor occurrence in many plots and abundance in a subset of these.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
Species response curve, Optimum, Niche width, Distribution, Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Herbaceous marsh
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346655 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.300 (DOI)000424121800020 ()29121575 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Weston, D. J., Turetsky, M. R., Johnson, M. G., Granath, G., Lindo, Z., Belyea, L. R., . . . Shaw, A. J. (2018). The Sphagnome Project: enabling ecological and evolutionary insights through a genus-level sequencing project. New Phytologist, 217(1), 16-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Sphagnome Project: enabling ecological and evolutionary insights through a genus-level sequencing project
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2018 (English)In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 217, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Considerable progress has been made in ecological and evolutionary genetics with studies demonstrating how genes underlying plant and microbial traits can influence adaptation and even 'extend' to influence community structure and ecosystem level processes. Progress in this area is limited to model systems with deep genetic and genomic resources that often have negligible ecological impact or interest. Thus, important linkages between genetic adaptations and their consequences at organismal and ecological scales are often lacking. Here we introduce the Sphagnome Project, which incorporates genomics into a long-running history of Sphagnum research that has documented unparalleled contributions to peatland ecology, carbon sequestration, biogeochemistry, microbiome research, niche construction, and ecosystem engineering. The Sphagnome Project encompasses a genus-level sequencing effort that represents a new type of model system driven not only by genetic tractability, but by ecologically relevant questions and hypotheses.

Keywords
ecological genomics, ecosystem engineering, evolutionary genetics, genome sequencing, niche construction, peatlands, Sphagnome, Sphagnum
National Category
Genetics and Breeding in Agricultural Sciences Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351606 (URN)10.1111/nph.14860 (DOI)000426309500004 ()29076547 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7582-3998

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