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Bjarnegård, E., Engvall, A., Jitpiromsri, S. & Melander, E. (2023). Armed Violence and Patriarchal Values: A Survey of Young Men in Thailand and Their Military Experiences. American Political Science Review, 117(2), 439-453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Armed Violence and Patriarchal Values: A Survey of Young Men in Thailand and Their Military Experiences
2023 (English)In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

What is the relationship between armed violence and patriarchal values? This question is addressed with the help of a survey of young men in the conflict-affected southern provinces of Thailand. In Study 1 we find that men with more patriarchal values are more prone to volunteer for paramilitary service. Study 2 uses a natural experiment made possible by the conscription lottery in Thailand to compare survey responses of men who were involuntarily enlisted to do Military Conscription Service (treatment group) with the responses of men who participated in the lottery but were not enlisted (control group). We find no difference between the treatment and control groups in patriarchal values. We conclude that patriarchal values drive voluntary participation in armed conflict, whereas military service as a conscript in a conflict zone does not cause patriarchal values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2023
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-498026 (URN)10.1017/s0003055422000594 (DOI)000836473400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-02945
Available from: 2023-03-08 Created: 2023-03-08 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E., Brounéus, K. & Melander, E. (2021). Violent Boyhoods, Masculine Honor Ideology, and Political Violence: Survey Findings From Thailand. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(15-16), 7136-7160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Violent Boyhoods, Masculine Honor Ideology, and Political Violence: Survey Findings From Thailand
2021 (English)In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 36, no 15-16, p. 7136-7160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Throughout history, those who have participated in political violence have predominantly been male young adults. At the same time, we know that most young men will not use violence for political protest. So what distinguishes those who do from those who do not? In this article, we link psychological research on the intergenerational effects of violence in the family to violence in the political arena. We ask to what extent experiences of violence as a child are associated with participation in political violence as an adult. Our overarching argument is that family-of-origin violence may not only have serious negative, intergenerational effects on health and well-being but also on future spirals of violence for the individual. Family-of-origin violence may also lead to an increased risk of using violence for political purposes due to the diffusion of violence norms, whereby violence is seen as a just and appropriate response to conflict. We test this claim using micro-level data from the Survey on Gender, Politics, and Violence in Thailand, conducted in 2012-2013. For our analyses, we zoom in on men from a specific cluster sample of the survey: 200 political activist interviewees—100 Red Shirts and 100 Yellow Shirts. The results support our claim. We find that experiences of family violence as a child increase the risk of participating in political violence as an adult among male political activists in Thailand. Our study suggests one imperative policy implication: Violence prevention measures at the individual level—against corporal punishment of children or violence against women—may have critical implications also for decreasing the risk for and prevalence of political violence and armed conflict in society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage PublicationsSAGE Publications, 2021
Keywords
violence exposure, children exposed to domestic violence, domestic violence, political violence, child abuse, intergenerational transmission of trauma
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378404 (URN)10.1177/0886260519832926 (DOI)000673363400011 ()30827140 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M10-0100:1
Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E., Melander, E. & True, J. (2020). Women, Peace and Security: The Sexism and Violence Nexus. Stockholm: Folke Bernadotte Academy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women, Peace and Security: The Sexism and Violence Nexus
2020 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

This research brief is part of a series, initiated in connection to the 20th anniversary of UNSCR 1325 and promotes the realization of the Women, Peace and Security agenda through evidence-based policy and practice. It is the result of a collaboration between the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA), the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), and UN Women.

The research presented in this brief shows that there is a need to focus our attention on sexist attitudes as well as on discriminatory gender norms. Individuals with hostile attitudes towards women, and towards gender equality in general, are not just more prone to violent extremist views and to intolerance towards other nationalities and religious groups; they are also more likely to actually support violent groups and to participate in political violence.

These results demonstrate that a gender perspective is sorely needed in order to better understand the dynamics of political violence and extremism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Folke Bernadotte Academy, 2020. p. 6
Series
Joint Brief Series: New Insights on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) for the Next Decade
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-430489 (URN)
Available from: 2021-01-11 Created: 2021-01-11 Last updated: 2021-01-26Bibliographically approved
Quinn, J., Joshi, M. & Melander, E. (2019). One Dyadic Peace Leads to Another?: Conflict Systems, Terminations, and Net Reduction in Fighting Groups. International Studies Quarterly, 63(4), 863-875
Open this publication in new window or tab >>One Dyadic Peace Leads to Another?: Conflict Systems, Terminations, and Net Reduction in Fighting Groups
2019 (English)In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 863-875Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Governments often fight multiple civil conflicts simultaneously and each conflict can have multiple groups. Prior research on civil war termination and recurrence has been conducted at either the conflict level, once all the groups have been terminated, or the dyadic level, which examines group terminations in a conflict separately as more or less independent processes. Hence, conflict-level studies mostly tell us how to preserve peace once a civil war has already ended, while dyadic studies mostly tell us about the durability of specific group-level terminations within the larger process that led to that ending. As a result, our understanding of how ongoing civil wars are brought to a close is limited, particularly, with respect to multiparty conflicts. In this study, we put forth a systems approach that treats dyadic terminations as connected processes where group terminations influence the future behavior of other groups, incentivizing the system toward greater aggregate peace or conflict. Analyzing 264 dyadic terminations, the findings suggest that the most effective strategy for governments to reduce systemic conflict is to demonstrate to other groups that they have the political will and capacity to implement security, political, and social reforms as part of a larger reform-oriented peace process. Viable implementation can be followed by the concomitant use of military victories against remaining groups with great success. However, military victories achieved in isolation, that is, outside of a reform-process, do not reduce future levels of conflict even if they themselves are durable.

National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396815 (URN)10.1093/isq/sqz073 (DOI)000509527100006 ()
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
Davenport, C., Melander, E. & Regan, P. (2018). The Peace Continuum: What It Is and How to Study It. New York: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Peace Continuum: What It Is and How to Study It
2018 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The idea of studying peace has gained considerable traction in the past few years after languishing in the shadows of conflict for decades but how should it be studied? The Peace Continuum offers a parallax view of how we think about peace and the complexities that surround the concept (i.e., the book explores the topic from different positions at the same time). Toward this end, we review existing literature and provide insights into how peace should be conceptualized - particularly as something more interesting than the absence of conflict. We provide an approach that can help scholars overcome what we see as the initial shock that comes with unpacking the 'zero' in the war-peace model of conflict studies. Additionally, we provide a framework for understanding how peace and conflict have/have not been related to one another in the literature. To reveal how the Peace Continuum could be applied, we put forward three alternative ways that peace could be studied. With this approach, the book is less trying to control the emerging peace research agenda than it is trying to assist in/encourage thinking about the topic that we all have some opinion on but that has yet to be measured and analyzed in a way comparable to political conflict and violence. Indeed, we attempt to help facilitate a veritable explosion of approaches and efforts to study peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. p. 240
Series
Studies in Strategic Peacebuilding
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365034 (URN)9780190680138 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2020-07-01Bibliographically approved
Joshi, M. & Melander, E. (2017). Explaining demobilization in the wake of civil conflict. Peacebuilding, 5(3), 270-288
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining demobilization in the wake of civil conflict
2017 (English)In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 270-288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The demobilisation of rival armed forces in negotiated transitions from civil war to peace represents a practical challenge and a theoretical puzzle. From the point of view of the former warring parties, demobilisation is hazardous and hence requires a minimum level of trust, which often requires that both sides take reciprocal steps to demonstrate minimum levels of commitments. On the other hand, existing literature emphasises the role of third-party guarantors in creating the security necessary for demobilisation. We argue that the credibility of third-party guarantors is largely unexplained, and instead propose that the former warring parties themselves can overcome distrust by implementing political accommodation measures before demobilisation, such as transitional power sharing, release of prisoners of war, and amnesty. In an analysis of 34 peace processes, we find support for our expectation that implementation of accommodation measures facilitates demobilisation processes, whereas deployment of UN peacekeeping troops has no effect. These findings have significant policy implications for ongoing peace processes on how to achieve successful demobilisation in a war to peace transition.

Keywords
Political accommodation, demobilisation, third-party guarantee, intrastate armed conflicts, peace agreement
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337591 (URN)10.1080/21647259.2016.1268345 (DOI)000418521400004 ()
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E. & Melander, E. (2017). Gender and Conflict in East Asia. In: Teh-Kuang Chang, Angelin Chang (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Asia in World Politics: (pp. 216-226). New York, NY: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender and Conflict in East Asia
2017 (English)In: Routledge Handbook of Asia in World Politics / [ed] Teh-Kuang Chang, Angelin Chang, New York, NY: Routledge, 2017, p. 216-226Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Routledge, 2017
National Category
Other Social Sciences Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337587 (URN)9781138927131 (ISBN)9781315682808 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E., Brounéus, K. & Melander, E. (2017). Honor and Political Violence: Micro-level findings from a Survey in Thailand. Journal of Peace Research, 54(6), 748-761
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Honor and Political Violence: Micro-level findings from a Survey in Thailand
2017 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 748-761Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Who participates in political violence? In this study, we investigate the issue at the micro-level, comparing individuals who have used violence in political uprising with those who have not. We develop our argument from the observation that men are strongly overrepresented in political violence, although most men do not participate. Literature on masculinities emphasizes the role of honor and its links to different forms of violence, such as domestic abuse, criminal violence, and violent attitudes. Building on this literature, we discern two separate but related aspects of honor: honor as male societal privilege and control over female sexuality, i.e., patriarchal values, and honor as ideals of masculine toughness, i.e., the perceived necessity for men to be fierce and respond to affronts with violence or threats of violence in order to preserve status. We argue that patriarchal values combined with ideals of masculine toughness together constitute honor ideology, which contributes in turn to the explanation of who participates in political violence. We present new and unique individual-level survey data on these issues, collected in Thailand. We find that honor ideology strongly and robustly predicts a higher likelihood of participating in political violence among male political activists. A number of previous studies find a macro-level relationship between gender equality and peacefulness in a society. This study provides evidence for one micro-level mechanism linking gender equality and political violence at the macro-level. Based on these results, we conclude that honor ideology endorsement is a driver of violence in political conflicts.

Keywords
honor, political violence, masculinities, Thailand, gender, survey
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321190 (URN)10.1177/0022343317711241 (DOI)000414782900002 ()
Projects
The East Asian Peace Program
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M10-0100:1
Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2020-07-01Bibliographically approved
Allansson, M., Melander, E. & Themnér, L. (2017). Organized violence, 1989-2016. Journal of Peace Research, 54(4), 574-587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organized violence, 1989-2016
2017 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 574-587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dramatic increase in the number of fatalities in organized violence, seen between 2011 and 2014, did not continue in 2015 and 2016. Rather, the notation of some 131,000 fatalities in 2014 was followed by a steep decline, with just below 119,000 in 2015 and a little over 102,000 fatalities in 2016. Despite the decrease, the number was the fifth highest during the entire 1989-2016 period. Most of the fatalities - over 87,000 - were incurred in state-based conflicts, the main driver behind the trend. Just as the number of fatalities, the number of state-based conflicts, albeit remaining on a high level, continued to decrease in 2016, going from 52 to 49, with 12 of them reaching the level of war, with at least 1,000 battle-related deaths. Also the non-state conflicts dropped in number in 2016, from 73 to 60. This was followed by a decrease in the number of fatalities, and only one conflict caused more than 1,000 deaths. Twenty-one actors were registered in one-sided violence, down by five from 2015. A number this low has only been recorded twice before; in both 2009 and 2010, 21 one-sided actors were listed in UCDP data. The number of fatalities also decreased, going from almost 9,800 to a little over 6,000.

Keywords
data, non-state conflict, one-sided violence, organized violence, state-based armed conflict, war
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330005 (URN)10.1177/0022343317718773 (DOI)000405510800009 ()
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Bjarnegård, E. & Melander, E. (2017). Pacific Men: how the feminist gap explains hostility. The Pacific Review, 30(4), 478-493
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pacific Men: how the feminist gap explains hostility
2017 (English)In: The Pacific Review, ISSN 0951-2748, E-ISSN 1470-1332, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 478-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The gender gap in attitudes to foreign policy is well established in public opinion literature. Studies have repeatedly reported that women tend to be more peacefuland less militaristic than men. This article reexamines attitudes of individuals inrelation to foreign policy and pits the gender gap against the largely forgotten feminist gap. We argue that the individual-level relationship between gender equality attitudes on the one hand, and tolerance and benevolence on the other, is underresearched,but also that key contributions about the effects of feminism have beenmostly ignored in research on the gender gap in public opinion. We return to the notion of a causal relationship between gender equality attitudes, and peaceful attitudes, and of a feminist gap that also exists among men. In a series of novel empirical tests, we demonstrate that attitudes to gender equality, not biological sex, explain attitudes towards other nationalities and religious groups. Using individual level survey data from five countries around the Pacific: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States of America, we show that both men and women who reject gender equality are much more hostile both to other nations and to minorities in their own country.

Keywords
attitudes, gender gap, foreign policy, feminism, men
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314947 (URN)10.1080/09512748.2016.1264456 (DOI)000401776900004 ()
Projects
The East Asian Peace Since 1979: How Deep? How Can It be Explained?
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M10-0100:1
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2020-07-01Bibliographically approved
Projects
Forced Expulsion of Civilians in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict ResearchForced Migration in Armed Conflicts: Scope and Duration; Uppsala University; Publications
Melander, E., Öberg, M. & Hall, J. (2009). Are ‘New Wars’ More Atrocious?: Battle Severity, Civilians Killed and Forced Migration Before and After the End of the Cold Wa. European Journal of International Relations, 15(3), 505-536Melander, E. & Öberg, M. (2007). The Threat of Violence and Forced Migration: Geographical Scope Trumps Intensity of Fighting. Civil Wars, 9(2), 156-173Melander, E., Öberg, M. & Hall, J. (2006). The ‘New Wars’ Debate Revisited: An Empirical Evaluation of the Atrociousness of ‘New Wars’. Department of peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, UppsalaMelander, E. & Öberg, M. (2006). Time to Go?: Duration Dependence in Forced Migration. International Interactions, 32(2), 129-152Melander, E. & Öberg, M. (2004). Forced Migration: the Effects of Magnitude and Scope of Fighting. Uppsala universitet
Political Systems, Resource Distribution and Civil War; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Öberg, M. & Strøm, K. (2008). Introduction. In: Resources, governance and civil conflict: . Oxford: RoutledgeMelander, E. (2005). Gender Eqaulity and Intrastate Armed Conflict. International Studies Quarterly, 49(4), 695-714Melander, E. (2005). Political Gender Equality and State Human Rights Abuse. Journal of Peace Research, 42(5), 149-166
​Governance, Democratization, and Civil War; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Sollenberg, M. (2008). From Bullets to Ballots: Using the People as Arbitrators to Settle Civil Wars. In: Governance, Resources and Civil Conflict: . Routledge, OxfordÖberg, M. & Strøm, K. (2008). Introduction. In: Resources, governance and civil conflict: . Oxford: RoutledgeSollenberg, M. (2005). From Bullets to Ballots: Using the People as Arbitrators to Settle Civil Wars. In: : . Öberg, M. & Melander, E. (2005). Quality of Government and Civil War. In: : . Paper presented at The conference on the Quality of Government Conference: What It Is, How to Get It, Why It Matters, November 17-19, 2005, Göteborg.
Patrimonialism, Globalisation and Civil Conflict; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict ResearchProgramme on Governance, Conflict and Peacebuilding; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Nilsson, D. (2012). Anchoring the Peace: Civil Society Actors in Peace Accords and Durable Peace. International Interactions, 38(2), 243-266Ohlson, T. (Ed.). (2012). From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and Its Resolution in Africa after the Cold War. Dordrecht: Republic of Letters PublishingNilsson, D. & Söderberg Kovacs, M. (2011). Revisiting an Elusive Concept: A Review of the Debate on Spoilers in Peace Processes. International Studies Review, 13(4), 606-626Lindgren, M. (2011). Sexual Violence Beyond Conflict Termination: Impunity for Past Violations as a Recipe for New Ones?. Durban, South Africa: ACCORD (15)Höglund, K. & Jarstad, A. K. (2011). Toward Electoral Security: Experiences from KwaZulu-Natal. Africa Spectrum, 46(1), 33-59Themnér, A. (2011). Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilizers and Relationships. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: RoutledgeNilsson, D. (2010). Agreements and Sustainability. In: Nigel J. Young (Ed.), The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace: Volume I (pp. 30-32). New York: Oxford University PressHöglund, K. & Söderberg Kovacs, M. (2010). Beyond the Absence of War: The Diversity of Peace in Post-Settlement Societies. Review of International Studies, 36(2), 367-390Höglund, K. & Jarstad, A. K. (2010). Strategies to Prevent and Manage Electoral Violence: Considerations for Policy. Durban: ACCORDNilsson, D. (2010). Turning Weakness into Strength: Military Capabilities, Multiple Rebel Groups and Negotiated Settlements. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 27(3), 253-271
Partnership Project; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict ResearchComplementary Application: From the Cold War to the War on Terror - Armed Conflict 1970-2005 [2008-05900_VR]; Uppsala UniversityFrom Wars of the Weak to Strong Peace. On the Conditions for High-Quality Peace in Sub-Saharan Africa [P2008-0732:1-E_RJ]; Uppsala UniversityDatabase and digital archive for the next generation of conflict data [In10-0138:1_RJ]; Uppsala UniversitySWE-2010-63 Exploring the link between environmental stress and communal conflict [2013-06151_VR]; Uppsala UniversityEast Asian Peace Program [M10-0100:1]; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Finnbogason, D. & Svensson, I. (2018). The missing jihad: Why have there been no jihadist civil wars in Southeast Asia?. The Pacific Review, 31(1), 96-115Davenport, C., Melander, E. & Regan, P. (2018). The Peace Continuum: What It Is and How to Study It. New York: Oxford University PressStaniland, P. (2017). Armed politics and the study of intrastate conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 54(4), 459-467Bjarnegård, E., Brounéus, K. & Melander, E. (2017). Honor and Political Violence: Micro-level findings from a Survey in Thailand. Journal of Peace Research, 54(6), 748-761Kreutz, J. & Bjarnegård, E. (2017). Introduction: Debating Peace, Debating East Asia. In: Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last?. Copenhagen: NIAS PressBjarnegård, E. & Melander, E. (2017). Pacific Men: how the feminist gap explains hostility. The Pacific Review, 30(4), 478-493Kreutz, J. (2017). Peace by external withdrawal. In: Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last?. Copenhagen: NIAS PressTønnesson, S. & Baev, P. K. (2017). Stress-Test for Chinese Restraint: China Evaluates Russia's Use of Force. Strategic Analysis, 41(2), 139-151Kreutz, J., Bjarnegård, E., Eck, K., Guthrey, H. L., Melander, E., Svensson, I. & Tønnesson, S. (2017). The East Asian Peace: will it last?. In: Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is, How it came about, Will it last? (pp. 281-296). Copenhagen: NIAS PressMelander, E. (2017). The Masculine Peace. In: Bjarnegård, Elin; Kreutz, Joakim (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last? (pp. 200-219). NIAS PRESS
The East Asian Peace Since 1979: How Deep? How Can It Be Explained? [M10-0100:1_RJ]; Uppsala UniversityMasculinity, Nationalism and Military Service in a Conflict Zone: Surveys in Southern Thailand [2016-02945_VR]; Uppsala UniversityPaths to Peace in Complex Conflict Systems: Lessons from Global Data and an In-depth Study of Myanmar [2016-05697_VR]; Uppsala UniversityFilling the gap – providing a comprehensive source on conflict actor characteristics. [IN16-0690:1_RJ]; Uppsala University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5835-0618

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