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Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Dietrich, N., Eck, K. & Ruffa, C. (2023). How governance shaped military responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. European Political Science Review, 15(4), 628-640
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How governance shaped military responses to the COVID-19 pandemic
2023 (English)In: European Political Science Review, ISSN 1755-7739, E-ISSN 1755-7747, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 628-640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most countries deployed their military in some capacity to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. We present original data on early pandemic-related deployments, identifying seven types of deployment: logistic operations, enforcement, international involvement, border protection, information provision, intelligence operations, and domestic protection. We find that military deployments are shaped by capacity and electoral considerations, even after accounting for cross-country differences in perceptions of the military. Countries with elected leaders were significantly more likely to deploy the military for border protection. Incumbents facing reelection were especially sensitive to electoral concerns, becoming significantly less likely to deploy the military for domestic enforcement when facing an imminent election.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2023
Keywords
military deployment, civil-military relations, Covid-19 pandemic
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-516776 (URN)10.1017/s1755773923000024 (DOI)000941908900001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-02139
Available from: 2023-11-29 Created: 2023-11-29 Last updated: 2024-05-21Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. & Ruffa, C. (2023). Military Training and Decolonisation in the British Empire. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 51(1), 156-181
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Military Training and Decolonisation in the British Empire
2023 (English)In: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, ISSN 0308-6534, E-ISSN 1743-9329, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 156-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown that military training at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst was used by the UK in the post-World War II period as a soft foreign policy tool in anticipation of decolonisation. This article builds on this work by first detailing how early attempts to introduce military training for foreign cadets replicated racial hierarchies. Second, it describes how, as the programme was re-conceived to embrace the colonial territories, race and British belonging continued to be a source of both diplomatic and domestic friction. Third, it illustrates how the programme was a contested and occasionally conflictual process within the metropole.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
Military training, Sandhurst, decolonisation
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-501586 (URN)10.1080/03086534.2022.2084937 (DOI)000814529700001 ()
Available from: 2023-05-12 Created: 2023-05-12 Last updated: 2023-05-12Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2022). Nepal in 2021: From Bad to Worse. Asian Survey, 62(1), 193-200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nepal in 2021: From Bad to Worse
2022 (English)In: Asian Survey, ISSN 0004-4687, E-ISSN 1533-838X, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The COVID-19 pandemic hit Nepal harder in 2021 than in the previous year, resulting in thousands dead, millions of livelihoods lost, food access constricted, educations upended, and social and economic devastation. In the midst of this, political leaders were preoccupied with power politics, leaving the country ill-equipped to manage the COVID-19 crisis. Fragile democratic institutions and norms were undermined by the inability of leaders to prioritize governance. Environmental problems, an economic downturn, and continued human rights violations further exacerbated the country's woes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of California PressUniversity of California Press, 2022
Keywords
Nepal, COVID-19, governance, rule of law, economic development, human rights
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-470950 (URN)10.1525/as.2022.62.1.19 (DOI)000762325600019 ()
Available from: 2022-04-01 Created: 2022-04-01 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Croicu, M. & Eck, K. (2022). Reporting of Non-Fatal Conflict Events. International Interactions, 48(3), 450-470
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reporting of Non-Fatal Conflict Events
2022 (English)In: International Interactions, ISSN 0305-0629, E-ISSN 1547-7444, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 450-470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporally and spatial disaggregated datasets are commonly used to study political violence. Researchers are increasingly studying the data generation process itself to understand the selection processes by which conflict events are included in conflict datasets. This work has focused on conflict fatalities. In this research note, we explore how non-fatal conflict events are reported upon and enter into datasets of armed conflict. To do so, we compare reported non-fatal conflict events with the population of events in two direct observation datasets, collected using a boots-on-the-ground strategy: mass abductions in Nepal (1996-2006) and troop movements in Darfur. We show that at the appropriate level of aggregation media reporting on abductions in Nepal largely mirrors the "true" population of abductions, but at more disaggregated levels of temporal or spatial analysis, the match is poor. We also show that there is no overlap between a media-driven conflict dataset and directly-observed data on troop movements in Sudan. These empirics indicate that non-fatal data can suffer from serious underreporting and that this is particularly the case for events lacking elements of coercion. These findings are indicative of selection problems in regards to the reporting on non-fatal conflict events.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Conflict, data, event data, non-violence, reporting bias
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-483047 (URN)10.1080/03050629.2022.2044325 (DOI)000768102400001 ()
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 694640 - ViEWS
Available from: 2022-09-08 Created: 2022-09-08 Last updated: 2023-08-23Bibliographically approved
Eck, K., Hatz, S., Crabtree, C. & Tago, A. (2021). Evade and Deceive?: Citizen Responses to Surveillance. Journal of Politics, 83(4), 1545-1558
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evade and Deceive?: Citizen Responses to Surveillance
2021 (English)In: Journal of Politics, ISSN 0022-3816, E-ISSN 1468-2508, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 1545-1558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How does state surveillance influence citizens’ willingness to express political and social opinions? This article theorizes about different citizen responses to surveillance that fall on what we term the evasion-deception spectrum, including preference falsification, self-censorship, and opting out. We present the results from an empirical exploration of these responses, drawing on an online survey experiment conducted in Japan. In our survey, we use a novel experimental stimulus to assess whether individuals engage in different forms of evasion and deception when plausibly under government surveillance. The study finds that citizens are substantially more likely to opt out of sharing their opinions (by exiting a survey) when reminded of their government’s capacity for monitoring. This occurs even despite implying a monetary cost (forfeiting payment for the survey) and in a fully consolidated democracy, where freedoms of speech and opinion are legally codified. We conclude by discussing the implications of this finding for democratic deliberation and citizen-state relations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Chicago PressUniversity of Chicago Press, 2021
Keywords
political science, surveillance, Japan, survey experiment, internet, preference falsification, privacy
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-458100 (URN)10.1086/715073 (DOI)000686296500001 ()
Available from: 2021-11-04 Created: 2021-11-04 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2021). Keynote Abstract: Machine Learning in Conflict Studies: Reflections on Ethics, Collaboration, and Ongoing Challenges. In: CASE 2021: The 4th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-Political Events From Text (CASE). Paper presented at 4th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-Political Events from Text (CASE), AUG 05-06, 2021, ELECTR NETWORK (pp. 11-11). ASSOC COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS-ACL Association for Computational Linguistics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Keynote Abstract: Machine Learning in Conflict Studies: Reflections on Ethics, Collaboration, and Ongoing Challenges
2021 (English)In: CASE 2021: The 4th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-Political Events From Text (CASE), ASSOC COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS-ACL Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021, p. 11-11Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computational LinguisticsASSOC COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS-ACL, 2021
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-457403 (URN)10.18653/v1/2021.case-1.3 (DOI)000694853100003 ()978-1-954085-79-4 (ISBN)
Conference
4th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-Political Events from Text (CASE), AUG 05-06, 2021, ELECTR NETWORK
Available from: 2021-10-29 Created: 2021-10-29 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2021). Nepal in 2020 External Tensions and Internal Challenges. Asian Survey, 61(1), 202-206
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nepal in 2020 External Tensions and Internal Challenges
2021 (English)In: Asian Survey, ISSN 0004-4687, E-ISSN 1533-838X, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 202-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Internal party rifts in the Nepali government preoccupied leaders, who squandered opportunities to prepare a coherent response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic resulted in a four-month lockdown, with widespread economic and social consequences. The government's response to criticism was to propose legislation restricting citizens' rights, prompting accusations of creeping authoritarianism. Continued tensions along Nepal's borders led to escalated rhetoric. The crises of 2020 exacerbated existing problems with governance, social inequality, and poverty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of California PressUNIV CALIFORNIA PRESS, 2021
Keywords
Nepal, India-China, rule of law, human rights, COVID-19
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-440885 (URN)10.1525/AS.2021.61.1.202 (DOI)000625375000025 ()
Available from: 2021-04-28 Created: 2021-04-28 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Eck, K., Conrad, C. R. & Crabtree, C. (2021). Policing and Political Violence. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 65(10), 1641-1656
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policing and Political Violence
2021 (English)In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 65, no 10, p. 1641-1656Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The police are often key actors in conflict processes, yet there is little research on their role in the production of political violence. Previous research provides us with a limited understanding of the part the police play in preventing or mitigating the onset or escalation of conflict, in patterns of repression and resistance during conflict, and in the durability of peace after conflicts are resolved. By unpacking the role of state security actors and asking how the state assigns tasks among them—as well as the consequences of these decisions—we generate new research paths for scholars of conflict and policing. We review existing research in the field, highlighting recent findings, including those from the articles in this special issue. We conclude by arguing that the fields of policing and conflict research have much to gain from each other and by discussing future directions for policing research in conflict studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage PublicationsSAGE Publications, 2021
Keywords
political violence, police, policing, conflict
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-461252 (URN)10.1177/00220027211013083 (DOI)000651074600001 ()
Available from: 2021-12-13 Created: 2021-12-13 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. & Cohen, D. K. (2021). Time for a change: the ethics of student-led human subjects research on political violence. Third World Quarterly, 42(4), 855-866
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time for a change: the ethics of student-led human subjects research on political violence
2021 (English)In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 855-866Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Undergraduate and master's students frequently conduct independent human subjects research on topics related to political violence and human rights - often, but not always, in the field. This work may involve the direct collection of data from vulnerable populations, in unstable contexts and about sensitive topics. However, despite the rich literature about research ethics, the ethics of advising, enabling and encouraging this type of student research on political violence has been largely overlooked. This article aims to (1) raise awareness about the proliferation of students engaging in human subject research on topics related to political violence and human rights; (2) discuss the risks inherent in this enterprise that are distinct from those that many faculty and doctoral students face; (3) provide suggestions about how to mitigate some of those risks, including a shift away from fieldwork-based research projects. We argue that it is a collective responsibility to require that students engage in ethical practices, including more thoughtful and creative selection of research questions, sites and populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RoutledgeROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2021
Keywords
research ethics, student research, fieldwork, political violence, human rights
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-454625 (URN)10.1080/01436597.2020.1864215 (DOI)000607437100001 ()
Available from: 2021-09-29 Created: 2021-09-29 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. & Cohen, D. K. (2021). Who Says Yes or No?: Models of Ethical and Safety Oversight for Student-Led Political Violence Research. PS, Political Science & Politics, 54(4), 761-766
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who Says Yes or No?: Models of Ethical and Safety Oversight for Student-Led Political Violence Research
2021 (English)In: PS, Political Science & Politics, ISSN 1049-0965, E-ISSN 1537-5935, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 761-766Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ethical risks inherent in student research on political violence that involve human participants are myriad. Undergraduate and master's students face constraints that are different than those for many doctoral students and faculty researchers, and it is the responsibility of educators and academic institutions to ensure that students engage in ethical practices and to mitigate risks. This article focuses on formal mechanisms of oversight. Drawing on discussions with colleagues across the globe, we describe how institutions can design oversight mechanisms to manage student research. We present five distinct models for how ethical oversight of student research is provided in academic programs around the world, considering the costs and benefits of each model. The article concludes that whereas the creation of oversight systems can seem daunting, it is useful to start small-indeed, moving from no oversight to some oversight is a significant improvement. Programs and academic units then can build on these early efforts, experiment with other systems, and eventually develop a system that is adapted to an institution through iterative improvements based on student and faculty experiences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University PressCAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-456920 (URN)10.1017/S1049096521000627 (DOI)000697519500039 ()
Available from: 2021-11-01 Created: 2021-11-01 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Projects
East Asian Peace Program [M10-0100:1]; Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research; Publications
Finnbogason, D. & Svensson, I. (2018). The missing jihad: Why have there been no jihadist civil wars in Southeast Asia?. The Pacific Review, 31(1), 96-115Davenport, C., Melander, E. & Regan, P. (2018). The Peace Continuum: What It Is and How to Study It. New York: Oxford University PressStaniland, P. (2017). Armed politics and the study of intrastate conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 54(4), 459-467Bjarnegård, E., Brounéus, K. & Melander, E. (2017). Honor and Political Violence: Micro-level findings from a Survey in Thailand. Journal of Peace Research, 54(6), 748-761Kreutz, J. & Bjarnegård, E. (2017). Introduction: Debating Peace, Debating East Asia. In: Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last?. Copenhagen: NIAS PressBjarnegård, E. & Melander, E. (2017). Pacific Men: how the feminist gap explains hostility. The Pacific Review, 30(4), 478-493Kreutz, J. (2017). Peace by external withdrawal. In: Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last?. Copenhagen: NIAS PressTønnesson, S. & Baev, P. K. (2017). Stress-Test for Chinese Restraint: China Evaluates Russia's Use of Force. Strategic Analysis, 41(2), 139-151Kreutz, J., Bjarnegård, E., Eck, K., Guthrey, H. L., Melander, E., Svensson, I. & Tønnesson, S. (2017). The East Asian Peace: will it last?. In: Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is, How it came about, Will it last? (pp. 281-296). Copenhagen: NIAS PressMelander, E. (2017). The Masculine Peace. In: Bjarnegård, Elin; Kreutz, Joakim (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last? (pp. 200-219). NIAS PRESS
Encouraging State Respect for Human Rights: A Series of Randomised Experiments [2016-02632_VR]; Uppsala UniversityAutomation of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) [IN18-0710:1_RJ]; Uppsala UniversityInstitutional Oversight of Police Misconduct [2020-00291_VR]; Uppsala University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4998-7964

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