uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Eck, K. & Fariss, C. J. (2018). Ill-Treatment and Torture in Sweden: A Critique of Cross-Case Comparisons. Human Rights Quarterly, 40(3), 591-604
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ill-Treatment and Torture in Sweden: A Critique of Cross-Case Comparisons
2018 (English)In: Human Rights Quarterly, ISSN 0275-0392, E-ISSN 1085-794X, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 591-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Common perceptions of Sweden seldom include images of ill treatment and torture. However, human rights reports published by Amnesty Int'l and the US State Dept. describe recurring allegations of ill treatment and torture perpetrated by security forces in Sweden. What explains this unexpected case of human rights abuse? The answer to this question reveals an important theoretical concept that has not previously been discussed in human rights documentation and measurement projects: the level of institutional transparency. We provide evidence of the process by which the bureaucracy in Sweden ensures an extremely high level of transparency about allegations of human rights abuse by government agents. We argue that this transparency likely varies systematically over time but especially across countries. The major implication of our study therefore travels beyond Sweden: documentation and measurement projects that do not account for differential levels of transparency of government institutions may not be comparable across cases, possibly introducing bias to cross-sectional comparisons.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338545 (URN)10.1353/hrq.2018.0033 (DOI)000439366200005 ()
Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, T. & Eck, K. (2018). Organized Violence 1989-2017. Journal of Peace Research, 55(4), 535-547
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organized Violence 1989-2017
2018 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 535-547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports on trends in organized violence from data collected by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). With almost 90,000 deaths recorded by UCDP last year, 2017 saw a decrease for the third consecutive year to a level 32% lower than the latest peak in 2014. This trend in declining levels of organized violence is driven by state-based armed conflict, and by the case of Syria in particular. Forty-nine state-based conflicts were active in 2017, down by four compared to 2016, and ten of these reached the level of war, with at least 1,000 battle-related deaths. The overall decrease in fatalities lends support to the claim that conflict deaths are in decline and that the world is increasingly peaceful. This trend holds even more strongly when controlling for increases in world population. In contrast, non-state conflict has increased: a new peak of 82 active non-state conflicts was recorded in 2017 and fatalities have increased concurrently. Much of this is due to escalating violence in DR Congo and the Central African Republic. However, fatalities from non-state conflict remain but 15% of the total number of fatalities from organized violence. As for actors engaged in one-sided violence, their number also increased during 2017, although the number of fatalities remained at the same level as in 2016.

National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357312 (URN)10.1177/0022343318784101 (DOI)000436046700009 ()
Available from: 2018-08-14 Created: 2018-08-14 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2018). Recruitment and Violence in Nepal’s Civil War: Microstudies under the Microscope. Asian Survey, 58(2), 261-280
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recruitment and Violence in Nepal’s Civil War: Microstudies under the Microscope
2018 (English)In: Asian Survey, ISSN 0004-4687, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 261-280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article shows that the statistical correlation between poverty and violence during the conflict in Nepal (1996–2006) is unlikely to be explained by grievances or low opportunity costs among the poor, but is better explained by considering the rebels’ strategy. This underscores the importance of validating arguments from statistical studies.

Keywords
civil war, armed conflict, Nepal, rebellion, rebel recruitment
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347508 (URN)10.1525/AS.2018.58.2.261 (DOI)000452507000003 ()
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2018). The origins of policing institutions: Legacies of colonial insurgency. Journal of Peace Research, 55(2), 147-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The origins of policing institutions: Legacies of colonial insurgency
2018 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines the impact of colonial-era armed conflict on contemporary institutions. It argues that when British colonial administrators were faced with armed insurrection they responded with institutional reform of the police, and that the legacy of these reforms lives on today. Violent opposition prompted the British colonial administration to expand entrance opportunities for local inhabitants in order to collect intelligence needed to prosecute a counterinsurgency campaign. This investment in human capital and institutional reform remained when the colonial power departed; as a result, countries which experienced colonial-era conflict have more efficient policing structures today. I demonstrate how this worked in practice during the Malayan Emergency, 1948–60. Archival data from Malaysia show that local inhabitants were recruited into the police force in greater numbers and were provided with training which they would not have received had there been no insurgency. This process was consolidated and reproduced upon independence in path-dependent ways. To expand the empirical domain, I statistically explore new archival data collected from the UK National Archives on police financing across colonial territories. The results show that armed insurgency during the colonial era is associated with higher percentages of police expenditure during the colonial era and higher perceived levels of contemporary policing capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
armed conflict, colonialism, policing
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346110 (URN)10.1177/0022343317747955 (DOI)000429881300002 ()
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Kreutz, J., Bjarnegård, E., Eck, K., Guthrey, H. L., Melander, E., Svensson, I. & Tønnesson, S. (2017). The East Asian Peace: will it last?. In: Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz (Ed.), Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is, How it came about, Will it last? (pp. 281-296). Copenhagen: NIAS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The East Asian Peace: will it last?
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is, How it came about, Will it last? / [ed] Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2017, p. 281-296Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2017
Series
NIAS Studies in Asian Topics
National Category
Other Social Sciences Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337593 (URN)978-87-7694-219-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2015). Repression by Proxy: How Military Purges and Insurgency Impact the Delegation of Coercion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59(5), 924-946
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repression by Proxy: How Military Purges and Insurgency Impact the Delegation of Coercion
2015 (English)In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 924-946Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Why do regimes delegate authority over a territory to nonstate militias, in effect voluntarily sacrificing their monopoly over the use of violence? This article argues that two factors increase the probability of states delegating control to a proxy militia, namely, military purges and armed conflict. Military purges disrupt intelligence-gathering structures and the organizational capacity of the military. To counteract this disruption, military leaders subcontract the task of control and repression to allied militias that have the local intelligence skills necessary to manage the civilian population. This argument is conditioned by whether the state faces an armed insurgency in a given region since intelligence, control, and repression are needed most where the state is being challenged. This hypothesis is tested on unique data for all subnational regions within Myanmar during the period 1962 to 2010 and finds that proxy militias are more likely to be raised in conflict areas after military purges.

Keywords
civil wars, conflict, domestic politics, human rights, internal armed conflict, rebellion, war
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260275 (URN)10.1177/0022002715576746 (DOI)000358068300008 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-1514Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M10-0100:1
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2014). Coercion in Rebel Recruitment. Security Studies, 23(2), 364-398
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coercion in Rebel Recruitment
2014 (English)In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 364-398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research on rebel recruitment has focused on the economic and social incentives groups use as enticements, but has overlooked the question of why many armed groups recruit using coercion. The puzzle is why coercion occurs despite alienating civilian populations and being costly in terms of organizational and military effectiveness. I argue that recruitment is a dynamic process and that groups are likely to shift recruitment strategies depending on the exigencies of the conflict. The study tests this argument by examining whether rebels are more likely to employ coercion after suffering losses on the battlefield. Using unique microlevel new data on the conflict in Nepal, the results show that the argument is supported: the more rebel fatalities on the battlefield, the more likely are rebels to employ coercion.

Keywords
civil conflict, civil war, rebellion, rebel recruitment, rebel group, rebels, Nepal, coercion
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120219 (URN)10.1080/09636412.2014.905368 (DOI)000335942000005 ()
Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2014). The law of the land: Communal conflict and legal authority. Journal of Peace Research, 51(4), 441-454
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The law of the land: Communal conflict and legal authority
2014 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 441-454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Common notions about the source of communal land conflict in Africa have long explained it as growing out of conditions of environmental scarcity. This article argues instead that the institutional structure of the legal system is central to understanding which countries are prone to experience communal land conflict. When competing customary and modern jurisdictions coexist in countries inhabited by mixed identity groups, the conflicting sources of legal authority lead to insecurity about which source of law will prevail. Because the source of law is contested, conflict parties cannot trust the legal system to predictably adjudicate disputes, which encourages the use of extrajudicial vigilante measures. Using new data on communal violence in West Africa, this argument is examined for the period 1990-2009. The results show that in countries where competing jurisdictions exist, communal land conflict is 200-350% more likely. These findings suggest that researchers should consider the role of legal institutions and processes in relation to social unrest and collective violence.

Keywords
communal conflict, legal institutions, non-state conflict, West Africa
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231313 (URN)10.1177/0022343314522257 (DOI)000340129000001 ()
Available from: 2014-09-08 Created: 2014-09-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Eck, K. (2012). In data we trust?: A comparison of UCDP GED and ACLED conflict events datasets. Cooperation and Conflict, 47(1), 124-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In data we trust?: A comparison of UCDP GED and ACLED conflict events datasets
2012 (English)In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, several large-scale data-collection projects have produced georeferenced, disaggregated events-level conflict data which can aid researchers in studying the microlevel dynamics of civil war. This article describes the differences between the two leading conflict events datasets, the Uppsala Conflict Data Program Georeferenced Events Dataset (UCDP GED) and the Armed Conflict Location Events Dataset (ACLED), including their relative strengths and weaknesses. The aim of the article is to provide readers with some guidelines as to when these datasets should be used and when they should be avoided; it finds that those interested in subnational analyses of conflict should be wary of ACLED's data because of uneven quality-control issues which can result in biased findings if left unchecked by the researcher. The article concludes that those interested in non-violent events such as troop movements have only ACLED to choose from, since UCDP has not coded such data, but again warns researchers to be wary of the quality of the data. Finally, while the creation of these datasets is a positive development, some caveats are raised in relation to both datasets about the reliance on media sources.

Keywords
armed conflict, civil war, conflict data, events data, geocoding, geographic study of war
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172711 (URN)10.1177/0010836711434463 (DOI)000301287100007 ()
Available from: 2012-12-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Sundberg, R., Eck, K. & Kreutz, J. (2012). Introducing the UCDP Non-State Conflict Dataset. Journal of Peace Research, 49(2), 351-362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing the UCDP Non-State Conflict Dataset
2012 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article extends the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) by presenting new global data on non-state conflict, or armed conflict between two groups, neither of which is the state. The dataset includes conflicts between rebel groups and other organized militias, and thus serves as a complement to existing datasets on armed conflict which have either ignored this kind of violence or aggregated it into civil war. The dataset also includes cases of fighting between supporters of different political parties as well as cases of communal conflict, that is, conflict between two social groups, usually identified along ethnic or religious lines. This thus extends UCDP's conflict data collection to facilitate the study of topics like rebel fractionalization, paramilitary involvement in conflict violence, and communal or ethnic conflict. In the article, we present a background to the data collection and provide descriptive statistics for the period 1989-2008 and then illustrate how the data can be used with the case of Somalia. These data move beyond state-centric conceptions of collective violence to facilitate research into the causes and consequences of group violence which occurs without state participation.

Keywords
communal conflict, conflict data, ethnic conflict, non-state conflict, Somalia
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-174209 (URN)10.1177/0022343311431598 (DOI)000302633700006 ()
Available from: 2012-05-15 Created: 2012-05-14 Last updated: 2017-09-06
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4998-7964

Search in DiVA

Show all publications