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Yousef, Hanna
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Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Cheng, S., Yousef, H. & Kratz, H. (2009). 79 GHz Slot Antennas Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguides (SIW) in a Flexible Printed Circuit Board. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 57(1), 64-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>79 GHz Slot Antennas Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguides (SIW) in a Flexible Printed Circuit Board
2009 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design, fabrication and characterization of 79 GHz slot antennas based on substrate integrated waveguides (SIW) are presented in this paper. All the prototypes are fabricated in a polyimide flex foil using printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication processes. A novel concept is used to minimize the leakage losses of the SlWs at millimeter wave frequencies. Different losses in the SlWs are analyzed. SIW-based single slot antenna, longitudinal and four-by-four slot array antennas are numerically and experimentally studied. Measurements of the   antennas show approximately 4.7%, 5.4% and 10.7% impedance bandwidth (S-11 = -10 dB) with 2.8 dBi, 6.0 dBi and 11.0 dBi maximum antenna gain around 79 GHz, respectively. The measured results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

Keywords
Flexible printed circuit boards, microstrip-to-SIW transition, millimeter wave, slot array antenna, substrate integrated waveguides (SIW)
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96880 (URN)10.1109/TAP.2008.2009708 (DOI)000264246700008 ()
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Yousef, H., Cheng, S. & Kratz, H. (2009). Substrate Integrated Waveguides (SIW) in a Flexible Printed Circuit Board for Millimeter Wave Applications. Journal of microelectromechanical systems, 18(1), 154-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substrate Integrated Waveguides (SIW) in a Flexible Printed Circuit Board for Millimeter Wave Applications
2009 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Substrate integrated waveguides (SIWs) are presented and demonstrated in a flexible printed circuit board (flex PCB) for application in the 77-81 GHz range. The vertical walls of the SIWs presented in this paper consist of multiple electrodeposited metallic wires. The diameters of these wires and the spacing between them are on the order of hundreds of nanometers. Hence, the walls can be seen as continuous metallic walls, and the leakage losses through them become negligible. In turn, the SIWs presented in this paper can operate at higher frequencies compared with previously presented structures that are realized with PCB fabrication processes. The attenuation of the SIWs is comparable to that of microstrip lines on the same sample. The SIWs are successfully demonstrated in a SIW-based slot antenna. The antenna gain along the z-axis (normal-to-plane) was found to be around 2.8 dBi at 78 GHz which is in agreement with the simulated values. [2008-0047]

Keywords
Flexible printed circuit boards (flex PCB), millimeter-wave (mm-W) antennas, millimeter waves, polyimide foils, substrate integrated waveguides (SIWs)
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96879 (URN)10.1109/JMEMS.2008.2009799 (DOI)000263123100016 ()
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Lindeberg, M., Yousef, H., Rödjegård, H., Martin, H. & Hjort, K. (2008). A PCB-like Process for Vertically Configured Thermopiles. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 18(6), 065021
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A PCB-like Process for Vertically Configured Thermopiles
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 065021-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermopiles are important components in infrared thermal detectors, thermoelectric generators and thermoelectric coolers. We present a thermopile structure with up to 224 vertically arranged thermocouple legs in a polyimide flex material. The thermopile is optimized for infrared thermal radiation detection and is fabricated using printed circuit board-like (PCB-like) processing. Each thermoelectric leg consists of a bundle of a few hundred sub-micrometre-sized strands of either antimony or nickel. These metal wire bundles were achieved by employing ion track technology on the polyimide foil, resulting in a porous dielectric material. Electrochemical methods were used to grow the thermoelectric materials in the pores. The plating mask was produced in a laminated dry photoresist. A small metal cross section, 20 mu m(2) (1 vol%), ensured a low heat exchange between the two surfaces of the flex. The typical resistance per thermocouple was 34 Omega. A responsivity to irradiance of 4.3 V mm(2) W(-1) was measured when heating with a white light source (irradiance 1 mW mm(-2)).

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96878 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/18/6/065021 (DOI)000256619600039 ()
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Jensen, J., Kubart, T., Martin, D., Surpi, A., Blom, T., Topalian, Z., . . . Sanz, R. (2008). Damage formation in TiO2 by heavy ions: consequences for micro- and nano-struring. In: 7th International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM2008): . Paper presented at 7th International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM2008). Lyon, France
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damage formation in TiO2 by heavy ions: consequences for micro- and nano-struring
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2008 (English)In: 7th International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM2008), Lyon, France, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lyon, France: , 2008
National Category
Subatomic Physics Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Ion Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111109 (URN)
Conference
7th International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM2008)
Available from: 2009-12-03 Created: 2009-12-03 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Yousef, H., Lindeberg, M. & Hjort, K. (2008). Ion Track Enabled Multiple Wire Microvia Interconnects in Printed Circuit Boards. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 266(8), 1659-1665
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion Track Enabled Multiple Wire Microvia Interconnects in Printed Circuit Boards
2008 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 266, no 8, p. 1659-1665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the call for higher wiring density in packaging and vertical microvia interconnections (microvias) rapidly evolves, the need for smaller lateral dimensions in printed circuit boards (PCB) microvias must be met. The ion track lithography described in this paper allows for high throughput micromachining of small, deep, vertical microvias in flexible PCB and all-polymer laminates.

Ion track lithography makes use of swift heavy ion irradiation to enhance the selectivity and directionality of chemical etching. Within the areas exposed to the ion irradiation, small sub-micron pores (capillaries) are created, one for every ion. If etching is prolonged, the pores become merged. Electrodeposition from a metallic seed layer is used to fill these structures with metal. The lithography masks define either the areas where the ion tracks are developed or where the tracks are metallized. The smallest achievable size of the microvias is only limited by the resolution of the mask; microvias below 10 μm in diameter can also be achieved also in thick polyimide foils.

Since each impinging ion forms one track, the foil’s porosity can be controlled by adjusting the irradiation dose, as well as by etching the pores to a suitable size. Depending on the porosity and material, the resultant metallized microvia consists of either individual or interlaced wires (like strands in a bundle wire), or is a solid. As an individual sub-micron wire may have an aspect ratio of several hundreds, this allows for the fabrication of truly vertical microvia structures, allowing ultra-high density microvia batch production.

Demonstrator microstructures with highly vertical microvias have been fabricated in foils up to 125 μm thickness. Several components integrated in flexible PCB have been presented by us, e.g. magnetoresistive sensors, thermopile IR-sensors and microwave components like inductor elements.

Keywords
Printed circuit board, Polyimide, Foil, Lithography, Ion track, Template
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96876 (URN)10.1016/j.nimb.2007.11.014 (DOI)000256677600105 ()
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Hjort, K., Yousef, H. & Lindeberg, M. (2008). Ion track lithography for flexible PCB manufacturing. In: International Confonference on Atomic Collisions in Solids – ICACS23: . Paper presented at Int. Conf. on Atomic Collisions in Solids (pp. 61-66).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion track lithography for flexible PCB manufacturing
2008 (English)In: International Confonference on Atomic Collisions in Solids – ICACS23, 2008, p. 61-66Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111693 (URN)
Conference
Int. Conf. on Atomic Collisions in Solids
Available from: 2009-12-21 Created: 2009-12-21 Last updated: 2016-04-13Bibliographically approved
Yousef, H., Lindeberg, M. & Hjort, K. (2008). Ion track technology for electronics manufacturing. In: 7th Int. Symp. on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter: SHIM (June 2-5, 2008, Lyon, France) (pp. 29).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion track technology for electronics manufacturing
2008 (English)In: 7th Int. Symp. on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter: SHIM (June 2-5, 2008, Lyon, France), 2008, p. 29-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17680 (URN)
Projects
Wisenet
Available from: 2008-08-14 Created: 2008-08-14 Last updated: 2011-01-12
Yousef, H., Hjort, K. & Lindeberg, M. (2008). Plated Through-Hole Vias in a Porous Polyimide Foil for Flexible Printed Circuit Boards. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 18(1), 017001
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plated Through-Hole Vias in a Porous Polyimide Foil for Flexible Printed Circuit Boards
2008 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 017001-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fabrication process for high aspect ratio plated through-hole vias is presented for flexibleprinted circuit boards. A 75 μm thick porous Kapton foil that allows direct definition of highaspect ratio through-hole vias by dry photoresist film lithography and electrodeposition ispresented. Pretreatment with swift heavy ion irradiation and wet etching define the poredensity and porosity of the foil, similar to ion-track-etched filter membranes. Thin filmmetallization of a seed layer and lithography of a laminated dry photoresist film define the viasizes and positions. Subsequent through-hole electrodeposition produces vias consisting ofmultiple wires, where each open pore defines one wire. The via geometries are characterizedby scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of the vias are characterized byresistance measurements. Vias with an aspect ratio over 2 and a side length of 33 μm showhigh yield with low resistance and low variation in resistance.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96875 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/18/1/017001 (DOI)000252965900030 ()
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2008-03-19 Created: 2008-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Yousef, H., Cheng, S., Kratz, H., Rydberg, A. & Hjort, K. (2008). Substrate integrated waveguides in flexible PCB. In: IMAPS Advanced Technology Workshop on RF and Microwave Packaging: . Paper presented at IMAPS Advanced Technology Workshop on RF and Microwave Packaging.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substrate integrated waveguides in flexible PCB
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2008 (English)In: IMAPS Advanced Technology Workshop on RF and Microwave Packaging, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111046 (URN)
Conference
IMAPS Advanced Technology Workshop on RF and Microwave Packaging
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2009-12-02 Created: 2009-12-02 Last updated: 2016-04-13Bibliographically approved
Lindeberg, M., Yousef, H., Röjdegård, H., Martin, H. & Hjort, K. (2007). Flexible PCB Vertical Thermopile IR Sensor Proc. Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference. In: : . Paper presented at TRANSDUCERS 2007, Lyon, France June 10-14 (pp. 2275-2278).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible PCB Vertical Thermopile IR Sensor Proc. Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference
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2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-13055 (URN)
Conference
TRANSDUCERS 2007, Lyon, France June 10-14
Available from: 2008-01-22 Created: 2008-01-22 Last updated: 2016-04-08
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