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Publications (10 of 117) Show all publications
Sturesson, P., Seton, R., Klintberg, L., Thornell, G. & Persson, A. (2019). Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster. Journal of microelectromechanical systems, 28(2), 235-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster
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2019 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The research and development of small satellites has continued to expand over the last decades. However, the propulsion systems with adequate performance have persisted to be a great challenge. In this paper, the effects of three different heaters on the specific impulse and overall thrust efficiency of a cold gas microthruster are presented. They consisted of a conventional, printed resistive thick-film element, a freely suspended wire, and a stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source, and were integrated in a single device made from the high-temperature co-fired ceramics. The devices were evaluated in two setups, where the first measured thrust and the other measured shock cell geometry. In addition, the resistive elements were evaluated as gas temperature sensors. The microplasma source was found to provide the greatest improvement in both specific impulse and thrust efficiency, increasing the former from an un-heated level of 44–56 s when heating with a power of 1.1 W. This corresponded to a thrust efficiency of 55%, which could be compared with the results from the wire and printed heaters which were 51s and 18%, and 45s and 14%, respectively. The combined results also showed that imaging the shock cells of a plasma heated thruster was a simple and effective way to determine its performance, when compared to the traditional thrust balance method.

Keywords
Microthruster, HTCC, Resistive Heating, Plasma Heating, Specific Impulse, Shock Cells
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356675 (URN)10.1109/JMEMS.2019.2893359 (DOI)000463623600008 ()
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Sturesson, P., Klintberg, L. & Thornell, G. (2019). Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires. Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, 285, 8-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires
2019 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 285, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the integration and pressure sensor operation of platinum bond wires in High-Temperature Co-fired alumina (HTCC). Devices were fabricated with a 50 μm diameter wire suspended across a 500 μm wide cavity in green-body state HTCC, electrically connected to screen printed alumina conductors. The substrate shrinkage during sintering to a cavity width of 400 μm causes the wire element to elevate from the cavity´s bottom surface. Resulting devices were compared with reference devices, containing screen-printed sensor elements, as Pirani gauges operated at 100 °C in constant-resistance mode, and in dynamic mode with a feeding current of 1 A in a pressure range from 10−4 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Also, devices with wire lengths between 500 and 3500 μm were operated and studied in constant-resistance and dynamic mode. Lastly, a device is demonstrated in operation at a mean temperature of 830 °C. The results include wire elements with a consistent elevation from their substrate surfaces, with irregularities along the wires. The wire devices exhibit a faster pressure response in dynamic mode than the reference devices do but operate similarly in constant-resistance mode. Increasing the wire element length shows an increasing dynamic pressure range but a decreasing maximum sensitivity. The sensitivity is retained in high temperature mode, but the dynamic range is extended from about 10 Torr to about 700 Torr.

Keywords
HTCC, Pirani gauge, High temperature, Bond wires
National Category
Ceramics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356481 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2018.10.008 (DOI)000456902600002 ()
Available from: 2018-07-30 Created: 2018-07-30 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Åkerfeldt, E., Klintberg, L., Sturesson, P. & Thornell, G. (2018). Taking ceramic microcomponents to higher temperatures. In: : . Paper presented at Micronano System Workshop (MSW 2018).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taking ceramic microcomponents to higher temperatures
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363404 (URN)
Conference
Micronano System Workshop (MSW 2018)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-10-18
Sturesson, P., Khaji, Z., Klintberg, L. & Thornell, G. (2017). Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures – Investigation of the Effect of Metallizationon on Read Range. IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(8), 2411-2421
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures – Investigation of the Effect of Metallizationon on Read Range
2017 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double-layer screen printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and its impact on practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements is presented. Also included is the first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets. As a quality factor circuit reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated and to study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 900 degrees C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 h. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure-sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 degrees C and up to 900 degrees C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 h at 500 degrees C, 20 h at 700 degrees C, and for 1 h at 900 degrees C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross-sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 h of annealing at 500 degrees C.

Keywords
Alternative metallization, ceramic membrane, harsh environment sensor, high temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC), HTCC processing, LC resonator, pressure sensor, wireless reading
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302852 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2017.2671418 (DOI)000398890800016 ()
Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-09-11 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Khaji, Z., Klintberg, L., Barbade, D., Palmer, K. & Thornell, G. (2017). Endurance and Failure of an Alumina-based Monopropellant Microthruster with Integrated Heater, Catalytic Bed and Temperature Sensors. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 27(5), 1-11, Article ID 055011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endurance and Failure of an Alumina-based Monopropellant Microthruster with Integrated Heater, Catalytic Bed and Temperature Sensors
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1-11, article id 055011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Monopropellant ceramic microthrusters with an integrated heater, catalytic bed and two temperature sensors, but of various designs, were manufactured by milling a fluidic channel and chamber, and a nozzle, and screen printing platinum patterns on green tapes of alumina that were stacked and laminated before sintering. In order to increase the surface area of the catalytic bed, the platinum paste was mixed with a sacrificial paste that disappeared during sintering, to leave behind a porous and rough layer. As an early development level in manufacturing robust and high-temperature tolerant microthrusters, the influence of design on the temperature gradients and dry temperature tolerance of the devices was studied. On average, the small reaction chambers showed a more than 1.5 times higher dry temperature tolerance (in centigrade) compared to devices with larger chambers, independent of the heater and device size. However, for a given temperature, big devices consumed on average 2.9 times more power than the small ones. It was also found that over the same area and under the same heating conditions, devices with small chambers were subjected to approximately 40% smaller temperature differences. A pressure test done on two small devices with small chambers revealed that pressures of at least 26.3 bar could be tolerated. Above this pressure, the interfaces failed but the devices were not damaged. To investigate the cooling effect of the micropropellant, the endurance of a full thruster was also studied under wet testing where it was fed with 31 wt.% hydrogen peroxide. The thruster demonstrated complete evaporation and/or full decomposition at a power above 3.7 W for a propellant flow of 50 mu l min(-1). At this power, the catalytic bed locally reached a temperature of 147 degrees C. The component was successfully heated to an operating temperature of 307 degrees C, where it cracked. Under these firing conditions, and assuming complete decomposition, calculations give a thrust and specific impulse of 0.96 mN and 106 s, respectively. In the case of evaporation, the corresponding values are calculated to be 0.84 mN and 92 s.

Keywords
HTCC, hydrogen peroxide, platinum, heater, catalytic bed, temperature sensor, monopropellant microthruster
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302849 (URN)10.1088/1361-6439/aa6550 (DOI)000398327700003 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space BoardKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-09-11 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
Khaji, Z., Klintberg, L., Barbade, D., Palmer, K. & Thornell, G. (2016). Alumina-based monopropellant microthruster with integrated heater, catalytic bed and temperature sensors. In: IOP (Ed.), 27th Micromechanics And Microsystems Europe Workshop (Mme 2016): . Paper presented at 27th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe (MME) Workshop, Aug 28-30, 2016, Cork, Ireland. Institute of Physics (IOP), 757, Article ID 012025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alumina-based monopropellant microthruster with integrated heater, catalytic bed and temperature sensors
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2016 (English)In: 27th Micromechanics And Microsystems Europe Workshop (Mme 2016) / [ed] IOP, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016, Vol. 757, article id 012025Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A liquid propellant alumina microthruster with an integrated heater, catalytic bed and two temperature sensors has been developed and tested using 30 wt. % hydrogen peroxide. The temperature sensors and the catalytic bed were screen-printed using platinum paste on tapes of alumina that was stacked and laminated before sintering. In order to increase the surface of the catalytic bed, the platinum paste was mixed with a sacrificial paste that disappeared during sintering, leaving behind a porous and rough layer. Complete evaporation and combustion, resulting in only gas coming from the outlet, was achieved with powers above 3.7 W for a propellant flow of 50 μl/min. At this power, the catalytic bed reached a maximum temperature of 147°C. The component was successfully operated up to a temperature of 307°C, where it cracked.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016
Series
Journal of Physics Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596 ; 757
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308596 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/757/1/012025 (DOI)000439687000025 ()
Conference
27th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe (MME) Workshop, Aug 28-30, 2016, Cork, Ireland
Funder
Swedish National Space BoardKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-28 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Berglund, M., Khaji, Z., Klintberg, L., Persson, A., Sturesson, P., Söderberg Breivik, J. & Thornell, G. (2016). Extreme-temperature lab on a chip for optogalvanic spectroscopy of ultra small samples – key components and a first integration attempt. In: IOP (Ed.), 27th Micromechanics And Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2016): . Paper presented at 27th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe (MME) Workshop, Aug 28-30, 2016, Cork, Ireland. Institute of Physics (IOP), 757, Article ID 012029.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extreme-temperature lab on a chip for optogalvanic spectroscopy of ultra small samples – key components and a first integration attempt
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2016 (English)In: 27th Micromechanics And Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2016) / [ed] IOP, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016, Vol. 757, article id 012029Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This is a short summary of the authors’ recent R&D on valves, combustors, plasma sources, and pressure and temperature sensors, realized in high-temperature co-fired ceramics, and an account for the first attempt to monolithically integrate them to form a lab on a chip for sample administration, preparation and analysis, as a stage in optogalvanic spectroscopy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016
Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596 ; 757
National Category
Materials Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Advanced Instrumentation and Measurements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309931 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/757/1/012029 (DOI)000439687000029 ()
Conference
27th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe (MME) Workshop, Aug 28-30, 2016, Cork, Ireland
Funder
Swedish National Space BoardKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Sturesson, P., Berglund, M., Söderberg, J., Klintberg, L., Persson, A. & Thornell, G. (2016). Fabrication of Suspended All-Metal Sensor Elements in Ceramic Laminates. In: Proc. of Micronano System Workshop 2016, Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016: . Paper presented at Micronano System Workshop (MSW2016) Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Suspended All-Metal Sensor Elements in Ceramic Laminates
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2016 (English)In: Proc. of Micronano System Workshop 2016, Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To target a wide range of high-temperature applications [1-4], the Ångström Space Technology Centre has added High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics, HTTC, technology to its repertoire. Usually, this technology follows a processing scheme where thin sheets of green-body ceramics are metallized through screen printing and structured by embossing, punching or milling, before they are laminated and sintered to form components. A limitation with this, is the difficulty of realizing freely suspended metal structures, which is a disadvantage in, e.g., the fabrication of calorimetric sensors or electric field probes. In this work, the embedding of platinum wires in HTCC is explored experimentally, and demonstrated for use in pressure and plasma I-V sensing.

Keywords
Microsensors, Bond WIre, Harsh Environments, High Temperatures, Ceramic Systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309945 (URN)
Conference
Micronano System Workshop (MSW2016) Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2017-05-16
Khaji, Z., Klintberg, L. & Thornell, G. (2016). Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic single-use microvalve. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 26(9), Article ID 095002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic single-use microvalve
2016 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, no 9, article id 095002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic single-use microvalve withthe potential to be integrated in lab-on-a-chip devices, and forsee its utilization in space andother demanding applications. A 3 mm diameter membrane was used as the flow barrier, andthe opening mechanism was based on cracking the membrane by inducing thermal stresses onit with fast and localized resistive heating.

Four manufacturing schemes based on high-temperature co-fired ceramic technology werestudied. Three designs for the integrated heaters and two thicknesses of 40 and 120 μmfor the membranes were considered, and the heat distribution over their membranes, therequired heating energies, their opening mode, and the flows admitted through were compared.Furthermore, the effect of applying +1 and −1 bar pressure difference on the membraneduring cracking was investigated. Thick membranes demonstrated unpromising results forlow-pressure applications since the heating either resulted in microcracks or cracking of thewhole chip. Because of the higher pressure tolerance of the thick membranes, the designwith microcracks can be considered for high-pressure applications where flow is facilitatedanyway. Thin membranes, on the other hand, showed different opening sizes depending onheater design and, consequently, heat distribution over the membranes, from microcracks toholes with sizes of 3–100% of the membrane area. For all the designs, applying +1 bar overpressure contributed to bigger openings, whereas −1 bar pressure difference only did so forone of the designs, resulting in smaller openings for the other two. The energy required forbreaking these membranes was a few hundred mJ with no significant dependence on designand applied pressure. The maximum sustainable pressure of the valve for the current designand thin membranes was 7 bar.

Keywords
single-use valve, HTCC, alumina, platinum
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298806 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/26/9/095002 (DOI)000402408400002 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space BoardKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-07-08 Created: 2016-07-08 Last updated: 2017-07-11Bibliographically approved
Persson, A., Berglund, M., Khaji, Z., Sturesson, P., Söderberg, J. & Thornell, G. (2016). Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources – Current status and development towards lab on a chip. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 26(10), Article ID 104003.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources – Current status and development towards lab on a chip
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, no 10, article id 104003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) shows excellent prospects of becoming ahighly sensitive method for gas analysis in micro total analysis systems. Here, a status reporton the current development of microwave induced microplasma sources for OGS is presented,together with the first comparison of the sensitivity of the method to conventional single-passabsorption spectroscopy. The studied microplasma sources are stripline split-ring resonators(SSRRs), with typical ring radii between 3.5 and 6 mm and operation frequencies around2.6 GHz. A linear response (R2 = 0.9999), and a stability of more than 100 s are demonstratedwhen using the microplasma source as an optogalvanic detector. Additionally, saturationeffects at laser powers higher than 100 mW are observed, and the temporal response of theplasma to periodic laser perturbation with repletion rates between 20 Hz and 200 Hz arestudied. Finally, the potential of integrating additional functionality with the detector isdiscussed, with the particular focus on a pressure sensor and a miniaturized combustor toallow for studies of solid samples.

Keywords
Optogalvanic spectroscopy, split-ring resonator, microplasma sources
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284627 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/26/10/104003 (DOI)000384028900003 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 104/14
Note

Awaiting publication online. 

Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4468-6801

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