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Publications (10 of 72) Show all publications
Marzal, J. C., Rudh, A., Rogell, B., Ödeen, A., Lovlie, H., Rosher, C. & Qvarnström, A. (2017). Cryptic female Strawberry poison frogs experience elevated predation risk when associating with an aposematic partner. Ecology and Evolution, 7(2), 744-750.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cryptic female Strawberry poison frogs experience elevated predation risk when associating with an aposematic partner
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2017 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 2, 744-750 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Population divergence in sexual signals may lead to speciation through prezygotic isolation. Sexual signals can change solely due to variation in the level of natural selection acting against conspicuousness. However, directional mate choice (i.e., favoring conspicuousness) across different environments may lead to gene flow between populations, thereby delaying or even preventing the evolution of reproductive barriers and speciation. In this study, we test whether natural selection through predation upon mate-choosing females can favor corresponding changes in mate preferences. Our study system, Oophaga pumilio, is an extremely color polymorphic neotropical frog with two distinctive antipredator strategies: aposematism and crypsis. The conspicuous coloration and calling behavior of aposematic males may attract both cryptic and aposematic females, but predation may select against cryptic females choosing aposematic males. We used an experimental approach where domestic fowl were encouraged to find digitized images of cryptic frogs at different distances from aposematic partners. We found that the estimated survival time of a cryptic frog was reduced when associating with an aposematic partner. Hence, predation may act as a direct selective force on female choice, favoring evolution of color assortative mating that, in turn, may strengthen the divergence in coloration that natural selection has generated.

Keyword
aposematism, assortative mating, crypsis, Oophaga pumilio, predation, sexual selection, speciation
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316051 (URN)10.1002/ece3.2662 (DOI)000392075300025 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-02-23 Created: 2017-02-23 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Kardos, M., Qvarnström, A. & Ellegren, H. (2017). Inferring Individual Inbreeding and Demographic History from Segments of Identity by Descent in Ficedula Flycatcher Genome Sequences. Genetics, 205(3), 1319-1334.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inferring Individual Inbreeding and Demographic History from Segments of Identity by Descent in Ficedula Flycatcher Genome Sequences
2017 (English)In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 205, no 3, 1319-1334 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individual inbreeding and historical demography can be estimated by analyzing runs of homozygosity (ROH), which are indicative of chromosomal segments of identity by descent (IBD). Such analyses have so far been rare in natural populations due to limited genomic resources. We analyzed ROH in whole genome sequences from 287 Ficedula flycatchers representing four species, with the objectives of evaluating the causes of genome-wide variation in the abundance of ROH and inferring historical demography. ROH were clearly more abundant in genomic regions with low recombination rate. However, this pattern was substantially weaker when ROH were mapped using genetic rather than physical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) coordinates in the genome. Empirical results and simulations suggest that high ROH abundance in regions of low recombination was partly caused by increased power to detect the very long IBD segments typical of regions with a low recombination rate. Simulations also showed that hard selective sweeps (but not soft sweeps or background selection) likely contributed to variation in the abundance of ROH across the genome. Comparisons of the abundance of ROH among several study populations indicated that the Spanish pied flycatcher population had the smallest historical effective population size (Ne) for this species, and that a putatively recently founded island (Baltic) population had the smallest historical Ne among the collared flycatchers. Analysis of pairwise IBD in Baltic collared flycatchers indicated that this population was founded,60 generations ago. This study provides a rare genomic glimpse into demographic history and the mechanisms underlying the genome-wide distribution of ROH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
GENETICS SOCIETY AMERICA, 2017
Keyword
runs of homozygosity, effective population size, population genomics
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320356 (URN)10.1534/genetics.116.198861 (DOI)000395807200022 ()28100590 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2017-04-19Bibliographically approved
Wheatcroft, D. & Qvarnström, A. (2017). Reproductive character displacement of female, but not male song discrimination in an avian hybrid zone. Evolution, 71(7), 1776-1786.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reproductive character displacement of female, but not male song discrimination in an avian hybrid zone
2017 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 7, 1776-1786 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Divergence of male sexual signals and female preferences for those signals often maintains reproductive boundaries between closely related, co-occurring species. However, contrasting sources of selection, such as interspecific competition, can lead to weak divergence or even convergence of sexual signals in sympatry. When signals converge, assortative mating can be maintained if the mating preferences of females diverge in sympatry (reproductive character displacement; RCD), but there are few explicit examples. Pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) are sympatric with collared flycatchers (F. albicollis) on the Baltic island of oland, where males from both species compete over nestboxes, their songs converge, and the two species occasionally hybridize. We compare song discrimination of male and female pied flycatchers on oland and in an allopatric population on the Swedish mainland. Using field choice trials, we show that male pied flycatchers respond similarly to the songs of both species in sympatry and allopatry, while female pied flycatchers express stronger discrimination against heterospecific songs in sympatry than in allopatry. These results are consistent with RCD of song discrimination of female pied flycatchers where they co-occur with collared flycatchers, which should maintain species assortative mating despite convergence of male sexual signals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
Keyword
Ficedula, reinforcement, reproductive character displacement, sexual signals, song discrimination, species recognition
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331248 (URN)10.1111/evo.13267 (DOI)000405888100004 ()28493350 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Available from: 2017-10-24 Created: 2017-10-24 Last updated: 2017-10-24Bibliographically approved
Smeds, L., Mugal, C. F., Qvarnström, A. & Ellegren, H. (2016). High-Resolution Mapping of Crossover and Non-crossover Recombination Events by Whole-Genome Re-sequencing of an Avian Pedigree. PLoS Genetics, 12(5), Article ID e1006044.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Resolution Mapping of Crossover and Non-crossover Recombination Events by Whole-Genome Re-sequencing of an Avian Pedigree
2016 (English)In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 12, no 5, e1006044Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recombination is an engine of genetic diversity and therefore constitutes a key process in evolutionary biology and genetics. While the outcome of crossover recombination can readily be detected as shuffled alleles by following the inheritance of markers in pedigreed families, the more precise location of both crossover and non-crossover recombination events has been difficult to pinpoint. As a consequence, we lack a detailed portrait of the recombination landscape for most organisms and knowledge on how this landscape impacts on sequence evolution at a local scale. To localize recombination events with high resolution in an avian system, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing at high coverage of a complete three-generation collared flycatcher pedigree. We identified 325 crossovers at a median resolution of 1.4 kb, with 86% of the events localized to <10 kb intervals. Observed crossover rates were in excellent agreement with data from linkage mapping, were 52% higher in male (3.56 cM/Mb) than in female meiosis (2.28 cM/Mb), and increased towards chromosome ends in male but not female meiosis. Crossover events were non-randomly distributed in the genome with several distinct hot-spots and a concentration to genic regions, with the highest density in promoters and CpG islands. We further identified 267 non-crossovers, whose location was significantly associated with crossover locations. We detected a significant transmission bias (0.18) in favour of 'strong' (G, C) over 'weak' (A, T) alleles at non-crossover events, providing direct evidence for the process of GC-biased gene conversion in an avian system. The approach taken in this study should be applicable to any species and would thereby help to provide a more comprehensive portray of the recombination landscape across organism groups.

National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-296467 (URN)10.1371/journal.pgen.1006044 (DOI)000377197100044 ()27219623 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-5650; 2013-8271EU, European Research Council, AdG 24997Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-16 Created: 2016-06-16 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
McFarlane, S. E., Sirkiä, P., Ålund, M. & Qvarnström, A. (2016). Hybrid Dysfunction Expressed as Elevated Metabolic Rate in Male Ficedula Flycatchers. PLoS ONE, 11(9), Article ID e0161547.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Dysfunction Expressed as Elevated Metabolic Rate in Male Ficedula Flycatchers
2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, e0161547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of ecological speciation are often biased towards extrinsic sources of selection against hybrids, resulting from intermediate hybrid morphology, but the knowledge of how genetic incompatibilities accumulate over time under natural conditions is limited. Here we focus on a physiological trait, metabolic rate, which is central to life history strategies and thermoregulation but is also likely to be sensitive to mismatched mitonuclear interactions. We measured the resting metabolic rate of male collared, and pied flycatchers as well as of naturally occurring F1 hybrid males, in a recent hybrid zone. We found that hybrid males had a higher rather than intermediate metabolic rate, which is indicative of hybrid physiological dysfunction. Fitness costs associated with elevated metabolic rate are typically environmentally dependent and exaggerated under harsh conditions. By focusing on male hybrid dysfunction in an eco-physiological trait, our results contribute to the general understanding of how combined extrinsic and intrinsic sources of hybrid dysfunction build up under natural conditions.

National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307010 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0161547 (DOI)000382855600038 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2012-3722
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Rönnegård, L., McFarlane, S. E., Husby, A., Kawakami, T., Ellegren, H. & Qvarnström, A. (2016). Increasing the power of genome wide association studies in natural populations using repeated measures - evaluation and implementation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 7(7), 792-799.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing the power of genome wide association studies in natural populations using repeated measures - evaluation and implementation
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2016 (English)In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2041-210X, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 7, no 7, 792-799 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. Genomewide association studies (GWAS) enable detailed dissections of the genetic basis for organisms' ability to adapt to a changing environment. In long-term studies of natural populations, individuals are often marked at one point in their life and then repeatedly recaptured. It is therefore essential that a method for GWAS includes the process of repeated sampling. In a GWAS, the effects of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) need to be fitted and any model development is constrained by the computational requirements. A method is therefore required that can fit a highly hierarchical model and at the same time is computationally fast enough to be useful. 2. Our method fits fixed SNP effects in a linear mixed model that can include both random polygenic effects and permanent environmental effects. In this way, the model can correct for population structure and model repeated measures. The covariance structure of the linear mixed model is first estimated and subsequently used in a generalized least squares setting to fit the SNP effects. The method was evaluated in a simulation study based on observed genotypes from a long-term study of collared flycatchers in Sweden. 3. The method we present here was successful in estimating permanent environmental effects from simulated repeated measures data. Additionally, we found that especially for variable phenotypes having large variation between years, the repeated measurements model has a substantial increase in power compared to a model using average phenotypes as a response. 4. The method is available in the R package RepeatABEL. It increases the power in GWAS having repeated measures, especially for long-term studies of natural populations, and the R implementation is expected to facilitate modelling of longitudinal data for studies of both animal and human populations.

Keyword
Ficedula albicollis, genomic relationship, hierarchical generalized linear model, single-nucleotide polymorphisms
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301427 (URN)10.1111/2041-210X.12535 (DOI)000379957400004 ()
Funder
EU, European Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilStiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Boström, J. E., Dimitrova, M., Canton, C., Hastad, O., Qvarnstrom, A. & Ödeen, A. (2016). Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds. PLoS ONE, 11(3), Article ID e0151099.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, e0151099Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294316 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0151099 (DOI)000372582800043 ()26990087 (PubMedID)
Funder
Carl Tryggers foundation , CTS 09: 425, CTS10: 432Swedish Research Council Formas, 22-2007-729Swedish Research Council, 621-2012-3722
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Kardos, M., Husby, A., McFarlane, S. E., Qvarnström, A. & Ellegren, H. (2016). Whole-genome resequencing of extreme phenotypes in collared flycatchers highlights the difficulty of detecting quantitative trait loci in natural populations. Molecular Ecology Resources, 16(3), 727-741.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whole-genome resequencing of extreme phenotypes in collared flycatchers highlights the difficulty of detecting quantitative trait loci in natural populations
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2016 (English)In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 16, no 3, 727-741 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic variation in natural populations is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. One open question is whether quantitative traits are determined only by large numbers of genes with small effects, or whether variation also exists in large-effect loci. We conducted genomewide association analyses of forehead patch size (a sexually selected trait) on 81 whole-genome-resequenced male collared flycatchers with extreme phenotypes, and on 415 males sampled independent of patch size and genotyped with a 50K SNP chip. No SNPs were genomewide statistically significantly associated with patch size. Simulation-based power analyses suggest that the power to detect large-effect loci responsible for 10% of phenotypic variance was <0.5 in the genome resequencing analysis, and <0.1 in the SNP chip analysis. Reducing the recombination by two-thirds relative to collared flycatchers modestly increased power. Tripling sample size increased power to >0.8 for resequencing of extreme phenotypes (N=243), but power remained <0.2 for the 50K SNP chip analysis (N=1245). At least 1 million SNPs were necessary to achieve power >0.8 when analysing 415 randomly sampled phenotypes. However, power of the 50K SNP chip to detect large-effect loci was nearly 0.8 in simulations with a small effective population size of 1500. These results suggest that reliably detecting large-effect trait loci in large natural populations will often require thousands of individuals and near complete sampling of the genome. Encouragingly, far fewer individuals and loci will often be sufficient to reliably detect large-effect loci in small populations with widespread strong linkage disequilibrium.

Keyword
condition-dependent trait, fitness, genomewide association analysis, sexual selection
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300299 (URN)10.1111/1755-0998.12498 (DOI)000373954100013 ()26649993 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, European Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilStiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Wheatcroft, D. & Qvarnström, A. (2015). A blueprint for vocal learning: auditory predispositions from brains genomes. Biology Letters, 11(8), Article ID 20150155.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A blueprint for vocal learning: auditory predispositions from brains genomes
2015 (English)In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 8, 20150155Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Memorizing and producing complex strings of sound are requirements for spoken human language. We share these behaviours with likely more than 4000 species of songbirds, making birds our primary model for studying the cognitive basis of vocal learning and, more generally, an important model for how memories are encoded in the brain. In songbirds, as in humans, the sounds that a juvenile learns later in life depend on auditory memories formed early in development. Experiments on a wide variety of songbird specie's suggest that the formation and lability of these auditory memories, in turn, depend on auditory predispositions that stimulate learning when a juvenile hears relevant, species-typical sounds. We review evidence that variation in key features of these auditory predispositions are determined by variation in genes underlying the development of the auditory system. We argue that increased investigation of the neuronal basis of auditory predispositions expressed early in life in conibination with modem comparative genomic approaches may provide insights into the evolution of vocal learning.

Keyword
auditory predispositions, bird song, memory formation, perceptual biases, songbirds, vocal learning
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267506 (URN)10.1098/rsbl.2015.0155 (DOI)000362798100008 ()
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Qvarnström, A., Ålund, M., McFarlane, E. S. & Sirkiä, P. M. (2015). Climate adaptation and speciation: particular focus on reproductive barriers in Ficedula flycatchers. Evolutionary Applications, 9(1), 119-134.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate adaptation and speciation: particular focus on reproductive barriers in Ficedula flycatchers
2015 (English)In: Evolutionary Applications, ISSN 1752-4571, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 9, no 1, 119-134 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate adaptation is surprisingly rarely reported as a cause for the build-up of reproductive isolation between diverging populations. In this review, we summarize evidence for effects of climate adaptation on pre- and postzygotic isolation between emerging species with a particular focus on pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared (Ficedula albicollis) flycatchers as a model for research on speciation. Effects of climate adaptation on prezygotic isolation or extrinsic selection against hybrids have been documented in several taxa, but the combined action of climate adaptation and sexual selection is particularly well explored in Ficedula flycatchers. There is a general lack of evidence for divergent climate adaptation causing intrinsic postzygotic isolation. However, we argue that the profound effects of divergence in climate adaptation on the whole biochemical machinery of organisms and hence many underlying genes should increase the likelihood of genetic incompatibilities arising as side effects. Fast temperature-dependent co-evolution between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may be particularly likely to lead to hybrid sterility. Thus, how climate adaptation relates to reproductive isolation is best explored in relation to fast-evolving barriers to gene flow, while more research on later stages of divergence is needed to achieve a complete understanding of climate-driven speciation.

Keyword
ecological speciation;genetic incompatibilities;natural selection;personality;sexual selection;speciation genomics;thermal adaptation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261081 (URN)10.1111/eva.12276 (DOI)000368250500008 ()27087843 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-28 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1178-4053

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