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Blind, I., Dahlberg, M., Engström, G. & Östh, J. (2018). Construction of Register-based Commuting Measures. Paper presented at CESifo Economic Studies Conference on On the Use of Geo-Coded Data in Economic Research, NOV 18-19, 2016, Munich, GERMANY. CESifo Economic Studies, 64(2), 292-326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Construction of Register-based Commuting Measures
2018 (English)In: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 292-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Early empirical studies in labour and urban economics addressing the role of commuting (on, e.g., wages and locational choice) have typically been confined to the use of survey data. Researchers are, however, increasingly getting access to large register databases with detailed information on where individuals live and work. A variety of methods have thus emerged to exploit the geocoded characteristic of the data to calculate commuting measures that go beyond simple Euclidean metrics. These methods involve new techniques that make use of geographic information system (GIS) routing software or application programming interfaces provided by third-party developers. This article provides (i) a brief survey of the small but emerging literature that uses geocoded register data to calculate different commuting measures, (ii) an example on how register-based commuting measures can be constructed along with descriptive evidence on how different commuting measures compare for different socio-economic groups using rich Swedish register data, (iii) a discussion of the pros and cons of different methods and measures, and (iv) a discussion of the potential of using mobile phone data to further improve registerbased commuting measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018
Keywords
commuting measures, geocoded register data, mobile phone data
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358166 (URN)10.1093/cesifo/ify014 (DOI)000434875100008 ()
Conference
CESifo Economic Studies Conference on On the Use of Geo-Coded Data in Economic Research, NOV 18-19, 2016, Munich, GERMANY
Funder
Ragnar Söderbergs stiftelse
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Clark, W. A. A. & Östh, J. (2018). MEASURING ISOLATION ACROSS SPACE AND OVER TIME WITH NEW TOOLS:: EVIDENCE FROM CALIFORNIA METROPOLITAN REGIONS. Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MEASURING ISOLATION ACROSS SPACE AND OVER TIME WITH NEW TOOLS:: EVIDENCE FROM CALIFORNIA METROPOLITAN REGIONS
2018 (English)In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348704 (URN)10.1177/2399808318756642 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Östh, J., Reggiani, A. & Peter, N. (2018). Resilience and accessibility of Swedish and Dutch municipalities. Transportation, 1-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience and accessibility of Swedish and Dutch municipalities
2018 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent years have shown a rising popularity of the concept of resilience—both theoretically and empirically—in complex systems analysis. There is also a rising literature on resilience in the transport and spatial-economic field. The pluriform interpretation of resilience (e.g., engineering vs. ecological resilience) is related to methodological differences (e.g., stability in dynamics vs. evolutionary adaptivity). But in all cases the fundamental question is whether a complex system that is subjected to an external shock is able to recover, and if so, to which extent. The present paper [Based on presentation from cluster 6 (Accessibility) of the Nectar 2015 conference in Ann Arbour, USA.] aims to add a new dimension to resilience analysis in spatial systems, by addressing in particular the relationship between spatial accessibility at a municipality level and the resilience outcomes of the spatial system concerned. It does so by investigating to which extent accessibility of Swedish and Dutch municipalities has mitigated the local shock absorption from the recent economic recession. In our study the shock absorption capacity of municipal accessibility is estimated by analysing the relevant resilience indicators for the period concerned. In this context, conventional resilience indicators based on either multivariate complex data (in particular, the Foster Resilience Capacity Index) or employment data (in particular, the Martin Resilience-Employment Index) are confronted with spatial connectivity data based on local accessibility measures, so that geographical mobility may be regarded as one of the shock-mitigating factors. The empirical analysis is carried out for two countries which have both proven to be rather shock-resistant during the recent economic crisis, viz. Sweden and The Netherlands. Clearly, the geographical structure of these countries forms a sharp mutual contrast, viz. a spatially dispersed economy with a few distinct urban concentrations versus a spatially dense economy with one major metropolitan centre (the Randstad), respectively. Our experiments are carried out for the 290 municipalities in Sweden and 40 COROPs in The Netherlands. Our research findings show relevant and new insights into differences in the local recovery potential in Sweden and The Netherlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2018
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341903 (URN)10.1007/s11116-017-9854-3 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Östh, J., Dolciotti, M., Reggiani, A. & Nijkamp, P. (2018). Social Capital, Resilience and Accessibility in Urban Systems: A Study on Sweden. Networks and Spatial Economics, 18(2), 313-336
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Capital, Resilience and Accessibility in Urban Systems: A Study on Sweden
2018 (English)In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 313-336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatial systems appear to exhibit often a complex pattern of socio-economic development, in terms of (un)employment, income, mobility, ethnic composition, and urbanisation rates. Their evolution is co-determined by such factors as: market proximity, labour and housing market developments, public amenities, use of and access to transport systems, socio-economic composition of the population, etc. In addition, a sine qua non for sustaining urban economic growth is the local or regional presence of individual and collective cognitive assets that favour knowledge acquisition and transfer, education, innovation, and creativity. In this context, social capital and spatial accessibility are critical factors. The present paper aims to provide an operational framework for mapping out and understanding the mechanisms which drive spatial systems from the perspective of the resilience of urban areas, in the light of their social capital in combination with accessibility. Particular attention is therefore given to the essential role of social capital and transport accessibility in shaping both the economic development of cities and the spatial pattern in the evolution of cities, in terms of, inter alia, education, age, ethnic composition, (un)employment, and socio-economic poverty. For our quantitative analysis of the Swedish urban system, a quantile regression model is introduced and applied in order to study which urban-economic factors in Sweden determine the different levels of social capital, which are seen here as the fundamental component of the resilience capacity of urban areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348703 (URN)10.1007/s11067-017-9375-9 (DOI)000438537500005 ()
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Östh, J., Shuttleworth, I. & Niedomysl, N. (2018). Spatial and temporal patterns of economic segregation in Sweden’s metropolitan areas:: a mobility approach. Environment and planning A, 50(4), 809-825
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial and temporal patterns of economic segregation in Sweden’s metropolitan areas:: a mobility approach
2018 (English)In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 809-825Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The statistical resources at hand for segregation research are usually almost exclusively confined to annual or decennial records where the only available spatial information is the individual’s place of residence. This coarse temporal periodicity and spatial resolution provides a very limited account of people’s diurnal lives. Incorporating mobility and temporal dimensions in segregation analysis is advocated within a growing body of research but there has rarely been sufficient data to make this possible. In this paper, we employ a fine-grained mobile phone dataset outlining the daily mobility of a substantial sample of the residents in Sweden’s metropolitan areas. Combining spatial trajectory data with detailed socio-economic residential statistics, we are able to study how everyday spatial mobility in cities shapes the segregation experiences of people and changes the segregation levels of places. Results indicate that while mobility alleviates segregation for some individuals, the population of a large number of areas remain highly segregated even when daily mobility is taken into account. Individuals residing or spending time in central urban areas are more exposed to individuals from other areas because of daily moves to these central places. Daytime movement to central areas also reduces segregation significantly for people from places remote from city centres but with high average levels of mobility whilst daytime segregation levels remain close to their original night-time levels in low-mobility areas in the outskirts of the cities

National Category
Human Geography Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348706 (URN)10.1177/0308518X18763167 (DOI)000437323900006 ()
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
Östh, J. (2018). Variation in mortality among migrants from Islamic countries: Do religious holidays and socio-economic situation affect mortality rates?. Population, Space and Place, 24(2), Article ID e2092.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in mortality among migrants from Islamic countries: Do religious holidays and socio-economic situation affect mortality rates?
2018 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 2, article id e2092Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The number of migrants to Sweden from the Middle East and the Horn of Africa has increased strongly over the last decades. Many of these migrants come as refugees from regions of conflict, with limited social and financial resources, and many of the migrants face discrimination on labour market. Most newly arrived migrants find their homes in poor suburbs in the outskirts of the metropolitan regions in Sweden. In this paper, the mortality rates for all immigrants from predominately Islamic countries that officially resided in Sweden at any time between 1991 and 2010 are analysed using Cox proportional hazard regressions. The research questions in this paper focus on finding the associations between mortality rate and socio-economic situations as well as the relationship between seasonal variations in religious activity and mortality. This large-scale longitudinal study reveals that for men, especially men between 16 and 55years of age, mortality rates are significantly lowered during Ramadan. Other factors affecting mortality rates include being a recent immigrant, civil, employment, and educational status as well as residing in immigrant dense areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: , 2018
National Category
Social and Economic Geography International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348702 (URN)10.1002/psp.2092 (DOI)000426747300010 ()
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Blicharska, M., Andersson, J., Bergsten, J., Bjelke, U., Hilding-Rydevik, T., Thomsson, M., . . . Johansson, F. (2017). Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm. Urban Ecosystems, 20(6), 1209-1220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1209-1220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

Keywords
Biodiversity, Socio-economic factors, Urbanization, Urban ponds, Stockholm
National Category
Ecology Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343908 (URN)10.1007/s11252-017-0673-2 (DOI)000417619400004 ()
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
John, Ö., Lyhagen, J. & Reggiani, A. (2016). A new way of determining distance decay parameters in spatial interaction models with application to job accessibility analysis in Sweden. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 16(2), 344-362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new way of determining distance decay parameters in spatial interaction models with application to job accessibility analysis in Sweden
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 344-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we explore and compare various techniques for the calculation of distance decay parameters which are estimated using statistical methods with half-life decay parameters which are derived mathematically. Half-life models appear to be a valid alternative to traditional spatial interaction models, especially in the presence of spatially highly disaggregate data. Our results indicate that Half-life models are more accurate for the construction of decay parameters than are unconstrained spatial interaction models in 'medium' sized datasets but not as accurate as doubly-constrained models. However, using highly detailed and disaggregate datasets Half-life models may be viable alternatives to doubly-constrained spatial interaction models as the latter will be difficult to estimate when the number of origins and destinations increase. In addition, Half-life models rise in accuracy with increasing degrees of disaggregation due to reductions of systematic errors between observed individual level commuting distance and modelled distances between origins and destinations.

In sum, our findings are as follows. First, since unconstrained and doubly-constrained spatial interaction models become increasingly difficult to estimate and/or less accurate to use compared to Half-life models as the spatial disaggregation increases choice of decay parameter estimation model should be considered in relation to level of disaggregation. Secondly, Half-life models are not affected by the systematic errors observed in the statistically derived models. Finally, using Half-life models for the estimation of decay parameters is simple which may make it easy to employ among practitioners lacking skills or computer means for the estimation of more complex statistically derived models.

National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281078 (URN)000372328000004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5509
Available from: 2016-03-17 Created: 2016-03-17 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Geurs, K. T. & John, Ö. (2016). Advances in the Measurement of Transport Impedance in Accessibility Modelling. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 16(2), 294-299
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advances in the Measurement of Transport Impedance in Accessibility Modelling
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 294-299Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281085 (URN)000372328000001 ()
Available from: 2016-03-17 Created: 2016-03-17 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Clark, W. A. V., Anderson, E., Östh, J. & Malmberg, B. (2015). A Multiscalar Analysis of Neighborhood Composition in Los Angeles, 2000-2010: A Location-Based Approach to Segregation and Diversity. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(6), 1260-1284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multiscalar Analysis of Neighborhood Composition in Los Angeles, 2000-2010: A Location-Based Approach to Segregation and Diversity
2015 (English)In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 1260-1284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There continues to be cross-disciplinary interest in the patterns, extent, and changing contexts of segregation and spatial inequality more generally. The changes are clearly context dependent but at the same time there are broad generalizations that arise from the processes of residential sorting and selection. A major question in U.S. segregation research is how the growth of Asian and Hispanic populations is influencing patterns of segregation and diversity at the neighborhood level. In this article we use a variant of a nearest neighbor approach to map, graph, and evaluate patterns of race and ethnicity at varying scales. We show that using a multiscalar approach to segregation can provide a detailed and more complete picture of segregation. The research confirms work from other studies that segregation is decreasing between some groups and increasing between others, and the patterns, and processes can be described as dynamic diversity. In a series of maps of ethnic clusters and population homogeneity we show how metropolitan areas, represented in this case by Los Angeles, now display patterns of complex living arrangements with multiple groups inhabiting both local neighborhoods and wider community spheres.

Abstract [es]

Continúa notable el interés transdisciplinario sobre los patrones, alcance y cambiantes contextos de la segregacion y, de manera mas general, sobre la desigualdad espacial. Es claro que los cambios dependen del contexto, pero al mismo tiempo se generan amplias generalizaciones a partir de los procesos de ordenamiento y seleccion residencial. Un interrogante medular de la investigacion sobre segregacion en los EE.UU. se refiere a como esta influyendo el crecimiento de las poblaciones asiaticas e hispanas sobre los patrones de segregacion y diversidad a nivel de vecindario. En este articulo usamos una variante del metodo del vecino mas cercano para cartografiar, graficar y evaluar los patrones de raza y etnicidad a diversas escalas. Mostramos que el uso de un enfoque multiescalar en segregacion puede proporcionar un cuadro mas detallado y completo de este fenomeno. La investigacion confirma el trabajo de otros estudios en el sentido de que la segregacion esta disminuyendo entre algunos grupos, mientras aumenta entre otros, y confirma los patrones; y los procesos pueden describirse como una diversidad dinamica. Mostramos en una serie de mapas de agrupamientos etnicos y de homogeneidad de la poblacion el modo como las areas metropolitanas, ilustradas en este caso por Los angeles, despliegan ahora patrones de arreglos de vida complejos con multiples grupos asentados tanto en vecindarios locales como dentro de esferas comunitarias mas amplias.

Abstract [zh]

对于隔离及更普遍的空间不均之形态、范围与改变中的脉络,一直有着持续的跨领域研究兴趣。这些改变明显取决于脉络,但同时却有来自居住分类和选择过程的广 泛普遍化。美国隔离研究中的主要问题是,亚裔与拉丁裔人口的成长,如何在邻里层级影响着隔离和多样化的形态。我们于本文中,运用不同的最邻近方法,製图、 标绘并评估不同尺度中,种族及族裔的形态。我们显示,将多层级方法运用于隔离,可提供详细、且更为完整的隔离图像。本研究証实其他研究有关隔离在部分群体 之间正在降低、但在其他群体之间正逐渐增加的论点,而该形态与过程,可被描绘成动态多样化。我们在族裔群聚和人口同质性的一系列地图中,展现出大都会地区 ——在本案例中呈现的是洛杉矶——今日如何呈现复杂的居住安排形态,其中多重的社群同时居住于在地邻里和更大范围的社群领域之中。

Keywords
ethnicity, neighborhoods, residential patterns, scale, segregation, etnicidad, barrios, patrones residenciales, escala, segregacion
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266678 (URN)10.1080/00045608.2015.1072790 (DOI)000362947900008 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 349-2007-8701Swedish Research Council, 2012-5509
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4536-9229

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