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Publications (10 of 144) Show all publications
Carlos, P. P., Noda, C., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Battery-free 802.15. 4 Receiver. In: 7th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN): . Paper presented at 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018.. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-free 802.15. 4 Receiver
2018 (English)In: 7th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the architecture of an 802.15.4 receiver that, for the first time, operates at a few hundred microwatts, enabling new battery-free applications. To reach the required micro-power consumption, the architecture diverges from that of commodity receivers in two important ways. First, it offloads the power-hungry local oscillator to an external device, much like backscatter transmitters do. Second, we avoid the energy cost of demodulating a phase-modulated signal by treating 802.15.4 as a frequency-modulated one, which allows us to receive with a simple passive detector and an energy-efficient thresholding circuit. We describe a prototype that can receive 802.15.4 frames with a power consumption of 361 μW. Our receiver prototype achieves sufficient communication range to integrate with deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We illustrate this integration by pairing the prototype with an 802.15.4 backscatter transmitter and integrating it with unmodified 802.15.4 sensor nodes running the TSCH and Glossy protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Battery free, Backscatter, receiver, 802.15.4, Zigbee, sensor networks, passive radio, wireless
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366929 (URN)10.1109/IPSN.2018.00045 (DOI)000449016500037 ()978-1-5386-5298-5 (ISBN)
Conference
17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018.
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-045989Knowledge Foundation, 20140319
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Asan, N. B., Hassan, E., Velander, J., Redzwan, S., Noreland, D., Blokhuis, T. J., . . . Augustine, R. (2018). Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies. Sensors, 18(9), Article ID 2752.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies
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2018 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 2752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7-2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of similar to 0.7 dB and similar to 1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.

Keywords
intra-body communication, path loss, microwave probes, channel characterization, fat tissue, ex-vivo, phantom, dielectric properties, topology optimization
National Category
Computer Sciences Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369000 (URN)10.3390/s18092752 (DOI)000446940600011 ()30134629 (PubMedID)
Funder
VINNOVA, 2015-04159VINNOVA, 2017-03568Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT17-0020Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Carlos, P. P., Noda, C., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Demo Abstract: Battery-Free 802.15.4 Receiver. In: 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN): . Paper presented at 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018. (pp. 130-131). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo Abstract: Battery-Free 802.15.4 Receiver
2018 (English)In: 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), IEEE, 2018, p. 130-131Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the architecture for an 802.15.4 receiver that enables battery-free operation. To reach micro-power consumption, the architecture diverges from that of commodity receivers in the following ways: First, similar to backscatter transmitters, it offloads the power-hungry local oscillator to an external device. Second, we avoid the energy cost of demodulating a phase-modulated signal by treating 802.15.4 as a frequency-modulated one, allowing us to receive with a simple passive detector and an energy-efficient thresholding circuit. We demonstrate an off-the-shelf prototype of our receiver receives 802.15.4 from a distance of 470 cm with the carrier generator 30 cm away. This range is sufficient to integrate with deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We demonstrate this integration by pairing our receiver with a 802.15.4 backscatter transmitter and integrating it with unmodified commodity sensor nodes running the TSCH protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Sensor networks, battery free, backscatter, receiver, 802.15.4
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366926 (URN)10.1109/IPSN.2018.00028 (DOI)000449016500020 ()978-1-5386-5298-5 (ISBN)
Conference
17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018.
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-045989Knowledge Foundation, 20140319
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J., Finne, N., Tsiftes, N., Duquennoy, S. & Voigt, T. (2018). Scaling RPL to Dense and Large Networks with Constrained Memory. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks (EWSN 2018), Madrid, Spain, 14-16 Feb 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scaling RPL to Dense and Large Networks with Constrained Memory
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367002 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks (EWSN 2018), Madrid, Spain, 14-16 Feb 2018
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, G., Varshney, A., Rohner, C., Voigt, T. & Dancila, D. (2018). Towards Long-range Backscatter Communication with Tunnel Diode Reflection Amplifier. In: : . Paper presented at GigaHertz Symposium, Lund, May 24-25, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Long-range Backscatter Communication with Tunnel Diode Reflection Amplifier
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369185 (URN)
Conference
GigaHertz Symposium, Lund, May 24-25, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Tsiftes, N. & Voigt, T. (2018). Velox VM: A safe execution environment for resource-constrained IoT applications. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 118, 61-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Velox VM: A safe execution environment for resource-constrained IoT applications
2018 (English)In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 118, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present Velox, a virtual machine architecture that provides a safe execution environment for applications in resource-constrained IoT devices. Our goal with this architecture is to support developers in writing and deploying safe IoT applications, in a manner similar to smartphones with application stores. To this end, we provide a resource and security policy framework that enables fine-grained control of the execution environment of IoT applications. This framework allows device owners to configure, e.g., the amount of bandwidth, energy, and memory that each IoT application can use. Velox's features also include support for high-level programming languages, a compact bytecode format, and preemptive multi-threading. In the context of IoT devices, there are typically severe energy, memory, and processing constraints that make the design and implementation of a virtual machine with such features challenging. We elaborate on how Velox is implemented in a resource-efficient manner, and describe our port of Velox to the Contiki OS. Our experimental evaluation shows that we can control the resource usage of applications with a low overhead. We further show that, for typical I/O-driven IoT applications, the CPU and energy overhead of executing Velox bytecode is as low as 1-5% compared to corresponding applications compiled to machine code. Lastly, we demonstrate how application policies can be used to mitigate the possibility of exploiting vulnerable applications.

Keywords
Internet of things, Embedded systems, Virtual machine, Resource management, Policy enforcement, High-level programming
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362630 (URN)10.1016/j.jnca.2018.06.001 (DOI)000441489400004 ()
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-11-20
De Guglielmo, D., Al Nahas, B., Duquennoy, S., Voigt, T. & Anastasi, G. (2017). Analysis and experimental evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH CSMA-CA Algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(2), 1573-1588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis and experimental evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH CSMA-CA Algorithm
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 1573-1588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) is one of the medium access control (MAC) behavior modes defined in the IEEE 802.15.4e standard. It combines time-slotted access and channel hopping, thus providing predictable latency, energy efficiency, communication reliability, and high network capacity. TSCH provides both dedicated and shared links. The latter is special slots assigned to more than one transmitter, whose concurrent access is regulated by a carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA) algorithm. In this paper, we develop an analytical model of the TSCH CSMA-CA algorithm to predict the performance experienced by nodes when using shared links. The model allows for deriving a number of metrics, such as delivery probability, packet latency, and energy consumption of nodes. Moreover, it considers the capture effect (CE) that typically occurs in real wireless networks. We validate the model through simulation experiments and measurements in a real testbed. Our results show that the model is very accurate. Furthermore, we found that the CE plays a fundamental role as it can significantly improve the performance experienced by nodes.

Keywords
Capture effect (CE), IEEE 802.15.4e, time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH), wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs)
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308593 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2016.2553176 (DOI)000395740300055 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-28 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Varshney, A., Soleiman, A., Mottola, L. & Voigt, T. (2017). Battery-free Visible Light Sensing. In: Proc. 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems: . Paper presented at VLCS 2017, October 16, Snowbird, UT (pp. 3-8). New York: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-free Visible Light Sensing
2017 (English)In: Proc. 4th ACM Workshop on Visible Light Communication Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2017, p. 3-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2017
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335564 (URN)10.1145/3129881.3129890 (DOI)978-1-4503-5142-3 (ISBN)
Conference
VLCS 2017, October 16, Snowbird, UT
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Raza, S., Misra, P., He, Z. & Thiemo, V. (2017). Building the Internet of Things with bluetooth smart. Ad hoc networks, 57, 19-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building the Internet of Things with bluetooth smart
2017 (English)In: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 57, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things, or the IoT, is an emerging, disruptive technology that enables physical devices to communicate across disparate networks. IP has been the de facto standard for seamless interconnectivity in the traditional Internet; and piggybacking on the success of IP, 6LoWPAN has been the first standardized technology to realize it for networks of resource-constrained devices. In the recent past Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) a.k.a Bluetooth Smart - a subset of the Bluetooth v4.0 and the latest v4.2 stack, has surfaced as an appealing alternative, with many competing advantages over available low-power communication technologies in the IoT space such as IEEE 802.15.4. However, BLE is a closed standard and lacks open hardware and firmware support, something that hinders innovation and development in this field. In this article, we aim to overcome some of the constraints in BLE's core building blocks by making three contributions: first, we present the design of a new open hardware platform for BLE; second, we provide a Contiki O.S. port for the new platform; and third, we identify research challenges and opportunities in 6LoWPAN-connected Bluetooth Smart. We believe that the knowledge and insights will facilitate IoT innovations based on this promising technology.

Keywords
Internet of things, IoT, Bluetooth LE, BLE, Open hardware, Open source, Contiki O.S
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318918 (URN)10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.08.012 (DOI)000394400100003 ()
Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Asan, N. B., Carlos, P. P., Redzwan, S., Noreland, D., Hassan, E., Rydberg, A., . . . Augustine, R. (2017). Data Packet Transmission through Fat Tissue for Wireless Intra-Body Networks. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data Packet Transmission through Fat Tissue for Wireless Intra-Body Networks
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 2469-7249Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This work explores high data rate microwave communication through fat tissue in order to address the wide bandwidth requirements of intra-body area networks. We have designed and carried out experiments on an IEEE 802.15.4 based WBAN prototype by measuring the performance of the fat tissue channel in terms of data packet reception with respect to tissue length and power transmission. This paper proposes and demonstrates a high data rate communication channel through fat tissue using phantom and ex-vivo environments. Here, we achieve a data packet reception of approximately 96 % in both environments. The results also show that the received signal strength drops by ~1 dBm per 10 mm in phantom and ~2 dBm per 10 mm in ex-vivo. The phantom and ex-vivo experimentations validated our approach for high data rate communication through fat tissue for intrabody network applications. The proposed method opens up new opportunities for further research in fat channel communication. This study will contribute to the successful development of high bandwidth wireless intra-body networks that support high data rate implanted, ingested, injected, or worn devices

Keywords
Intra-body communication, microwave, channel characterization, data packet, Software Defined Radio, GNU Radio, exvivo, phantom
National Category
Engineering and Technology Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335351 (URN)10.1109/JERM.2017.2766561 (DOI)
Projects
Eurostars project under Grant E-9655-COMFORTSwedish Vinnova project under Grant BDAS (2015-04159)Swedish Vinnova project under Reliable, interoperable and secure communication for body network (2017-03568)
Funder
eSSENCE - An eScience CollaborationVINNOVA, 2015-04159VINNOVA, 2017-03568
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2586-8573

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