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Publications (10 of 160) Show all publications
Asan, N. B., Hassan, E., Perez, M. D., Shah, S. R., Velander, J., Blokhuis, T. J., . . . Augustine, R. (2019). Assessment of Blood Vessel Effect on Fat-Intrabody Communication Using Numerical and Ex-Vivo Models at 2.45 GHZ. IEEE Access, 7, 89886-89900
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Blood Vessel Effect on Fat-Intrabody Communication Using Numerical and Ex-Vivo Models at 2.45 GHZ
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 89886-89900Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential offered by the intra-body communication (IBC) over the past few years has resulted in a spike of interest for the topic, specifically for medical applications. Fat-IBC is subsequently a novel alternative technique that utilizes fat tissue as a communication channel. This work aimed to identify such transmission medium and its performance in varying blood-vessel systems at 2.45 GHz, particularly in the context of the IBC and medical applications. It incorporated three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic simulations and laboratory investigations that implemented models of blood vessels of varying orientations, sizes, and positions. Such investigations were undertaken by using ex-vivo porcine tissues and three blood-vessel system configurations. These configurations represent extreme cases of real-life scenarios that sufficiently elucidated their principal influence on the transmission. The blood-vessel models consisted of ex-vivo muscle tissues and copper rods. The results showed that the blood vessels crossing the channel vertically contributed to 5.1 dB and 17.1 dB signal losses for muscle and copper rods, respectively, which is the worst-case scenario in the context of fat-channel with perturbance. In contrast, blood vessels aligned-longitudinally in the channel have less effect and yielded 4.5 dB and 4.2 dB signal losses for muscle and copper rods, respectively. Meanwhile, the blood vessels crossing the channel horizontally displayed 3.4 dB and 1.9 dB signal losses for muscle and copper rods, respectively, which were the smallest losses among the configurations. The laboratory investigations were in agreement with the simulations. Thus, this work substantiated the fat-IBC signal transmission variability in the context of varying blood vessel configurations.

Keywords
Blood vessel, channel characterization, fat-IBC, intrabody microwave communication, path loss
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392068 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2926646 (DOI)000476817400018 ()
Funder
Vinnova, 2015-04159Vinnova, 2017-03568Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT17-0020EU, Horizon 2020, SINTEC-824984eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Carlos, P. P. & Voigt, T. (2019). Carrier Scheduling in IoT Networks with Interoperable Battery-free Backscatter Tags. In: IPSN '19: Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks. Paper presented at 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN),ontreal, Canada, April 16-18, 2019 (pp. 329-330). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier Scheduling in IoT Networks with Interoperable Battery-free Backscatter Tags
2019 (English)In: IPSN '19: Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 329-330Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

New battery-free backscatter tags that integrate with unmodified standard IoT devices can extend the latter's sensing capabilities in a scalable and cost effective way. Existing IoT nodes can provide the unmodulated carrier needed by the new nodes, avoiding the need for additional infrastructure. This, however, puts extra energetic demands on constrained IoT nodes while increasing interference and contention in the network. We use a slotted MAC protocol to guarantee synchronization between transmitters, receivers and carrier generators. We then express the slot allocation problem as a Constraint Optimization Problem (COP) that parallelizes interrogations to battery-free tags when they do not collide with each other and reuses carriers for multiple tags looking to minimize the total time and the number of carrier generators needed to interrogate a set of tags. In networks with sufficient battery-free nodes we obtain a 25% reduction in the number of necessary carriers and a 50% decrease in interrogation time in most cases; leading to significant energy savings, reduced collisions and improved latency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019
Keywords
Backscatter, Battery-free, MAC-layer, Schedule, Optimization
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390234 (URN)10.1145/3302506.3312613 (DOI)000474338900040 ()978-1-4503-6284-9 (ISBN)
Conference
8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN),ontreal, Canada, April 16-18, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Ye, L., Voigt, T., Wirström, N. & Höglund, J. (2019). ECOVIBE:: On-Demand Sensing for Railway Bridge Structural Health Monitoring. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 6(1), 1068-1078
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ECOVIBE:: On-Demand Sensing for Railway Bridge Structural Health Monitoring
2019 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1068-1078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy efficient sensing is one of the main objectives in the design of networked embedded monitoring systems. However, existing approaches such as duty cycling and ambient energy harvesting face challenges in railway bridge health monitoring applications due to the unpredictability of train passages and insufficient ambient energy around bridges. This paper presents ECOVIBE (Eco-friendly Vibration), an on-demand sensing system that automatically turns on itself when a train passes on the bridge and adaptively powers itself off after finishing all tasks. After that, it goes into an inactive state with near-zero power dissipation. ECOVIBE achieves these by: Firstly, a novel, fully passive event detection circuit to continuously detect passing trains without consuming any energy. Secondly, combining train-induced vibration energy harvesting with a transistor-based load switch, a tiny amount of energy is sufficient to keep ECOVIBE active for a long time. Thirdly, a passive adaptive off control circuit is introduced to quickly switch off ECOVIBE. Also this circuit does not consume any energy during inactivity periods. We present the prototype implementation of the proposed system using commercially available components and evaluate its performance in real-world scenarios. Our results show that ECOVIBE is effective in railway bridge health monitoring applications.

National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366921 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2018.2867086 (DOI)000459709500090 ()
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
Luca, M., Picco, G. P., Oppermann, F., Eriksson, J., Finne, N., Fuchs, H., . . . Voigt, T. (2019). makeSense: Simplifying the Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Business Processes. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 45(6), 576-596
Open this publication in new window or tab >>makeSense: Simplifying the Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Business Processes
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 576-596Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wide gap exists between the state of the art in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software and current practices concerning the design, execution, and maintenance of business processes. WSN software is most often developed based on low-level OS abstractions, whereas business process development leverages high-level languages and tools. This state of affairs places WSNs at the fringe of industry. The makeSense system addresses this problem by simplifying the integration of WSNs into business processes. Developers use BPMN models extended with WSN-specific constructs to specify the application behavior across both traditional business process execution environments and the WSN itself, which is to be equipped with application-specific software. We compile these models into a high-level intermediate language—also directly usable by WSN developers—and then into OS-specific deployment-ready binaries. Key to this process is the notion of meta-abstraction, which we define to capture fundamental patterns of interaction with and within the WSN. The concrete realization of meta-abstractions is application-specific; developers tailor the system configuration by selecting concrete abstractions out of the existing codebase or by providing their own. Our evaluation of makeSense shows that i) users perceive our approach as a significant advance over the state of the art, providing evidence of the increased developer productivity when using makeSense; ii) in large-scale simulations, our prototype exhibits an acceptable system overhead and good scaling properties, demonstrating the general applicability of makeSense; and, iii) our prototype—including the complete tool-chain and underlying system support—sustains a real-world deployment where estimates by domain specialists indicate the potential for drastic reductions in the total cost of ownership compared to wired and conventional WSN-based solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367005 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2017.2787585 (DOI)000471686800003 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-2009-5 258351
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Carlos, P. P., Noda, C., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Battery-free 802.15. 4 Receiver. In: 7th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN): . Paper presented at 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018.. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-free 802.15. 4 Receiver
2018 (English)In: 7th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the architecture of an 802.15.4 receiver that, for the first time, operates at a few hundred microwatts, enabling new battery-free applications. To reach the required micro-power consumption, the architecture diverges from that of commodity receivers in two important ways. First, it offloads the power-hungry local oscillator to an external device, much like backscatter transmitters do. Second, we avoid the energy cost of demodulating a phase-modulated signal by treating 802.15.4 as a frequency-modulated one, which allows us to receive with a simple passive detector and an energy-efficient thresholding circuit. We describe a prototype that can receive 802.15.4 frames with a power consumption of 361 μW. Our receiver prototype achieves sufficient communication range to integrate with deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We illustrate this integration by pairing the prototype with an 802.15.4 backscatter transmitter and integrating it with unmodified 802.15.4 sensor nodes running the TSCH and Glossy protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Battery free, Backscatter, receiver, 802.15.4, Zigbee, sensor networks, passive radio, wireless
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366929 (URN)10.1109/IPSN.2018.00045 (DOI)000449016500037 ()978-1-5386-5298-5 (ISBN)
Conference
17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018.
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-045989Knowledge Foundation, 20140319
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Asan, N. B., Hassan, E., Velander, J., Redzwan, S., Noreland, D., Blokhuis, T. J., . . . Augustine, R. (2018). Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies. Sensors, 18(9), Article ID 2752.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies
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2018 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 2752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7-2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of similar to 0.7 dB and similar to 1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.

Keywords
intra-body communication, path loss, microwave probes, channel characterization, fat tissue, ex-vivo, phantom, dielectric properties, topology optimization
National Category
Computer Sciences Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369000 (URN)10.3390/s18092752 (DOI)000446940600011 ()30134629 (PubMedID)
Funder
VINNOVA, 2015-04159VINNOVA, 2017-03568Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT17-0020Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Giustiniano, D., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Connecting Battery-free IoT Tags Using LED Bulbs. In: : . Paper presented at 17th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, Nov 8 - Nov 9, 2018,Redmond, Washington, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connecting Battery-free IoT Tags Using LED Bulbs
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366916 (URN)
Conference
17th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, Nov 8 - Nov 9, 2018,Redmond, Washington, USA
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Carlos, P. P., Noda, C., Varshney, A. & Voigt, T. (2018). Demo Abstract: Battery-Free 802.15.4 Receiver. In: 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN): . Paper presented at 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018. (pp. 130-131). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo Abstract: Battery-Free 802.15.4 Receiver
2018 (English)In: 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), IEEE, 2018, p. 130-131Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present the architecture for an 802.15.4 receiver that enables battery-free operation. To reach micro-power consumption, the architecture diverges from that of commodity receivers in the following ways: First, similar to backscatter transmitters, it offloads the power-hungry local oscillator to an external device. Second, we avoid the energy cost of demodulating a phase-modulated signal by treating 802.15.4 as a frequency-modulated one, allowing us to receive with a simple passive detector and an energy-efficient thresholding circuit. We demonstrate an off-the-shelf prototype of our receiver receives 802.15.4 from a distance of 470 cm with the carrier generator 30 cm away. This range is sufficient to integrate with deployed wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We demonstrate this integration by pairing our receiver with a 802.15.4 backscatter transmitter and integrating it with unmodified commodity sensor nodes running the TSCH protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Sensor networks, battery free, backscatter, receiver, 802.15.4
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366926 (URN)10.1109/IPSN.2018.00028 (DOI)000449016500020 ()978-1-5386-5298-5 (ISBN)
Conference
17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 April, 2018.
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-045989Knowledge Foundation, 20140319
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Hylamia, A., Spanghero, M., Varshney, A., Voigt, T. & Papadimitratos, P. (2018). Demo: Security on Harvested Power. In: WISEC'18: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH ACM CONFERENCE ON SECURITY & PRIVACY IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE NETWORKS. Paper presented at 11th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WiSec), JUN 18-20, 2018, Stockholm, SWEDEN (pp. 296-298). ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo: Security on Harvested Power
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2018 (English)In: WISEC'18: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH ACM CONFERENCE ON SECURITY & PRIVACY IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE NETWORKS, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2018, p. 296-298Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Security mechanisms for battery-free devices have to operate under severe energy constraints relying on harvested energy. This is challenging, as the energy harvested from the ambient environment is usually scarce, intermittent and unpredictable. One of the challenges for developing security mechanisms for such settings is the lack of hardware platforms that recreate energy harvesting conditions experienced on a battery-free sensor node. In this demonstration, we present an energy harvesting security (EHS) platform that enables the development of security algorithms for battery-free sensors. Our results demonstrate that our platform is able to harvest sufficient energy from indoor lighting to support several widely used cryptography algorithms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, 2018
Keywords
Energy-harvesting, battery-free, embedded systems security, platforms
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377116 (URN)10.1145/3212480.3226105 (DOI)000456097500038 ()978-1-4503-5731-9 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WiSec), JUN 18-20, 2018, Stockholm, SWEDEN
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Hylamia, A., Varshney, A., Soleiman, A., Papadimitratos, P., Rohner, C. & Voigt, T. (2018). Demo: Towards Battery-free Radio Tomographic Imaging. In: WISEC'18: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH ACM CONFERENCE ON SECURITY & PRIVACY IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE NETWORKS. Paper presented at 11th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WiSec), JUN 18-20, 2018, Stockholm, SWEDEN (pp. 293-295). ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demo: Towards Battery-free Radio Tomographic Imaging
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2018 (English)In: WISEC'18: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH ACM CONFERENCE ON SECURITY & PRIVACY IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE NETWORKS, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2018, p. 293-295Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI) enables novel radio frequency (RF) sensing applications such as intrusion detection systems by observing variations in radio links caused by human actions. RTI applications are, however, severely limited by the requirement to retrofit existing infrastructure with energy-expensive sensors. In this demonstration, we present our ongoing efforts to develop the first battery-free RTI system that operates on minuscule amounts of energy harvested from the ambient environment. Our system eliminates the energy-expensive components employed on state-of-the-art RTI systems achieving two orders of magnitude lower power consumption. Battery-free operation enables a sustainable deployment, as RTI sensors could be deployed for long periods of time with little maintenance effort. Our demonstration showcases an intrusion detection scenario enabled by our system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, 2018
Keywords
radio-tomographic-imaging, battery-free, backscatter
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377115 (URN)10.1145/3212480.3226107 (DOI)000456097500037 ()978-1-4503-5731-9 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WiSec), JUN 18-20, 2018, Stockholm, SWEDEN
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2586-8573

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