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Winman, Anders, Professor
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Hagström, J. & Winman, A. (2018). Virtually overcoming grammar learning with 3D application of Loci mnemonics?. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtually overcoming grammar learning with 3D application of Loci mnemonics?
2018 (English)In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352617 (URN)10.1002/acp.3418 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-06 Created: 2018-06-06 Last updated: 2018-06-29
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2017). Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety. Cognition, 159, 156-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety
2017 (English)In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 159, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA.

Keywords
Numerical cognition, Approximate Number System, Math anxiety
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310372 (URN)10.1016/j.cognition.2016.11.014 (DOI)000392787600014 ()27960118 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Van den Berg, R., Lindskog, M., Poom, L. & Winman, A. (2017). Recent Is More: A Negative Time-Order Effect in Nonsymbolic Numerical Judgment.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(6), 1084-1097
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent Is More: A Negative Time-Order Effect in Nonsymbolic Numerical Judgment.
2017 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523Print, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1084-1097Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Humans as well as some nonhuman animals can estimate object numerosities—such as the number of sheep in a flock—without explicit counting. Here, we report on a negative time-order effect (TOE) in this type of judgment: When nonsymbolic numerical stimuli are presented sequentially, the second stimulus is overestimated compared to the first. We examined this “recent is more” effect in two comparative judgment tasks: larger–smaller discrimination and same–different discrimination. Ideal-observer modeling revealed evidence for a TOE in 88.2% of the individual data sets. Despite large individual differences in effect size, there was strong consistency in effect direction: 87.3% of the identified TOEs were negative. The average effect size was largely independent of task but did strongly depend on both stimulus magnitude and interstimulus interval. Finally, we used an estimation task to obtain insight into the origin of the effect. We found that subjects tend to overestimate both stimuli but the second one more strongly than the first one. Overall, our findings are highly consistent with findings from studies on TOEs in nonnumerical judgments, which suggests a common underlying mechanism.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317321 (URN)10.1037/xhp0000387 (DOI)000402759300004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-08-30Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2016). Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article ID 1634.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to support non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes in humans. Recently much debate has focused on the causal direction for an observed relation between ANS acuity and arithmetic fluency. Here we investigate if arithmetic training can improve ANS acuity. We show with an experimental training study consisting of six 45-min training sessions that although feedback during arithmetic training improves arithmetic performance substantially, it does not influence ANS acuity. Hence, we find no support for a causal link where symbolic arithmetic training influences ANS acuity. Further, although short-term number memory is likely involved in arithmetic tasks we did not find that short-term memory capacity for numbers, measured by a digit-span test, was effected by arithmetic training. This suggests that the improvement in arithmetic fluency may have occurred independent of short-term memory efficiency, but rather due to long-term memory processes and/or mental calculation strategy development. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords
approximate number system, arithmetic fluency, training, short-term memory, numbers
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308638 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01634 (DOI)000386097000001 ()27826270 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Juslin, P. & Winman, A. (2016). Heuristics Can Produce Surprisingly Rational Probability Estimates: Comment on Costello and Watts (2014). Psychological review, 123(1), 103-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heuristics Can Produce Surprisingly Rational Probability Estimates: Comment on Costello and Watts (2014)
2016 (English)In: Psychological review, ISSN 0033-295X, E-ISSN 1939-1471, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 103-111Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Costello and Watts (2014) present a model assuming that people’s knowledge of probabilities adheres toprobability theory, but that their probability judgments are perturbed by a random noise in the retrievalfrom memory. Predictions for the relationships between probability judgments for constituent events andtheir disjunctions and conjunctions, as well as for sums of such judgments were derived from probabilitytheory. Costello and Watts (2014) report behavioral data showing that subjective probability judgmentsaccord with these predictions. Based on the finding that subjective probability judgments followprobability theory, Costello and Watts (2014) conclude that the results imply that people’s probabilityjudgments embody the rules of probability theory and thereby refute theories of heuristic processing.Here, we demonstrate the invalidity of this conclusion by showing that all of the tested predictions followstraightforwardly from an account assuming heuristic probability integration (Nilsson, Winman, Juslin,& Hansson, 2009). We end with a discussion of a number of previous findings that harmonize very poorlywith the predictions by the model suggested by Costello and Watts (2014).

Keywords
probability judgment, rationality, conjunction error, configural weighted average, random variation
National Category
Social Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-270761 (URN)10.1037/a0039249 (DOI)000367327000008 ()26709414 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012–1212
Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M. & Winman, A. (2016). No evidence of learning in non-symbolic numerical tasks: A comment on Park & Brannon (2014). Cognition, 150, 243-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No evidence of learning in non-symbolic numerical tasks: A comment on Park & Brannon (2014)
2016 (English)In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 150, p. 243-247Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two recent studies - one of which was published in this journal - claimed to have found that learning on a non-symbolic arithmetic task improved performance on a symbolic arithmetic task (Park & Brannon, 2013, 2014). This finding has potentially far-reaching implications, because it would constitute evidence for a causal link between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and symbolic-math ability. Here, we argue that, due to the methodology used in both studies, the interpretation of data in terms of an improvement in ANS performance is problematic. We provide arguments and simulations showing that the trends in the data are similar to what one would expect for a non-learning observer. We discuss the implications for the original interpretation in terms of causality between non-symbolic and symbolic arithmetic performance.

Keywords
Cognitive training; Training effect; Transfer effect; Math intervention
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-286669 (URN)10.1016/j.cognition.2016.01.005 (DOI)000373550400022 ()26972468 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-21 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M., Kerimi, N., Winman, A. & Juslin, P. (2015). A Swedish validation of the Berlin Numeracy test. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(2), 132-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Swedish validation of the Berlin Numeracy test
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent research has highlighted the importance of considering an individual’s level of numeracy, that is their numerical abilities, in a vast variety of judgment and decision making tasks. To accurately evaluate the influence of numeracy requires good and valid measures of the construct. In the present study we validate a Swedish version of the Berlin Numeracy Test (Cokely, Galesic, Schulz, Ghazal & Garcia-Retamero, 2012). The validation was car- ried out on both a student sample and a sample representative of the Swedish population. The Swedish BNT showed sound psychometrical properties in both samples. Further, in both samples the BNT had satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity when correlating with other measures of numeracy, while not being significantly related to measures of personality. With respect to predictive validity the results indicated divergent patterns in the two samples. In the student sample, participants scoring highest on the BNT outperformed those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. In contrast, in the population sample participants scoring lowest on the BNT performed worse than those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. Taken together, however, the results suggest that the Swedish version of the BNT should be considered a valid measure of numeracy in both Swedish student and population representative samples.

Keywords
Berlin Numeracy Test, statistical numeracy, individual differences, decision making, student sample, population sample, Swedish validation.
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247922 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12189 (DOI)000351217500003 ()25581209 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-03-25 Created: 2015-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M. & Winman, A. (2014). Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e97686
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are all Data Created Equal?: Exploring Some Boundary Conditions for a Lazy Intuitive Statistician
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, p. e97686-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study investigated potential effects of the presentation order of numeric information on retrospective subjective judgments of descriptive statistics of this information. The studies were theoretically motivated by the assumption in the naive sampling model of independence between temporal encoding order of data in long-term memory and retrieval probability (i.e. as implied by a "random sampling'' from memory metaphor). In Experiment 1, participants experienced Arabic numbers that varied in distribution shape/variability between the first and the second half of the information sequence. Results showed no effects of order on judgments of mean, variability or distribution shape. To strengthen the interpretation of these results, Experiment 2 used a repeated judgment procedure, with an initial judgment occurring prior to the change in distribution shape of the information half-way through data presentation. The results of Experiment 2 were in line with those from Experiment 1, and in addition showed that the act of making explicit judgments did not impair accuracy of later judgments, as would be suggested by an anchoring and insufficient adjustment strategy. Overall, the results indicated that participants were very responsive to the properties of the data while at the same time being more or less immune to order effects. The results were interpreted as being in line with the naive sampling models in which values are stored as exemplars and sampled randomly from long-term memory.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211504 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0097686 (DOI)000339614800063 ()24834913 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2014). Can approximate number system acuity improve with arithmetic training?. In: : . Paper presented at The 36th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci) — Quebec City, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can approximate number system acuity improve with arithmetic training?
2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247663 (URN)
Conference
The 36th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci) — Quebec City, Canada
Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2015-03-23
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Juslin, P. (2014). The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity
2014 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 462-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity.

Keywords
approximate number system, arithmetic fluency, higher education, numeracy
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-227718 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00462 (DOI)000336136800001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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