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Domellöf, E., Bäckström, A., Johansson, A.-M., Rönnqvist, L., von Hofsten, C. & Rosander, K. (2020). Kinematic characteristics of second-order motor planning and performance in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults: Effects of age and task constraints. Developmental Psychology, 62(2), 250-265
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinematic characteristics of second-order motor planning and performance in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults: Effects of age and task constraints
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2020 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 250-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explored age-related differences in motor planning as expressed in arm-hand kinematics during a sequential peg moving task with varying demands on goal insertion complexity (second-order planning). The peg was a vertical cylinder with either a circular or semicircular base. The task was to transport the peg between two positions and rotate it various amounts horizontally before fitting into its final position. The amount of rotation required was either 0°, 90°, 180°, or ?90°. The reaching for the peg, the displacement of it, and the way the rotation was accomplished was analyzed. Assessments of end state comfort, goal interpretation errors, and type of grip used were also included. Participants were two groups of typically developing children, one younger (Mage = 6.7 years) and one older (Mage = 10.3 years), and one adult group (Mage = 34.9 years). The children, particularly 6-year-olds, displayed less efficient prehensile movement organization than adults. Related to less efficient motor planning, 6-year-olds, mainly, had shorter reach-to-grasp onset latencies, higher velocities, and shorter time to peak velocities, and longer grasp durations than adults. Importantly, the adults rotated the peg during transport. In contrast, the children made corrective rotations after the hand had arrived at the goal.

Keywords
action prediction, children, end state comfort, kinematics, motor planning
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392905 (URN)10.1002/dev.21911 (DOI)000486098900001 ()31502277 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2015.0192Swedish Research Council, 2011-179
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
Soska, K. C., Rachwani, J., von Hofsten, C. & Adolph, K. E. (2019). Infants plan prehension while pivoting. Developmental Psychobiology, 61(7), 1048-1063
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants plan prehension while pivoting
2019 (English)In: Developmental Psychobiology, ISSN 0012-1630, E-ISSN 1098-2302, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1048-1063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Skilled object retrieval requires coordination of the perceptual and motor systems. Coordination is especially challenging when body position is changing and visual search is required to locate the target. In three experiments, we used a ?pivot paradigm? to induce changes in body position: Participants were passively pivoted 180° toward a target placed at varied locations to the left and right of the center of a reaching board. Experiment 1 showed that 6- to 15-month-old infants (n = 41) plan prehension so quickly that they retrieve targets mid-turn and scale their reaches to target location relative to turn direction. Experiment 2 characterized planning mid-turn reaching in 6- to 8-month-olds (n = 5) wearing a head-mounted eye tracker. Reach planning depended on when the target appeared in the field of view?not on target fixation. Experiment 3 used head-mounted eye tracking and motion tracking to assess perceptual?motor coordination in adults (n = 13). Adults displayed more mid-turn reaching than infants. But like infants, adults scaled reaching to target location relative to turn direction, and contact time depended on when the target came into view?not on target fixation. Findings show that fast, efficient perceptual?motor coordination supports flexibility in infant prehension, and constraints on coordination are similar across the lifespan.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
infant, object prehension, planning, prospective control, reaching
National Category
Psychology Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382885 (URN)10.1002/dev.21856 (DOI)000493278800007 ()31032892 (PubMedID)
Funder
NIH (National Institute of Health), R37HD033486
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Kaul, Y. F., Rosander, K., Grönqvist, H., Brodd, K. S., Hellström-Westas, L. & von Hofsten, C. (2019). Reaching skills of infants born very preterm predict neurodevelopment at 2.5 years. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, Article ID 101333.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reaching skills of infants born very preterm predict neurodevelopment at 2.5 years
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2019 (English)In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 57, article id 101333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose was to investigate associations between quality of reaching for moving objects at 8 months corrected age and neurodevelopment at 2.5 years in children born very preterm (gestational age (GA), 24–31 weeks). Thirtysix infants were assessed while reaching for moving objects. The movements were recorded by a 3D motion capture system. Reaching parameters included aiming, relative length of the reach, number of movement units, proportion of bimanual coupled reaches and number of hits. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2.5 years by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. There were strong associations between infant reaching kinematics and neurodevelopment of cognition and language but the patterns differed: in children born extremely preterm (GA < 28 weeks), planning and control of reaching was strongly related to outcome, while in children born very preterm (GA 28–31 weeks) number of hits and bimanual strategies were of greater relevance. In conclusion, for extremely preterm infants, basic problems on how motion information is incorporated with action planning prevail, while in very preterm infants the coordination of bimanual reaches is more at the focus. We conclude that the results reflect GA related differences in neural vulnerability and that early motor coordination deficits have a cascading effect on neurodevelopment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Cognition, Language, Motor function, BSID-III, Neurodevelopment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-388444 (URN)10.1016/j.infbeh.2019.101333 (DOI)000500374700012 ()31238256 (PubMedID)
Funder
Sven Jerring FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2009-1093Swedish Research Council, 2016-03109
Available from: 2019-06-30 Created: 2019-06-30 Last updated: 2020-01-02Bibliographically approved
Hreinsdottir, J., Kaul, Y. F., Hellström-Westas, L., Rosander, K., von Hofsten, C. & Holmström, G. (2018). Impaired cognitive ability at 2.5 years predicts later visual and ophthalmological problems in children born very preterm. Acta Paediatrica, 107(5), 822-830
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired cognitive ability at 2.5 years predicts later visual and ophthalmological problems in children born very preterm
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2018 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 822-830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To identify possible predictive factors for visual problems at 6.5 years in children born very preterm.

Methods: During 2004–2007, all very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <32 weeks) in Uppsala County, Sweden were screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) neonatally; at four months, visual tracking was tested; at 2.5 years, visuospatial and cognitive tests were carried out. At 6.5 years, 84 preterm children and a reference group of 64 full‐term children underwent ophthalmological testing.

Results: Mean visual acuity (VA) did not differ between the groups, but subnormal VA (≤0.8) was more common in the preterm group (31% vs 14%; p < 0.05). More often than full‐term children, preterm children had impaired contrast sensitivity (<0.5) (36% vs 19%; p < 0.05) and strabismus (8% vs 0%; p < 0.05). Low GA, ROP, intraventricular haemorrhage 3‐4/periventricular leukomalacia and cognitive disability at 2.5 years predicted ophthalmological and visual problems at 6.5 years. Visual tracking ability at four months was not predictive of ophthalmological outcome.

Conclusion: Children born preterm had more ophthalmological problems at 6.5 years of age, including subtle dysfunctions. ROP, early brain injury and impaired cognitive function around 2.5 years predicted later ophthalmological dysfunctions.

Keywords
Cognition, Long term, Risk factor, Very preterm, Visual outcome
National Category
Ophthalmology Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348648 (URN)10.1111/apa.14209 (DOI)000430115100016 ()29288532 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
von Hofsten, C. & Rosander, K. (2018). The Development of Sensorimotor Intelligence in Infants. In: Plumert, J M (Ed.), Studying The Perception-Action System As A Model System For Understanding Development: (pp. 73-106). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Development of Sensorimotor Intelligence in Infants
2018 (English)In: Studying The Perception-Action System As A Model System For Understanding Development / [ed] Plumert, J M, Elsevier, 2018, p. 73-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Infancy is the most dynamic part of human development. During this period, all basic sensorimotor and cognitive abilities are established. In this chapter, we will trace some of the important achievements of this development with a focus on how infants achieve predictive control of actions, i.e., how they come to coordinate their behavior with the ongoing events in the world without lagging behind. With the maturation of the brain, new possibilities that have profound effects on cognition open up. Some of them are core abilities, i.e., they function at birth or very early in development. Important examples are the structured perception of objects and surfaces and the control of arm movements. Closely after birth, infants move their arms to the vicinity of objects in front of them demonstrating that they have some control of their arms and indicating that they perceive objects as such. Another example is the rapid onset of smooth-pursuit eye movements during the second month of life and the emerging ability to predict when and where an occluded moving object will reappear. At 4 months of age, out of sight is no longer of mind. The child's sensorimotor system is especially designed to facilitate the extraction of knowledge about the world including other people. In addition, the infant is endowed with motives that ensure that the innate predispositions are transformed into a system of knowledge for guiding actions predictively. By perceiving and acting on the world, infants develop their cognition and through developmental studies; we can learn more about these processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Series
Advances in Child Development and Behavior, ISSN 0065-2407 ; 55
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373087 (URN)10.1016/bs.acdb.2018.04.003 (DOI)000453660300004 ()30031439 (PubMedID)978-0-12-814763-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
von Hofsten, C. (2017). Do children grow into cerebral palsy?. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 59(11), 1107-1107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do children grow into cerebral palsy?
2017 (English)In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 1107-1107Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376986 (URN)10.1111/dmcn.13551 (DOI)000419972100007 ()28914441 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Gottwald, J. M., de Bortoli Vizioli, A., Lindskog, M., Nyström, P., Ekberg, T. L., von Hofsten, C. & Gredebäck, G. (2017). Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?. Developmental Psychology, 53(1), 4-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?
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2017 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 4-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system. Peak velocity of the first movement unit of the reach served as indicator for prospective motor control. Both difficulty aspects (goal size and goal distance) affected prior reaching, suggesting that both these aspects of the subsequent action have an impact on the prior action. The smaller the goal size and the longer the distance to the goal, the slower infants were in the beginning of their reach toward the object. Additionally, we modeled movement times of both reaching and placing actions using a formulation of Fitts' law (as in heading). The model was significant for placement and reaching movement times. These findings suggest that 14-month-olds can plan their future actions and prospectively control their related movements with respect to future task difficulties.

Keywords
prospective motor control, action planning, action sequence, action development, movement unit, Fitts' law, infancy
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297638 (URN)10.1037/dev0000212 (DOI)000391700500002 ()28026189 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 289404
Available from: 2016-06-26 Created: 2016-06-26 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Vernon, D., von Hofsten, C. & Fadiga, L. (2016). Desiderata for developmental cognitive architectures. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURES, 18, 116-127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Desiderata for developmental cognitive architectures
2016 (English)In: BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURES, ISSN 2212-683X, Vol. 18, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper complements Ron Sun's influential Desiderata for Cognitive Architectures by focussing on the desirable attributes of a biologically-inspired cognitive architecture for an agent with a capacity for autonomous development. Ten desiderata are identified, dealing with value systems & motives, embodiment, sensorimotor contingencies, perception, attention, prospective action, memory, learning, internal simulation, and constitutive autonomy. These desiderata are motivated by studies in developmental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and enactive cognitive science. All ten focus on the ultimate aspects of cognitive development why a feature is necessary and what it enables rather on than the proximate mechanisms by which it can be realized. As such, the desiderata are for the most part neutral regarding the paradigm of cognitive science - cognitivist or emergent - that is adopted when designing a cognitive architecture. Where some element of a desideratum is specific to a particular paradigm, this is noted.

Keywords
Autonomy, Cognitive architecture, Desiderata, Development, Ontogeny, Phylogeny
National Category
Neurology Bioinformatics (Computational Biology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314060 (URN)10.1016/j.bica.2016.10.004 (DOI)000390513600011 ()
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 688441 Action RockEU2
Available from: 2017-01-26 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Stapel, J., Rosander, K. & von Hofsten, C. (2016). Infants' Use of Multisensory Information for Postural Control. In: 2016 Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob): . Paper presented at IEEE Joint International Conference on Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob), SEP 19-22, 2016, Paris, FRANCE (pp. 202-203). New York: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants' Use of Multisensory Information for Postural Control
2016 (English)In: 2016 Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob), New York: IEEE, 2016, p. 202-203Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2016
National Category
Psychology Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331391 (URN)10.1109/DEVLRN.2016.7846819 (DOI)000401474000042 ()978-1-5090-5069-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Joint International Conference on Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob), SEP 19-22, 2016, Paris, FRANCE
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Kaul, Y. F., Rosander, K., Hofsten, von, C., Brodd, K. S., Holmström, G., Kaul, A., . . . Hellström-Westas, L. (2016). Visual tracking in very preterm infants at 4 months predicts neurodevelopment at 3 years of age. Pediatric Research, 80(1), 35-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual tracking in very preterm infants at 4 months predicts neurodevelopment at 3 years of age
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2016 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Typically developing infants track moving objects with eye and head movements in a smooth and predictive way at 4 mo of age, but this ability is delayed in very preterm infants. We hypothesized that visual tracking ability in very preterm infants predicts later neurodevelopment. METHOD: In 67 very preterm infants (gestational age<32wk), eye and head movements were assessed at 4 mo corrected age while the infant tracked a moving object. Gaze gain, smooth pursuit, head movements, and timing of gaze relative the object were analyzed off line. Results of the five subscales included in the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) at 3 y of age were evaluated in relation to the visual tracking data and to perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: Significant correlations were obtained between gaze gain and cognition, receptive and expressive language, and fine motor function, respectively, also after controlling for gestational age, severe brain damage, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CONCLUSION: This is the first study demonstrating that the basic ability to visually track a moving object at 4 mo robustly predicts neurodevelopment at 3 y of age in children born very preterm.

National Category
Psychology Pediatrics Ophthalmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284105 (URN)10.1038/pr.2016.37 (DOI)000379377900006 ()27027722 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2607-8274

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