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Evers, Kathinka
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Publications (10 of 41) Show all publications
Salles, A., Bjaalie, J., Evers, K., Farisco, M., Fothergill, T., Guerrero, M., . . . Amunts, K. (2019). The Human Brain Project: Responsible Brain Research for the Benefit of Society. Neuron, 101(3), 380-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Human Brain Project: Responsible Brain Research for the Benefit of Society
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2019 (English)In: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 380-384Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Keywords
neuroethics, brain research, consciousness, dual use
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376703 (URN)DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.005 (DOI)000457856700010 ()30731062 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 785907
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Evers, K. & Changeux, J.-P. (2018). Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, Article ID 595.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

Keywords
Addiction, Ethics of addiction, Unaware processing, Opioids Epidemics, Drugs addiction
National Category
Psychiatry Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364429 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00595 (DOI)000450456300001 ()30524319 (PubMedID)
Projects
Human Brain Project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 785907
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Renzi, C., Provencal, N., Bassil, K. C., Evers, K., Kihlbom, U., Radford, E. J., . . . Rutten, B. P. (2018). From Epigenetic Associations to Biological and Psychosocial Explanations in Mental Health.. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 158, 299-323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Epigenetic Associations to Biological and Psychosocial Explanations in Mental Health.
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2018 (English)In: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, ISSN 1877-1173, E-ISSN 1878-0814, Vol. 158, p. 299-323Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of mental disorders constitutes a complex phenomenon driven by unique social, psychological and biological factors such as genetics and epigenetics, throughout an individual's life course. Both environmental and genetic factors have an impact on mental health phenotypes and act simultaneously to induce changes in brain and behavior. Here, we describe and critically evaluate the current literature on gene-environment interactions and epigenetics on mental health by highlighting recent human and animal studies. We furthermore review some of the main ethical and social implications concerning gene-environment interactions and epigenetics and provide explanations and suggestions on how to move from statistical and epigenetic associations to biological and psychological explanations within a multi-disciplinary and integrative approach of understanding mental health.

Keywords
Brain development, Environment, Epidemiology, Epigenetics, Genetics, Gene–environment interactions, Mental disorders, Mental health, Neuronal epigenesis
National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372312 (URN)10.1016/bs.pmbts.2018.04.011 (DOI)000452377300013 ()30072059 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Hellgren Kotaleski, J. & Evers, K. (2018). Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 585.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

Keywords
Consciousness, Consciousness Disorders, brain modeling, Neuroethics, brain simulation
National Category
Computer Systems Ethics Philosophy Neurology Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Research subject
Neuroscience; Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347782 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00585 (DOI)000430833800001 ()29740372 (PubMedID)
Projects
The human brain project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Salles, A. & Evers, K. (2018). Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 27(4), 717-727
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach
2018 (English)In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 717-727Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e., neuroscience) and philosophical (i.e., ethics) interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.

Keywords
neuroethics, ethics, philosophy, neuroscience
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Neurology
Research subject
Ethics; Bioethics; Neuroscience; Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360367 (URN)10.1017/S0963180118000208 (DOI)000457483600018 ()30198472 (PubMedID)
Projects
The human brain project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
Available from: 2018-09-12 Created: 2018-09-12 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Salles, A., Evers, K. & Farisco, M. (2018). Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project. Neuroethics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project
2018 (English)In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms and priorities that shape scientific agendas. This requires the integration of anticipatory, inclusive, and responsive dimensions, and the nurturing of a certain type of reflexivity among a variety of stakeholders, from scientists to funders. In this paper, we do not address potential limitations but focus on the potential contribution of philosophical reflection to RRI in the context of the Ethics and Society subproject of the Human Brain Project (HBP). We show how the type of conceptual analysis provided by philosophically oriented approaches theoretically and ethically broadens research and innovation within the HBP. We further suggest that overt inclusion of philosophical reflection can promote the aims and objectives of RRI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2018
Keywords
RRI, Human Identity, Consciousness, Poverty, Brain, Neuroethics
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Medical Ethics
Research subject
Bioethics; Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354023 (URN)10.1007/s12152-018-9372-9 (DOI)
Projects
Human Brain Project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720270 (HBP SGA1) and 785907 (HBP SGA2)
Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Lipina, S. & Evers, K. (2017). Neuroscience of Childhood Poverty: Evidence of Impacts and Mechanisms as Vehicles of Dialog With Ethics. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 61.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroscience of Childhood Poverty: Evidence of Impacts and Mechanisms as Vehicles of Dialog With Ethics
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several studies have identified associations between poverty and development of self-regulation during childhood, which is broadly defined as those skills involved in cognitive, emotional, and stress self-regulation. These skills are influenced by different individual and contextual factors at multiple levels of analysis (i.e., individual, family, social, and cultural). Available evidence suggests that the influences of those biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors on emotional and cognitive development can vary according to the type, number, accumulation of risks, and co-occurrence of adverse circumstances that are related to poverty, the time in which these factors exert their influences, and the individual susceptibility to them. Complementary, during the past three decades, several experimental interventions that were aimed at optimizing development of self-regulation of children who live in poverty have been designed, implemented, and evaluated. Their results suggest that it is possible to optimize different aspects of cognitive performance and that it would be possible to transfer some aspects of these gains to other cognitive domains and academic achievement.We suggest that it is an important task for ethics, notably but not exclusively neuroethics, to engage in this interdisciplinary research domain to contribute analyses of key concepts, arguments, and interpretations. The specific evidence that neuroscience brings to the analyses of poverty and its implications needs to be spelled out in detail and clarified conceptually, notably in terms of causes of and attitudes toward poverty, implications of poverty for brain development, and for the possibilities to reduce and reverse these effects.

Keywords
interdisciplinarity, childhood poverty, neuroscience, neuroethics, ethics
National Category
Psychology Neurosciences
Research subject
Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334209 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00061 (DOI)000392640500001 ()28184204 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Evers, K. & Changeux, J.-P. (2017). Proactive epigenesis and ethics - Response [Letter to the editor]. EMBO Reports, 18(8), 1272-1272
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proactive epigenesis and ethics - Response
2017 (English)In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1272-1272Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
National Category
Medical Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341855 (URN)10.15252/embr.201744696 (DOI)000406716000004 ()
Note

Response to: Salles, A. (2017). Proactive Epigenesis and Ethics. EMBO Reports, 18(8), 1271. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.201744697

Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Salles, A. & Evers, K. (2017). Social Neuroscience and Neuroethics: A Fruitful Synergy. In: A. Ibáñez et al. (eds.) (Ed.), Neuroscience and Social Science: The Missing Link: (pp. 531-546). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Neuroscience and Neuroethics: A Fruitful Synergy
2017 (English)In: Neuroscience and Social Science: The Missing Link / [ed] A. Ibáñez et al. (eds.), Springer, 2017, p. 531-546Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Social neuroscience is shedding new light on the relationship between the brain and its environments. In the process, and despite criticism from the social sciences, the field is contributing to the discussion of long-standing controversies concerning, for example, the "nature-nurture" distinction and the relationships between social and neurobiological structures.

In this chapter, we argue that in this endeavor social neuroscience would benefit from partnering with neuroethics insofar as their respective areas and methods of explanation are complementary rather than in competition. We provide a richer account of neuroethics than the one given in social neuroscientists' common descriptions of that field and suggest that, when understood in this richer (and in our view more adequate) fashion, neuroethics may open up productive avenues for research and play a key role in allowing us to determine social neuroscience's contribution to unveiling important epistemological as well as ontological notions. Accordingly, social neuroscience and neuroethics may form a constructive partnership.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
National Category
Neurology Social Psychology
Research subject
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334288 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-68421-5_22 (DOI)978-3-319-68420-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-68421-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M. & Evers, K. (2017). The ethical relevance of the unconscious. Philosophy Ethics and Humanities in Medicine, 12(11)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ethical relevance of the unconscious
2017 (English)In: Philosophy Ethics and Humanities in Medicine, ISSN 1747-5341, E-ISSN 1747-5341, Vol. 12, no 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Ethical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research.

Methods

A conceptual methodology is used, based on the review and analysis of relevant scientific literature on the unconscious and the logical argumentation in favour of the ethical conclusions.

Results

Two conditions (experiential wellbeing and having interests) that are generally considered critical components in the ethical discussion of patients with disorders of consciousness might arguably be both conscious and unconscious.

Conclusions

The unconscious, as well as consciousness, should be taken into account in the ethical discussions of patients with disorders of consciousness.

Keywords
Brain, Consciousness, Disorders of consciousness, The unconscious, Ethics, Neuroethics
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Neurology Psychiatry
Research subject
Neuroscience; Neurology; Ethics; Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337475 (URN)10.1186/s13010-017-0053-9 (DOI)000418943300001 ()29284489 (PubMedID)
Projects
The Human Brain Project, Grant agreement 720,270 (HBP SGA1)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720,270 (HBP SGA1)
Available from: 2017-12-29 Created: 2017-12-29 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
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