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Juslin, Patrik N
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Publications (10 of 111) Show all publications
Juslin, P. N. (2019). Emotional reactions to music: Mechanisms and modularity. In: A. Ferreira Correa (Ed.), Music, speech, and mind: (pp. 17-51). Curitiba: Brazilian Association of Cognition and Musical Arts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional reactions to music: Mechanisms and modularity
2019 (English)In: Music, speech, and mind / [ed] A. Ferreira Correa, Curitiba: Brazilian Association of Cognition and Musical Arts , 2019, p. 17-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The chapter reports an experiment that explored mechanisms underlying emotional reactions to music. Nine musical excerpts, selected to render possible the activation of the mechanisms brain stem reflex, emotional contagion, and musical expectancy, respectively, were played to 30 listeners (aged 21-36 years), who were asked to rate felt emotions on 15 scales. Heart rate and skin conductance were also measured. One half of the participants performed a cognitive task designed to require the listener’s attention while the other half only listened to the music. The results indicated that (a) the mechanisms aroused different emotions as predicted, (b) the task did not diminish or change the listeners’ emotions, confirming the modular nature of the mechanisms, and (c) the listener’s liking of a piece was only moderately related to the quality and quantity of emotion felt. Implications for research on music and emotion are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Curitiba: Brazilian Association of Cognition and Musical Arts, 2019
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401884 (URN)9786581031008 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Juslin, P. N. (2019). Musical emotions explained: Unlocking the secrets of musical affect. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Musical emotions explained: Unlocking the secrets of musical affect
2019 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Can music really arouse emotions? If so, what emotions, and how? Why do listeners respond with different emotions to the same piece of music? Are emotions to music different from other emotions? Why do we respond to fictional events in art as if they were real, even though we know they're not? What is it that makes a performance of music emotionally expressive? Based on ground-breaking research, Musical Emotions Explained explores how music expresses and arouses emotions, and how it becomes an object of aesthetic judgments. Within the book, Juslin demonstrates how psychological mechanisms from our ancient past engage with meanings in music at multiple levels of the brain to evoke a broad variety of affective states - from startle responses to profound aesthetic emotions. He also explores why these mechanisms respond to music. Written by one of the leading researchers in the field, the book is richly illustrated with music examples from everyday life, and explains with clarity and rigour the manifold ways in which music may engage our emotions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. p. 624
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401874 (URN)9780198753421 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Juslin, P. N. (2019). Neural correlates of music and emotion. In: M. H. Thaut & D. A. Hodges (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of music and the brain: (pp. 285-332). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neural correlates of music and emotion
2019 (English)In: The Oxford handbook of music and the brain / [ed] M. H. Thaut & D. A. Hodges, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019, p. 285-332Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The chapter presents a theoretical and empirical review of studies of the neural correlates of emotional responses to music. First, we outline basic definitions and distinctions of the field of music and affect. Second, we describe an extensive theoretical framework that may serve to organize the domain. Third, we review 78 empirical studies (e.g., PET/fMRI, EEG, lesion studies) conducted between 1982 and 2016. We distinguish different empirical approaches to music and emotion in brain research and draw some general conclusions based on the results so far. Our review reveals that some brain areas have been more or less consistently reported across studies, with partly distinct patterns for perception and induction of emotions, but that we still do not know what role each brain region plays in the emotion process. This is largely due to a lack of studies that attempt to manipulate underlying psychological mechanisms in a systematic manner. We conclude the chapter by discussing the implications of the results and by making methodological recommendations for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401877 (URN)9780198804123 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Sakka, L. & Juslin, P. N. (2018). Emotion regulation with music in depressed and non-depressed individuals: goals, strategies, and mechanisms. Music & Science, 1, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotion regulation with music in depressed and non-depressed individuals: goals, strategies, and mechanisms
2018 (English)In: Music & Science, ISSN 20592043, Vol. 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
depression, emotion regulation, mechanisms, music listening, strategies
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339558 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-19 Created: 2018-01-19 Last updated: 2018-03-14Bibliographically approved
Sakka, L. & Juslin, P. N. (2018). Emotional reactions to music in depressed individuals. Psychology of Music, 46(6), 862-880
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional reactions to music in depressed individuals
2018 (English)In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 862-880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Music is often used to alleviate depression, an affective disorder. Yet, little is known about how listeners suffering from depression respond emotionally to music. The goal of this study was to investigate whether listeners show different patterns of emotional reactions to music depending on level of depression. In previous research, depression has been linked with negative biases in cognitive processes such as memory and attention. Here we indirectly investigated whether such biases may also influence psychological mechanisms involved in the arousal of emotions during musical experiences. Seventy-seven listeners (19?65 years old) took part in an experiment which compared depressed individuals with non-depressed controls. The participants listened to music stimuli designed to target specific induction mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory), and were asked to rate felt emotions. Based on previous studies on cognitive bias, we made predictions about how depression would affect reactions to each stimulus. The predictions received partial support: depressed listeners reported significantly lower levels of happiness in the memory condition and non-significantly higher levels of anxiety in the brain stem condition, than did controls. Conversely, no difference in reported sadness was found in the contagion condition. Observed differences were mainly attributable to the severely depressed listeners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications Ltd, 2018
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331331 (URN)10.1177/0305735617730425 (DOI)000446490000006 ()
Available from: 2017-10-12 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Juslin, P. N., Laukka, P. & Bänziger, T. (2018). The Mirror to Our Soul?: Comparisons of Spontaneous and Posed Vocal Expression of Emotion. Journal of nonverbal behavior, 42(1), 1-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Mirror to Our Soul?: Comparisons of Spontaneous and Posed Vocal Expression of Emotion
2018 (English)In: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 1-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been the subject of much debate in the study of vocal expression of emotions whether posed expressions (e.g., actor portrayals) are different from spontaneous expressions. In the present investigation, we assembled a new database consisting of 1877 voice clips from 23 datasets, and used it to systematically compare spontaneous and posed expressions across 3 experiments. Results showed that (a) spontaneous expressions were generally rated as more genuinely emotional than were posed expressions, even when controlling for differences in emotion intensity, (b) there were differences between the two stimulus types with regard to their acoustic characteristics, and (c) spontaneous expressions with a high emotion intensity conveyed discrete emotions to listeners to a similar degree as has previously been found for posed expressions, supporting a dose–response relationship between intensity of expression and discreteness in perceived emotions. Our conclusion is that there are reliable differences between spontaneous and posed expressions, though not necessarily in the ways commonly assumed. Implications for emotion theories and the use of emotion portrayals in studies of vocal expression are discussed.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332440 (URN)10.1007/s10919-017-0268-x (DOI)000425296000001 ()29497220 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-0771:1
Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Juslin, P. N., Harmat, L. & Laukka, P. (2018). The wisdom of the body: Listeners' autonomic arousal distinguishes between spontaneous and posed vocal emotions. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(2), 105-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The wisdom of the body: Listeners' autonomic arousal distinguishes between spontaneous and posed vocal emotions
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been the matter of much debate whether perceivers are able to distinguish spontaneous vocal expressions of emotion from posed vocal expressions (e.g., emotion portrayals). In this experiment, we show that such discrimination can be manifested in the autonomic arousal of listeners during implicit processing of vocal emotions. Participants (N = 21, age: 20-55 years) listened to two consecutive blocks of brief voice clips and judged the gender of the speaker in each clip, while we recorded three measures of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system (skin conductance level, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate). Unbeknownst to the listeners, the blocks consisted of two types of emotional speech: spontaneous and posed clips. As predicted, spontaneous clips yielded higher arousal levels than posed clips, suggesting that listeners implicitly distinguished between the two kinds of expression, even in the absence of any requirement to retrieve emotional information from the voice. We discuss the results with regard to theories of emotional contagion and the use of posed stimuli in studies of emotions.

Keywords
Arousal, emotion, posed, spontaneous, vocal expression
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354250 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12429 (DOI)000426797100001 ()29411386 (PubMedID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-0771:1
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved
Helsing, M., Västfjäll, D., Bjälkebring, P., Juslin, P. N. & Hartig, T. (2016). An Experimental Field Study of the Effects of Listening to Self-selected Music on Emotions, Stress, and Cortisol Levels. Music & Medicine, 8(4), 187-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Experimental Field Study of the Effects of Listening to Self-selected Music on Emotions, Stress, and Cortisol Levels
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2016 (English)In: Music & Medicine, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Music listening may evoke meaningful emotions in listeners and may enhance certain health benefits. At the same time, it is important to consider individual differences, such as musical taste, when examining musical emotions and in considering their possible health effects. In a field experiment, 21 women listened to their own preferred music on mp3-players daily for 30 minutes during a two week time period in their own homes. One week they listened to their own chosen relaxing music and the other their own chosen energizing music. Self-reported stress, emotions and health were measured by a questionnaire each day and salivary cortisol was measured with 6 samples two consecutive days every week. The experiment group was compared to a control group (N = 20) who were instructed to relax for 30 minutes everyday for three weeks, and with a baseline week when they relaxed without music for one week (before the music intervention weeks). The results showed that when participants in the experiment group listened to their own chosen music they reported to have experienced significantly higher intensity positive emotions and less stress than when they relaxed without music. There was also a significant decrease in cortisol from the baseline week to the second music intervention week. The control group’s reported stress levels, perceived emotions and cortisol levels remain stable during all three weeks of the study. Together these results suggest that listening to preferred music may be a more effective way of reducing feelings of stress and cortisol levels and increasing positive emotions than relaxing without music.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310360 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
Juslin, P. N. & Lindström, E. (2016). Emotion in music performance. (2ed.). In: S. Hallam, I. Cross, & M. Thaut (Ed.), Oxford handbook of music psychology: (pp. 597-613). New York: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotion in music performance.
2016 (English)In: Oxford handbook of music psychology / [ed] S. Hallam, I. Cross, & M. Thaut, New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, 2, p. 597-613Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Oxford University Press, 2016 Edition: 2
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-269919 (URN)978-0-19-872294-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2016-04-27
Juslin, P. N. (2016). Emotional reactions to music. (2ed.). In: S. Hallam, I. Cross, & M. Thaut (Ed.), Oxford handbook of music psychology: (pp. 197-213). New York: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional reactions to music.
2016 (English)In: Oxford handbook of music psychology / [ed] S. Hallam, I. Cross, & M. Thaut, New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, 2, p. 197-213Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Oxford University Press, 2016 Edition: 2
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-269917 (URN)
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2016-04-27
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